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					Standard 5.7


The Progressives and reform
movements of the late 19th Century
    Progressivism
   a movement of the middle
    class
       objected to paying taxes to
        corrupt city governments
       desired better city services.
   Many women were leaders in
    the progressive movement
       Why?
       Middle class women didn’t work
       Were “motherly” and “good”
       Needed a social cause
Leaders of Reform (Progressives)
          Jane Addams
              Led the settlement house
               movement
                 Teach immigrants how to live in
                  US
                 Vocational training

                 Provided childcare

                 American Values permeated

              Opened Hull House in Chicago
              Advocated child labor laws
                   Limited hours and conditions of
                    child labor
Other Progressive Leaders
                  The “Muckrakers”
                      Pointed out the corruption
                       of the political machines
                      Fought monopolies
                      Tried to show the plight of
                       the worker
                      Tried to show the plight of
                       the immigrant
                  Uptain Sinclair’s “The
                   Jungle” led to the Pure
                   Food and Drug
                   administration
                  Thomas Nast’s cartoons
                   led to the downfall of
                   Boss Tweed
The Progressive Leader -
Teddy
    Progressives began with
     local leaders and some
     Governors
    Teddy Roosevelt was the
     first “Progressive”
     president (1901)
    Used office as a “Bully
     Pulpit”
        Supported workers rights
         (the square deal)
             Required coal mine owners
              to collectively bargain with
              workers to avoid a strike
Teddy Roosevelt and business
              Believed in controlling
               monopolies
              Enhanced the Interstate
               Commerce Act to control
               the railroads
              Regulated corporations
               through the Sherman Anti-
               Trust act
                  Known as a “trust-buster”
                  Not really accurate. He broke
                   up “bad” trusts. He liked
                   “Good” Trusts
                     Paid a decent wage,
                      negotiated, didn’t overcharge
                      consumers
       Roosevelt
   Served 2 terms in office and we will discuss him
    more in St. 6
   He ran for a 3rd term after he retired
   Formed the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party in 1912
   Split the vote with the Republican Taft
   Allowed the less popular Democrat Wilson get elected
Wilson continued the progressive
programs
            Passed the Clayton Anti-
             Trust Act
                Exempted labor unions from
                 Sherman Anti-trust act
                Gompers (of AFofL) called this
                 the “Magna Carta of Labor”.
                 Why?
            Passed the 16th Amendment
                Income tax amendment
            Passed the 17th Amendment
                Direct Election of Senators
More Wilson Actions
   Passed the Federal Reserve Act
       A response to the farmers demands
       Wanted more a more responsive money supply
          The Fed can put control the amount of money
           in circulation
   Made credit more available to farmers
   Provided 8 hour work days
   First Workman’s Compensation plan
   Not all actions were positive
       He tended to racism and did little to protect
        minority rights
Speaking of African Americans…

   They participated in Progressivism
    but gained little at the time
   Efforts to limit political corruption
    often hurt minorities
       The literacy test (Jim Crow Law)
        promoted as a way to keep the
        uneducated from voting
Two very different Civil Rights
approaches emerged
              Booker T. Washington
                  Advocated job education
                  Opportunities for employment
                  Lobbied privately (behind the
                   scenes) for greater rights
                  Publically less daring
                  The Atlanta Compromise Speech
                   suggested acceptance of second
                   class citizenship and Jim Crow in
                   exchange for jobs
                     Needed to “prove” they could be
                      good citizens then they would be
                      allowed into full citizenship
2nd Approach – W.E.B.
DuBois

      The “Talented Tenth”
          A-A community should
           promote the best and
           brightest
          Educate them to best
           utilize those talents
      Wanted immediate
       equality
      Formed the NAACP
       (national associate for
       advancement of
       colored people)
    Which was more accepted by the White
    Majority?
   Washington was more accepted
       Even invited to the White House
       Public outcry meant he was never invited a
        2nd time
   DuBois was less successful
       Labeled “Militant”
       Did energize the African American
        Community
   Almost an MLK Jr. v Malcolm X scenario
The Impact of WWI on Progressivism

            Progressivism began during
             the 1890s and WWI began
             around 1910
            WWI helped lead to the 18th
             (Prohibition) amendment
                There were grain shortages
                We fought the Germans who
                 happened to own a lot of Beer
                 Breweries
                Anti-German Propaganda
                 helped the movement
WWI and women’s suffrage
            19th Amendment passed in
             1920
            Support for women’s
             rights grew due to
             women’s efforts during the
             war
WWI and Labor Issues
           Cooperation of Big Business and
            Government during WWI
            undermined unions
               Stopped enforcing anti-trust laws
               Stopped protecting unions from
                force
           IWW members and socialists
            prosecuted for sedition during
            the war
               Called for draft resistance
               The Post-WWI “Red Scare” ended
                socialsim in US
End of WWI ended Progressivism
              Wilson attempted to
               implement “the 14
               Points” at the end of the
               war
                  The points were an
                   attempt to end the
                   possibility of another war
                  Included a League of
                   Nations
                     Senate feared that it would
                      handcuff the US to other
                      nations
                     Refused to accept it
WWI and end of
Progressivism II
     The Treaty of Versailles
      (ended war) was harsh
     Undermined the ideals of
      progressives
     Progress implies things will
      get better
         WWI showed that even after 20
          years of “progress” an obscene
          amount of life could be lost
         There is no “progress”
            Artists reflected this sentiment

            DADA movement rejected the
             idea that Europeans were
             “civilized”
    Limits of Progressivism

   Businesses regained their power during
    the war
       Needed to produce war items
       Unions were forced to cower
   Prohibition unenforcable
   Women tended to vote with their
    Husbands
   The idea that government should protect
    the welfare of the people evaporated

				
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posted:6/21/2011
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