THE PROGRESSIVES by liuhongmei


Rough Riding President

 Privelaged life

 Great Outdoorsman

 New York Politics

 US Navy

 Rough Riders
Modern Presidency
Vice President to Wm. McKinnley

That Damn Cowboy

“speak softly and carry a big stick”

“Do what you can, with what you
have, where you are.”
Modern Presidency
Commander of Rough Riders

Boxer (detatched retina in eye)

started panama canal

Nobel Peace Prize

Congressional Medal of Honor

set aside 230 million acres of land for
                                     •His 6 kids took their pony into the white house
wrote 30 books                      elevator, frightened White house visitors with a 4
                                    foot king snake, and dropped water balloons on
                                    the heads of the white house guards
wounded in the chest by a would-be assassin’s bullet,
but delivered a 90 minute speech before being rushed
to the hospital
Teddy Roosevelt

• it is said of Teddy that he so wanted to be the center of
  attention that he wanted to be:

• “ the bride at the wedding, the corpse at the funeral,
  and the baby at the christening”
Modern Presidency
Acted boldly

believed in federal responsibility for national welfare

Gov’t should take control when states couldn’t do their

president is the “steward of the people”

President has right to do whatever necessary as long
as consitution doesn’t say otherwise
Teddy Roosevelt and the Constitution
 • He believed that the Constitution

   had not forseen corporate monopolies


   since the trade crossed state lines

 • it was the federal gov’ts duty to oversee
   these monoliths -especially the railroads!
Modern Presidency

Bully Pulpit
Teddy’s Square Deal

• 1. Control of Corporations

• 2. consumer protection

• 3. conservationism
  Teddy’s Square Deal
• Roosevelt believed a president
  must “do anything” a country
  needed, as long as it was legal

                                 Speaker Joe Cannon complained
                                Roosevelt had, “no more use for the
                                Constitution than a tomcat has for a
                                         marriage license.”


 coal strike

                                                Busting Trusts
                                                Good and bad
                                               Teddy didn’t con sider
                                               bigness =badness.

                                               His intent: symbolically
                                               prove Gov’t - not big
                                               business - ran the country

Northern Securities
1902 Northern Securities Company

 The gov’t
 Northern Securities was owned by J.P.
 Morgan (the world’s most powerful
 capitalist) and James Hill and Edward
 Harriman. It controlled all U.S. train traffic
 from chicago to the northwest
1902 Northern Securities trust

  Having ranched in the Dakota
  badlands, Teddy knew how many
  americans resented the rr.

  Fighting J.P. Morgan would please the
  masses but anger the Republican

  JP Morgan thought Teddy should have
  done the “gentlemanly thing” and just
  discussed it with him privately. Morgan
  had to buy up vast pieces of his own
  stock to save the company

  Like Adams and Andrew Jackson,
  Teddy was taking a large risk by
  challenging the citadels of power
1902 Coal Strike
1902 Coal Strike
• It was a cold winter! Hospitals freezing, children
  shivering in their beds, 100,000 Pa. coal miners
1902 coal Strike
 Roosevelt invited John Mitchell of United mine workers
 and the Coal Mine owners to a meeting

 “Chuck them out the window”

 If you don’t find a solution, I’ll send in federal troops (to
 help labor!)

 He called on his enemy JP Morgan to help. Morgan still
 facing arbitration on the Northern Securities issue....

 that is the way business is done!
Railroad Regulation
Railroad Octopus
           1887 Interstate Commerce
           Commission - inadequate

           Congress passes Elkins Act
           1903- no rebates!

           congress passes the
           Hepburn Act 1906- no free

           Gave ICC teeth
     Can you Guess What This is?

  Soybean oil, pickles, distilled vinegar,
  water, sugar, egg yolks, high fructose corn
  syrup, corn syrup, mustard flour, salt,
  xanthan gum, potassium sorbate as a
  preservative, natural flavor, spice and
  spice extractives, dehydrated garlic,
  hydrolyzed soy, corn and wheat protein,
  extractive of onion and paprika, calcium
  disodium EDTA to protect flavor
Caring for the consumer
 Upton Sinclair’s The

 “aimed for the heart
 but hit the stomach”

                              Mary had a little lamb,
                          and when she saw it sicken,
                        she shipped it off to Packingtown,
                          And now it’s labeled chicken.
Caring for the consumer
 Upton Sinclair’s The

 “aimed for the heart
 but hit the stomach”
Caring For the Consumer

 Meat Inspection Act 1906
 (Big business loved that!)

 Pure Food and Drug Act of
No one taking care of the Great

Forests cleared, Prairies plowed,
logging led to floods, cities dumped

Roosevelt wanted to wake people up-
these resources are not limitless

Named Gifford Pinchot head of US
Forest Service - professional
Opposite of professional conservationism was John Muir who
advocated complete preservation

Conservationist thought some wilderness areas preserved and
some managed for the common good

Newlands Act of 1902- $ from sale public lands funded large
scale irrigation projects

Sierra Club

Boys Scouts

Jack London’s Call of the Wild
Failed to support Civil Rights on a
whole but did support certain

  invited Booker T Washington to dinner

  Dubois book Souls of Black Folk faulted
  Washington for blaming black poverty on blacks

  created NAACP - aimed for full equality of blacks
  among whites

  *Progressives did not support racial equality
• 17.4 Progressivism
under Taft
Election of 1904
Conservative Republicans not
too happy; JP Morgan not

Teddy handily defeats
Democrat Parker

                             Election Year bonus
            Supreme Court ruled 5 to 4 against Northern Securities
    Irritated that his own appointee, Justice Oliver Wendall Holmes, had
     opposed the decision, Roosevelt said, “he could carve a judge with
                   more backbone than that from a banana.”

Now the Big Moneyed rich will Fear Him
1904 will be my Last Term

 He said he wasn’t running a third

 Panic of 1907

 1908 Election- TR goes to Africa
 to hunt big game
1908 Election
                 Before Teddy Left:
                1. Enlarged power of

                2. shaped progressive

                3. Helped americans
                realized they shared
                the world with others.

                  •   http://www.theodore-
Election of 1908

                                William Jennings Bryan
     Taft                      Eugene V. Debs
 Vote for taft this time you
    can vote for Bryan            Socialist
Taft as president

 Teddy was all about the middle road b/w individualism
 and collectivism

 But Taft was more of the Trustbuster

 Poor job of judging public opinion - not the showmaster
 that Teddy was.
Taft as a Trustbuster
 1911 the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard
 Oil Company (it had bought up a smaller Pa. Mine) because it
 violated the Sherman Anti-Trust act

 Rule of Reason: only those combinations that “unreasonably”
 restrained trade were illegal.

 This allowed the gov’t to cherry pick which cases to enforce and
 which ones to ignore

 Taft decided to pursue antitrust suit against U.S. Steel
Taft Splits the Republican Party
                 wanted to lower the tariff
                 A very progressive idea
                  but Sen. Aldrich added all types
                 of revisions

                 Taft signed the Payne-aldrich bill
                 betraying his campaign
                 promises because this bill did
                 not lower tariffs!
Taft Splits the Republican Party
                 Conservation: Pinchot- Ballinger

                 appointed Sec. of Interior mr.
                 Ballinger. He disaproved of
                 conservationist control and he
                 pulled million acres from reserve

                 Pinchot protested - taft fired
Republican Party Splits
Over These issues
 Republican Progressives vs. Republican

 Taft supports Joseph Cannon (speaker of the house)
 who as chairman of House Rules committee controlled
 bills that came to floor - sometimes he ignored
 progressive bills

 eventually change house rules and speaker of house
 can’t serve on that commitee anymore
Election of 1912
Bull Moose Party
  Teddy is Mad!                           BIG BUSINESS
                                          REQUIRES BIG

Oswatomie, Kansas

Teddy Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”

  urged the nat’l gov’t to increase its power to remedy
  economic and social abuses
Bull Moose Party
He’s back!
Teddy decides to run for presidency again!
This time under the Bull Moose Party
 Election of 1912
                     REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM

                      High import tariffs.
                      Put limitations on female and child labor.
                      Workman’s Compensation Laws.
                      Against initiative, referendum, and recall.
                      Against “bad” trusts.
                      Creation of a Federal Trade Commission.
                      Stay on the gold standard.
                      Conservation of natural resources
                      because they are finite.

 Election of 1912
                      THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY
                    NEW NATIONALISM
                      Women’s suffrage.
                      Graduated income tax.
                      Inheritance tax for the rich.
                      Lower tariffs.
                      Limits on campaign spending.
                      Currency reform.
                      Minimum wage laws.
                      Social insurance.
                      Abolition of child labor.
                      Workmen’s compensation.
 Election of 1912
                      SOCIALIST PARTY PLATFORM
                      Government ownership of railroads and utilities.
                      Guaranteed income tax.
                      No tariffs.
                      8-hour work day.
                      Better housing.
                      Government inspection of factories.
                      Women’s suffrage.

  Election of 1912
               DEMOCRATIC PARTY
                          NEW FREEDOM
                       Government control of the monopolies
                         trusts in general were bad
                         eliminate them!!
                       Tariff reduction.
                       One-term President.
                       Direct election of Senators.
                       Create a Department of Labor.
                       Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
                       Did NOT support women’s suffrage.
                       Opposed to a central bank.

Woodrow Wilson wins the
Election of 1912

17.5 Wilson’s New
Financial Reforms

 LIke Roosevelt, Wilson claimed Progressive ideals but
 had different idea of the Federal gov’t.

 Believed attacking large concentrations of power gave
 average citizen greater freedom (except civil rights- he
 was a racist)
New Freedom

attack triple wall of privelage

  the trusts


  high finance

            5 large financial reforms
Financial Reforms
Clayton anti-trust act of 1914

  strenghtens sherman antitrust act of 1890

  Co. can’t get stock of another Co. if creates
  monopoly - offices of Co. prosecuted

  Magna Carta of Labor Unions

  Labor unions adn farm unions can exist AND are
  subject to same antitrust laws

  strikes now legal
Financial Reforms
 Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

 Watchdog agency given power to investigate
 possible violations of regulatory statues

 require reports from corporations
New Tax System
Wilson pushes for lower tariffs

Underwood Act of 1913

reduces tariff

used bully pulpit to tell voters to watch how
representatives vote on this issue

it passed - tariffs lowered significantly!
Financial Reform

 Federal income tax

 16th amendment - federal
 income tax

 today it is the main source of
 federal revenue
Finanical Reform
Federal Reserve System

decentralized banking system into 12
districts and estb. regional central
bank within each district - they
become the banker’s bank

now federal reserve sys could tweak
system of money supply through
these banks
  Financial Reforms
Women win suffrage

19th amendment

Susan B Anthony and
Carrie Chatman Catt

Want to know the Real
    Women win suffrage

•   The women were innocent and defenseless, but they were jailednonetheless for
    picketing the White House, carrying signs asking for the vote.

•   And by the end of the night, they were barely alive.

•   Forty prison guards wielding clubs and their warden's blessingwent on a rampage
    against the 33 women wrongly convicted of 'obstructing sidewalk traffic.”
Women win suffrage

         • They beat Lucy Burns,
          chained her hands to the
          cell bars above her head
          and left her hanging for
          the night, bleeding and
          gasping for air.
    Women win suffrage
•   They hurled Dora Lewis into a dark
    cell, smashed her head against an iron
    bed and knocked her out cold.

•   Her cellmate,Alice Cosu, thought Lewis
    was dead and suffered a heart attack.

•   Additional affidavits describe the
    guards grabbing, dragging,beating,
    choking, slamming, pinching, twisting
    and kicking the women.

•   Thus unfolded the 'Night of Terror' on
    Nov. 15, 1917,when the warden at the
    Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia
    ordered his guards to teach a lesson to
    the suffragists imprisoned there
    because they dared to picket Woodrow
    Wilson's White House for the right to
Women win suffrage
             •   For weeks, the women's
                 only water came from an
                 open pail. Their food--all of
                 it colorless slop--was
                 infested with worms.

             •   When one of the leaders,
                 Alice Paul, embarked on a
                 hunger strike, they tied her
                 to a chair, forced a tube
                 down her throat and poured
                 liquid into her until she
                 vomited. She was tortured
                 like this for weeks until
                 word was smuggled out to
                 the press.
Wilson and Civil Rights
 no federal anti-lynching law here....

 federal offices which had been desegregated under
 Reconstruction are now segregated again

                                           Birth of a

• Make a three columns headed as follows:

•   Teddy Roosevelt   Howard Taft   Woodrow Wilson

•     Republican       Republican     Democrat
Review items under the proper presidential
Place the following
heading and column
  1.New Freedom
  2.Elkins Act
  3.16th Amendment
  4.bull Moose Party
  5.17th Amendment
  6.Square Deal
  7.Payne Aldrich Tariff
  8.Hepburn Act
  9.Federal Reserve
  10.Pure Food and Drug Act
  11.Interstate Commerce Commission
  12.Federal Trade Commission
  13.Underwood Tariff of 1913
  14.Meat Inspection Act

To top