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VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 25

									    Preface – Read before continuing
     This course is design to introduce students to the many aspects LEGO Mindstorms. Through several fun,
engaging activities students will learn how to build, program and trouble shoot LEGO robots. The exercises in this
packet were originally design to teach teachers and graduate students during a four day workshop and because
of time constrains many of the challenges are quite advanced and may be too difficult for your students to
complete in a similar time frame. It is suggested that before using this material in your class room the students are
introduced to LEGO Mindstorms using some of the simpler activities provided by “Tufts University Center for
Engineering Educational Outreach.”

    Suggested pre-activities:

    “Students examine the RCX and then build a stable car.”
    http://130.64.87.22/robolabatceeo/k12/activities/75/activity.html

    “Students connect motors and answer questions to help orient themselves with its use.”
    http://130.64.87.22/robolabatceeo/k12/activities/80/activity.html

    “Students connect light and touch sensors to the RCX to learn how they function.”
    http://130.64.87.22/robolabatceeo/k12/activities/81/activity.html
    (Can be covered after the first two activities in this packet)

It is also suggested that you review the follow page of building hints
http://www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo/K12/building/hints.asp

If you have any questions or comments about the material enclosed in this packet please contact:

    Satish S. Nair, Ph.D., P.E.
    Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, &
    Professor of Biological Engineering
    E-2412 Lafferre Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia MO 65211
    Ph. (573)882-2964; Fax. (573)884-5090
    nairs@missouri.edu

    Christopher J. Vincent
    Undergraduate Student of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
    cjv535@mizzou.edu

    Russell Borduin
    Undergraduate Student of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
    rjb7v3@mizzou.edu

    Nathan L. Granneman
    Undergraduate Student of Biological Engineering
    nlg427@mizzou.edu




                                                  C-0
  GK-12
Engineering
   And
  Design      http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm

                             Funded by:




 Grant number: NSFDGE – 0440524 to University of Missouri-Columbia


                        In partnership with:

                      Columbia Public Schools
                         Hallsville Schools
                         Glasgow Schools




                            C-1
                 Daily Robotics Activity Schedule
Day 1:

Ice-breaker activity – Candy Collector                    1 hr
           Short presentation
           Build Time
           Race

Website Tour

Introduction to Gears                                     1 hr
            Presentation
            Activity

Introduction to Programming                               1 hr
            Presentation
            Activity


Day 2:

Robot Olympics: Sumo Challenge                            2 hr
          Presentation
          Build Robot
          Competition


Day 3:

Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge – Robot Construction   2 hr
          Presentation
          Build Robot
          Programming activity


Day 4:

Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge – Robot Programming 2 hr
          Presentation
          Program Robot
          Competition




                                     C-2
                                Table of Contents


Title Page…………………………………………………………………………..                                            1C

Daily Robotics Activity Schedule ...……………….……………………………..                            2C

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………….                                         3C

Introduction to the GK-12 Website………………………………………………                                 4C

Science GLEs Table of Contents………...........................................………..   5C-6C

Math GLEs Table of Contents…….…………………………………................                         7C-8C

Preface to LEGO Design..………………………………………………………..                                     9C

Daily Robotics Challenges:

       General Procedure………………………………..……………………...                                   10C

       Day 1: Ice-breaker activity – Candy Collector………………………...                    11C-12C
                   Introduction to Gears………………………………...…...                         13C
                   Introduction to Programming……………………………..                         14C

       Day 2: Robot Olympics: Sumo Challenge…………………………….                            15C-16C

       Introduction to the Ultimate Challenge………………………………….                         17C

       Day 3: Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge – Robot Construction               18C

       Day 4: Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge – Robot Programming                19C-20C

Resources:
     Samples of All Lesson Plans:
                 LEGO lesson Plans……………………………………….                                  21C
                 Non- Lego Lesson Plans…………………………………                                22C-23C

       LEGO CAD………………………………………………..……………….                                          24C




                                        C-3
                    Introduction to the GK-12 Website
                            http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm


Description:
       On the website there is a comprehensive library of lesson plans and design challenges. These
       lesson plans are readily available for uses by any one interested. The lesson plan library should
       be considered „living‟ library as the documents posted will be updated periodically as new and
       better methods are developed, new lesson plans will also be added as they are developed. So it
       is a good idea to check the „Update‟ list to ensure that you are kept up to date. Some of the
       information will be kept on the secure portion of the site. To access the secure portion of the site
       refer to the “Accessing the “Information” Area” section on this page.


Accessing the “Information” Area:
      To asses the secure portion of the website first click on the „Information‟ tag, this will pop up a
      password box (make sure that you computer allows pop ups). Click in the empty information box
      and type „k12info‟ make sure that you don‟t use any capital letters. Once you have this typed in
      DO NOT press enter. You must CLICK on the submit button is you wish the password to be
      authenticated. If completed in the correct fashion you should have access to the secure
      information. If you have questions please feel free to contact Goushi, Li (glbk2@mizzou.edu).




                                              C-4
                    Table of Contents Science GLEs

Basic Design Skills                                            Math Acronyms
      Introduction to Gear Design [MATH: Compute Gear         Number and Operations             NmO
       Ratios]                                                 Algebraic Relationships           AR
      Introduction to Programming                             Geometric and Spatial Relations   GSR
                                                               Measurement                       Mm
                                                               Data and Probability              DP
Strand 1 - Properties and Principles of Matter
and Energy
Science 2A – Forms of Energy
       General How a Sensor works Lab /The basic design of a sensor
       Light Sensor [MATH: GSR-1A, Mm-2C]
       Temperature Sensor [MATH: Conversion factors]
       Rotational Sensor [MATH: Mm-2B]
       Touch Sensor
       Circuit Lab [MATH: Simple V=IR (G 6-10); Solve simple circuits (G 10-12)]


Strand 2 - Properties and Principles of Force and Motion
Science 2D: Newton’s Laws of Motion
       Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge [MATH: NmO-2C, 2D, 3C, 3E, Mm-2B]
       Robot Olympics: Sumo challenge [MATH: NmO-2C, 2D, 3C, 3E]
       Robot Olympics: Speed Demon [MATH: NmO-2C, 2D, 3C, 3E; AR-1D, Mm-1C]

Science 2F: Simple Machines and Work
       Robot Olympics: Terrain Challenge [MATH: NmO-2C, 2D, 3C, 3E]
       Introduction to Gear Design [MATH: NmO-2C, 2D, 3C, 3E]


Strand 7 - Scientific Inquiry
Science 1A
       Modeling Arm Movement [MATH: NmO-3E; GSR-3C; Mm-2A, 2C, 2D]
       Reflexes [MATH: NmO-3E; AR-1B, 1C, 3A; GRS-4B]
       Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory
       Brain Art [MATH: AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]
       Brain Fair [AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]
       A Healthy Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D, 2E; DP-1A]
       The Teenage Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; DP-1A]

Science 1B
       Modeling Arm Movement [MATH: NmO-3E; GSR-3C; Mm-2A, 2C, 2D]
       Reflexes [MATH: NmO-3E; AR-1B, 1C, 3A; GRS-4B]
       Reaction Time to Events [MATH: NmO-1B; AR-1B, 3A; Mm-2D]
       Brain Art [MATH: AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]

Science 1C
       Modeling Arm Movement [MATH: NmO-3E; GSR-3C; Mm-2A, 2C, 2D]
       Reflexes [MATH: NmO-3E; AR-1B, 1C, 3A; GRS-4B]
       Reaction Time to Events [MATH: NmO-1B; AR-1B, 3A; Mm-2D]
       Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory
       Brain Fair [AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]
       A Healthy Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D, 2E; DP-1A]




                                           C-5
       The Teenage Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; DP-1A]


Science 1D
       Modeling Arm Movement [MATH: NmO-3E; GSR-3C; Mm-2A, 2C, 2D]
       Reflexes [MATH: NmO-3E; AR-1B, 1C, 3A; GRS-4B]
       Reaction Time to Events [MATH: NmO-1B; AR-1B, 3A; Mm-2D]
       Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory

Science 1E
       Brain Art [MATH: AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]
       Brain Fair [AR-1B, 3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D; DP-1A]
       A Healthy Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; Mm-2D, 2E; DP-1A]
       The Teenage Brain [MATH: AR-3A; GSR-4B; DP-1A]




                                       C-6
                                  Table of Contents
                                     Math GLEs
Number and Operations
MATH 1B: Represent and use rational numbers
      Reaction Time to Events (Science - Strand 7 - Concept B - D)

MATH 2C: Apply properties of operations
      All lesson plans

MATH 2D: Apply operations on real and complex numbers
      All lesson plans

MATH 3C: Compute problems
      All lesson plans

MATH 3E: Use proportional reasoning
      All gear and robot lesson plans
      Modeling Arm Movement (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
      Reflexes (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)


Algebraic Relationships
MATH 1B: Create and Analyze patterns
       Reflexes (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
       Reaction Time to Events (Science - Strand 7 - Concept B - D)
       Brain Art (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, B, E)
       Brain Fair (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)

MATH 1C: Classify object and representations
      Reflexes (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
      Reaction Time to Events (Science - Strand 7 - Concept B - D)

MATH 1D: Identify and distinguish functions
      Robot Olympics: Speed Demon (Science - Strand 2)

MATH 3A: Use Mathematical Modeling
      Reflexes (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
      Brain Art (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, B, E)
      Brain Fair (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      A Healthy Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      The Teenage Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      Reaction Time to Events (Science - Strand 7 - Concept B - D)


Geometric and Spatial Relations
MATH 1A: Describe and Use Geometric Relationships
      Light Sensor (Science - Strand 1 – Concept A)

MATH 2A: Use Coordinate Systems
      LEGO CAD

MATH 3C: Use Symmetry
      Notes: Symmetry / Building a balanced robot




                                           C-7
       Modeling Arm Movement (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)

MATH 4B: Draw and Use Visual Models
      Circuit Lab (Science - Strand 1 – Concept A)
      Reflexes (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
      Brain Art (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, B, E)
      Brain Fair (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      A Healthy Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      The Teenage Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)


Measurement
MATH 1C: Tell and Use Units of Time
      Robot Olympics: Speed Demon (Science - Strand 2)

MATH 2A: Use Standard or Non-Standard measurements
      Modeling Arm Movement (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)

MATH 2B: Use Angle Measurement
      Rotational Sensor (Science - Strand 1 – Concept A)
      Robot Programming (not a specific lesson plan)
      Robot Olympics: Final Challenge (Science - Strand 2)

MATH 2C: Apply Geometric measurements
      Light Sensor (Science - Strand 1 – Concept A)
      Modeling Arm Movement (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)

MATH 2D: Analyze Precision
      Modeling Arm Movement (Science – Strand 7 Concept A - D)
      Reaction Time to Events (Science - Strand 7 - Concept B - D)
      Brain Art (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, B, E)
      Brain Fair (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
      A Healthy Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)

MATH 2E: Using Relationships Within a measurement system
      A Healthy Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)


Data and Probability
MATH 1A: Formulate Questions
       Brain Art (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, B, E)
       Brain Fair (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
       A Healthy Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)
       The Teenage Brain (Science - Strand 7 - Concept A, C, E)




                                          C-8
  Preface – A Teacher’s Introduction to the World of LEGO Aided
                              Design

Introduction
Teachers often have limited time and resources with which to instruct students. As former K-12 students
and current engineering students, we understand the difficulties of teaching these concepts in a limited
time. The purpose of this project is to provide instructors with alternate methods for teaching science and
math concepts, primarily focusing on the use of LEGO Mindstorms kits with carefully planned activities.
The following document is an introduction to the fundamental concepts for teaching design with LEGO
Mindstorms kits, and the benefits of
using these methods.

Benefits
For one, students will be able to
visualize and discover physics
concepts through hands-on
experimentation, creating a learning
environment that fosters creativity and
problem-solving skills. Construction
with LEGOs presents students with
nearly limitless ways to achieve the
same goal. Thus, the students have
an open platform for creativity while still being cost effective for the teacher. Competition between student
groups will further add to student desire to understand the material, and may inspire students who usually
take little interest in science.

Application
The challenges presented to students will aid their ability to understand science concepts learned in
class. Too often students merely commit concepts to short term memory for a quiz or test, only to forget
these concepts after they have ”fulfilled their purpose.” By applying the principles they have studied to a
specific problem (such as building a car to ascend a steep slope), they must truly understand and utilize
the concept to achieve a goal. The students who best understand the concepts will be able to translate
this understanding into a more effective robot. Thus, they can see the laws and theorems they have
studied working firsthand, while working on critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Goals
Building a working LEGO Mindstorms robot is no simple task. The students will have to work as a team to
construct a competitive robot, a task that utilizes many different skills, from book learning to design and
construction techniques. After the students are introduced to the building materials and presented with
some possible solutions to the problem, everyone should be well prepared and confident enough to
contribute to the group. The goal is to achieve equal participation from each group member, so that each
students can enjoy the benefits of learning firsthand (instead of watching others do the work.)

Costs
The main cost of a LEGO aided design laboratory is the purchase price of the LEGO Mindstorm kit (about
$200.) The kit contains almost everything needed to carry out this set of lesson plans and can be adapted
for many uses. A wall adapter will also be provided with each kit, since batteries are expensive to supply
and replace. Since the lesson plans involve building a few obstacle courses for the robot competitions,
the cost of the construction materials must also be factored into the budget. However, most of the
materials are relatively inexpensive (a list of needed material and their approximate cost is included with
each lesson plan) and with some creativity obstacle courses could even be created from secondhand
materials.




                                              C-9
General Robot Olympics Instruction Sheet
General Procedure

   Before students arrive:
        -       Mark out start and finish of race track with tape.
        -       Collect materials
        -       Allocate power to race area
                         - If there are no wall sockets in the area an extension cord will have to be
                            used (make sure that the cord is rated for the current that will be drawn)

   The teacher should then explain the goal of the challenge, and have a brainstorming session with
    the class to generate ideas. The session will give students a chance to think about how to best
    achieve the goal of the challenge. Hopefully the session will spark some good ideas, and help
    out students who are having trouble. This would also be a good time to show the students some
    examples of good robots, although these should not be kept around or talked about in too much
    depth so that students are forced to come up with their own designs.

   The students should be broken into groups of three to four depending on the number of students
    in the class.

   At this point the course can be made available for students to examine, so they know what their
    robot has to traverse. It would also be a good idea to allow students to test their robots on the
    track, because an effective machine will require a lot of experimentation and tweaking

   Although it might be tempting to put a robot together first, and then decide where the motors and
    gears go, it is important that the students come up with a plan before assembling their robot.

   The first step for each group should be to draw a simple diagram of their robot, with shapes
    corresponding to LEGO pieces. The teacher can advise the students and help them simplify their
    machines so that they can actually be built. The students should also explain to the teacher what
    kind of gearing setup they plan to use and why they plan to use it.

   The students can then obtain the Mindstorms set from a teacher and begin construction. The first
    step should be to program the RXC to run motors A and B for a distance of 40 feet. Guide the
    students through this process (alternately, to save class time, all of the RXC‟s can be
    preprogrammed before the lesson begins).

   During construction the teacher should check up on groups to ensure that students are making
    progress. The teacher can assist students with some design aspects if they are having trouble.

   While students are building their machines come up with a tournament bracket so that the
    competition goes smoothly.

   To run the challenge there are two options:
        - Allow groups that finish early to run the course while the other
            groups are finishing up.
        - Have all the groups finish up an then move on to the races.
            Option A works well if there is an Adult „helper‟ in the class so that
            one supervisor can help the kids with finishing their robots while the
            other conduct the races. Award the winning team with a little prize
            of some sort.




                                         C-10
                                               Day 1:
                                       Candy Collector
Description:
       The purpose of this exercise is to construct a simple LEGO robot capable of moving across a
       level surface. The object will be to collect and push as much candy as you can in one sweep.
       The more that you push the more you get to keep. The process of building this fairly simple
       project will get one familiar with LEGO‟s and their construction. It is not important to gear this
       robot, in fact I would suggest just running the motors directly to the wheels, as you will not need
       speed or super pushing power. Leaving the gears out of your robot will allow you build it much
       faster as gear trains tend to take quite a while to learn how build (we will go over how to build
       them later). You should focus on making a really good scoop, as this will be the factor that
       determines the amount of candy your robot can collect.

Time to Complete:
       This activity should take approximately 1 hour, as this is the first time that the students will have
       access to the LEGO Mindstorm kits they will not be familiar with any of the parts or basic
       construction. As they build more robots they will become much faster.

Grade Level Expectations:
       This lesson plan is not design to teach any particular strand material, it is however a very good
       starting place as it helps students gain confidence in their abilities.

Concepts Taught:
      - LEGO Construction
      - Basic LEGO design
      - Introduction to teaching design with LEGO Mindstorm

Lesson Plan
    Refer to General Robot Olympics Instruction Sheet
    Before students arrive:
           o Prepare presentation
           o Make copies of hand outs and work sheets
           o Collect Mindstorm kits and other materials
    Present presentation [CCollector-Presentation]- This includes how to make the basic car. It is
      suggested that students follow this design, however, if they are feeling adventurous allow them to
      experiment with alternate designs.
    Since the basic car design is given the main challenge for the student will be to build a scoop for
      the front of the vehicle. The scoop should be as wide as possible but it must also be fairly strong,
      and the wider it becomes the more it will have to be reinforced.
    Table Set Up: While the students are building the vehicle and the front scoop set up the
      „challenge table.‟ It should be about 3 by 5 feet (dimensions are not critical but there needs to be
      enough space for the robots to make their run). Candy should be evenly placed about the table,
      in the past 5 bigger pieces (fun size candy bars) and 10 smaller pieces (about the size of Hershey
      Kisses, Nuggets and Andes mints). Try to ensure that each group member get several pieces.
      When placing the candy it is best to leave a 1 foot area on each end of the table, for setting up
      the robot, and for stopping it before it runs off the table.
    Evaluation: This exercise is design to be a fun introduction to LEGO Mindstorms, and as such
      there are no „points‟ given. The candy prize should provide enough motivation to the students.
    Discussion: After the students have run through the course lead a discussion on the different
      scoop designs. The strengths and weakness of each should be evaluated.




                                              C-11
Example Program:
This is an example of a simple program to run a candy pushing robot. The motor power levels (currently
1) should be set low enough to keep the robot moving slow, but powerful enough to push the candy.




                                           C-12
                   Day 1: Introduction to Gears
Description:
       This exercise will introduce students to the world of LEGO Mindstorms. By the end of the lesson
       students should have a thorough understanding of the gears available and how to implement
       them in to a basic drive train for the robots. The students should also have a general
       understanding of how LEGO blocks fit together.

Time to Complete:
       This presentation should take approximately 45 min to 1 hour.

Grade Level Expectations:                                      Materials List
Science                                                        -LEGO Mindstorm Kit for each student
        Science 2F: Simple Machines and Work                   group ~$200
Math                                                           -Power source – AC adapter ~$10
        Number and Operations                                  -Presentation Capabilities
        2C: Apply properties of operations
                                                               -Student hand outs and Work sheets
        2D: Apply operations on real and complex numbers
        3C: Compute problems
        3E: Use proportional reasoning
                                                               List of Files Required
Concepts taught:                                               [S2IGear-Presentation]
      Gears and Speed                                          [S2IGear-Activity]
      Circumference                                            [S2IGearQ(MC)-gearandspeed]
      Conversion of Units                                      [S2IGearQ(MC)-
      Mechanical Advantage                                     mobilerobotsandstrength]
      Reading Diagrams and Following Directions                [S2IGearWS-gearratios]


Lesson Plan:
    Before students arrive:
                   Prepare presentation
                   Make copies of hand outs and work sheets
                   Collect Mindstorm kits and other materials
    Present presentation [S2IGear-Presentation]
    Conduct a teacher led group discussion about gear types, their possible configurations, and the
      properties of the various configurations.
    Complete the drive train building activity [S2IGear-Activity] - To simplify the activity simple do not
      have the students include the RCX or the rotational sensor. Instead to measure the gear ratio
      have students count the number of revolutions of the gear that they are turning and compare it to
      the number of time the output gear turns. To make this easier to count place a directional „pointer‟
      such as a 90 Degree Angle Element on the end of each axel.
    Have students complete the multiple choice quiz(s)
                   [S2IGearQ(MC)-gearandspeed]
                   [S2IGearQ(MC)-mobilerobotsandstrength]
    As homework the students should complete the simple Gear Ratios worksheet
                   [S2IGearWS-gearratios]




                                             C-13
          Day 1: Introduction to Programming
Description:
       These activities will introduce students to basic LEGO Mindstorms programming with Robolab.
       Building robots is fun, but the LEGOs are nothing more than a pile of plastic without a solid
       computer program to direct the RCX. This section teaches students the basics of icon
       programming, as well as how to implement its different facets to solve a specific problem.

Time to Complete:
       This presentation should take approximately 1 hour (based on using the
       [ModifiedPowerPointForProgramming] pressentation). However, this is a very basic introduction
       to RoboLab programming, and every student will require several more hours to fully begin to
       understand the concepts presented here.

Strand requirements fulfilled:
       This set of activities/lesson plans is not specifically designed to teach strand requirements. Even
       so, programming is a very useful skill to have, both for robot building and other real-life
       applications. It teaches critical-thinking and problem solving, two skills necessary for success in
       mathematics.

Concepts taught:
           Basic Programming                                        Materials:
                     Loops, jumps, feedback, input/output            - Computer with CDROM drive
           Scientific Thinking                                      - Robolab disc included with
           Basic to Intermediate Problem Solving                    Mindstorms kit
           Reading Diagrams and Following Directions                - LEGO Mindstorm kit: ~$200

Lesson Plan:
    Before students arrive:
                    Prepare presentation
                    Make copies of hand outs and work sheets
                    Reserve computer lab time
                    Install Robolab on all of the computers
    Conduct a teacher led group discussion about programming, including its subcategories and
      applications in real-life.
    Present presentations (depending on which facets of programming are to be taught)
                       [S2IProgL2-6 ] (These are the „full‟ programming presentations – best to fully
                       explain programming to students)
                    [ModifiedPowerPointForProgramming] (This is a VERY compressed overview
                       of programming that focuses mostly on examples – all information contained in
                       this presentation has been taken from the other 5. )
    As you present engage the students by having them try to do solve some of the programming
      problems presented in the PowerPoint presentations.
    Give the students a quiz [ProgRCX Quiz]
    At this point, students have a solid grasp of basic programming, and should be able to program
      a robot to complete any of the challenges presented later.
    Have students take home and complete some of the worksheets covering Robolab and the RCX
                    [ProgCommandsWS, ProgRCX Worksheet, RobolabWS]




                                             C-14
                                           DAY 2:
         Robot Olympics Challenge: Sumo Car
Description:
       This challenge requires the students to make a robot which can push a heavy block. The weight
       of the block should be varied so that the effectiveness of each design can be determined.
       However, the surface on which the block is pushed should stay constant. This challenge calls for
       a sound knowledge of robot construction and gearbox design, along with the concept of friction.
       In fact, the main purpose of this challenge is to reinforce the concept of how the mass of an
       object affects its frictional force and where various force are located and what their properties are.

Time to Complete:
       This activity should take approximately 1 and a half hours. Some groups will be much slower in
       their construction and other will be finished in the first 1 hour. So it is a good idea to have a time
       filler or additional activities for the faster groups to move on to.

Grade Level Expectations:
Science
        Science 2D: Newton‟s Laws of Motion
Math                                                                Materials
        Number and Operations                                       -Mindstorm kit (one kit per group, plus
        2C: Apply properties of operations                          one for demonstration purposes
        2D: Apply operations on real and complex numbers            -Transformer and 50ft wire
        3C: Compute problems                                        -Extension cords (if required)
        3E: Use proportional reasoning                              -Smooth level racing area (hallway)
                                                                    -Prize for winning team
Concepts:
    Optimization of a multi-                 Friction                        Robot Requirements:
      variable design                         Forces                                 -Low Gearing
      challenge                               Torque                                 -Low Center of Gravity
    Gears                                    Center of Gravity                      -High Traction wheels
                                                                                      -Heavy vehicle
Goal: Push the heaviest block                                                         -Push bar on the front

Lesson Plan:
    Refer to General Robot Olympics Instruction Sheet
    Before students arrive:
                    Prepare a basic presentation to introduce students to what they will be doing.
                    Make copies of hand outs and work sheets
                    Preprogram all of the RCX with a program that has the motors run for 5 seconds
                      on maximum power.
                    Build a demonstration model (suggested design attached)
    Present presentation [Sumo Car PPT.ppt]; in addition to the presentation give a demonstration
      of what the robots are going to be doing.
    While students are building their robots prepare the challenge area. Depending of time
      constraints you may want to gather some pre measured masses or you can allow your students
      to measure the mass they pushed each time.
    When students are done building their robots hand out the data table [ROSUMODataTable.doc]
      and go over how the students are supposed to proceed with the challenge, and what counts as a
      modification (modification – must affect actual performance, not just appearance).
    Help students complete the challenge, and give suggestions on modifications they could make.
    Hand out the worksheet (can be homework or in class) [Sumo Car Design WS.doc].




                                               C-15
Example Program:
This program zeros the rotation sensor and data table, drives the motors at full power, and then collects
data for a specified amount of rotations. The motors stop and the data can then be uploaded to gage
position, velocity and acceleration of the robot.




                                             C-16
                Introduction to the Ultimate Challenge
Description:
       This final challenge incorporates everything the students have learned in the way of
       programming, gearing, sensors, and robot construction. The students will have to construct a
       robot that can navigate its way through an obstacle course to the finish. The course will contain
       different gradients, surfaces, and objects to block the vehicle from traveling in a straight line. A
       dark line will mark the correct path through the course. Students will have to design a robot
       capable of turning and following a line. The students also have to decide on a gear ratio that
       maximized speed and torque (students may also use direct drive if they feel that this is right gear
       ratio). Choosing which sensors to use will also present a challenge, and each sensor must be
       programmed with a particular vehicle design in mind. Although the obstacle course will be
       difficult, students should certainly be able to conquer it with enough thought and application of the
       concepts they have learned in past lessons.

Time to Complete:
       This activity should take approximately 4 hours but up to 6. It is a good idea to split this activity up
       over several days because of how long it can take to complete. Ideally this activity should be
       spread over 3 days. The first day will consist of robot construction. The second day will focus on
       programming the robot (most students will not be able to write this program on their own, so it is a
       good idea to walk them through it) and doing initial test runs on the obstacle course. The third day
       is necessary because it provides the students with time to rebuild and modify their robots, and it
       is during this process that learn the most about LEGO Mindstorms.

Grade Level Expectations:
Science                                                   Concepts:
        Science 2D: Newton‟s Laws of Motion                   Optimization of a multi-variable design
Math                                                            challenge
        Number and Operations                                 Gears
        2C: Apply properties of operations                    Programming
        2D: Apply operations on real and                      Light Sensors
        complex numbers                                       Touch Sensors
        3C: Compute problems                                  Automated Control
        3E: Use proportional reasoning
Goal:                                                               Materials
        Complete the challenge course in the lest amount of         -Mindstorms kit (one kit per group,
        time. If no one reaches the end, then the robot that         plus one for demonstration
        makes it the farthest wins.                                 purposes
                                                                    -Transformer and 50ft wire
Lesson Plan:                                                        -Extension cords (if required)
        Refer to General Robot                                      -Ultimate Challenge Arena
                         Olympics Instruction Sheet                 -Prize for winning team

Course Construction:
       Make a 4 by 8 foot box out of 2x4‟s „standing up‟ inside create an obstical course using bricks,
       about 3 feet from the „insertion point‟ tape down a line of curving electrical tape which the robots
       will follow to the
       end. See diagram
       for more details.




                                               C-17
                                               Day 3:
          Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge
                 Robot Construction
Goal for Day 3
       Today your challenge is to build a robot to compete in the Ultimate challenge. The robot for the
       Ultimate challenge will have to follow a black line using a light sensor while using a touch sensor
       to negotiate around obstacles. To accomplish this, the robot will have to be able to turn. Before
       you get started building your robot take a look that the track so that you understand your
       challenge. If you have time left after building your robot you may proceed to work on the
       programming exercises. These programming exercises will help you with future challenges

Time to Complete:
       This activity should take approximately 1 to 1 and a half hours. Some groups will be much slower
       in their construction and other will be finished in the first 1 hour, have these students move on to
       programming their robot. Or have additional activities to teach them the basics of programming
       that they will need for the next day.

Robot Requirements – Building hints:
       Gearing
              -Gear the robot so that it moves slowly enough that it does not destroy it‟s self when it hit
              a wall, before the touch sensor has time to activate.
              -The right gearing is also important to make sure that the light sensor works correctly.
              The light sensor has a slow sampling rate, so if you robot is moving too fast the light
              sensor will not be able to sample the light fast enough and so your robot may not be able
              to follow the line.
              -Slow is good, however, if you robot is too slow it may be hard to finish the challenge in
              the time allotted, and longer „race‟ times will all so detract from time to modify your robot.

        Light sensor
                -Make sure that it is mounted low to the ground
                -Mount it on the front of the vehicle, where it will not be knocked off when the vehicle runs
                into an object (before the touch sensor is activated).
                -Only include one light sensor, as it will make the programming of the robot much easier.

        Touch sensor
               -Make „touch bars‟ for the touch sensor. The touch bars should make it easy to depress
               the touch sensor, so that even if the robot hits a wall at an odd angle the touch sensor will
               still be activated.

        Turning capabilities
               -The best way to make the robot turn is to have two motors with each controlling a
               separate wheel. To have the motors control separate wheels you will have to build two
               gear trains, one for each side / wheel. Once this is done turning the robot is quite simple
               as all you have to do is to have one of the motors turn while the other is stopped.
               -If you want your robot to turn well you will have to either build a front wheel that can
               slide. One can use a pulley wheel or a wheel with the tire removed for the front wheel.
               Either of these options will make a wheel that has a very low static friction and will make
               it easy for the robot to slid this wheel sideways when it is trying to turn. The second
               option is to make a front wheel that resembles a shopping cart wheel, where the axis of
               rotation is not inline with the vertical support such that the wheel trails behind the support,
               and will rotate easily.




                                              C-18
                                          Day 4:
                  Robot Olympics: Ultimate Challenge
                      Robot Programming
Goal for Day 4
       Today you will program the robot that you built yesterday. You will have to write the code that
       makes your robot turn when it hits a wall, and follow the line when it is reached. Taking time when
       writing your code is important because no matter how great your robot is, it will never reach the
       end of the track with a poor program. Toward the end of the allotted time, the students should test
       their robots on the track and modify their vehicle for optimum performance.

Time to Complete:
       This activity should take at least 2 hours, ideally 3-4 hours should be allowed. The additional time
       will allow the students to modify their vehicles and fine tune their programs as they learn from
       their mistakes.

Programming - Teaching Hints:
      When teaching the programming portion of the Ultimate Challenge, unless the students have had
      a lot of experience with programming and basic program structure you will have to lead them
      though the programming of their vehicles. Before you try to teach the student how to program the
      robots for the challenge course you must first understand the program. When you being have the
      class brain storm about what you want the robot to do (turn, reverse follow the black line ect.)
      Once a list of robot functions is created arrange them in boxes with connecting lines indicating the
      progression of the program. Use diamond squares for Decision boxes (Sensor Left Hit? –
      Yes/NO) and rectangles for actions.




                                             C-19
After creating this diagram have the students, as a group, go through it and start converting it to code. A
very important concept to get across is looping. Explain to the students that the program will run several
times in each second (unless there is a timer set, eg. turning sequence). Since the program will be
looping continuously there must be a „clear path‟ through the entire loop. A clear path is a path on which
there are no commands, there can be decisions but one of the decision branches must not have any
commands on it. This „clear path‟ allows the program to continue doing what it was doing. For example it
you programmed both motors to go straight some where on this „clear path‟ then when it sees dark and
begins to turn the “go straight” command will over-ride the turn command almost immediately. This will
cause you robot to act as if it did not see the black. If you notice in the program bellow the only time that
that the motor directions are altered is at the beginning (which is out of the loop and will not be repeated)
and inside a decision. It is quite easy to trace the clear path through the program, this is the path that the
program will be running if there are no inputs from the sensors.


Example Program:
This program can be used to complete the final challenge. The program starts the robot moving straight
at full speed. The next two sections check to see if either rotation sensor is depressed, and direct the
robot to back up and turn when this occurs. The bottom section of the program uses the light sensor to
check for darkness. When the light sensor crosses a dark line, the robot reverses direction until it hits
light, and then turns back towards darkness. This is repeated until the robot reaches the end of the line.




                                               C-20
                              RESOURCES:
Sample of All Lesson Plans:
LEGO Mindstorm:
Introduction to Gears:
       See description above. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson
       plan.

Introduction to Programming:
       See description above. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson
       plan.

The Candy Collector:
      See description above. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson
      plan.

The Robot Olympics:
      Speed Demon:
      The following experiment requires that the students design and build a wheeled robot to compete
      in a velocity challenge. The students will time their robot as it races down the marked track. From
      their time recordings the students will determine it‟s average velocity and acceleration. The
      students will be encouraged to modify their robots, to make the fastest vehicle. The robots will be
      constructed from LEGO Mindstorms kits and powered by an AC adapter with an extended wire
      lead. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

        Sumo Challenge:
        This challenge requires the students to make a robot which can push a heavy block. The weight
        of the block should be varied so that the effectiveness of each design can be determined.
        However, the surface on which the block is pushed should stay constant. This challenge calls for
        a sound knowledge of robot construction and gearbox design, along with the concept of friction.
        In fact, the main purpose of this challenge is to reinforce the concept of how the mass of an
        object affects its frictional force and where various force are located and what their properties are.
        Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

        Terrain Challenge:
        The Terrain Challenge requires the students to build a robot to traverse various obstacles made
        of sand, glass, rocks and various other substances. The primary goal of this challenge is for
        students to apply their knowledge of friction (as learned in class) to the design of their vehicles.
        The will have to design the robot in such a way that friction with the surface is maximized, which
        will involve choosing the right kind of wheel setup and distributing the vehicle weight properly. .
        Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

        Ultimate Challenge:
        See description above. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson
        plan.




                                              C-21
Non LEGO Design Lesson Plans:

Muscle and Brain Lesson Plans

       Modeling Arm Movement
       The students make a paper model resembling elbow flexion. This exemplar is aimed to teach
       students that while one muscle moves, another one is sometimes involved. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Reflexes
       The students will conduct various experiments to test their own reflexes. This exemplar is aimed
       to teach students that an individual‟s reflexes are not processed by the brain. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Reaction Time to Events
       The students will conduct an experiment that test how their reaction time is. This exemplar is
       aimed to teach students that a person‟s reaction time to an event is determined by how long it
       takes for a process to go from the brain to a movement of the body. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Short-term and Long-term Memory
       The students will memorize short poems to test their short-term and long-term memory. This
       exemplar is aimed to teach students the difference between these different memory processes.
       Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Brain Art
       The students will develop a poster on a selected brain theme. The purpose of this exemplar is to
       get students interested in the brain at a young age. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Brain Fair
       The students will develop a brain fair to be presented to the school and/or parents. The purpose
       of this exemplar is to get students to use design in a project. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       A Healthy Brain
       The students will conduct an experiment to see how caffeine affects their body. The purpose of
       this exemplar is to have students understand the process of how a certain chemical can affect the
       brain. Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       The Teenage Brain
       The students will conduct research to see how their brain is different from an adult‟s brain. The
       purpose of this exemplar is have students learn how to create a poster presentation. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

Sensor Packet
       Sensors
       The students will be presented a PowerPoint presentation about sensors in general. The purpose
       of this lab is for students to get a general understanding of what a sensor is. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Touch Sensors
       The students will use a touch sensor on a Lego vehicle. The purpose of this lab is for students to
       learn how to use a touch sensor with their Lego Mindstorms kits Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.




                                            C-22
       Light Sensors
       The students will use a touch sensor on a Lego vehicle. The purpose of this lab is for students to
       learn how to use a light sensor with their Lego Mindstorms kits. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Rotational Sensors
       The students will use a rotational sensor on a Lego vehicle. The purpose of this lab is for students
       to learn how to use a rotational sensor with their Lego Mindstorms kits. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.

       Basic Circuit
       The students will make learn how to draw a basic circuit. The purpose of this lab is for students
       get a basic understanding of what a basic circuit is and how one is made. Look at
       http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.



“Trip to Mars” Lesson Plan


Main Focus of this exemplar was to show a clear relationship between math, science, and design.
Reverse engineering was used to develop the questions used in this exemplar. Below are some
examples of these questions.

       You suddenly run out of gas on Mars. Identify a new energy source you could use and list some
       of its advantages/disadvantages of using this new source of energy.

       Set up a navigation system on the Mars map by using a Cartesian coordinate system. Draw the
       motion you took from the cave to one of the alien sites making sure to go through all four
       markers.

       You can not find any aliens after visiting all three alien sites. Design an investigation that could
       help you find aliens that you have missed.

       How would you solve the perimeter of a rock on your map that is of a very unusual shape? Draw
       a weird looking rock on your map and estimate its perimeter using your method.

       Formulate a math question about your journey from the cave to one of the alien sites. Design a
       collecting data process that you believe could answer this question. For 5 of the numbers used in
       your calculation, write down the number of significant digits.

       Look at http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for the full lesson plan.




                                             C-23
                           Introduction to LEGO CAD
Description:
Mike‟s LEGO Cad (MLCAD) is a freeware program available for download at http://www.lm-
software.com/mlcad/. MLCAD is a computer aided design program that allows the user to manipulate
objects from many different views. The program then generates a three-dimensional view. There are
many programs like this, but MLCAD is the only one we know of that includes LEGO pieces. The
program has a vast library of LEGO pieces which the user can move, rotate, and piece together to form
intricate models. In fact, just about anything you can make with real LEGOs can be created with MLCAD.

Uses:
Tutorial:
A basic MLCAD tutorial can be found here: http://www.hpfsc.de/mlcd_tut/tut_eng.html, although the
program is not difficult to use after a little experimentation. The user merely browses through a list of
parts on the left side of the screen, and drags them to the work area to use them. The most useful
functions of the program are the change color and rotate functions. MLCAD has many more advanced
features, but students can discover these as they gain proficiency (the features are not needed to do
basic LEGO construction.)

Planning:
MLCAD is a very useful planning tool. Before construction begins on any bridge, building, or car,
engineers spend a lot of time planning and designing. MLCAD gives students a brief insight into the
design aspect of engineering. In this way, their ideas are finalized before they even touch a LEGO block.
This requires much greater planning and use of problem solving skills than sitting down with a pile of
LEGOs.

Pictures:
MLCAD can be used to take pictures of LEGO models built in the program. The pictures are very similar
to ones found in LEGO construction booklets. More realistic looking pictures ca be taken by downloading
another program, but the add-on does not make construction any easier.

Benefits:
Many of MLCAD‟s benefits have been described above, but here they are in a more concise format.
Firstly, MLCAD is free and requires no software license. Every student with access to a computer now
has access to an unlimited amount of LEGOs and space with which to experiment. The parts cannot be
lost, and the program has a huge variety from which to choose. If a student cannot find a piece in this
program, it probably does not exist. This program acquaints students with design, and gets them used to
using computers for planning. Additionally, the program can be used to create detailed instruction
booklets and can take pictures of the robots from any angle. It‟s like having a LEGO creation that can be
taken anywhere and converted into an instruction booklet so that anyone can build the creation.



Applications:
MLCAD would work best in an after-school or extra credit setting. Although it would be a nice tool to use
in the everyday classroom, it would require teachers to reserve a computer lab, install the program, and
then teach students to use the program. Such an undertaking is easier after school, with a smaller group
of students who are all interested in learning. Also, most of the learning is done by experimentation which
takes time and the desire (which is usually easier to obtain from students in after school programs.)


        See http://www.missouri.edu/~engk12/nsfgk12.htm for detailed instructions.




                                             C-24

								
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