Jean VARRA INA 2006 1
HDTV at a
Jean VARRA INA 2006 2
Offer better quality and more attractive
programmes to the TV watcher.
How is it be done?
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Increasing picture resolution
and sound quality
1280 or 1920
720 pixels per line pixels per line
576 Active lines 720 or 1080
Image ( from 200 000 active lines
definition to 400 000 pixels) ( from 900 000
to 2 000 000 pixels)
Audio Mono or Stereo Digital Dolby
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Adopting 16/9 picture aspect ratio
standard definition Aspect ratio
aspect ratio for
(SDTV) and for HDTV
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Allowing a new viewing distance
SDTV: D= 6H
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Interleaved ( i)
Interleaved Progressive (p)
50 or 60 Hz Frame (PSF)
50 , 60 ,24 Hz
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Progressive Segmented Frames
(2 passes) (1 pass)
2nd field Segment B Segment A
Segmented frames No flicker or feathering
Jean VARRA INA 2006 interleave 8
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Standards and formats
A jungle of standards and formats
SMPTE 295 M
Vision 1250 SMPTE 296 M
SMPTE 274 M
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What is a format?
Formats are described by:
Scanning Picture Frame rate
of active pixels of active lines
mode aspect ratio
per line per frame
Current main standards are:
SMPTE 274 M SMPTE 296 M ITU-R BT.709-5
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SMPTE 274 M
11 formats at 1920 X 1080,
8 progressive , 3 interleaved
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SMPTE 296 M
8 formats at 1280 x 720, all progressive
And a war of standards…
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And then ITU-R BT.709-5…
This standard unifies the different American, European and Japanese HD systems,
and establishes a bridge with digital cinema. It recommends:
–A unique Common Image Format 1920 x 1080.
–A common data bit rate 1,485 Gigabits/.s
– Allowing all the picture rates of interleaved and progressive television and
cinema picture rates:
– ( 50i,60i,25p,25 psf,30p,30 psf,50p and 60 p) and(24 p and 24 psf)
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In the US, competition between 720p and 1080i is turning at
the advantage of the latter!
After long and “ stormy” debates, Europe (EBU) finally
decided to support 1920X1080 and not 1280x720
EBU supports interleaved formats for Television.
Advantage: easy conversion to current SD formats
There is a general interest for 24p as a «
HD mastering format »
Advantage: Good for film
inconvenient: Not good enough for sport
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Archiving High definition
High definition video Standard definition video
1980 pixels 1080 lines 720 pixels 576 lines
1- hour programme file size : 1- hour programme file size :
from374 GB to 673 GB* 72 GB
To archive HD, Compression
could be required.
*According frame rate, number of bits and sampling structure
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HDTV is there!
Production and display devices, HD/SD
converters, compressions, and transport
interfaces are available.
HD recorders: HDCAM, DVC pro HD, Voodoo..
SD to HD et HD to SD and cross formats converters
HD Compressions: MPEG-2: (HP@HL; 422P@HL),
MPEG-4 (AVC/H.264), JPEG2000
Transport interfaces are standardised: HD SDI
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HDTV is there!
Broadcasting is possible through satellite and
terrestrial means (DTT) with a reasonable
compression MPEG2 at 19 Mb/s but it uses lot of
bandwidth allowing only1 HD programme in a
terrestrial channel and 2 in a satellite channel.
Recent MPEG4 improvements (part 10 or AVC =
Advanced Video Coding, or H.264) bring some
hopes , allowing more HD programmes per channel.
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A closer look to
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( SD to HD conversion)
The main functions that an up converter must
Calculation of missing pixels and lines
Frame rate conversion
Quality of the output depends mainly on the
de-interleaving process which is the most difficult to
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Resizing SD -> HD (1)
Zoom + Top/ Bottom Crop
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Resizing SD -> HD (1)
left + right Stretching
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• It is clear that up conversion :
- in the transients,
- in fast moving pictures
-and in low light pictures ( Stairs effects, blocks,
•Improved processes must be required to reduce these
artefacts as much as possible
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what does it mean
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Archivists must deal with a great variety of
media and formats of unequal quality.
Sometimes, archivists have already digitised
their original analogue archives in SD.
How could these SD preservation masters be
used and match the quality requirements of
When will we need to reuse original media?
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Archives are used as
clips OR full programmes
HDTV HD Internet
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Using SD video archives
1 inch Digitisation
B et C
( Analogue HD
Analogue SD->HD Master
SD video (Up conversion)
inch uncompressed exploitation
And/ or copy
SD Video DVCPro
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Using film archives
35 mm telecine
positive SD Master Conversion
( SD SD->HD
telecine) exploitation copy (Up conversion)
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Recently, INA contributed to produce a fiction programme for
cinema : “Nocturnes” directed by Henry Colomer.( Co
production INA- Archipel 33)
This movie used a large amount of 35 and 16 mm film and
video archives from various media ( about 20’ in a 76’ movie)
43 archive items were used: 17 from digital BETA, one directly
from 3/4 inch Umatic, 10 from 35 mm and 15 from 16 mm.
Final result was expected in Black and White.
High quality results were required.
It was the opportunity to perform some tests and
comparisons of various transfer chains.
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Comparing processes for film
HD telecine was performed on a selection of
excerpts of various film qualities.
In parallel, the same excerpts were up converted
from our digital BETACAM masters ( issued from a
All the HD results were recorded on HDCAM.
HD results were displayed and compared
subjectively on a HD monitor and then on a cinema
screen with a high quality HD projector.
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The objective of this comparison was
to determine the most suitable quality
– A HD telecine transfer prices at least 3 to 4 times more
than a SD telecine and a up conversion 3 to 4 times less
than a HD telecine transfer.
Particular attention was paid to :
– Subjective resolution
– Noise in picture
– Artefacts in movements
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In almost all cases, 35 mm films were
excellent quality and HD telecine gave far
more better results compared to up-converted
pictures, either on monitor or cinema screen.
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16 mm film, was a more complex case to
deal with :
16 mm tele recordings:
A new HD telecine did not provide significant improvements
compared to up converted pictures.
Reversal 16 mm :
very little differences were noticed between the two processes.
16 mm negative and positive film
very little differences beween the two ways on a HD monitor but
The new TC transfer appeared better on cinema screen.
Note that academic 16 mm has an aspect ratio of 1;33 (4/3) and
may require to be resized.
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A temporary conclusion...
When using film clips for HDTV broadcasting and
publishing, in many cases, up conversion should be
acceptable provided up-converters go on improving.
When using excerpts for cinema screening, a HD
telecine should be preferred for 35 mm and 16 mm film
according to their original quality.
When using full programmes for broadcasting or
publishing, a HD telecine should be preferred.
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to deal with...
What about resizing and respect of original frame?
What about audio quality?
Who will perform up conversion ? Live during
broadcasting? The archives?
And many other questions we’ll discover soon…...
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Thank you for your attention
Sources: INA formation
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