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					Group One
Video Conferencing Hall
 Our case sturdy was taken from
  Uganda Management Institute
  (UMI) department of Global
  Distance Learning Center (GDLC)
  and IT.
 GDLC it is a project funded by the
  World Bank to support Distance
  learning and Conferencing between
  Uganda and the rest of the Globe.
  Our sturdy was conducted from the
  Video Conferencing Hall with a live
  conferencing between us and
  Tanzania with an aim of illustrating
  how Video Conferencing works. We
  also got access to most of the tools
 More was discussed to us by Mr.
  Keneth Ojock (Pictured right) the
  VC administrator and we managed
  to come with the final report on
  Video conferencing as below.
Video Conferencing

 Videoconferencing is an
  interactive tool that incorporates
  audio, video, and computing, and
  communications technologies to
  allow people in different locations
  to electronically collaborate face-
  to-face, in real time, and share all
  types of information including
  data, documents, sound and
  picture. In essence
  videoconferencing removes the
  barrier of distance that separates
Uses of Video Conferencing
 The following examples show how videoconferencing
 can be beneficial when incorporated into various
 Videoconferencing provides businesses
  with the ability to meet and to work with
  others over a distance. The following list
  includes several examples of the benefits
  for businesses using videoconferencing:
 Reduce travel costs.
 Improve use of executive time.
 Speed up decision-making.
 Keep meetings brief and more focused
  than face-to-face meetings.
 Enable top management to quickly and
  effectively communicate with employees
  sitting in multiple locations.
 Allows virtual project management via
  video and data conferencing with
  geographically dispersed peer groups at
  short notice.
 Provides an effective way of delivering
  cost-efficient training to individuals
  without the requirement to consistently
  travel to central locations.
Distance Learning
 Videoconferencing is an
 exciting technology for
 education. Teachers and
 students are able to see each
 other, share documents and
 discuss topics together in a
 situation similar to a
 traditional classroom
 setting. The main difference
 being that the teachers and
 the students may be in
 different states or even
Distance Learning
 Distance Learning Videoconferencing increases
  efficiency by:
 Saving travel time and expenses.
 Increasing an instructor’s audience.
 Maintaining the ability for interaction between teachers and
Telecommuting / Home Office
 Working out of home has never
  been easier or more practical.
  Videoconferencing makes it
  possible to stay connected with
  people in a very real way.
  Videoconferencing allows users to
  save resources by meeting with
  clients and/or colleagues via
  videoconference. This reduces
  travel expenses, while
  maintaining face-to-face contact.
 For a minimal cost, it is possible
  to set-up a fully functional
  videoconferencing system that
  works in a professional and
  reliable way from your home
Legal Environment
 The use of videoconferencing
  technology is becoming more
  prevalent in today’s courtrooms.
  Videoconferencing systems are used
  to enable testifying witnesses to
  “appear” in court without having to
  travel to the courtroom. Expert
  witnesses, prisoners, and various
  other witnesses can provide the same
  testimonies from remote locations.
  From the prison, prisoners will see
  and hear everything that takes place
  in the courtroom and will be able to
  answer questions posed to them by
  the presiding judges and lawyers.
  Videoconferencing in the court
  system offers significant cost savings
  and improved security by reducing
  the need for high-security prisoner
  transport. The entire courtroom
  experience will be made shorter, safer
  and more cost-effective
 There are times when a person
  needs medical advice but is
  unable to visit their personal
  physician or even more likely, a
  specialist. In such situations using
  videoconferencing can make all
  the difference. A patient in a rural
  location can easily “meet” with a
  specialist from anywhere in the
  world. Videoconferencing enables
  patients to get the necessary
  information and expert guidance
  they need quickly and easily.
  While videoconferencing cannot
  replace all visits to a medical
  professional, in some instances it
  can be the only method of
  meeting with a specific doctor,
  and in a difficult situation it may
  prove to be a lifesaver.
Rules of Videoconferencing
  Avoid wearing bright colors such
     as red, white because they tend to
     bleed on-screen.
    Avoid wearing patterns or
     checked clothes
    Do not speak lowly or too loudly
     because of compression
    Avoid unnecessary movements
     and gestures in the
     videoconferencing room
    One site should speak at a time

 Dull colors are recommended like
   that man in a picture
 Steps to Choosing A Videoconferencing
 1) Intended use for your system?
    Generally speaking, how do you wish to use the equipment and whom are you going to talk

 2) Number of sites?
  How many offices do you need to communicate with and what resources will each have at
  their disposal?
  UMI communicates with different number of sites, 60 in Africa, and 20 outside Africa.

 3) Number of participants per site?
  How many people do you want to participate in video calls at your various locations? Do you
  want the same videoconferencing set-up for every location? Or, do you want to have a more
  deluxe system for your headquarters?

    4) Size of your rooms?
    Where do you want to put the equipment? For example, is your current conference or
    meeting room big enough to add a system? Does your current meeting environment offer
    sufficient size, lighting and ancillary resources to accommodate an appropriate
    videoconferencing solution?
    UMI has enough conferencing room and there is room for expansion.
 Steps to Choosing A Videoconferencing
 5) Connectivity?

  ISDN, BRI, PRI, T-1, Fractional T, ATM, Frame Relay, xDSL, Cable-modem? What
  connectivity best suits your internal communication requirements? Will the connection be
  dedicated to the conferencing system? What types of communications do you plan?
  Voice,video,data? (The type of communication will determine bandwidth requirements.)
  Also, what connectivity will remote sites make use of?
  UMI uses ISDN (circuit switched) with a bandwidth of 128kb/s.

 6) What type of systems or formats will you be calling?
  An ISDN system typically sends and receives voice and video data using the h.320 standard.
  An IP based (network) system typically communicates using the h.323 voice/video standard.
  You can only call between systems that subscribe to the same standard. However, gateway
  and bridge devices are available that will allow you to translate calls between the common
  standards. (Standards are defined by the International Telecommunications Union and are
  the same worldwide.)

 7) Do you need data capability in addition to video & audio?
  Are you just looking to only see and talk to the other people, or are you going to require the
  ability to do collaborative computing and share data? Do you want to share computer files
  and documents on screen? Will you need to show PowerPoint presentations?
Benefits of Videoconferencing

 Increases Productivity
  The ability to be in several places at once without leaving your office is the next frontier.
  The 1990s saw a tremendous increase in productivity for American companies. The goal
  was to do more with less. Websites and the Internet let us quicken the speed of
  communication. We believe that the use of videoconferencing will be the next driver for
  productivity because you will be able to keep in closer contact with customers. This
  closeness will lead to new ideas on how to speed up the development of new products
  and services.

 Improves Communication & Reinforce Relationships
  During a videoconference you can see the facial expressions and body language of
  conference participants. These are both important aspects of communication that are
  lost with a basic telephone call. Videoconferencing also allows the opportunity for more
  of your staff to have contact with your customers. From your customer’s perspective, the
  only person ever seen is the salesperson from your company. Wouldn’t it improve your
  business relationship with your best customers if they got to meet more of your internal
Benefits of Videoconferencing
 Reduces Travel Expenses

    In today’s economy, cutting down on company travel expenses is usually a real attention
    grabber. In practice, the results are mixed. Individuals still like to go places and visit clients
    and associates in person. Nothing can replace meeting someone face to face for the first time
    and shaking hands. There are, however, numerous situations where you can save a lot of
    money on airfare and hotel costs, not to mention saving the loss in productivity from being
    out of the office.

 Allows Multi-point Meetings Across Time Zones & International Boundaries

    Videoconferencing lets you put together a meeting of various people, from different
    locations, for a common discussion. Participants can be across the country or on the other
    side of the globe. For example, you can have sites in London, New York and Tokyo, all with
    multiple personnel, participate in the same videoconference!

    Improves Effectiveness
    We all know that "a picture is worth a thousand words." Videoconferencing is the perfect
    example of how true this statement is. A live video call is much more effective than a phone
    call in many situations. For example, your engineering staff needs to show one of your
    vendors a problem with a purchased component. Visually seeing the part during a
    videoconference is far more effective and meaningful than trying to describe it over the
       Components of Videoconferencing

 Videoconferencing Codec Unit (End Points)

 The Codec is the “BRAIN and HEART” of the Videoconferencing System.
 It is also known as the Coder-Decoder. This component takes the video
 and audio from the camera and microphone and Compresses it down,
 transmits it over a network/digital phone line and expands (or
 Decompresses) the incoming video and audio signal so that it can be
 viewed on a display.
 UMI uses Polycom V5400 video conferencing codec.
 Camera
  The camera types range
  from a small desktop
  camera that sits on top of a
  computer monitor in a
  desktop system to a high-
  quality camera that has
  remote control pan, tilt and
  zoom (PTZ) features in a
  room-sized system. The
  room-sized systems often
  come with a document
  camera and other
 UMI uses a Sony camera as
  shown in the picture.
Video Monitor, XGA Monitor, Plasma Display, LCD/DLP Projector

 These display devices are options
  that can be used to show the
  images received from the
  videoconferencing codec.
  Videoconferencing systems can
  use multiple displaying options.
  Desktop systems show the video
  in a small window on the
  computer monitor. Room-sized
  systems usually have one or two
  large video monitors and can
  display the local audience, as well
  as the remote audience.
 Many of the desktop
  conferencing units come
  with small microphones
  that attach to the Personal
  Computer. Most room-sized
  systems come with a
  microphone designed to
  work best with a small
  group of people. In some
  instances, additional
  microphones can be
  connected to the system to
  help with larger group
Network Connection
 Network Connection
 This is the connection that carries data between
 video systems communicating with one another.
 The size of the connection and the ability to access
 it in a consistent manner, determines both video
 performance and quality of service. The connection
 can range from an ISDN phone line to a dedicated
 PRI/T-1 connection or access to a local area
Guidelines to consider when Making a
 When making your connectivity selection, consider the following items
    to help make the best decision for you:
   Intended Use – Who will you call, using what standard and at what
    speed? Who will be calling you, at what standard and at what speed?
   Quality of Service – What quality you require, expect and receive. In
    most cases you only have control over half of this equation. The
    combination of connectivity and equipment on both ends of the
    conference add up to your QOS potential.
   Versatility – Will you need to communicate point to point or multi-
    point, and in what environment IP or ISDN?
   Cost – Will your investment in videoconferencing connectivity and
    technology provide an adequate ROI (return on investment)? How will
    you measure your ROI?
Guidelines to consider when Making a
 NT-1 (for use with ISDN systems)
 These little electronic devices are called terminal adapters
  and convert ISDN into a format your conferencing system
  can use. You need one for each ISDN line that you bring
  into your system. The NT-1 for example, terminates 1 ISDN
  line while the NT-3 will terminate 3 lines.
 Stands & Equipment Carts
 Your room aesthetics are usually improved by having all
  your equipment neatly organized in one spot. Typically, you
  would place your TV monitor, codec and camera on top of
  the stand and below you have a cabinet to hold other
  equipment, like a computer or VCR, etc.
Types of Videoconferencing Systems and their
 Desktop Videoconferencing
 Desktop videoconferencing systems bring
  video communications into your office.
  This technology can deliver full-motion
  videoconferencing from your PC. Desktop
  systems have been engineered to
  accommodate the industry's requirements
  for standards-based videoconferencing.
  Today, there are systems available that
  deliver high quality at a low cost. These
  systems provide H.323 voice and video, as
  well as applications sharing. They offer
  easy installation and many have no add-in
  boards to install or bulky hardware to
  place on your desk.
Set-top Videoconferencing Systems

  Set-top Videoconferencing

 Set-tops are complete
  videoconferencing systems
  designed to sit on a monitor. They
  are useful in small boardrooms
  and other small group scenarios.
  Set-top systems are often
  maintained on a cart, making it
  possible to roll them around for
  use in different rooms. Set-tops
  have excellent video quality and
  work well with auxiliary
  equipment, such as document
  cameras, to enhance
  videoconference presentations.
Integrated Videoconferencing Systems
  Integrated Videoconferencing

 Integrated systems are group
  conferencing systems most often used
  in conference rooms or classrooms
  with multiple participants. This type
  of system usually consists of a
  centralized location for wiring and
  processors to be routed. The main
  camera, displays and peripheral video
  sources are usually mounted in the
  main conferencing area. These
  customized configurations are
  normally equipped with multiple
  features and also allow for the
  videoconferencing room to be used
  for other various functions as well.
  Most integrated systems available
  today are capable of connecting both
  H.320 (ISDN lines) and H.323
        System for Individual Users
Sample PC SystemConfigurations
These days everybody has a PC on his or her desk and most are connected
  to the corporate LAN. Since you already have a PC, why not optimize it
  further by adding a videoconferencing system?
These systems are typically composed of software and a USB camera.
  Installation is straight forward and almost anyone with basic PC
  knowledge can do it quickly and efficiently. The good thing about these
  systems is that they are truly versatile. The video and audio will be
  provided by your PC, so you don’t need any additional equipment. You
  can do h.323 or h.264 conferencing over IP.
The featured product Polycom you immediate access to all the
  resources on both your individual PC and your corporate LAN. You can
  incorporate presentations and files that reside anywhere on your LAN
  into your videoconference.
Featured Product: Polycom PVX software w/USB Camera
Group System for Up to 6 People
(Recommended for small businesses & remote field offices.)
  Group System for Up to 6 People
  (Recommended for small businesses & remote field offices.)

 This conference room is modest and its use is limited to inter-company
  working meetings only. You might consider adding a set-top
  videoconferencing system to the room to augment its capabilities.
 Each system featured can be configured to run on an ISDN connection or
  over your corporate LAN. They provide standards compliant voice and
  video, as well as the ability to add additional input sources, like secondary
  cameras, document stands or external whiteboards. Through an available
  LAN connection, additional information can be presented.
 Featured Products: Sony PCS-11, Polycom V-500, Polycom VSX-3000,
  Polycom VSX-7000
 Optional Accessories: Secondary Camera, Document Camera, Sony
  Monitor, Cart, Lighting
Medium Multi-Point Conference Room System
(Recommended for medium businesses with multiple locations.)
 Medium Multi-Point Conference Room System
  (Recommended for medium businesses with multiple locations.)
  The typical use for this type of system will be business meetings with
  corporate staff at multiple locations, as well as vendor and client
  meetings. A versatile videoconferencing system is required which has a
  high-end set-top system that incorporates multi-point capabilities. These
  units are capable of multi-point calls in an ISDN environment. (128k for
  four (Polycom) or 6 (Sony) concurrent locations, total bandwidth
  required at head-end is 512/768k.) In addition, these units can make
  point-to-point IP based calls at up to 2M in an IP (LAN/WAN)
 It is required to accommodate between one and 20 people in this room. A
  nice table, chairs and cart for your conferencing system are necessities.
  Lights should also be considered (remember "Lights, Camera, Action!").
  Video works best with the proper lighting.
 Featured Products: Sony PCS-1MCU, Polycom ViewStation FX
 Optional Accessories: Table, Chairs, Cart(s), Lighting, Monitors,
  Secondary Camera,
Full-Blown Set-top or Rack-mount Meeting System

   Full-Blown Set-top or Rack-mount Meeting

   High end systems provide the highest quality
    video for the most demanding video
    communications needs and corresponding high
    quality audio. In addition, they are designed to
    be attached easily to both peripherals and
    existing video and audio distribution systems.
   These systems share much of the same features
    as their less expensive counterparts. They differ
    largely in speed and the ability to provide users
    with the highest quality audio and video
    available today. All systems feature an easy to
    learn graphic user interface. These systems are
    best utilized in a conference room where
    numerous staff members of differing technical
    ability use the equipment. All featured systems
    are capable of multi-point calls in ISDN and IP
   Featured Products: Sony PCS-1MCU, Ploycom
    ViewStation VS-4000, Polycom VSX 8000 series
    (all ca be rack mounted)
   Optional Accessories: Table, Chairs, Cart(s),
    Lighting, Monitor(s), Document Camera, PTZ
    Camera, Splitscreens Video Processor, Remote
    Control, etc.
Group Members
             In the UMI conferencing room

 Chongomweru Halim
 Iga Mubarak
 Abdallah saidi Yakut
 Yiga Dauda
 Jjumba Zaidi
 Shakira N. sanyu