“Categories of Browsers” - Guhanathan i) Bookmarks Internet bookmarks are stored Web page locations (URLs) that can be retrieved. As a feature of all modern Internet web browsers, their primary purpose is to easily catalog and access web pages that a user has visited and chosen to save. Saved links are called "favorites" in Internet Explorer, and by virtue of the browser's large market share, the term favorite has been synonymous with bookmark since the early days of widely- distributed browsers. Bookmarks are normally visible in a browser menu and stored on the user's computer, and commonly a folder metaphor is be used for organization. In addition to bookmarking methods within most browsers, many external applications exist for bookmark management. Bookmarks are a fundamental feature of web browsers, but some users have expressed frustration with bookmark collections that become disorganized and have looked for other tools to help manage their links. These tools include browser synchronizers and desktop applications. Each browser has a built-in tool for managing the list of bookmarks. The list storage method varies, depending on the browser, its version, and the operating system on which it runs. ii) History List The Internet Explorer 6 History list makes it easy to find and return to Web sites and pages you've visited in the past. Whether it's today or a few weeks ago, the History list can record every page you visit, so it's easy to go back later on. Return to a Web Page That You Just Visited • To return to the last page you visited, click the Back button on the Internet Explorer 6 toolbar. • Click the Forward button to retrace your steps and return to pages you visited before you clicked the Back button. • To see one of the last nine pages you visited in this session, click the tiny black arrow to the right of the Back or Forward button, and then click the page you want from the list. Forward button on the Internet Explorer 6 toolbar Find a Web Page That You Visited Today or a Few Weeks Ago Have you ever stumbled on an interesting Web page, wanted to return to it, but forgotten where it was? History list to the rescue! Internet Explorer 6 automatically records Web pages you've visited both today and in the past. It organizes them in folders on the History bar by the day you visited. Within each day, it organizes the Web sites alphabetically in folders, putting each page visited on that site in that folder. (Internet Explorer 6 stores every visit for the last 20 days to begin with, but you can change this number. Learn how in theChange the Number of Days that Internet Explorer 6 Tracks Pages You've Visited section below.) Here's how to find pages in the History list: 1. On the Internet Explorer 6 toolbar, click the History button. Internet Explorer 6 opens the History bar on the left side of the screen. History button on the Internet Explorer 6 toolbar 2. In the History bar, click the time period you want to search. For example, you may want to see all the sites you visited today. See step 2 in the image below. 3. Click the Web site folder to open the list of pages, and then click the link to the page to display the Web page itself. See step 3 in the image below. History bar showing Web pages sorted by time period 4. When you've finished using the History bar, click the Close button. Tip: You can delete any Web site or page from the History list. Right-click a Web site folder or Web page, and click Delete. A cautionary note: If you delete a Web site folder, Internet Explorer 6 deletes the folders and all the links to all the pages stored in that folder. Sort Recently Visited Web Pages In addition to sorting frequently visited Web pages by date, you can also organize them by Site, Most Visited, and Order Visited Today. In the History bar, click the tiny black arrow next to the View button, and choose how you want to sort the Web pages. Search for a Specific Web Page If you remember a distinctive word from a Web address or from the Web page itself, you can search in the history for that word to look for the Web page. In the History bar, click the Search button. In the Search box, type the term or phrase you're looking for, and click Search Now. Internet Explorer 6 displays a list of all Web pages that include mention of that term in the address or on the Web page. Change the Number of Days that Visited Pages Are Tracked By default, Internet Explorer 6 records every Web page you visit for 20 days—a time period you can change. Perhaps you're doing some in-depth research and want to store Web page links for a longer period of time. Or perhaps you spend a lot of time on the Web and you want to free up a little bit of disk space by limiting the number of days Internet Explorer 6 remembers your visits. Whatever the reason, it's easy to change the number of days. 1.In Internet Explorer 6, on the Tools menu, click Internet Options. 2.On the General tab, under History, change the number of days that the History list keeps track of your pages, and click OK. iii) Progress Indiator From Internet Explorer 5 Use when: A time-consuming operation interrupts the UI for longer than two seconds or so. Why: Users get impatient when the UI just sits there. Even if you're changing the mouse pointer to a clock or hourglass (which you should in any case), you don't want to make a user wait for some unspecified length of time. It's been shown experimentally that if users see an indication that something is going on, they're much more patient, even if they have to wait longer. Maybe it's because they know that "the system is thinking," and it isn't just hung or waiting for them to do something. How: Show an animated indicator of how much progress has been made. Either verbally or graphically (or both), tell the user: what's currently going on, what proportion of the operation is done so far, how much time remains, and how to stop it. As far as time estimates are concerned, believe it or not, it's OK to be wrong sometimes, as long as your estimates converge on something accurate quickly. But sometimes the UI can't tell how far along it is. In that case, show something animated anyway which is noncommittal about percentages. Think about the browsers' image loops that keep rolling while a page is loading. Most GUI toolboxes now provide a widget or dialog that implements this pattern, like Java Swing's JProgressBar. Beware of potentially tricky threading issues around these, however -- the progress indicator must be updated consistently, while the operation itself proceeds uninhibited. And if you can, keep the rest of the UI alive too. Examples: From the KDE startup screen This progress indicator uses icons to show where it is in the process of starting up KDE -- each icon becomes sharply defined when that step is reached. No numbers are used, but they aren't really needed (the user is a captive audience until KDE finishes starting), and they wouldn't necessarily be accurate anyway. iv) Printing Web Pages The Internet has its own special type of formatting that makes Web pages look good on the screen. That same formatting, however, doesn't always look good when printed. Even when trying to cut and paste information from a Web page to a word processing document, the formatting can get in the way. Yet printing Web pages can be easier with a few simple tips and tricks. Today many Web sites have a "Print" function right on the Web page. This is often available for articles, instructions, forms, and similar documents. Look for a button or the word "Print" on the top or bottom of the article. Using this button will print the Web page in plain text without the formatting. It will usually, but not always, keep the Web ads from printing, as well. If the page you want to print does not have a print button, you can see what a Web page will look like when you print it, by using the Print Preview function that is in the File menu of your Web browser. If the Print Preview shows that the Web page is too wide or too long for the paper you can do a little cutting and pasting instead of printing the entire page. If you simply cut and paste information from the Web page into an e-mail or word processing program, you will, more often than not, get the text inside the tables that are used to create the Web page. The text will be encased in square boxes, or tables, which are only an aggravation in a text document. You can use this little trick to eliminate the tables. Highlight the area of the Web page that you want to print by dragging your mouse across it. Press the Ctrl key and the C key at the same time to copy that information into the computer memory. Then open your word processing program. Select Edit from the menu at the top of the screen. Now here's the trick. Instead of selecting Paste, choose Paste Special. Then, from the pop-up menu choose Unformatted Text. All the Web page text will appear, without the formatting. If you want to grab pictures along with the text when you use the Paste Special, choose Formatted Text. With this choice, you will see the Web page with pictures and some formatting. You may also get some unwanted links or address, but those can be easily deleted. You can get red of those tables even if you didn't use the Paste Special function when pasting from Web page to a word processing document. Drag the text that you want to preserve out of the table. Then delete the table by highlighting it and clicking on the Table menu, and selecting Delete. You also have some control over the way a Web page prints when you use the print function in your Web browser. Click on File, and then choose Page Setup. The choices here are limited, but you do get to pick the paper orientation, the margins and the paper size. This is also where you can set up your header and footer for printing Web pages. Whenever you print a Web page, the header appears on the top of the page and the footer appears on the bottom. The Header and Footer boxes are used to specify the information to be printed by using the text and variables. Unfortunately, the header and footer information is entered in cryptic programming-like language. In Internet Explorer, the typical header looks like this: &w&bPage &p of &P. This string of information prints the title of the Web page on the left hand side and Page x of y on the right side (where x is the page number and y is the total number of pages.) This is a typical footer &u&b&d that prints the URL address of the Web page on the left hand side and the date on the right. If you looked closely at the header string, you might have figured out what some of the variables stand for. Here is a more complete list: &w -- Web page title &u -- Page address (URL) &d Date in short format &D -- Date in long format &t -- Time in short format T& -- Time in 24-hour format &p -- Current page number &P -- Total number of pages &b -- Right-aligned text (following &b) &b&b -- Centered text (between &b&b) && -- A single ampersand (&) Fortunately once you decide what you want to print and wade through entering the variables, you will probably never have to reset the header and footer again. If you are interested, don't hesitate to play with these header and footer strings. They are easy to change if you make a mistake and they can give you a little idea of what programming a computer is like. There are also software programs available that can help you print Web pages quickly and easily. Some shareware programs and photo programs will do this for you. If you have an ink jet printer you may already have such a program. Check to see if any of the software that came with your printer will print Web pages. My favorite Web page printer is Easy-WebPrint, which comes with newer Canon printers. Easy-WebPrint automatically sizes Web pages for printing. It lets you print more than one page on a sheet. It even allows printing in draft mode and/or grayscale with one simple click. So don't be aggravated by Web pages that don't print properly. With a little practice you can print want you want, just the way you want it. “Internet Explorer” WindowsInternetExplorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoftand included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. It has been the most widely used web browser since 1999, attaining a peak of about 95%usage share during 2002 and 2003 with IE5 and IE6 but steadily declining since, despite the introduction of IE7. Microsoft spent over 100 million dollars (USD) a year in the late 1990s, with over 1000 people working on IE by 1999. Internet Explorer was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 in 1995. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows. The most recent release is version 7.0, which is available as a free update for Windows XP Service Pack 2, and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 or later, Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2008. Internet Explorer 8 is under development and is expected to be released by the end of 2008. Other versions available since the late 1990s include an embedded OEM version called Internet Explorer for Windows CE (IE CE) available for WinCE based platforms and is currently based on IE6. Internet Explorer for Pocket PC, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile for Windows Mobile was also developed, and remain in development alongside the more advanced desktop versions. “Netscape Communicator” Netscape Communicator is an Internet suite that was produced by Netscape Communications Corporation. Initially released in June 1997, Netscape Communicator 4.0 was the successor to Netscape Navigator 3.x and included more groupware features intended to appeal to enterprises. Netscape Communicator was available in various editions, such as "Professional" and "Complete". The following components were included in Netscape Communicator (different editions had different components and some components were dropped in later editions): Features Netscape Navigator — web browser Netscape Messenger — e-mail client and (in version 4.5 and above) news client Netscape Collabra — news client (merged into Messenger in version 4.5) Netscape Address Book — address book Netscape Composer — HTML editor Netscape Netcaster — push technology client (dropped in version 4.5) Netscape Conference — multi-user communication client (dropped in version 4.5) Netscape Calendar — enterprise calendar client (dropped in version 4.72 because Netscape's license to use the underlying technology expired) In 1998, a major update to the program was released as Netscape 4.5. This included many improvements, mostly to the Messenger e-mail client, which now also took on the features of Collabra. However, some of the less popular components, such as Netcaster, were dropped. A feature called 'Roaming Profiles' was added in version 4.5 that synchronized a user's bookmarks, address book and preferences with a remote server, so that for example a user's home and work browsers would have the same bookmarks. By the time version 4.5 was released, Netscape had started the Mozilla open source project and had ceased charging for Communicator. Technically, "Navigator" was supposed to refer to the browser component alone, and "Communicator" was supposed to refer the suite as a whole, as established in version 4.0. But due to user confusion, the names were often used interchangeably. Also, because none of the applications besides Navigator were popular on their own, and because Netscape never produced any other desktop software that approached the popularity of Navigator, people would often refer to both the Communicator suite and the Navigator browser as simply "Netscape". Further complicating the matter was the fact that the command to start Navigator in Unix was "netscape" In November 2000, Netscape Communicator was superseded by Netscape 6, an almost completely rewritten program based on Mozilla, or what later came to be known as Mozilla Application Suite. However, minor updates to Communicator continued to be issued, culminating in the release of Netscape Communicator 4.8 in August 2002. “E Mail Network” An email network is based on a central list of email addresses. When a message is sent to the address of the network, it automatically goes to everybody who has joined. This makes it a simple way of sharing information, advice, queries and suggestions. A list of networks that NAVCA facilitates is available. When somebody joins an email network, a welcome message is sent to them which confirms that they have joined the network. This contains information about how to use the network, the purpose of the network and the etiquette that we ask all email network members to follow. Only people who have joined the network can send and receive messages. In order to ensure that messages remain relevant to a particular topic or group of people, most networks are restricted to people with a particular role within their rganization. Many networks are open to voluntary and community rganizations that work with, support and complement the work of local infrastructure rganizations, although some are restricted to NAVCA members only. For more information see the relevant link from the list of networks. There is no charge for joining an email network. Each email network has a network administrator who can deal with any further queries. “Email servers” A mail server (also known as a mail transfer agent or MTA, a mail transport agent, a mail router or anInternet mailer) is an application that receives incoming e-mail from local users (people within the same domain) and remote senders and forwards outgoing e- mail for delivery. A computer dedicated to running such applications is also called a mail server. MicrosoftExchange, qmail, Exim and sendmailare among the more common mail server programs. The mail server works in conjunction with other programs to make up what is sometimes referred to as a messaging system. A messaging system includes all the applications necessary to keep e-mail moving as it should. When you send an e-mail message, your e- mail program, such as Outlook or Eudora, forwards the message to your mail server, which in turn forwards it either to another mail server or to a holding area on the same server called a message store to be forwarded later. As a rule, the system uses SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) or ESMTP (extended SMTP) for sending e- mail, and either POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) for receiving e-mail. “Email Protocols” i) SMTP SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail. However, since it is limited in its ability toqueue messages at the receiving end, it is usually used with one of two other protocols, POP3 or IMAP, that let the user save messages in a server mailbox and download them periodically from the server. In other words, users typically use a program that uses SMTP for sending e-mail and either POP3 or IMAP for receiving e-mail. On Unix-based systems, sendmail is the most widely-used SMTP server for e-mail. A commercial package, Sendmail, includes a POP3 server. Microsoft Exchange includes an SMTP server and can also be set up to include POP3 support. SMTP usually is implemented to operate over Internet port 25. An alternative to SMTP that is widely used in Europe is X.400. Many mail servers now support Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (ESMTP), which allows multimedia files to be delivered as e- mail. ii) POP3 POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is the most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving e-mail. POP3 is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. Periodically, you (or your client e-mail receiver) check your mail-box on the server and download any mail, probably using POP3. This standard protocol is built into most popular e-mail products, such as Eudora and Outlook Express. It's also built into the Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers. POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has downloaded it. However, some implementations allow users or an administrator to specify that mail be saved for some period of time. POP can be thought of as a "store-and-forward" service. An alternative protocol is Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). IMAP provides the user more capabilities for retaining e-mail on the server and for organizing it in folders on the server. IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the Internet. You send e-mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on your recipient's behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP. The conventional port number for POP3 is 110. iii) IMAP IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard protocol for accessing e- mail from your local server. IMAP (the latest version is IMAP Version 4) is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. You (or your e-mail client) can view just the heading and the sender of the letter and then decide whether to download the mail. You can also create and manipulate multiple folders or mailboxes on the server, delete messages, or search for certain parts or an entire note. IMAP requires continual access to the server during the time that you are working with your mail. A less sophisticated protocol is Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3). With POP3, your mail is saved for you in a single mailbox on the server. When you read your mail, all of it is immediately downloaded to your computer and, except when previously arranged, no longer maintained on the server. IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server. POP3 can be thought of as a "store-and- forward" service. POP3 and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail from your local server and are not to be confused with Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol used for exchanging e-mail between points on the Internet. Typically, SMTP is used for sending only and POP3 or IMAP are used to read e-mail. iv) MIME MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an extension of the original Internet e-mail protocol that lets people use the protocol to exchange different kinds of data files on the Internet: audio, video, images, application programs, and other kinds, as well as the ASCII text handled in the original protocol, the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). In 1991, Nathan Borenstein of Bellcore proposed to the IETF that SMTP be extended so that Internet (but mainly Web) clients and servers could recognize and handle other kinds of data than ASCII text. As a result, new file types were added to "mail" as a supported Internet Protocol file type. Servers insert the MIME header at the beginning of any Web transmission. Clients use this header to select an appropriate "player" application for the type of data the header indicates. Some of these players are built into the Web client or browser (for example, all browsers come with GIF and JPEG image players as well as the ability to handle HTML files); other players may need to be downloaded. “Address Book” Your email client’s “address book” enables addition of email addresses to your contact list quickly and without error. Your address book should store all of your frequently used email addresses, enabling you to select from a list instead of having to re-type the addresses each time you send an email. This is the fastest way to address a message, and more importantly ensures that you will never make a typing mistake and send your email to the wrong address. If possible, you should copy each address from a valid email and then paste it into your address book when you create an entry for the first time, because this is faster, and more importantly you will be sure there aren’t any typing mistakes. If the address form has an option like “Include on recipient or nickname list”, then you should select that option to make sure the address will show up on your address book menu from anywhere in your email program. If there is an option like “Nickname” or “Short Form”, then specify an easily remembered name for convenient retrieval from the address book. One of the best formats is last name first, so that it shows up in alphabetical order in your address book list. Try one of the following forms, depending on how flexible your email program is. Smith,John Smith-John SmithJohn You can also use the address book to enter addresses in the “To”, “CC”, and “BCC” fields. “Web Publishing an overview” Web Publishing provides custom web design, web development, hosting, e-commerce, and e-business solutions. We work closely with our clients to produce website structure, design, and content that is affordable, functional, attractive, and reflects the spirit of their business. A presence on the Web promotes a company's image and products, improves customer service, encourages new customer acquisition, and provides a vehicle for sales and information. “Web Site Hosting” This means housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more Web sites. More important than the computer space that is provided for Web site files is the fast connection to the Internet. Most hosting services offer connections on T-carrier system lines. Typically, an individual business hosting its own site would require a similar connection and it would be expensive. Using a hosting service lets many companies share the cost of a fast Internet connection for serving files. A number of Internet access providers, such as America Online, offer subscribers free space for a small Web site that is hosted by one of their computers. Geocities is a Web site that offers registered visitors similar free space for a Web site. While these services are free, they are also very basic. A number of hosting companies describe their services as virtual hosting. Virtual hosting usually implies that their services will be transparent and that each Web site will have its own domain name and set of e-mail addresses. In most usages, hosting and virtual hosting are synonyms. Some hosting companies let you have your own virtual server, the appearance that you are controlling a server that is dedicated entirely to your site. Dedicated hosting is the provision of a dedicated server machine that is dedicated to the traffic to your Web site. Only very busy sites require dedicated hosting. Many companies purchase their own servers and place them on a site that provides fast access to the Internet. This practice is called colocation. “Web page Design Considerations” Understand the medium Readers experience Web pages in two ways: as a direct medium where pages are read online and as a delivery medium to access information that is downloaded into text files or printed onto paper. Your expectations about how readers will typically use your site should govern your page design decisions. Documents to be read online should be concise, with the amount of graphics carefully "tuned" to the bandwidth available to your mainstream audience. Documents that will most likely be printed and read offline should appear on one page, and the page width should be narrow enough to print easily on standard paper sizes. Include fixed page elements Each page should contain a title, an author, an institutional affiliation, a revision date, copyright information, and a link to the "home page" of your site. Web pages are often printed or saved to disk, and without this information there is no easy way to determine where the document originated. Think of each page in your site as a newspaper clipping, and make sure that the information required to determine its provenance is included. Don't impose style Don't set out to develop a "style" for your site, and be careful about simply importing the graphic elements of another Web site or print publication to "decorate" your pages. The graphic and editorial style of your Web site should evolve as a natural consequence of consistent and appropriate handling of your content and page layout. Maximize prime real estate In page layout the top of the page is always the most dominant location, but on Web pages the upper page is especially important, because the top four inches of the page are all that is visible on the typical display screen. Use this space efficiently and effectively. Use subtle colors Subtle pastel shades of colors typically found in nature make the best choices for background or minor elements. Avoid bold, highly saturated primary colors except in regions of maximum emphasis, and even there use them cautiously. Beware of graphic embellishments Horizontal rules, graphic bullets, icons, and other visual markers have their occasional uses, but apply each sparingly (if at all) to avoid a patchy and confusing layout. The same consideration applies to the larger sizes of type on Web pages. One reason professional graphic designers are so impatient with plain HTML is that the H1 and H2header tags display in grotesquely large type on most Web browsers. The tools of graphic emphasis are powerful and should be used only in small doses for maximum effect. Overuse of graphic emphasis leads to a "clown's pants" effect in which everything is garish and nothing is emphasized. “Register the web site to search engine” Adding URL to Google Share your place on the net with us. We add and update new sites to our index each time we crawl the web, and we invite you to submit your URL here. We do not add all submitted URLs to our index, and we cannot make any predictions or guarantees about when or if they will appear. Please enter your full URL, including the http:// prefix. For example:http://www.google.com/. You may also add comments or keywords that describe the content of your page. These are used only for our information and do not affect how your page is indexed or used by Google. Please note: Only the top-level page from a host is necessary; you do not need to submit each individual page. Our crawler, Googlebot, will be able to find the rest. Google updates its index on a regular basis, so updated or outdated link submissions are not necessary. Dead links will 'fade out' of our index on our next crawl when we update our entire index. URL: Comments: Optional: To help us distinguish between sites submitted by individuals and those automatically entered by software robots, please type the squiggly letters shown here into the box below. Add URL “Internet Security” When a computer connects to a network and begins communicating with others, it is taking a risk. Internet security involves the protection of a computers internet account and files from intrusion of an outside user.. Basic security measures involve protection by well selectedpasswords, change of file permissions and back up of computers data. Firewall A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gatewayserver, that protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks. (The term also implies the security policy that is used with the programs.) An enterprise with an intranetthat allows its workers access to the wider Internet installs a firewall to prevent outsiders from accessing its own private data resources and for controlling what outside resources its own users have access to. Basically, a firewall, working closely with a router program, examines each network packet to determine whether to forward it toward its destination. A firewall also includes or works with aproxy server that makes network requests on behalf of workstation users. A firewall is often installed in a specially designated computer separate from the rest of the network so that no incoming request can get directly at private network resources. There are a number of firewall screening methods. A simple one is to screen requests to make sure they come from acceptable (previously identified)domain name and Internet Protocol addresses. For mobile users, firewalls allow remote access in to the private network by the use of secure logon procedures and authentication certificates. A number of companies make firewall products. Features include logging and reporting, automatic alarms at given thresholds of attack, and a graphical user interface for controlling the firewall. Computer security borrows this term from firefighting, where it originated. In firefighting, a firewall is a barrier established to prevent the spread of fire. A firewall is a dedicated appliance, or software running on another computer, which inspects network traffic passing through it, and denies or permits passage based on a set of rules. A firewall's basic task is to regulate some of the flow of traffic between computer networks of different trust levels. Typical examples are theInternet which is a zone with no trust and an internal network which is a zone of higher trust. A zone with an intermediate trust level, situated between the Internet and a trusted internal network, is often referred to as a "perimeter network" or Demilitarized zone (DMZ). A firewall's function within a network is similar to firewalls with fire doors in building construction. In the former case, it is used to prevent network intrusion to the private network. In the latter case, it is intended to contain and delay structural fire from spreading to adjacent structures. Without proper configuration, a firewall can often become worthless. Standard security practices dictate a "default-deny" firewall ruleset, in which the only network connections which are allowed are the ones that have been explicitly allowed. Unfortunately, such a configuration requires detailed understanding of the network applications and endpoints required for the organization's day-to-day operation. Many businesses lack such understanding, and therefore implement a "default-allow" ruleset, in which all traffic is allowed unless it has been specifically blocked. This configuration makes inadvertent network connections and system compromise much more likely.