Persuasive-Writing-Unit1 by keralaguest

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									  Unit title: Persuasive Writing - We Can Make a Change!
Grade Levels: 7th grade
Subject/Topic Areas: Language Arts
Designed by: Jeanette Swank
School: Wilde Lake Middle School


Summary of Unit:
        Persuasive writing is all around us. Whether it is asking the teacher to allow extra time for
an assignment, a commercial on TV regarding the latest and greatest cell phone, persuasive writing
plays an important part of everyday life. They will learn that persuasion is a process where we try to
convince someone to take a certain action, to think a different way, or to just appreciate a different
point of view. Students will begin by examining persuasive articles, speeches, advertisements as well
as looking at the author’s point of view and purpose and his/her persuasive techniques. Through this
examination, they will learn that persuasive writing has common, predictable elements such as a
clear focus/thesis, a target audience, a hook to capture the interest of that audience, evidence and
facts to support their claim, and a sense of closure. Students will then be asked to apply those
persuasive elements and techniques as they generate a persuasive speech or essay, and a persuasive
letter. We will focus more on writing than anything due to the fact that writing is of major concern
with the population I teach.

                                  Stage 1 – Identify Desired Results


Established Goals (VSC):
A. Writing
1. Compose texts using the prewriting and drafting strategies of effective writers and speakers
       1. Use a variety of self-selected prewriting strategies to generate, select, narrow, and develop
          ideas
               * Evaluate topics for personal relevance, scope, and feasibility
               * Begin a coherent plan for developing ideas
               * Explore and evaluate relevant sources of information
       2. Select, organize, and develop ideas appropriate to topic, audience, and purpose
               * Organize information logically
               * Use techniques such as graphic organizers and signal words to complete and clarify
                 organizational structures
               * Verify the effectiveness of paragraph development by modifying topic, support
                  and concluding sentences as necessary

2. Compose oral, written, and visual presentations that express personal ideas, inform, and persuade
      4. Compose to persuade by supporting, modifying, or disagreeing with a position, using
         effective rhetorical strategies
              * Write an assertion and use evidence that appeals to audience emotion, reasoning, or
                 trust
              * Organize ideas to construct a logical progression
               * Use diction and syntax that is sincere, honest, and trustworthy
               * Use connotation, repetition, parallelism, and figurative language to control
                 audience emotion and reaction
              * Use authoritative citations when effective and document appropriately

3. Compose texts using the revising and editing strategies of effective writers and speakers
      1. Revise texts for clarity, completeness, and effectiveness
      2. Use suitable traditional and electronic resources to refine presentations and edit texts
         for effective and appropriate and conventions such as capitalization, punctuation,
         spelling, and pronunciation
      3. Prepare the final product for presentation to an audience

4. Identify how language choices in writing and speaking affect thoughts and feelings
       1. Use precise word choice, formal to informal, based on audience, situation, or purpose
       2. Make effective decisions regarding word choice according to connotative and
         denotative meanings
       3. Consider how readers or listeners might respond differently to the same words

5. Assess the effectiveness of choice of details, organizational pattern, word choice, syntax, use
   of figurative language, and rhetorical devices in the student's own composing
         1. Assess the effectiveness of diction that reveals his or her purpose
                * Language appropriate for a particular audience
                * Language suitable for a given purpose
                * Words/phrases/sentences that extend meaning in a given context
        2. Explain how the specific language and expression used by the writer or speaker affects
          reader/listener response
        3. Evaluate the use of transitions in a text


7. Locate, retrieve, and use information from various sources to accomplish a purpose
       1. Identify, evaluate, and use sources of information on a self-selected and/or given topic
       2. Use various information retrieval sources (traditional and/or electronic) to obtain
          information on a self-selected and/or given topic
       3. Use appropriate note taking procedures, organizational strategies, and proper
          documentation of sources of information
       4. Synthesize information from two or more sources to fulfill a self-selected or given
          purpose
      5. Use a recognized format to credit sources when paraphrasing, summarizing, and
         quoting to avoid plagiarism



Desired Understandings:
* Students will understand that persuasive writing is a powerful way to get people to appreciate a
  different point of view, change their way of thinking, and/or to take action.
* Students will understand that persuasive writing needs to have a clear purpose and focus.



                                                   2
* Students will understand that knowing the audience influences structure, word choice, and content.
* Students will understand that effective writers understand their audience’s characteristics and
  needs.
* Students will understand that persuasion involves emotional and logical arguments that are
  supported by facts, details, or emotional appeal.
* Students will understand that effective writers are able to select and use appropriate information
  which means they must evaluate different sources for reliability and relevancy.
* Students will understand that capturing and maintaining the reader’s interest is essential
  in the process of persuasion.
* Students will understand that persuasion is all around us. Whether it is found in commercials,
  advertisements, political speeches, or everyday conversation, it has common elements.
* Students will understand that effective writers use the writing process of brainstorming/prewriting,
  drafting, revising, editing, and publishing to organize and strengthen all types of writing.
*Students will understand that people have different causes which they are passionate about and
 they, as members of democratic society, need to appreciate and be open to various viewpoints and
 opinions.
*Students will understand that writing is done for different purposes.
* Students will understand that proper grammar and conventions play a role in creating an effective
  piece of writing


Essential Questions:
               Topical
What does it mean to persuade someone?
Why is important to be able to persuade others?
How can we persuade others to accept our ideas when writing and speaking?
What are the techniques of persuasive writing and speaking?
Why does audience matter when writing persuasively?
How can we determine what causes are worth writing/speaking about?
How can persuasive writing be crafted so it motivates and influences a reaction from its audience?
How can we obtain and sustain reader/listener interest in persuasive writing/speaking?
How do we choose which resources to use to support our claims when writing/speaking
persuasively?

             Overarching
What makes any writing worth reading?
What does effective communication look/sound like?
What makes any writing relevant?
How does the absence of proper grammar detract from the audiences understanding and enjoyment
of a piece of writing?
What are the purposes for writing?
How do writers vary their writing for different audiences and purposes?
What needs changing in the world?
How can your voice make a difference in your community/world?
How can persuasive pieces serve as a vehicle for social change?




                                                  3
By the end of the unit students will know:
-how to listen to and identify a persuasive text
-what it means to persuade
-how to determine their audience
-why we use facts to persuade
-why we use emotive language to persuade
-how to choose a topic for their persuasive task
-how grammar and conventions can affect meaning and understanding in a piece of writing
-why and how to use the writing process to produce effective writing
-the format of a persuasive essay/speech (hook, thesis, body, support, closing/call to action)
-what it means to critique others and self-critique
-that they have a voice and should use it to create change in society

By the end of the unit students will be able to:
-recognize and understand the parts of a persuasive essay and speech
-analyze and summarize a persuasive speech
-establish criteria for evaluating a persuasive speech
-listen critically to a persuasive message
-discuss characteristics of persuasive writing and speeches
-classify arguments as either fact or opinion
-choose a topic and generate ideas for a persuasive speech
-evaluate and synthesize information used as support in a persuasive speech
-write a persuasive speech using the writing process
-critique their own writing and the writing of their peers
-deliver a persuasive speech using voice, inflection, and passion


                              Stage 2 – Determine Acceptable Evidence

Performance Task
Goal: To create a persuasive speech.
Role: Student’s role is to be a concerned citizen of their community who is interested in affecting
change or a concerned student of Wilde Lake Middle school who would like to see a change take
place in their school to make it a better learning environment for themselves and their peers
Audience: Target audience will be the staff or WLMS, parents, peers, and members of the
community. The students will be presenting their speeches to a large audience in the auditorium of
our school to raise money for the 7th grade team. The program will be called ‘Voices of the Youth’
and the students will be delivering their speeches to the audience to show that children should be
seen AND heard.
Situation: There are many hot topic issues facing our world today. What is one topic that, if you
had the chance, you would like to speak to others about? Think about how you would persuade
them to adopt your ideas and beliefs. How will you convince them that your topic needs serious
attention?
Product: Persuasive speech and visual to accompany their speech
Standard: 6 + 1 traits scoring rubric


                                                   4
Other Evidence
Persuasive writing quiz 1 and 2
Persuasive writing test
30-Minute Timed Writing Prompt

Formative Assessment:
  *Observation
  *Whole class discussion
  *Response journals
  *Exit tickets
  *Writing process used throughout the performance task/teacher conferencing at each stage:
-Students will identify and research a relevant issue, topic or event that has multiple
perspectives.
-The student will complete a graphic organizer showing multiple perspectives on the issue.
-Students will choose a position and complete a persuasive essay organizer.
-Students will draft a persuasive piece convincing their audience to take action, change their
thinking and/or to appreciate a different point of view.
-Students will revise, conduct a peer edit, and self-edit.
-Students will present final speech to an audience.
-Students will be assessed using the 6 + 1 traits rubric.

Summative Assessment:
    *Performance task 1

Student Self-Assessment and Reflection:
      *Rubric
      *Checklist
      *One on one conferencing
      *Peer conferencing

                      Stage 3 – Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction

Summary of plans:
        Students will be taught the basic outline or framework for persuasive writing.
      Students will use research and writing skills taught before and throughout this unit to
       create an effective persuasive speech and letter to the President.
        Students will learn that their voice can create a change.
(Attach Appendix B: Materials and Resources used for Unit)




                                                5
           Calendar for unit:
                 Day One                           Day Two                 Day Three                    Day Four
     Begin with an authentic hook to        Students will analyze                             Students will conduct research
  motivate or inspire students to take a   three different                Introduce the                   in lab
                  stand.                   persuasive texts: a         essential questions
-Discuss a current, controversial issue    speech, an essay, and         of the unit and
in our school, community, world at         an editorial and try to          Introduce
large                                      find all of the elements    Performance Task
           What is persuasion?             covered in class on the              1.
 What are some persuasive techniques?      previous day using a
     What are elements of persuasive       graphic organizer.          Persuasive Writing
                 writing?                                                    Quiz 1
-Thesis statement- writer’s opinion or
belief and targeted audience                                            Conference with
-Obvious organization                                                  students regarding
- Strong transitions                                                     their ideas for
-Specific examples, statistics and/or                                        topics.
factual evidence support opinions
-Memorable conclusion –– state
position, summarize points, convince
the audience of position, challenge the
audience to think about the issue,
encourage the audience to take action
                 Day Five                         Day Six                  Day Seven                    Day Eight
  Students will conduct research in lab      Persuasive Writing        Persuasive Writing         Mini lesson on writing
                                           Lesson PowerPoint and            Quiz 2.                    introductions
                                             graphic organizer.                                 Students will begin drafting

              Day Nine                            Day Ten                 Day Eleven                   Day Twelve
  Mini lesson on writing conclusions        Students will revise         Mini lesson on       Mini lesson on word choice and
                                            using checklist as a          elaboration                sentence fluency
    Students will continue drafting        self-assessment and a
                                           means to improve their      Students will write
                                                  first draft           their second draft
                                                                           and turn into
                                                                       teacher for critique
                                                                         and suggestions
                                                                            (not graded)
            Day Thirteen                      Day Fourteen                  Day Fifteen                 Day Sixteen
  Students will work with their peers       Mini lesson on word            Students will       Students will practice giving
 completing a peer revision and editing     choice and sentence           practice giving     their speech-critiques given for
                activity                          fluency                  their speech-               improvement
                                                                        critiques given for
                                           Students will write their       improvement        Students will vote for the top 5
                                                 final draft                                  best essays in their class – those
                                                                                                 students will present their
                                                                                                 speeches at the Voices for
                                                                                                       Change event


           Students will complete journal entries each night for homework on Days 1-16.


                                                               6
        Name ________________________

        Class_________________________




            Persuasive Writing Quiz 1
                 Please fill in the blanks with the correct answer.

   1. What three things must be in your persuasive introduction paragraph?




   2. The body should have _______ paragraphs.




   3. What three things should you do in your conclusion paragraph?




   4. What is a thesis statement?




   5. What is a “hook”?




   6. Name and explain two “hooks” you have learned about in class.




7. You should always provide _________________ to support your arguments.

8. What does it mean to elaborate?

9. Name and explain two “calls for action” you have learned about in ass.



                                         7
 Name ________________________                   Class_________________________




                      Persuasive Writing Quiz 2
     Pretend that Mr. Saunders and Ms. Smithson are thinking about turning WLMS

     into a year-round school. This means you would go to school all year with a two

   week break in between each quarter, instead of one long break during the summer.

   Persuade your principals that they should or should not turn WLMS into an all

                                   year round school.

                                         Directions:

   1. Go to www.readwritethink.org/materials/persuasion_map/

      2.     Type in your name and title: Year Round School? ___/2

      3.     Type in your goal or thesis ___/2

             a. Type in your first reason and then three details to defend your first

                  reason. ___/4

             b. Type in your second reason and then three details to defend your

                  second reason. ___/4

             c.   Type in your third reason and then three details to defend your

                  third reason. ____/4

      4.     Print your map. Turn it into Mrs. Swank




*Answer the two following questions on the back of the                ___16 points


persuasive map you have printed out:

What is persuasive writing? (4 points)

How can persuasive writing benefit you? (5 points)
                                             8
      Name_____________________________ Date_____________

 Author‟s Name ____________________________________________
   Self- Critique Persuasive Writing Checklist

____I clearly state my position or argument/thesis in the introduction.




____I begin with a lead/introduction that grabs the reader‟s interest.




____I support my position or argument with some of these: relevant information,

facts, expert opinions, statistics, quotes, and examples.




____I tell the readers everything they need to know to convince them of my

position.




____I support and defend my position or argument in the body of the writing.




____I tell things in a logical order that makes sense—I place the most convincing

evidence where it best supports my position.




_____I use words that persuade the reader to think or act a certain way.




_____I end with a strong conclusion that is convincing and suggests action.




_____I sound knowledgeable and authoritative.


                                         9
Author‟s Name ________________________              Editor_________________________



        Peer Critique Revising/Editing Checklist
      Please place a check next to the areas you feel your peer did well.

    Ideas:

    ____ I used a balance of showing and telling.

    ____ My details try to paint a picture in the reader‟s head

    ____ I stayed on topic throughout my piece and made my topic clear.

    Organization:

    ____ My introduction grabs the reader‟s attention.

    ____ My conclusion links back to the introduction in some way

    ____ I used transition words to link my paragraphs and ideas.

    ____ My title works for the entire piece, not just part of it.

    Word Choice:

    ____ I used vivid ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS to show not tell

    ____ I used precise NOUNS and VERBS

    ____ I did not repeat words too often

    ____ I used the words correctly

    ____ I stayed away from “baby” words

    Sentence Fluency:

    ____ My sentences begin in DIFFERENT ways.

    ____ I have sentences that are long and complex and others that are short.

    ____ My sentences are not choppy and flow together when read aloud.



                                            10
Voice:

____ I showed passion about the topic I wrote about.

____ I did things in writing that helped my audience understand

____ I added pieces of me and my personality throughout the writing

Conventions:

____ My spelling is correct.

____ My “end punctuation” is correct.

____ My commas and apostrophes are included and in the correct place

____ My grammar is correct.

____ My capitalization is correct.


Is there something that should be left out?




Is there something that needs to be added?




What do you suggest the author revise?                  By signing on this
                                                        line, I am giving my
                                                        word that I was a
                                                        helpful and
                                                        supportive revision
                                                        partner.


Partner's signature: _____________________________




                                         11
   Name:________________________________________________________
   Name:________________________________________________________




              Persuasive Essay/Speech Assignment
        Speech should be about five minutes long (about 2-3 pages double
                                    spaced).

                                    Assignment
    Goal: To create a persuasive speech that will bring light (and persuade
    others to see your point of view) to a subject that you feel passionate about.

    Role: Your role is to be an active, knowledgeable, global citizen who feels
    attention needs to be brought to a particular subject.

    Audience: Your target audience will be the staff of WLMS, parents, peers, and
    members of the community. You will be presenting your speeches to a large
    audience in the auditorium of our school to raise money for the 7th grade team.
    The program will be called „Voices of the Youth‟ and you will be delivering your
    speech to the audience to show that children should be seen AND heard!

    Situation: There are many hot topic issues facing our world today. What is one
    topic that, if you had the chance, you would like to speak to others about? Think
    about how you would persuade them to adopt your ideas and beliefs. How will you
    convince them that your topic needs serious attention?

    Product: Persuasive speech




6+1 Traits ___/100

Graphic Organizer___/10

Rough Draft___/10

Peer Critique checklist ___/5

Self Critique checklist ____/5
                                                                     Total points =
Appropriate use of class time ____/20
                                                                     ___/150




                                             12
     Here are a list of ideas for your topic (if you need help):
+Television does/does not have a negative influence on society.

+Drug addicts should (or should not) be put in hospitals for medical treatment instead of in
prison for punishment.

+Regardless of income, all Americans should (or should not) be guaranteed basic medical care
under a national health insurance program.

+Scientific experimentation on animals should (or should not) be outlawed.

+Dog and cat owners should have their pets spayed and neutered.

+Immigrations into the U.S. should / should not be limited.

+The government should / should not ban all tobacco products.

+Violent video games should / should not be banned.

+Hunting should/should not be banned.

+There needs to be tougher laws targeting gangs.

+Global warming is a serious threat.

+There should be stricter punishments for cyber-bullying.

+Recycling should be mandatory.

+Handguns should/should not be banned.

+Hate groups like the KKK/skinheads should be banned.

+Research on cloning should/ should not be discontinued.

+Illiteracy is a huge problem in the US.

+Obesity is a major issue in the United States of America.

+High-stakes testing (like MSA) has done more harm than good for education.

+Student/teacher relationships do/do not play a role in a student‟s success.

+The war in Iraq has done more harm than good (or vice versa).

+Choose your own topic and have it approved by Mrs. Swank.

http://www.middleschooldebate.com/topics/topicresearch.htm




                                               13
                Organizing a 5 Paragraph Essay:

                     Outline for a Persuasive Essay

I.     Introductory Paragraph
       a. Begin with an attention grabber! Make me want to read more.
       b. State your subject and be clear about your intention in writing about
          it.
       c. Give your three reasons that support your argument.
       d. State your opinion in just a sentence or two.
II.    Development Paragraph
       a. Restate reason #1 from the intro.
       b. Write sentences that give examples and details that support reason
          #1.
III.   Development Paragraph
       a. Restate reason #2 from the intro.
       b. Write sentences that give examples and details that support reason
          #2.
IV.    Development Paragraph
       a. Restate reason #3 from the intro.
       b. Write sentences that give examples and details that support reason
          #3.
V.     Concluding Paragraph
       a. Restate the subject of your essay.
       b. Summarize how your reasons support your point of view.
       c. Conclude with a summary of your opinion.
       d. Leave the reader wanting to take action or thinking about changing
          their opinion.




                                     14
                       Writing a Catchy Lead

Goal: Capture the reader’s interest and make him/her want to
keep reading (remember your reader is probably your opponent)

     Pose a question
     Open with a scene
     Lead with the ‘big picture’
     Use a quote or dialogue
     Make a strong statement. (Usually a very short sentence.)
     Set the mood using loads of voice or descriptive details to
      appeal to your reader’s emotions.

Now you try it…Try three different leads for your essay.
Lead #1 Technique:




Lead #2 Technique:




Lead #3 Technique:




  Be sure to remember who‟s reading your essay. Make sure your lead turns
  them on, not off. Also remember the tone of the piece and make your voice
  match. Circle the lead you like best.


                                     15
                       Writing a Strong Closing

  Goal: You want the reader to walk away with a vivid image in
  his/her mind. You want them to keep thinking about your essay
  long after they’ve finished reading it. You want your reader to
  change their mind!

     End with your strongest line.
     End with a question.
     End with a quotation.
     State your opinion.
     End by closing the circle. Go back to your initial statement
      and bring closure.

Ending #1 Technique:




Ending #2 Technique:




Ending #3 Technique:




                       Circle the ending you like best.




                                    16
Name _________________________________                   Class________________________




             Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizer
               Using Our Write Source Books
       Use the information in the book to complete the blanks. This will guide you in the
       writing of your rough draft as well as revising it. Be sure to stop and write where
       the directions tell you to.


 Read pages 223-226
 What is persuasive writing used for?

 ______________________________________________________________
 Read page 230
 Write Your Opinion statement:

 _____________________________________________________________


                       Starting Your Essay
                                        page 235
 Once you have written an opinion statement and
 organized your thinking, you’re ready to start
 writing your essay. In the beginning paragraph of
 an essay, you should ____________________________and
 ____________________________________.
 Several Good Ways to begin are:
    Give some ____________ information about your
     topic
    Ask a ____________________
    ________________ someone
    _______________ an experience

     NOW STOP and WRITE the introduction of your essay
     and make sure you GRAB the reader’s attention and
                state your opinion clearly!
          Writing the Middle Paragraphs
                                             17
                        page 236
After writing your opening paragraph, you are ready to
develop the middle part of your essay. Each middle
paragraph must present a ________that ________the
_________ statement. Specific __________ are used to
___________ each ___________. As you move from paragraph
to paragraph, be sure to use __________________ like
besides, in addition, and furthermore to help the reader
follow your _______________.

Each paragraph has 3 parts.
1. The _____________________ states a reason that
supports the ____________statement. ____________are
often used in topic sentences to _______the paragraphs
together.
2. The ______ provides details that support the reason,
including __________ and ______________.
3. The _____________sentence _________________ the
information in the paragraph.

 NOW STOP AND WRITE your three middle paragraphs
  and make sure that each paragraph includes one
reason that is supported with facts and examples!


               Ending Your Essay
                        Page 238
The ending of your persuasive essay may be a good place
to address a possible concern or _______________ to your
opinion. It is also a good place to _____________ your
opinion and make a call to action. A _______ to
___________ encourages your reader to do something or to
____________ a certain way about the problem.

  NOW STOP AND WRITE your conclusion and remember to
 state your opinion again and make a call to action.
     Try to make your last sentence powerful and
                      memorable!


                           18
              Revising for Ideas
                   Page 240-241
Fuzzy Thinking
You have used fuzzy thinking when an idea is
misleading and cannot be fairly _________________.
Jumping to Conclusions
Avoid using one _________ _________ to reach a
big conclusion.
Bandwagoning
Avoid using a group’s opinion as if it were the
__________.
Take It or Leave It
Avoid statements that don’t leave room for
____________.
         Revise your draft for fuzzy thinking!
Qualifiers
Ideas that suggest __________ or _____________ are
hard to support. That’s why ________________ are
so important in persuasive writing.
Some helpful qualifiers are ________ _________
__________ __________ _____________________
       Revise your draft to add qualifiers!


        Revising for Organization
                     Page 243
Transitions
Transitions can help show how the ideas in one
paragraph are _____________ to ideas in others.
Go to 572-573 to see a whole list of transitions.
  Revise your draft and add transitions where you
                        can!




                       19
             Revising for Voice
                      Pages 244-245
Sound Confident
You can make your writing voice sound _______________ by
removing words that make you sound ____________ about
your ideas.
Revise your draft to make sure you sound confident
        and knowledgeable about your topic.

Sound Positive
You can make your persuasive writing sound ________ by
avoiding overly ___________ words. Always use
___________, ___________ words to motivate your reader to
agree with you.
 Revise your draft to make sure you are not being
  negative and that you give off a positive tone.

        Revising for Word Choice
                      Pages 246-247
Don’t Repeat!
To find out if you ____________ some words too _________,
________________ read your essay. You can replace
repeated words by using __________ and ______________.
 Revise your essay for repeated words and replace
         them with pronouns or synonyms.

General Adjectives?
Your adjectives should _______ send a ___________
message. Try to avoid ______ words like ______, _______,
and ________.
  Revise for adjectives by using specific, vivid,
              and exciting adjectives.




                           20
                 Journal Entry Homework - We Can Make a Change
Journal Entry 1: What is something that really bothers you about school, in general? Why does it
                 bother you?

Journal Entry 2: If you could change one thing about your neighborhood/community what would
                 it be? Why?

Journal Entry 3: If you had the chance to talk face to face with President Obama about an issue
                 concerning America or the world-what issue would you choose and why?

Journal Entry 4: What is one thing you think is unfair about our society in general?

Journal Entry 5: What is something you want more than anything to change about our world? Why?

Journal Entry 6: If you were the President and you were allowed to write any law you wanted or
                 change any law you wanted - what would it be? Why?

Journal Entry 7: What things need to change in your household for you to be completely happy at
                 home? Do you have any solutions on how to change these things?

Journal Entry 8: Write a list of 10 things that you think we need to change here at WLMS for this
                 to be a great school to come to everyday.

Journal Entry 9: Make a list of as many things as you can think of that need to change in your
                 society, your school, your community, your county, your country, your world.
                 Just go off!!!! Get angry, get passionate!!!

Journal Entry 10: Do you think people can change things to make them better for the rest of the
                  world? How? How can we make a change? What do we do?

Journal Entry 11: Why do you think people don't try to change things that they KNOW in their
                  hearts need to be changed?

Journal Entry 12: How would it feel if you made a positive change for a group of people who
                  really needed it? Have you seen this happen?

Journal Entry 13: Can words change people's actions? When have you seen it happen before?

Journal Entry 14: What is something you find unfair about our school as compared to other
                  schools in Howard County?

Journal Entry 15: What is something you think your community really needs to make it a better place to
live?

Journal Entry 16: What is change? Why is change important in all aspects of life?



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