Towards the Next Generation Internet

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Towards the Next Generation Internet Powered By Docstoc
					IPv6 Redes de Nova Geração/
  Experiência em Portugal


         José Fernandes
                FCCN


     Seminários do IST - Taguspark
               Março 2005
          Next Generation Internet – IPv6

•   Address space with IPv4 is being depleted
•   Addressing space is the most visible feature of IPv6.
•   IPv6 uses 128 bits addresses, pushing the                theoretical limit of
    unique IPv6 nodes to about 340 billion billion billion billion unique
    addresses!
    • A must to implement “always-on”, mobility, peer-to-peer communications,
       machine-to-machine communications,...

•   Other significant capabilities of IPv6 include:
    • Integrated quality of service (QoS),
    • Reintroduces end-to-end security,
    • Automatic configuration (plug and play), data multicasting,
    • More efficient network route aggregation at the global backbone level.
    • ...
   IPv6 is a key issue on the road ahead to the e-economy.
                                                                                2
           Some recent tidbits
“There is a kind of capacity problem. How is the Net going to support
billions of additional users and devices, and new data-hungry
applications?”
        Vint Cerf (Intel Development Conference, San Francisco sept 2004)



« …the PC-centric era is fast giving way to the wireless age. The trend is
most apparent in Asia where cellphones with Net access are the
computing gizmo of choice. There are about 10x more cell phones capable
of handling e-mail and Web surfing being sold than PCs

…… China is planning to adopt IPv6 more rapidly than any other country in
the world. And if Huawei’s close ties to the Chinese Government help it
become the early leader in the technology, it could get the jump on rivals
such as Cisco, Alcatel and Lucent.. »

        Business Week sept 27th 2004 issue, « Tech’s future » pp82-89
                                                                             3
  17 billion Traditional Networkable
                Devices!




                Sun Microsystems estimates that including
                sensor and RFID networks the world could
                have a trillion communicating devices in a
                decade!

A fraction of those will make the dam burst!
                                           4
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           IPv4 Address Assignment Ranking
           as of April 7, 2003

    Rank    Country Name         N. of IPv4 address    Share

1           The United States        1,246,274,560    66.90%
2           Japan                      103,830,016    5.57%
3           Canada                      62,013,952    3.33%
4           The Great Britain           50,894,080    2.73%
5           Germany                     48,699,648    2.61%
6           France                      37,210,112    2.00%
7           China                       30,719,744    1.65%
8           The Netherlands             28,527,872    1.53%
9           Korea                       26,208,768    1.41%



29          India                        2,683,136    0.14%
41          Portugal                     1,597,952    0.09%
                                                         6
 Some perceived IPv6 drivers
• Mobile IP
• Peer 2 peer networking
• Peer 2 peer gaming
• Peer 2 peer voice over IP
• RFID networks
• Sensor networks
• Critical mass of digital end-user devices
• Critical Mass of ADSL and cable digital access
• Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Mobile tech, Zigbee….

• National policies and economic weight

                                                   7
           Mobile IP as IPv6 driver

•   Mobile nodes must be able to move from router to
    router without losing end-to-end connection
    • A home address to maintain connectivity
    • Many,many care-of address to maintains route-ability
•   billions of care-of addresses needed in the future:
    forget v4




                                                             8
        Peer to peer networking as IPv6
                     Driver

•   Entertainment content sharing
    • Napster, Kazaa, Morpheus,
    • Grokster, Gnutella …

•   Science content sharing
    • Quarknet
    • SDSS
    • Neptune…

•   Distributed data processing
    • SETI@home
    • Folding@home                Sloan Digital Sky
    • Fightaids@home…                 Survey




                                                      9
            Peer to peer VoIP
             as IPv6 Driver ?

•   Aug 29th 2003: Skype set up in Stockholm by Niklas Zennstrom
    and Janus Friis, founders of Kazaa. Promises high quality p2p
    phone calls over the internet to always-on customers (ADSL
    and cable).
•   April 6th 2004: launches PocketSkype for Wi-Fi hotspot access
•   Based on e2e VoIP, a good algorithm for voice, PC’s with
    headsets.
•   “We have a big ambition with Skype: it is to make it the global
    telephone company” (Int’l Herald Tribune oct 13th 2003).
•   July 2004: Teleglobe, Level3, iBasis provide Skype PSTN
    termination.
•   Skype reaches 28 million users


                                                                      10
            P2P gaming as IPv6 Driver

•   Gaming market is projected to exceed $5
    billion by 2006.
•   On line gaming today is mostly
    client/server: creates serious bandwidth
    and processing bottlenecks
•   Xbox and Playstation are IPv6 ready
•   Korea’s Ncsoft becomes the number one
    on-line game developer.




                                               11
           RFID’s as IPv6 driver


•   Current RFID’s contain 18 bytes of data.
•   Wal-Mart Stores Inc.'s top 100 suppliers already attach RFID
    tags to shipping pallets so the chain can track shipments; all
    suppliers by 2006.
•   Generalized use of RFID implies terabytes of traffic daily.
•   RFID tags considered for passports and even banknotes
•   IATA might mandate RFID as baggage tags
•   RFID in casino chips in Vegas!




                                                                     12
      Sensor networks as IPv6 driver

•   Self organizing sensor networks (DARPA Sensit
    project)
•   Smart Dust and follow-up projects : Goal is
    autonomous sensing and communication in a cubic
    millimeter
•   Intel Deep Network projects
    • “Locally networking billions of embedded nodes, driving
      computing deeper into the infrastructure that surrounds us.”

    • Radio Free Intel : vision of adding wireless capabilities to every
      device by integrating the radio circuits and systems directly into
      every component
•   Intel’s Planetlab?


                                                                           13
         «Countdown to a battle for the
         living room »(Financial Times Jan 14th 2004)

•   The Consumer Electronic show in Vegas early January
    saw the first serious salvos in what could be a titanic
    battle between the computer industry (Intel, Microsoft)
    and the electronics industry (Sony, Philips, Toshiba,
    Panasonic..)
    • The essence of the battle is a kind of a home « mediacenter » with
      all devices connected in a plug and play mode, preferably wireless.
    • « once music, video, photography and mobile telephone become
      digitized, recording, replaying and editing become an exercise in
      applied computing »
•   Sony had already announced that starting 2005 all its
    products will be IPv6 enabled. The Microsoft Xbox also.
    Let the battle start!
                                                                          14
IP(v6) Digital Home




                      15
IP(v6) Convering Digital World




                                 16
       Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee, Mobile-Fi,
               Ultrawideband….



•   Will the convergence of
    cellular telephony and IP
    come on the heels of fixed
    line telephony and IP?


•   VoIP is considered disruptive
    for fixed line carriers business
    models at this stage.
    Will cellular telephony be the
    next battlefront?


                        Business Week,
                        April 26th 2004    17
China’s weight
in the internet
       balance


   Source: Business Week
   March 15th 2004 issue




                     18
                           Some Press News
•   ISPs ignore IP timebomb, ISPs are storing up trouble by ignoring
    IPv6 [01-04-2003]
    • The predicted surge in users signing up for "always-on" broadband
        connections will force service providers to upgrade to IPv6 in the next few
        years.
    •   The broadband 'explosion' is still a relatively manageable number, but not
        for long…
•   Mobile vendor unveils first IPv4/IPv6 handset            [11-11-2003]

•   Verio Starts Commercial IPv6 Services in North America                  [12-10-
    2003]

•   The Chinese government announced that it will help Chinese
    service providers in building IPv6-based next generation
    infrastructure on a national scale [12-12-2003]
•   NTT East announced that it will start commercial IPv4/IPv6 dual
    stack service at the beginning of 2004 [26-12-2003].
•   Telefónica introduced the first services based on IPv6, during the
    “IPv6 Global Launch Event”, under the organization of EC [Jan2004].
•   Google getting ready for IPv6                                                     19
             Where are we Today with IPv6?
•   IPv6 is a mature technology
    • Stable base standards (still being polished, as with IPv4!)
    •   Stable products (routers & operating systems, etc.)
    •   Emerging ISP support
    •   Large stable public domain applications
    •   Emerging commercial applications and middleware

•   IPv6 is a committed technology
    • Required for full 3G deployment
    • Required by defence industry
    • Required by emerging markets and economies
    • Required for further innovation
    • Required to mitigate the digital divide
                                                                    20
IPv6 em Portugal




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        The Portuguese IPv6 Task Force Activity

•   Kick-off meeting, February 2003
•   2nd meeting, July 2003
    • All main players were present
    • The path and the calendar for the transition to IPv6 were discussed
    • The main objectives of the TF and the initiatives leading to a timely
      adoption of IPv6 in Portugal were discussed
    • Six WG were established (see http://www.ipv6-tf.com.pt)
•   The WGs had several meetings
•   Raise IPv6 awareness and organized public events
•   IPv6 questionnaire to Telecom operators and ISPs
    • Preliminary results available

                                                                            23
                     GigaPIX in IPv6

•   O GigaPix is a platform, hosted by FCCN,
        to exchange IP traffic between IP netwoks
•   Objectives of GigaPix
    • To improve the interconnection performance of Portuguese IP
      Networks.
    • To avoid the use of international resources to exchange IP data
      packets orginated and terminated in Portugal

•   There are 5 members (+ FCCN) connected in IPv6.

•   The ROOT server (F) is present in GigaPIX since April 2004,
    and also replies in IPv6 (2001:500::1035).

•   DNS.PT in IPv6
    • The domain registry service .PT already allows the definition of IPv6
      domains, according to   RFC1886
                                                                          24
IPv6 Native Connections To RCTS
      (Portuguese NREN)


    2001:690:2040::/48   2001:690:2200::/48



    2001:690:2006::/48   2001:690:23D0::/48



    2001:690:2100::/48   2001:690:2080::/48




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    Portuguese IPv6 Addressing


Seen @              :   2001:690::/32

 (has 21 members)       2001:8A0::/32

                        2001:818::/32

                        2001:B18::/32

                        2001:B28::/32

                        2001:A40::/32

                        2001:1588::/32
                        2001:15D8::/32


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          Main Known «Holes»


 Lack of Cable and DSL
 Companies providing
 Native IPv6


Few people inside ISPs/Enterprises interested in
IPv6 benefits


Others:
  How to make €€€ out of IPv6 ???
  – more focus on revenues needed, not on savings



                                                    27
 Main Running
Projects/Iniatives




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                               6NET
•   FCCN Leads the WP3: Basic Network Services
    – Routing, DNS, DHCP, registry procedures, QoS, and
      multicasting.




                                                          29
          Broadband IPv6 World-Wide
•   FCCN participates in GEANT (also GN2) and ALICE




                                                      30
      The New
      generation of
      Portuguese
      NREN


•   A cable with 48 Optical
    fibres
    • Covers 70% of the
      community
    • Rights of way for 18 years
    • To be operational by the
      end of Q1 2005



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Broadband Schools




                    32
    1 School, 1 Broadband Connection

1   GOALS
     Connect all basic and secondary schools
      (aprox. 9000) to the Internet through a
      broadband connection, allowing all students and
      teachers to have access to online knowledge and
      educational resources

     This measure will be complemented by the
      development of an education resource databank
      and the installation of 1 PC per classroom


2   CPE is IPv6 compliant
     Under discussion with operator to make the
      network operating native IPv6



3    ONGOING – FINAL STAGE
      First example of public demand aggregation
       launched in February 2004
      a regionalised public international tender for the
       provision of voice services and broadband
       connections to a universe of aprox. 9000 schools

                                                            33
How Portuguese market Players
      feel about IPv6?


Results of the IPv6 Questionnaire



                                    34
         Results of the IPv6 Questionnaire(I)

Question                Mobile         ISPs          Cable          Fixed
Is transition to IPv6
                          Yes, it represents more than half of      Yes (!)
depending on
Technical aspects                      the problem

Stable standards (MIP   Still a
                                       Yes (!)             Still a problem
and UMTS)               problem
DNS functionality -      Concerns on configuration and interoperability with
Still a problem?                                IPv4
Network Access                Each tech needs to be verified and certified
                                       Lack/cost                   Lack/cost
Security (IPSec,                     IPSec helps; Lack of Firewalls
Firewalls, NATs)                       NAT bad       NAT good !     NAT good
Interoperability
                        No (!)         Yes (!)       No (!)         Yes (!)
constraints
Impact on Network
                        Yes            Yes (!)       Yes            Yes (!)
architecture                                                                  35
        Results of the IPv6 Questionnaire(II)

Question                 Mobile        ISPs            Cable         Fixed
IPv6 Appl. (Lack of)                             Yes
IPv6 helps new Appl.?    P-2-p         Yes             Yes (!)       Yes (!)

Equipment, incl. CPE                                                 Lack of
                                       Reduced offer                 compatib.
Transition Date          2010          2010            2015          2010

Is IPv6 Important for    Will be (!)   Will be         Will be (!)   Will be
your activity
You have IPv6 Address    Yes (1)       Yes (1)         No            Yes
For what                 Testing       Start service                 Testing
Clear advantages
                                        Yes/no - No conclusion
beyond addr. space
There are
market/economic              Yes, transition costs: new equip., net manag
barriers to impl. IPv6
                                                                               36
         Results of the IPv6 Questionnaire(III)

•   Main conclusions
    •   There is lack of interest in IPv6 in a few players
    •   Some lack of IPv6 knowledge among a few players
    •   They see very few benecfits in IPv6 – essentially address space
    •   They see technical and market barriers to implement IPv6


•   What to do?
    •   Raise awareness
    •   Training
    •   Organise events
    •   Demostrate the advantages of a timely transition
    •   Show them how important will be IPv6 for their business



                                                                     37
 Result of IPv6 Survey to Japanese
           Internet Users

http://www.ipv6style.jp/en/enq/20040730/index.shtml




                                                  38
          Result of IPv6 Survey to Japanese
                    Internet Users

•   Valid responses from 510 users.
•   As for Internet experience of respondents, 54.7%
    have used Internet for 6 to 10 years, and 25.9% have
    used Internet for 10 years or more.
•   As for their involvement with IPv6
    • 44.9% were (IPv6-related) product/service user
    • 35.9% said no involvement with IPv6,
    • 4.9% were providers of related products and services
•   In another question, 75.5% said they knew the word
    IPv6 including its meaning.
•   Overall, respondents of this survey have a high
    interest or awareness on IPv6.
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                               Conclusions
•   Digital convergence is happening
•   IP is becoming the unifying services architecture
•   IPv6 resolves address limitations of IPv4
•   IPv6 also enables new services which cannot be implemented
    with IPv4
    • “Always-on” for every human being, Peer-to-Peer connectivity on global scale,
       etc.
•   Challenges of mobile and wireless Internet can only be met by
    IPv6
•   IPv4 provides costly, limited, inefficient, insecure, patchy
    alternative



    IPv6 transition has already started
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