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    ‫ڌ ٻ‬       ‫ڳڻ‬
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Windows XP
Explore Windows With Kirshan
Microsoft Windows

   Microsoft Windows is the name of several
    families of software operating systems by
   Microsoft first introduced an operating
    environment named Windows in November
    1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response
    to the growing interest in graphical user
    interfaces (GUIs).

   At the 2004 IDC (CONSTRUCTION industrial
    development ) Directions conference IDC
    Vice President Avneesh Saxena stated
    Windows had approximately 90% of
    the client operating system market
Market share

    Windows Version      Market share
   All versions         92.42%
   Windows XP           78.37%
   Windows Vista         9.19%
   Windows 2000         2.97%
   Windows 98           0.76%
   Windows NT           0.63%
   Windows ME           0.43%
   Windows CE           0.06%
   Windows 95           0.02%
   In 1983 Microsoft announced its development of
    Windows, a graphical user interface (GUI) for its
    own operating system (MS-DOS) that had shipped
    for IBM PC and compatible computers since 1981.

   It was originally going to be called Interface
    Manager, but Rowland Hanson, the head of
    marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that
    the name Windows would be more appealing to

   The first version of Microsoft Windows,
    version 1.0, released in November 20, 1985,
    lacked a degree of functionality and achieved
    little popularity, and was to compete with
    Apple's own operating system.

   Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating
    system; rather, it extends MS-DOS

   Microsoft Windows version 3.0,
    released in 1990, was the first
    Microsoft Windows version to achieve
    broad commercial success, selling 2
    million copies in the first six months
          Date                 16-bit                     32-bit     64-bit

     November 20, 1985      Windows 1.0

      December 9, 1987      Windows 2.0

          May 22, 1990      Windows 3.0

           April 6, 1992    Windows 3.1

                            Windows for
       October 27, 1992
                           Workgroups 3.1

          July 27, 1993                             Windows NT 3.1

                            Windows for
      November 8, 1993
                           Workgroups 3.11

     September 21, 1994                             Windows NT 3.5

          May 30, 1995                             Windows NT 3.51

        August 24, 1995                      Windows 95

        August 24, 1996                             Windows NT 4.0
   Date                 16-bit                       32-bit               64-bit

     June 25, 1998                Windows 98

      May 9, 1999                Windows 98 SE

 February 17, 2000                Windows 2000

September 14, 2000                Windows Me

  October 25, 2001                 Windows XP

    April 25, 2003                                  Windows Server 2003

December 18, 2003    Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003

  October 12, 2004   Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005
    Date                16-bit                      32-bit                                64-bit

    April 25, 2005                                                     Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

      June 8, 2006   Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs

November 30, 2006                            Windows Vista for Business use

  January 30, 2007               Windows Vista for Home use; released in fifty countries

           Q4 2007                                 Windows Home Server

 February 27, 2008                                 Windows Server 2008

             2010                                          Windows 7
MS-DOS product progression

   MS-DOS and PC-DOS
   Windows 95 (MS-DOS 7.0)
   Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2.x,
    Windows 98 (MS-DOS 7.1)
   Windows Millennium Edition (MS-DOS
Windows 1.0 product progression

     Windows 1.0
     Windows 2.0
     Windows 2.1 (aka Windows/286 and
     Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.1
      for Workgroups, Windows 3.11, Windows
      3.11 for Workgroups (WfW)
     Windows 95 (Windows 4.0)
     Windows 98 (Windows 4.1)
     Windows Millennium Edition (Windows 4.9)
Current NT line product progression

   Windows NT 3.1, 3.5
   Windows NT 4.0
   Windows 2000 (Windows NT 5.0)
   Windows XP (Windows NT 5.1)
   Windows Server 2003, Windows XP 64-bit Edition
    2003 (Windows NT 5.2)
   Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (Windows NT
   Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (Windows
    NT 5.1)
   Windows Vista (Windows NT 6.0)
Windows XP

   Windows XP is a line of operating systems
    developed by Microsoft for use on general-
    purpose computer systems, including home
    and business desktops, notebook
   The letters "XP" stand for eXPerience
   Windows XP is the successor to both
    Windows 2000 Professional and Windows
Windows XP

   Development of Windows XP started in
    1999 in the form of Windows Neptune.
    Windows XP was developed for 18
    months, from December 1999 to
    August 2001, and was released on
    October 25, 2001.
   New user interface
   Ability for two users to be logged on simultaneously
    Windows Media Player for Windows XP
   Windows Messenger
   Expanded Help feature
   Advanced security features
   Integrates features of Windows 9x and 2000
   Provides added support for multimedia and
    networking technologies
   Slightly different look and feel from its predecessors
   Plug-in Play Support with new Driver database bank

   Require High space about 1 GB of
   Require large memory
   Some time miss match drivers not
    valid by microsoft
Windows XP System Requirements
Before Explore

   Can you tell what is
       Windows XP
 Lets learn Windows XP
Recognizing an Windows and Application


• Pointing to the position you want.
• 1 – click is "(CLICK)"
• 2 – click continuously is " (DOUBLE
• Hold the mouse pressing and move the
  pointer to another position, then release the
  button "(DRAG & DROP)"
                  Cursors and Pointer
                             • There are many types of
                               arrows, pointers, cursors,
                               and other items, that can
                               be used to navigate around
                               in Windows.

•To modify mouse pointers,
go to My Computer >
Control Panel > Mouse >
             The Desktop
• The main display screen in Windows is
  known as the desktop.
• Also called windows shell

• The Windows desktop has remained
  consistent for most versions of Windows
  including 95, 98, 98 SE, Millennium (ME),
  NT, and 2000.
                                          1. Desktop (workspace)
                                          2. Icon
                                                 Let’s talk
                                                 about the
                                     2.          windows

3. Start Button        4. Task Bar
The Desktop

• Located at the bottom of the desktop is the
• The taskbar contains the Start button, quick
  launch buttons, and the clock.

• The Start button displays the Start menu.
  This menu allows access to virtually every
  program and function on the PC.

• Quick launch buttons are similar to
   desktop icons as they are also shortcuts to
How can we                             Commands
 work on
 Windows?                     It is easy... take a look!

       1. Start Button

       2. Icons on Desktop

      3. Right click – get shortcut menu
Start Menu of Windows XP
                                     Desktop Icons

                                             My Computer

                                            My Documents

                      Working with Icons
                      •Icons are           Application Icon
                      shortcuts to
                      programs or files
                      on the computer
                      desktop that
                      improve              Keeping deleted files
Arranging the Icons   navigation.
Working with Icons
                  Working with Windows
Control Menu
                                Control Buttons
                    Title Bar

 Menu Bar

  Tool Bar
                                             Scroll Bar

     Status Bar
  Recognizing an Application Window

• Application windows typically have a title bar,
  tool bar, menu bar, status bar, and scroll

• WordPad will be used to demonstrate the
  features common to most Windows

• WordPad, or Notepad on some Windows
  computers, is a word processing program
  located in the Start > Programs >
  Accessories directory of a Windows
                Title Bar
• Displays the name of the document and
  application. In this example, it is
  "Document - WordPad".
• Also located in the title bar are the
  Minimize, Maximize, and Exit buttons that
  will be discussed soon
         Menu Bar Menu
• A list of options to choose from

• A list of commands for manipulating data
            Pull-down menu

A list of options that pulls down from
the top of the screen
           Fly-out menus

Menus that seem to explode out to
the right

A bar across the top of the display
window, which displays menus and
icons representing frequently used
           Status Bar
Located at the bottom of the window, the
status bar shows useful information, such
as page number, whether the file is being
saved, how to access the Help feature,
                               Scroll Bar

• Moving quickly upward,
  downward, or sideways
  through the text or other
  screen display

• Windows may have scroll bars that
  appear on the right side, the bottom
  of the window, or both.

• Clicking on the arrows on either end
  of the scroll bar moves the images
  or text through the window.
Recognizing an Application Window
Things should be made as simple as
   possible, but not any simpler.
           -Albert Einstein
• Practice makes man perfect 
            Working with Windows

They are
       Controlling your Window
Click Here
Moving your Window
  Point & Click on Windows Bar
           and Hold It.
       Window Control Buttons
3 magic buttons



                  Minimize to Task Bar
Window Control Buttons
                 Resizing your Windows
 We can resize the window you are working on.
Point your mouse at the window corner, click and
        drag the window frame to resize.
                                             Shut down

                   Do not turn off the
                   machine immediately

1. Click-Start

  2. Choose-Turn Off Computer

      3. Choose-Turn Off Option
        (Some machines turn off automatically)
                                Date - Time

What time is it now?

                       Place your mouse at the
                        time icon on task bar,
                           here is the date.
                           Date - Time
Can we adjust the date and time the
         the actual one?

                           1. Double click here

           2. Adjust date from the calendar, time
               from the clock and click OK
                           Desktop Properties
                   Can we have a new
                     desktop color?
Of course, you can :

       1. Right-click the mouse
       on Desktop

       2. Choose: Properties you
       will get this window
Desktop Properties

  3. Choose: Desktop tab
  4. Choose: Wallpaper
     (backgroup) and
     display style
  5. Click: OK to confirm the
                                            Screen Saver
                         Save your screen: By using the
                                 screen saver.

1. Choose: Screen Saver tab and one

2. Set: the idle wait time before
the screen saver is activated.
Click OK
Other Properties
•   Creating shortcut
•   Rename any file
•   Copy , delete , move any file
•   System information
•   Setup any application
•   Getting help
•   Windows explorer
•   Searching
•   Some common task shortcuts
•   Running DOS
•   Dialup connection
Standard Applications on Windows

   What else can we do on Windows?

                               a lot!!

                     We are all familiar
                       with these. 
  There are 2 styles:
Standard and Scientific
 Click on: View Menu
Calculator.. Just Do it!

Sin(45) = ?
15 = ?
256 equals to ?? in binary digit
Standard Applications on Windows

             NotePad is a small text editor
            application, suitable for taking
                   notes or memos.
Standard Applications on Windows

         WordPad is a small word-
          processing application.
   Standard Applications on Windows

 Paint is a painting application
with various tools i.e. brush, pen,
            Others Application Software
Windows is an operating system with some standard applications.
We can also install the additional applications on Windows. For
example, Microsoft Office Suite, etc.
Lab Work…
1.   Write at least 3 input and 3 output units with their
2.   Design a flag of Pakistan
3.   Design any image of your choice and color
4.   Copy all images from my document to desktop under a
     folder names assignment1
5.   Make a folder in start menu and paint , notepad icons in
6.   Open help file wordpad and search details on insert
     object copy text and past it in Wordpad then color red
     where ever object word is, replace microsoft word with
Microsoft Windows components

   Configuration and maintenance
   User interface
   Applications and utilities
   Windows Server components
   File systems
   Core components
   Services
   Games
Configuration and maintenance
      Component                      Description                            Introduced

Control Panel
                   Allows users to view and manipulate basic
                   system settings and controls, such as adding
Control Panel      hardware, adding and removing software,          Windows 1.0
                   controlling user accounts, changing
                   accessibility options, and so on.

                   Allows the user to display and control the
Device Manager     hardware attached to the computer, and           Windows 95
                   control what device drivers are used.

Windows Mobility   Centralizes the most relevant information
                                                                    Windows Vista
Center             related to mobile computing.

                   Centralizes and reports on the status of anti-
Windows Security   virus, Automatic Updates, Windows
                                                                    Windows XP SP2
Center             Firewall, and other security-related
                   components of the operating system.
List of Control Panel applets
     In recent versions of Windows, the Control Panel has two
      views, Classic View and Category View, and it is possible to
      switch between these through an option that appears on the
      left side of the window.IL
     Applications we see in control panel are called applets.
     The control panel then uses these lists to locate the applets
      and load them into the control panel program (control.exe)
      when started by the user. In addition to using the control
      panel a user can also invoke the applets manually via the
      command processor, for instance the following syntax in XP
      and Vista respectively will run the internet properties applet
     Control.exe inetcpl.cpl
      control.exe /name Microsoft. InternetOptions
Accessibility Options (Access.cpl)

     Allows users to configure the accessibility of their PC. It
      comprises various settings primarily aimed at users with
      disabilities or hardware problems.
     The behaviour of the keyboard can be modified, this is
      aimed at people who have difficulty pressing key-
      combinations, or pressing a key just once. (StickyKeys,
      FilterKeys and ToggleKeys)
     Behaviour of sounds can be modified. (SoundSentry
      and ShowSounds)
     High contrast mode can be activated.
     The keyboard cursor can be customized.
     The mouse pointer can be controlled using the
      keyboard. (MouseKeys)
Add New Hardware (hdwwiz.cpl)

     Launches a wizard which allows users
      to add new hardware devices to the
      system. This can be done by selecting
      from a list of devices or by specifying
      the location of the driver installation
    Add or Remove Programs (appwiz.cpl)

   The Add/Remove Programs dialog allows the user to manipulate
    software installed on the system in a number of ways;
   Allows users to uninstall and change existing software packages, as
    well as indicating how much space individual programs take and how
    frequently they are used.
   Allows users to manually install software from a CD-ROM or Floppy
    Disk, and install add-ons from Windows Update.
   Allows users to change which Windows components are installed, via
    the Windows setup Wizard, which includes Internet Explorer, Windows
    Media Player and Windows Messenger
   Finally, it allows users to specify the default applications for certain
    tasks, via the 'set program access and defaults' wizard, such as internet
    browsers, media players and email programs and whether access to
    these programs is available
Administrative Tools

   Contains tools for system
    administration, including security,
    performance and service configuration.
    These are links to various
    configurations of the Microsoft
    Management Console such as the local
    services list and the Event Viewer.
Automatic Updates (wuaucpl.cpl)

    This is used to specify how the Automatic
     Updates client (wuauclt.exe) should download
     updates from the Microsoft Update Website, by
     default this is set to download and install daily,
     however this can be changed to a more
     suitable frequency. This also allows the user to
     specify whether to ask permission before
     downloading and/or installing updates or to
     simply switch of Automatic Updates all together.
Date and Time (timedate.cpl)

   Allows user to change the date and
    time stored in the machines BIOS,
    change the time zone and specify
    whether to synchronize the date and
    time with an Internet Time Server and
    which server to use.
     Display (desk.cpl)
   Allows the user to change the display characteristics of their
   Allows users to change the desktop background (wallpaper) to a
    picture of their choice and specifies how it should be shown.
   Allows the user to change or disable the screensaver, and specify
    how long it takes to activate and whether to ask for a password
    on resume
   Allows the user to specify the colour styles of all elements within
    the system, primarily whether to use the Windows XP / Vista
    styles (blue by default in XP) or to use the classic Windows 98 /
    Me styles, this also allows the user to change the My Computer
    and Recycle Bin icons.
   Allows the user to change the screen resolution and colour quality,
    and provides trouble shooting advice for displays.
     Folder Options
     (Shell32.dll -RUNDLL 0)
   This item allows for configuration of how folders
    and files are presented in Windows Explorer.
    More specifically it allows the user to specify
    general settings like whether folders open in a
    new window or the existing window and
    whether the common tasks pane is shown, as
    well as more advanced tasks such as whether
    windows should hide critical system files and
    whether to show file extensions. It is also used
    to modify file type associations in Windows ie.,
    which program opens which type of file and
    other settings like actions for each file type and
    the file extension

   Displays all fonts installed on the
    computer. Users can remove fonts,
    install new fonts or search for fonts
    using font characteristics.
     Internet Options (inetcpl.cpl)
   Allows the user to change the way the computer manages internet
    connections and browser settings for Internet Explorer, it has several tags
    specifying different attributes;
   General - This specifies the homepage and colour schemes and allows the
    user to delete internet usage history.
   Security & Privacy - These specify whether the computer should allow
    websites to undertake certain processes and download cookies, this panel
    also gives access to the inbuilt popup blocker (Windows XP SP2 and later)
    and the phishing controls (Internet Explorer 7).
   Content - Allows the parental controls and auto-complete to be configured
    and also specifies how to deal with certificates.
   Connections, Programs and Advanced - These give access to other aspects
    of internet settings such as the default modem connection and email client,
    proxy settings and other advanced configurations.
Keyboard (main.cpl keyboard)

     Lets the user change and test
      keyboard settings, including cursor
      blink rate and key repeat rate.
Mail (mlcfg32.cpl)

   Mail allows for configuration of the
    mail client in Windows, usually
    Microsoft Outlook. Microsoft Outlook
    Express cannot be configured with this
    item; it is configured through its own
Mouse (main.cpl)

   Mouse allows the configuration of pointer
    options, such as the double click and scroll
    speed, and includes visibility options such as
    whether to leave trails behind the mouse
    pointer and whether the pointer should
    disappear when typing. This also allows the
    user to specify the pointer appearance for
    each task, such as resize and busy.
Network Connections
   Displays and allows the user to edit or
    create network connections such as
    Local Area Networks (LAN) and
    internet connections. It also offers
    troubleshooting functions in case the
    computer has to be reconnected to the
Phone and Modem Options
   Manages telephone and modem
Power Options (powercfg.cpl)

   Includes options to manage energy
    consumption such as;
    – Specify how long it takes to switch off the display
      and hard drives and how long it takes for the system
      to enter standby, if at all.
    – To decide what to do when the computer's on/off
      button is pressed, such as whether to shut down or
      to enter standby.
    – Whether to allow Hibernation (some systems become
      unstable when restarting).
    – Allows the user to configure UPS (if available).
Printers and Faxes

   Displays all the printers and faxes currently
    installed on the computer, and has two main uses;
   Firstly, it shows the all the jobs queued for each
    printer, the file size and status of each job and
    which user they belong to, it also allows each job to
    be paused, canceled or moved up or down the list.
   Secondly, it allows the user to set the printing or
    faxing preferences, such as paper size and quality
    via the manufacturers own preferences pane and
    also specifies how to share the printer across a
    network , the device drivers, ports etc.
Regional and Language
Settings (intl.cpl)
     Various regional settings can be altered, for instance:
     The way numbers are displayed (e.g. decimal separator).
     How Currency values are displayed, including the Currency sign.
     Time and date notations, such as the date separator and whether
      the clock should be in 12 or 24 hours.
     Cultural location of the user's computer (The time zone is set in Date
      and Time).
     Language;
       – Input language.
       – Keyboard layout (mapping between key strokes and characters).
       – Display language for Menus and Dialog Boxes.
     Whether files necessary for Asiatic language support must be
     Installed code pages.
Security Center (Windows
XP Service Pack 2 and
Newer) (wscui.cpl)
   The security center gives the user access to the
    inbuilt Windows security components, as well as
    providing information about any existing antivirus
    software such as McAfee or Zone Alarm. It includes
    access to Windows Update, where users can specify
    whether the computer should check for updates
    regularly (also available through the Windows
    Update panel), and options for managing internet
    security settings. It also includes links to internet
    articles about PC security and current virus threats
    and notifies the user when the PCs security is
Sounds and Audio Devices
   This panel contains various audio-related functions;
   Change the speaker volume and type and specify whether to
    show the volume icon in the notification area.
   Change the sounds played for the system or specific programs
    when a certain event occurs, i.e Windows Startup or Critical
   Change default devices for music playback, recording, voice
    recognition, MIDI etc.
   Change the Sound card settings and whether to use Hardware
   Display the audio devices installed on the computer, and
    allows them to be configured.
Speech (Sapi.cpl)
   This applet has two main functions, the first is specify settings
    for Speech synthesis, allowing the user to select the voice the
    computer should use to narrate text and how fast it should
    read. The second is to specify settings forSpeech recognition,
    allowing the user to set up different profiles detailing how the
    computer should deal with an individuals dialect, for instance;
     – The amount of grammatical errors in a persons voice (punctuality
     – The speed at which the person speaks, and the time delay
       between words.
   This also allows the user to access the voice recognition
    training wizard, in which an individual 'teaches' the computer
    to recognize a person voice interactively using the microphone.
System (Sysdm.cpl)
   This is used to view and change core system settings, a user
    can for instance:
   Display general information on the user's machine such as the
    amount of RAM, CPU speed and type, the version of Windows
    the system is using and the manufacturer.
   Edit the computer name in a network workgroup.
   Manage and Configure hardware devices, and view
    information such as the manufacturer, user access and driver
    version of any hardware device installed on the system via
    Device Manager.
   Enable/Disable system features such as automatic updates
    and System restore monitoring.
   Specify advanced features such as performance logs, virtual
    memory settings and roaming profiles.
Taskbar and Start Menu
(Shell32.dll -RUNDLL 1)
   Allows the user to change the behavior and
    appearance of the task bar and Start Menu;
   Specifies whether to use Windows XP/Vista or
    Classic 9x/Me styles on the taskbar and start menu.
   Whether the taskbar should Auto-Hide.
   Whether to show the clock in the notification area.
   Allows the user to manage the tray icons.
   Advanced options such as whether to show Printers
    & Faxes in the start menu and whether to display
    My Documents as a menu or as a link to a new
User Accounts (nusrmgr.cpl)

   This allows the user to configure their account and
    other accounts used in the system, should they
    have sufficient privileges. They can change their
    username and password, their picture (if enabled)
    and their .net passport. If the current user has an
    administrators account they can also add, delete
    and modify other user accounts as well as make
    changes to core system settings. This panel also
    specifies whether the guest account should be
    active and whether to use the Welcome screen
    while Windows loads.
Peripheral Devices

   These are options in the control panel that show
    devices connected to the computer. They do not
    actually offer a direct interface to control these
    devices, but rather offer basic tasks such as
    removal procedures and links to wizards (Printers &
    faxes is the exception).
   Such Applets include;
   Scanners and Cameras
   Game Controllers
   Portable Media Devices
Other Microsoft distributed
  Bluetooth Devices (bthprops.cpl)
   Available with bluetooth enabled systems running
    XP SP2 or later, this enables users to configure a
    Bluetooth connection, showing a list of all bluetooth
    devices interacting with the system, an addition to
    the following items;
   Allowing users to create incoming and outgoing
    'virtual' COM Ports, which allow devices to have
    dedicated connections to the system.
   Allowing users to specify general bluetooth
    characteristics such as whether the computer is
    discoverable and the computers name which is
                         Color (color.cpl)
Enables a more advanced control of colour settings within Windows than is available in
'display', suitable for developers and visual specialists it allows users to create and load
ICC compliant colour profiles, associate screen colour with printers and cameras and
view a 3D graphics plot of the colour gamut. By default this applet is not installed,
however it can be installed for free from the Microsoft Website

                  Infrared (irprops.cpl)
Similar to the Bluetooth applet, this is used to configure how the computer manages any
wireless infrared ports installed, including options such as connectivity and security.

                         CSNW (nwc.cpl)
The Client Service for NetWare applet is used to select a default tree and context in a
Novell Directory Services (NDS) environment, or the NetWare server used most
frequently in a non-NDS environment.
Requirement: Installing the Client Service for NetWare.

                     Software Explorers
Part of Windows Defender, allows users to view detailed information about software
that is currently running on the computer that can affect the users' privacy or the security
of the computer.
Third Party Applets
 Third-party software vendors have released many applets and
  it is impossible to mention all of them; some of the more
  common ones are:
 Adobe Gamma (Adobe Gamma.cpl), for altering the screen
  display with Adobe Imaging Software such as Photoshop
 Java (jpicpl32.cpl), for changing settings with Java Runtime
 Nero Burnrights (NeroBurnRights.cpl), for specifying who is
  allowed to use the CD burner with Nero
 nVIDIA Control panel, for changing advanced settings on
  systems using nVIDIA GPUs
 Quicktime (quicktime.cpl), for specifying settings of the Apple
  Quicktime Player
Administrative Tools
                       Provides system administrators and advanced users with
Microsoft Management
                       a flexible interface through which they may configure        Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack
Console                and monitor the system.
                       A built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different
                       subsystems (graphics, memory, etc), and uses the results
Windows System         to allow for comparison to other Windows Vista
                                                                                    Windows Vista
Assessment Tool        systems, and for software optimizations. It rates the
                       computer's performance using the Windows Experience
                       Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry
System Restore         keys, installed programs, etc., to a previous state in the   Windows Me
                       event of a system failure.
                       Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which
Windows Recovery       may be preventing Windows from booting successfully,
                                                                                    Windows Vista
Environment            or restore the computer to a previous state using System
                       Restore or a backup image.
                       Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy
Windows Disk
                       contiguous storage locations in order to optimize            Windows 95, Windows 2000
Defragmenter           computer performance.
                       Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a
Event Viewer           local or remote machine.
                                                                                    Windows NT 3.1

Reliability and        Lets administrators view current system reliability and
                                                                                    Windows Vista
Performance Monitor    performance trends over time.
                                                                                    Windows NT 4.0 (as a separate
                       A logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in
Logical Disk Manager   conjunction with Veritas Software.
                                                                                    Tool) 2000 (integrated in the
                                                                                    Management Console)

Registry Editor        Edits the Windows registry.                                  Windows 3.1

                       Allows users to script tasks for running during
Task Scheduler                                                                      Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95
Administrative Tools
Microsoft Management   Provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible        Windows NT 4.0 Option
Console                interface through which they may configure and monitor the system.       Pack

                       A built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different subsystems
                       (graphics, memory, etc), and uses the results to allow for comparison
Windows System                                                                                  Windows Vista
                       to other Windows Vista systems, and for software optimizations. It
Assessment Tool        rates the computer's performance using the Windows Experience
                       Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed
System Restore         programs, etc., to a previous state in the event of a system failure.
                                                                                                Windows Me

                       Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which may be
Windows Recovery       preventing Windows from booting successfully, or restore the
                                                                                                Windows Vista
Environment            computer to a previous state using System Restore or a backup

Windows Disk           Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy contiguous storage      Windows 95, Windows
Defragmenter           locations in order to optimize computer performance.                     2000

                       Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote
Event Viewer           machine.
                                                                                                Windows NT 3.1

Reliability and        Lets administrators view current system reliability and performance
                                                                                                Windows Vista
Performance Monitor    trends over time.

                                                                                                Windows NT 4.0 (as a
                       A logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in conjunction           separate Tool) 2000
Logical Disk Manager   with Veritas Software.                                                   (integrated in the
                                                                                                Management Console)

Registry Editor        Edits the Windows registry.                                              Windows 3.1

                                                                                                Microsoft Plus! for
Task Scheduler         Allows users to script tasks for running during scheduled intervals
                                                                                                Windows 95
Software installation and deployment

                 An online service which provides critical updates, service packs,
                 device drivers, and other updates. A variation called Microsoft
Windows Update   Update also provides software updates for several Microsoft
                                                                                     Windows 98

                 A packaging format and engine for the installation, maintenance,
Windows          and removal of software. Includes a GUI framework, automatic
                                                                                     Windows 2000
                 generation of the uninstallation sequence and deployment
Installer        capabilities for corporate networks.

                 Technology for deploying .NET Framework-based software via
                                                                                     .NET Framework
ClickOnce        web pages, with automatic update capabilities. Intended for per-
                 user only applications.
          User interface
     Component                                                Description                                                Introduced
                    The most visible and recognizable aspect of Microsoft Windows. The shell is the container
                    inside of which the entire graphical user interface is presented, including the taskbar, the
Windows Shell       desktop, Windows Explorer, as well as many of the dialog boxes and interface controls. In           Windows 1.0
                    Windows Vista, a new compositing glass-like user interface called Windows Aero has been
                    Provides an interface for accessing the file systems, launching applications, and performing
Windows Explorer                                                                                                        Windows 95
                    common tasks such as viewing and printing pictures.
                    Starting with Windows Vista, search is a tightly shell-integrated component of Windows. A           Vista,
Windows Search      downloadable Windows Desktop Search software is available for Windows XP and older                  downloadable
                    versions.                                                                                           for older
                    Folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract concept, instead
                    of an absolute path. This makes it possible for an application to locate where certain kinds of
Special Folders                                                                                                         Windows 95
                    files can be found, regardless of what version or language of operating system is being used.
                    See also, Windows Shell namespace.
                    Serves as the central launching point for applications. It provides a customizable, nested list
                    of programs for the user to launch, as well as a list of most recently opened documents, a
Start menu                                                                                                              Windows 95
                    way to find files and get help, and access to the system settings.
                    By default, the Start Button is visible at all times in the lower left-hand corner of the screen.
Taskbar             The application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications.                       Windows 95
Windows Sidebar     A new panel on the side of the screen to place gadgets.                                             Windows Vista
                    Used to open a file with the correct program. File associations can be uniquely assigned to
File associations                                                                                                       Windows 3.0
                    specific actions, known as verbs.
           Applications and utilities
   Component                       Description                                                 Introduced

Windows          Calendaring and task tracking application.                                     Windows Vista
Windows          Keeps a single list of contacts that can be shared by multiple programs.       Windows Vista

Calculator       A calculation application.                                                     Windows 1.0

                 Utility to view and search characters in a font, copy them to the clipboard
Character Map    and view their Windows Alt keycodes and Unicode names
                                                                                                Windows 3.1

Paint            A simple graphics painting program.                                            Windows 1.0

Notepad          A simple text editor.                                                          Windows 1.0

                 A screen reader utility that reads dialog boxes and window controls in a
Narrator         number of the more basic applications for Windows.
                                                                                                Windows 2000

                 A simple audio recording program that can record from a microphone or
Sound Recorder   headset, and save the results in WAVE format and Windows Media Audio           Windows 3.1
                 format in some Windows versions.
COMMAND.COM and             A text-based shell (command line interpreter) that provides a
                                                                                                MS-DOS 1.0
Cmd.exe                     command line interface to the operating system.
                            A simple word processor that is more advanced than Notepad. It
WordPad                     has facilities to format and print text, but lacks intermediate     Windows 95
                            features such as a spell checker and thesaurus.
                            Utility to create private use characters as defined under Unicode
Private Character Editor    and various East Asian encoding schemes.
                            A client implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol; allows
                            a user to securely connect to a computer running Terminal           Windows XP,
Remote Desktop Connection   Services (Remote Desktop on Windows XP and Server 2003) and         downloadable for previous
                            interact with a full desktop environment on that machine,           Windows versions
                            including support for remoting of printers, audio, and drives.
                            Allows a user to temporarily take over a remote computer over a
Remote Assistance           network or the internet to offer help with and resolve issues.
                                                                                                Windows XP

                            A graphical web browser and FTP client.
                                                                                                Microsoft Plus! for
Internet Explorer           See also: Features, History, Criticism, Removal, Browser Helper
                                                                                                Windows 95
                                                                                                Windows Vista, Outlook
Windows Mail                An e-mail and news client.                                          Express was introduced in
                                                                                                Windows 98
                                                                                                Windows Vista, older
                                                                                                faxing and scanning
Windows Fax and Scan        An integrated faxing and image scanning application.
                                                                                                applications were present in
                                                                                                previous Windows versions
                            A digital media player and media library application that is used
                            for playing audio, playing video and viewing images. In addition
                            to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the          Windows Me,
Windows Media Player        ability to rip music from, and copy music to compact discs,         downloadable for previous
                            synchronize content with a digital audio player (MP3 player) or     Windows versions
                            other mobile devices, and let users purchase or rent music from a
                            number of online music stores.
                  A photo management application. Lets users organize their digital photo
                  collection in its Gallery view, by adding titles, rating, captions, and custom
Windows Photo
                  metadata tags to photos. Photos can be edited for exposure, color                Windows Vista
Gallery           correction, resizing, cropping, red-eye reduction, etc. and also allows
                  printing photos via the Photo Printing Wizard.
                  A video editing software that is intended for use in editing home movies.
Windows Movie     Source footage can be split into clips, and the final movie created by
                                                                                                   Windows Me
Maker             combining multiple clips along with effects such as transitions,
                  titles/credits, separate audio track, timeline narration etc.
Windows DVD
                  A DVD movie encoding and authoring software.                                     Windows Vista
                  Designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub, to be viewed from a
                  distance up to 3 meters (~10 feet) and controlled by specially designed
                  remote controls. Lets users browse and view pictures, videos, and music
Windows Media                                                                                      Windows XP Media
                  from local hard drives, optical drives, and network locations, along with
Center            viewing, recording and deferred-playing live TV. Features an interactive
                                                                                                   Center Edition
                  TV guide with scheduled recording capabilites. Can also be used for
                  visualization of other information (like sports scores) within the interface.
                  A peer-to-peer collaboration program which lets multiple users start
Windows Meeting
                  collaboration sessions. Supports desktop sharing , distribution and              Windows Vista
Space             collaborative editing of documents, and passing notes to other participants.
                  Provides information about computer performance and displays details
Windows Task
                  about running applications, processes, network activity, logged -in users,       Windows 3.0
Manager           and system services.
                  A utility for compacting rarely used files and removing files that are no
Disk Cleanup      longer required.
                                                                                                   Windows 98

                  A graphical front end for the Shadow Copy service that lets users choose         Windows Vista. Windows
                  from multiple versions of a file. The shadow copy service creates multiple       Server 2003 included
Shadow Copy       copies of a file as they are changed over time, so that users can revert to      Previous Versions support
                  previous versions.                                                               only for client computers.
                                                                                                   Experience Pack for
Snipping Tool     A screen-capture tool that allows for taking screen shots (called snips).        Windows XP Tablet PC
                                                                                                   Edition 2005
  Windows Server components
     Component                                                Description                                             Supported by
Windows Server                                                                                                       All Windows NT-
                    A logical group of computers that share a central directory and user database.
domain                                                                                                               based versions

                    A set of technologies introduced with Windows 2000 that allows administrators to assign
                    enterprise-wide policies, deploy programs to many computers, and apply critical updates to
                    an entire organization. Active Directory stores information and settings relating to an          Windows 2000,
Active Directory    organization in a central, organized, accessible database. Networks can vary from a small        Windows Server
                    installation with a few objects, to global-scale directories with millions of objects.           2003
                      Related topics: Active Directory Service Interfaces, Flexible single master operation,
                    IntelliMirror, Active Directory Application Mode

                    A server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions,
                    etc.) within a Windows Server domain. Prior to Windows 2000, a domain controller was
                    either a Primary Domain Controller (PDC), of which there could only be one with this role;       All Windows NT-
Domain controller   or a Backup Domain Controller (BDC). In Windows 2000 and later the concept of primary            based versions
                    and secondary domain controllers were eliminated, partially to emphasize the multi-master
                    replication technology available in Windows.

                    Provides centralized management of user and computer settings in an Active Directory
                    environment. Group policy can control a target object's registry, NTFS security, audit and
                    security policy, software installation, logon/logoff scripts, folder redirection, and Internet   Windows 2000
Group Policy        Explorer settings. Policy settings are stored in Group Policy Objects (GPOs), and may be         and later
                    linked to one or more sites, domains or organizational units.
                      Related topics: Administrative Templates

                                                                                                                     Windows NT
Information         Web server
                 File systems
       Component            Acronym                                   Description                                   Supported by
                                            The original file systems used with MS-DOS. The standard file
File Allocation Table   FAT, FAT12, FAT16                                                                       All versions
                                            systems used with Windows 1.0 through Windows 95.
                                                                                                                Windows 95 OSR2,
                                                                                                                Windows 98,
                                            Extensions to FAT supporting larger disk sizes. The standard file   Windows 2000,
FAT32                   FAT32
                                            system for Windows 98 and Me.                                       Windows XP,
                                                                                                                Windows Server
                                                                                                                2003, Windows Vista
                                            Standard file system of Windows NT; supports security via
                                            access control lists, as well as file system journaling and file-
                                            system metadata. Windows 2000 added support for reparse
                                                                                                                Windows NT,
                                            points (making NTFS junction points and Single instance storage
                                                                                                                Windows 2000,
                                            possible), Hard links, file compression, and Sparse files.
NTFS                    NTFS                                                                                    Windows XP,
                                            Encryption of data is provided by Encrypting File System.
                                                                                                                Windows Server
                                            Symbolic links and transactioning of file operations via
                                                                                                                2003, Windows Vista
                                            Transactional NTFS are features new to Windows Vista.
                                            Windows 95 also supports reading NTFS partitions, over a
                                                                                                     MS-DOS and Windows
                                   The predominant file system for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM media.         9x via extensions, such
                        ISO 9660   Windows includes support for Joliet extensions and the ISO        as MSCDEX.EXE
ISO 9660
                        ("CDFS")   9660:1999 standard. ISO 9660:1999 is supported since Windows      (Microsoft CDROM
                                   XP.                                                               Extension), natively in
                                                                                                     Windows NT

                                   A file system for storing files on optical media. It is an
                                                                                                     Windows 98, Windows
                                   implementation of the ISO/IEC 13346 standard (also known as
                                                                                                     2000, Windows XP,
Universal Disk Format   UDF        ECMA-167). It is considered to be a replacement of ISO 9660.
                                                                                                     Windows Server 2003,
                                   Successive versions of Windows have supported newer versions of
                                                                                                     Windows Vista

                                   High-Performance File system, used on OS/2 computers. Read and
                                                                                                     Windows 95
                                   write capability in Windows 95 (where it also listed network
                                                                                                     (Read/write), Windows
                                   computer NTFS-formatted drives as "HPFS", even though it had no
HPFS                    HPFS                                                                         98, Windows NT (read),
                                   direct NTFS capabilities). HPFS write support was dropped in
                                   Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, and dropped altogether shortly
                                   before the release of Windows 2000.
          Core components
    Component         Acronym              Description

Windows kernel (Windows NT)
                                The Windows kernel image.
                                Provides the kernel and executive
                                layers of the kernel architecture,
Ntoskrnl.exe                    and is responsible for services
                                such as hardware virtualization,
                                process and memory management,
                                Provides and handles the
                                interaction between software and
hal.dll         HAL
                                hardware via the Hardware
                                Abstraction Layer.
Core processes (Windows NT)
                                   A counter which measures how much idle capacity the CPU has at any given time. The
System idle process        SIP     process runs in the background and monitors processing bandwidth, occupied memory
                                   and the Windows virtual paging file.
                                   Performs several critical boot-time operations, such as the creation of environment
                                   variables, starting CSRSS, and performs file-copy operations that were queued up from
Session Manager
                           SMSS    before the system was booted (pending file rename operations). During system
Subsystem                          operation, it handles the creation of logon sessions via Winlogon and handles Windows
                                   File Protection.

Client/Server Runtime              User-mode side of the Win32 subsystem. Provides the capability for applications to use
Subsystem                          the Windows API.

Local Security Authority           Responsible for enforcing the security policy on the system. Verifies users logging on to
Subsystem Service                  the computer and creates security tokens.

                                   Responsible for handling the secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and
                                   optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running. On Windows NT
Winlogon                           systems prior to Windows Vista, Winlogon is also responsible for loading GINA
                                   libraries which are responsible collecting logon credentials from the user.

                                   A generic host process name for services that run from dynamic-link libraries (DLLs).
                                   Several Svchost processes are typically present on a Windows machine, each running in
Svchost.exe                        a different security context, depending on what privileges the contained services
                                   An abstraction layer that allows legacy code to operate on more modern versions of
Windows on Windows and
                           WoW     Windows; typically this means running 16-bit Windows applications on 32-bit
WOW64                              Windows, and 32-bit applications on 64-bit Windows.
                                   Allows MS-DOS programs to run on Intel 80386 or higher computers when there is
Virtual DOS machine        NTVDM   already another operating system running and controlling the hardware. Introduced in
                                   Windows 2.1; not available in any 64-bit edition of Windows.
System startup (Windows NT)
                            The boot loader; performs basic system initialization
                            options such as loading the hardware abstraction layer and
NTLDR, IA64ldr,             boot-time device drivers, prior to passing control to the
Winload                     Windows kernel. In versions prior to Vista, NTLDR and
                            IA64ldr also display menus to the user if multiple operating
                            systems are defined in boot.ini, or if F8 is pressed.
                            Provides the means for administrators to perform a limited
                            range of tasks using a command line interface, primarily to
Recovery Console            aid in recovering from situations where Windows does not
                            boot successfully.
                       Used during the boot process to detect basic hardware           components that may be required during the boot process.
                       In Windows Vista and later operating systems, displays boot
Windows Boot Manager   menus to the user if multiple operating systems are configured in
                       the system's Boot Configuration Data.
Graphical subsystem
                                       The kernel graphics component for representing graphical
Graphics Device Interface   GDI/GDI+   objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors
                                       and printers.
                                       The compositing manager introduced in Windows Vista that
Desktop Window Manager      DWM        handles compositing and manages special effects on screen
                                       objects in a graphical user interface.
       Display name           Service name                            Description                               Introduced
                                             Sends administrative alerts over the network to client
Alerter service              Alerter                                                                           Windows NT
                                             computers, administrators and users.
                                             Provides support for plugins that allow network protocols to
Application Layer Gateway
                             ALG             pass through Windows Firewall and work behind Internet            Windows 2000
                                             Connection Sharing.
                                             Processes requests to enumerate, install, and remove
Application Management                       applications that are installed on the computer or deployed       Windows 2000
                                             through an organization’s network.
                                             Transfers files between machines using idle network
Background Intelligent                       bandwidth. Used by Windows Update, Windows Server Update
                             BITS                                                                              Windows XP
Transfer Service                             Services, and Systems Management Server to deliver software
                                             updates to clients, as well as by Windows Messenger.
                                             Allows transactional components to be configured through
                                             COM+ by coordinating transactions that are distributed across     Windows 2000
Distributed Transaction
                             MSDTC           multiple computers and/or resource managers, such as              and later NT-
                                             databases, message queues, file systems, and other transaction–   based
                                             based resource managers.
                                             Manages network configurations and information, and notifies
Network Location Awareness   NLA                                                                               Windows XP
                                             applications of changes.
                                           Uses the NTLM MS-CHAP protocol to encapsulate and
NT LM Security Support                     negotiate options in order to provide signed and sealed
                            NTLMSSP                                                                       Windows NT
Provider                                   communication. Deprecated now in favor of Kerberos

                                           Manages printer devices and moves files into memory for        Windows 95,
Print Spooler               Spooler
                                           printing.                                                      Windows NT

                                                                                                          Windows NT
Security Account Manager    SamSs          Manages user account security information.
                                                                                                          Microsoft Plus!
Task Scheduler              Schedule       Lets users setup and schedule automated tasks.                 for Windows
Windows Image Acquisition
                            STISvc         Handles scanner and camera inputs.                             Windows Me
                                                                                                          Windows NT
Windows Time                W32Time        Synchronizes the system time with external time servers.
                                                                                                          Windows XP,
Wireless Zero Configuration WZCSvc         Configures and manages 802.11 wireless adapters                Server 2003
                                           Allows users to send pop-up messages to other computers over   Windows NT
Messenger service           Messenger
                                           the network.                                                   family
                                           Provides Remote Procedure Call(RPC) technique via remotely     Windows NT
MSRPC                       RPCSs
                                           accessible Named Pipes.                                        family

                                                                                                          Windows XP,
                                                                                                          ability to store
Volume Shadow Copy                                                                                        persistent
                            VSS            Create multiple versions of files that change.
Service                                                                                                   snapshots in
                                                                                                          Server 2003

Windows Firewall/Internet
                            SharedAccess                                                                  Windows XP
            Component                                Description                             Introduced
Chess Titans            A version of Chess.                                               Windows Vista
FreeCell                A version of FreeCell.                                            Win32s
                                                                                          Windows for
Hearts                  A version of Hearts using Black Lady scoring.
                                                                                          Workgroups 3.11
                                                                                          Windows Ultimate
Hold 'Em                A version of Texas hold 'em.
                                                                                          Windows XP
                        A game employing the use of a stylus or mouse to draw lines to
InkBall                                                                                   Tablet PC Edition
                        direct balls into holes of corresponding colors.
Mahjong Titans          A version of Mahjong solitaire.                                   Windows Vista
Minesweeper             A version of Minesweeper.                                         Windows 3.1
                        An educational game for children, teaching pattern recognition,
Purble Place                                                                              Windows Vista
                        shapes, and colors.
Solitaire               A version of Klondike Solitaire.                                  Windows 3.0
Spider Solitaire        A version of Spider Solitaire.                                    Microsoft Plus! 98

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