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					Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.   1

                                     Yahoo Versus Google:

             A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.

                                     Kristia Ruby P. Arcuna

                        Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering

                                 De La Salle Araneta University
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                  2


    The Internet has become thoroughly incorporated into the heart of every people around the world

including the Filipino culture and society. With nearly a quarter of its adult population working abroad, cell

  phones and the internet has become necessary tools for coping with the stresses of modernity. As we

    became thoroughly attached with this technology the outbreak of problems occurred as well. Web

   browser became a necessity when using the internet, that‘s why the demands for efficiency from it

 increase violently. People became more serious and inquisitive on using different types of web portals.

  There are two major types of web portals in today's market, public and private portals. Public portals

  serve wide audiences by providing news, weather, stocks, and other self-service functions like e-mail,

 messaging, and customization. Businesses and educational institutions have begun leveraging private

        web portals as one of their primary methods of information management and self service.

This study aims to examine the efficiency of the web portals that we commonly us, as well as to broaden

  our knowledge regarding the history, products and services, features and functionality of the said web

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 3


        A ―web portal‖ is the user interface for a particular website. When you get on the Internet and visit

a website for a company or organization, you use the web portal to access areas of the website based on

your user permissions. Web portals are part of the foundation of the Internet. They became popular early

in its development, and formed the basis for most early web browsers.

        "Web portal" refers to any site or web page that is designed to serve a function. In general, web

portals are points of access for other information on the World Wide Web. This allows information from a

variety of sources to be presented together in one area. A web portal allows a business to present

multiple applications and pages with a consistent look and feel.

        Web portals were very valuable in the late 1990s. Following the creation and launch of several

different web browsers, many companies thought of web portals as a way to harness the power of the

Internet and to get a portion of its traffic. Because the web portal was the starting point for many users, it

received special attention. As a result, Netscape was acquired by America Online, Disney launched its

own web portal called, and Excite was acquired by AT&T.

        Many of these early web portals worked as directories or search engines. As they became more

popular, they began to offer an expanded range of services, such as free email, chat functions and

customization. The idea was to both secure the base of users who were coming to the site, as well as to

extend the amount of time they spent there. Enhancements that required registration encouraged repeat

use. After the dot-com flameout, many of these portals owned by traditional media companies became


        There are many different types of web portals. The most basic is the personal web portal, which

provides content to its visitors, as well as links to other information. Personal web portals are designed to

support multiple applications across many different operating systems. In many cases, web portals can

be regional, providing local information like weather and news. In many cases, these types of portals

focus on specific regions of the country or on one country in general. Finally, there are a number of
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             4

government web portals that provide information to citizens. In many cases, the operation of these portals

is farmed out to third parties.

        New application of the web portal is the corporate intranet. An intranet allows many individuals

within a company to share information collaborate and communicate within a secure environment. These

systems allow workflow to be managed and content to be published without taxing the resources of the IT

department. In many cases, these services can be accessed both on- and off-site via the use of secure

programs.

        This study will helps us to examine the efficiency of the web portals that we commonly use (

Yahoo! And Google), as well as to broaden our knowledge regarding the history, products and services,

features and functionality of the said web portals
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 5

                                          Review of Literature

The researcher of this study gathers data from the internet. This section has a review of related literature

in both studies: local and foreign.

What is an Internet?

        The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized

Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that

consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global

scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies.

The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked

hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. In

addition it supports popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, gaming, commerce,

social networking, publishing, video on demand, and teleconferencing and telecommunications. Voice

over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications allow person-to-person communication via voice and video.

History of Internet:

        The Internet consists of a network of interconnected computers that transmit data using standard

internet protocol (IP). Most people believe that the internet began in the mid-1990s, but in reality, it began

much earlier than that.

        In 1958 AT&T introducted the first commercial modem. It converted digital computer data into

analog signals for transmission across its long distance network. This invention allowed computers to

communicate over normal telephone circuits used for standard voice phone calls.

        By the end of the 1960s, the Department of Defense constructed one of the first physical

networks of computers by linking nodes at the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford),

University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah. This was known as the Advanced

Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), and it grew quickly in the early 1970's, reaching 57

interconnected nodes in the network by July, 1975.
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        It was only a couple years after ARPANET began that the first e-mail program for the network

was created by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. Tomlinson is also credited as the one who decided to use the @

symbol in email addresses. He sent the first email that same year. Five years later, in 1976, the Queen of

England sent her first e-mail from a British Army base as a part of a demonstration of networking


        It wasn't until 1974 that the term "internet" was first used. The first documentation of the term was

in a paper by Vinton "Vint" Cerf and Bob Kahn on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is a

fundamental protocol for Internet communications, allowing networked computers to create connections

to one another, which can then be used to exchange data. These days people sometimes refer to the

Internet as cyberspace, and the term "cyberspace" was coined in 1984 by William Gibson in his book,


        Many people think that the World Wide Web (WWW) is synonymous with the Internet, but the

WWW is actually just a service that runs on the Internet. Other commonly known services operating over

the Internet include email and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), but there are others such as Gopher and

Usenet, which are not very popular or well known these days.

        The World Wide Web was invented in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee, in an effort to link scientific

research. At the time he was a scientist at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. As

part of the WWW he developed the HyperText Markup Language, better known as HTML, which is the

language used to create web pages. In addition to HTML, other specifications such as Uniform Resource

Locator (URL) and HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) had to be developed to allow the Internet to

expand to handle WWW communications.

        In order to view Web pages, computers need programs which have become known as Web

browsers. They send a signal to a server requesting a page, and the server responds by sending the

necessary data for the web page, which the browser decodes and displays on the computer screen.

Naturally, Berners-Lee is the person that created the first Web browser, so that the first web pages could
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                     7

be viewed. This first browser was originally called the WorldWideWeb, but the name was later changed to

Nexus in order to be more distinct and avoid confusing it with the World Wide Web.

        The first Web site was "", and it was also built by Berners-Lee. It is worth noting that

its address did not begin with the "www" prefix. In fact, there is no technical reason for a website to begin

with www. The "www" prefix is a result of the common Internet convention used at the time the Web was

developed of giving hostnames that correspond to the protocol they serve. Another peculiarity is that the

term World Wide Web is longer to say when it is abbreviated. The acronym WWW actually contains more

syllables than any other three-letter acronym in the English language.

        It was on August 6, 1991 that the Web became an Internet service that was available to the

public. This was the date that Berners-Lee posted about the World Wide Web project to the alt.hypertext

newsgroup on Usenet.

        In 1993, the Mosaic web browser was released. Although it wasn't the first Web browser

program, it was the first to become really popular due to its incorporation of graphics and the ability to run

on the dominant mainstream operating system, Microsoft's Windows. Mosaic was originally designed for

a UNIX system running X-windows, but was available for several other operating systems such as the

Mac OS and Windows within a year. Almost as soon as graphics became available, the first banner ads

began to appear–in 1994 to be exact. Also in 1994, Pizza Hut began to offer pizza ordering on its Web


        Yahoo!, which was originally named "Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web," was

started in February 1994. It was not the first internet directory, but it was the first to become widely

popular. By the fall of 1994 it had hit 1 million hits in a single day, with almost 100 thousand unique

visitors. During its initial public offering in 1996, it sold 2.6 million shares–33.8 million dollars worth–at $13


        As of 2006, according to Internet World Stats, around 70% of the population in the United States

is on the internet. Throughout the world, there are almost 1.1 billion users of the Internet as of 2006 and

half of them reside in Europe and Asia. Worldwide Internet usage increased over 200% in thesix years
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from 2000 to 2006, yet there is still plenty of room for expansion considering that less than 1/6 of the

world population is online. It is expected that US and world Internet usage will continue to grow.

What is a Web Portal?

        A web portal presents information from diverse sources in a unified way. Apart from the standard

search engine feature, web portals offer other services such as e-mail, news, stock prices, information,

databases and entertainment. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel

with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases, which otherwise would have

been different entities altogether. Examples of public web portals are MSN, Yahoo!, AOL, iGoogle and


History of Web Portals:

        In the late 2000s the web portal was a hot commodity. After the proliferation of web browsers in

the mid-1990s many companies tried to build or acquire a portal, to have a piece of the Internet market.

The web portal gained special attention because it was, for many users, the starting point of their web

browser. Netscape became a part of America Online, the Walt Disney Company launched, and

Excite and @Home became a part of AT&T during the late 1990s. Lycos was said to be a good target for

other media companies such as CBS.

        Many of the portals started initially as either web directories (notably Yahoo!) or search engines

(Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, infoseek, Hotbot were among the earliest). Expanding services was a strategy

to secure the user-base and lengthen the time a user stayed on the portal. Services which require user

registration such as free email, customization features, and chatrooms were considered to enhance

repeat use of the portal. Game, chat, email, news, and other services also tend to make users stay

longer, thereby increasing the advertising revenue.

        The portal craze, with "old media" companies racing to outbid each other for Internet properties,

died down with the dot-com flameout in 2000 and 2001. Disney pulled the plug on, Excite went
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bankrupt and its remains were sold to Some portal sites such as Yahoo! and those others first

listed in this article remain successful.

What is Yahoo! ?

        Yahoo! Inc. (NASDAQ: YHOO) is an American public corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale,

California, (in Silicon Valley), that provides Internet services worldwide. The company is perhaps best

known for its web portal, search engine (Yahoo! Search), Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News,

advertising, online mapping (Yahoo! Maps), video sharing (Yahoo! Video), and social media websites and

services. Yahoo! was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on

March 1, 1995. On January 13, 2009, Yahoo! appointed Carol Bartz, former executive chairperson of

Autodesk, as its new chief executive officer and a member of the board of directors.

        According to Web traffic analysis companies, the domain attracted at least 1.575

billion visitors annually by 2008. The global network of Yahoo! websites receives 3.4 billion page views

per day on average as of October 2007[update]. It is the second most visited website in the world in May


History of Yahoo!:

        Yahoo! began as a student hobby and evolved into a global brand that has changed the way

people communicate with each other, find and access information and purchase things. The two founders

of Yahoo!, David Filo and Jerry Yang, Ph.D. candidates in Electrical Engineering at Stanford University,

started their guide in a campus trailer in February 1994 as a way to keep track of their personal interests

on the Internet. Before long they were spending more time on their home-brewed lists of favorite links

than on their doctoral dissertations. Eventually, Jerry and David's lists became too long and unwieldy, and

they broke them out into categories. When the categories became too full, they developed subcategories

... and the core concept behind Yahoo! was born.

        The Web site started out as "Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web" but eventually

received a new moniker with the help of a dictionary. The name Yahoo! is an acronym for "Yet Another
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 10

Hierarchical Officious Oracle," but Filo and Yang insist they selected the name because they liked the

general definition of a yahoo: "rude, unsophisticated, uncouth." Yahoo! itself first resided on Yang's

student workstation, "Akebono," while the software was lodged on Filo's computer, "Konishiki" - both

named after legendary sumo wrestlers.

        Jerry and David soon found they were not alone in wanting a single place to find useful Web

sites. Before long, hundreds of people were accessing their guide from well beyond the Stanford trailer.

Word spread from friends to what quickly became a significant, loyal audience throughout the closely-knit

Internet community. Yahoo! celebrated its first million-hit day in the fall of 1994, translating to almost 100

thousand unique visitors.

        Due to the torrent of traffic and enthusiastic reception Yahoo! was receiving, the founders knew

they had a potential business on their hands. In March 1995, the pair incorporated the business and met

with dozens of Silicon Valley venture capitalists. They eventually came across Sequoia Capital, the well-

regarded firm whose most successful investments included Apple Computer, Atari, Oracle and Cisco

Systems. They agreed to fund Yahoo! in April 1995 with an initial investment of nearly $2 million.

        Realizing their new company had the potential to grow quickly, Jerry and David began to shop for

a management team. They hired Tim Koogle, a veteran of Motorola and an alumnus of the Stanford

engineering department, as chief executive officer and Jeffrey Mallett, founder of Novell's WordPerfect

consumer division, as chief operating officer. They secured a second round of funding in Fall 1995 from

investors Reuters Ltd. and Softbank. Yahoo! launched a highly-successful IPO in April 1996 with a total of

49 employees.

        Today, Yahoo! Inc. is a leading global Internet communications, commerce and media company

that offers a comprehensive branded network of services to more than 345 million individuals each month

worldwide. As the first online navigational guide to the Web, is the leading guide in terms

of traffic, advertising, household and business user reach. Yahoo! is the No. 1 Internet brand globally and

reaches the largest audience worldwide. The company also provides online business and enterprise

services designed to enhance the productivity and Web presence of Yahoo!'s clients. These services
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include Corporate Yahoo!, a popular customized enterprise portal solution; audio and video streaming;

store hosting and management; and Web site tools and services. The company's global Web network

includes 25 World properties. Headquartered in Sunnyvale, Calif., Yahoo! has offices in Europe, Asia,

Latin America, Australia, Canada and the United States.

Products and Services of Yahoo!:

    Yahoo! provides a wide array of internet services that cater to most online activities. It operates the

web portal which provides content including the latest news, entertainment, and

sports information, and gives users quick access to other Yahoo! services like Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! Maps,

Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Groups and Yahoo! Messenger. The majority of the product offerings are

available globally in more than 20 languages.

       Storing personal information

    As of December 11, 2007, Google and the Microsoft's Live Search "store personal information for 18

months" and Yahoo! and AOL (Time Warner) "retain search requests for 13 months".

       Communication

    Yahoo! provides internet communication services such as Yahoo! Mail and Yahoo! Messenger,

Yahoo! Mail is the largest e-mail service in the world with almost half the market share. In March, 2007,

Yahoo! announced that their email service will offer unlimited storage beginning May 2007.

    Yahoo! Mail premium service MailPlus provides additional functionality including POP/SMTP access

to Yahoo! Mail accounts, although such functionality is already provided for free by Yahoo! competitor

Gmail. Some MailPlus subscribers have reported difficulties in successfully cancelling their Mailplus

(automatically renewed and paid by credit card) subscriptions. Although other areas of the Mailplus web

interface appear to function correctly, a blank page appears when users select "cancel service" from the

list of options to manage the service. It is unknown whether this error has been an accidental oversight by

Yahoo! programmers, or a deliberate attempt to retain Mailplus subscription cash flows as long as

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    Yahoo! also offers social networking services and user-generated content in products such as My

Web, Yahoo! Personals, Yahoo! 360°, Delicious, Flickr, and Yahoo! Buzz.

    Yahoo! Photos was shut down on September 20, 2007 in favor of Flickr. On October 16, 2007,

Yahoo! announced that they will no longer provide support or perform bug fixes on Yahoo! 360° as they

intend to abandon it in early 2008 in favor of a "universal profile" that will be similar to their Mash

experimental system.

         Content

    Yahoo! partners with hundreds of premier content providers in products such as Yahoo! Sports,

Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Music, Yahoo! Movies, Yahoo! News, Yahoo! Answers and Yahoo! Games to

provide media contents and news. Yahoo! also provides a personalization service, My Yahoo!, which

enables users to collect their favorite Yahoo! features, content feeds, and information into a single page.

    On March 31, 2008 Yahoo! launched web portal another Yahoo! property dedicated

to women between the ages of 25 and 54. Yahoo! called this demographic underserved by current

Yahoo! properties.

         Co-branded Internet services

    Yahoo! has developed partnerships with different broadband providers such as AT&T (via BellSouth

& SBC), Verizon Communications, Rogers Communications and British Telecom, offering a range of free

and premium Yahoo! content and services to subscribers.

         Mobile

    Yahoo! Mobile includes services for on-the-go messaging, such as email, instant messaging, and

mobile blogging; information, such as search and alerts; and fun and games, including ring tones, mobile

games, and Yahoo! Photos for camera phones. These require software to be installed on the user's

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               13

       oneSearch

    Yahoo! introduced its Internet search system, called oneSearch, developed for mobile phones on

March 20, 2007. The company's officials stated that in distinction from ordinary Web searches, Yahoo!'s

new service presents a list of actual information, which may include: news headlines, images from

Yahoo!'s Flickr photos site, business listings, local weather and links to other sites. Instead of showing

only, for example, popular movies or some critical reviews, oneSearch lists local theaters that at the

moment are playing a certain movie, user ratings and news headlines regarding the movie. A zip code or

city name is required for Yahoo! oneSearch to start delivering local search results.

    The results of a Web search are listed on a single page and are prioritized into categories. The list of

results is based on calculations that Yahoo! computers make on certain information the user is seeking.

    Yahoo! has announced they also plan to adopt Novarra's mobile content transcoding service for the

oneSearch platform.

       Commerce

    Yahoo! offers commerce services such as Yahoo! Shopping, Yahoo! Autos, Yahoo! Real Estate and

Yahoo! Travel, which enables users to gather relevant information and make commercial transactions

and purchases online. In addition, Yahoo! offers an e-commerce platform called Yahoo! Merchant

Solutions (also known as Yahoo! Store) and hosts more Top 500 internet retailers than any other hosted

e-commerce solution. Yahoo! Auctions were discontinued in 2007 except for Asia.

       Small business

    Yahoo! provides services such as Yahoo! Domains, Yahoo! Web Hosting, Yahoo! Merchant

Solutions, Yahoo! Business Email, and Yahoo! Store to small business owners and professionals allowing

them to build their own online stores using Yahoo!'s tools. Yahoo! also offers HotJobs to help recruiters

find the talent they seek.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              14

       Advertising

    Yahoo! Search Marketing provides services such as Sponsored Search, Local Advertising, and

Product/Travel/Directory Submit that let different businesses advertise their products and services on the

Yahoo! network. Yahoo! Publisher Network is an advertising tool for online publishers to place

advertisements relevant to their content to monetize their websites.

    Yahoo! launched its new Internet advertisement sales system on February 5, 2007 called Panama. It

allows advertisers to bid for search terms based on their popularity to display their ads on search results

pages. The system takes bids, ad quality, click-through rates and other factors into consideration in

determining how ads are ranked on search results pages. Through Panama, Yahoo! aims to provide

more relevant search results to users, a better overall experience, as well as increase monetization—to

earn more from the ads it shows.

    On April 7, 2008, Yahoo! announced Yahoo! AMP!, an online advertising management platform. The

platform seeks to simplify advertising sales by unifying buyer and seller markets. The service is scheduled

for release in quarter 3 of 2008.

       Yahoo! Next

    Yahoo! Next is an incubation ground for future Yahoo! technologies currently in their beta testing

phase. It contains forums for Yahoo! users to give feedback to assist in the development of these future

Yahoo! technologies. it was created by jerry Page and David Shin.

       Yahoo! BOSS

    Yahoo! Search BOSS is a new service that allows developers to build search applications based on

Yahoo!'s search technology. Early Partners in the program include Hakia, Me.dium, Delver and Daylife.

       Adware and spyware

    Yahoo! has also been criticized for providing ads via the Yahoo ad network to companies who display

them through spyware and adware which display on-screen pop-ups, generated from adware that a user
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                  15

may have installed on their computer without realizing it, sometimes by accepting online offers to

download software to fix computer clocks or improve computer security, add browser enhancements, etc.

As an example, users who have allowed their machine to become infected with spyware will see

advertising pop-ups generated from advertising distributor Walnut Ventures, who had a direct partnership

with Direct Revenue.

         Chatrooms and message boards

      As a result of media scrutiny relating to Internet child predators and a lack of significant ad revenues,

Yahoo!'s "user created" chatrooms were closed down in June 2005. Yahoo! News' message board

section was closed December 19, 2006, due to the trolling phenomenon.

      In 2008, an employee of Deep Capture discovered vulnerability in Yahoo!'s message boards which

allowed board participants to execute JavaScript on reader's computers as they searched the boards.

Yahoo! fixed the vulnerability upon being notified by a Register reporter in September 2009.

         Image search

          On May 25, 2006, Yahoo!'s image search was criticized for bringing up sexually explicit images

      even when SafeSearch was on. This was discovered by a teacher who was intending to use the

      service with a class to search for "www". Yahoo!'s response to this was, "Yahoo! is aware of this

      issue and is working to resolve it as quickly as possible".

Yahoo Security Center:

          Yahoo! takes your security seriously and takes reasonable steps to protect your information. No

data transmission over the Internet or information storage technology can be guaranteed to be 100%

secure. The following is a summary of the measures Yahoo! takes to protect your information and

descriptions of ways we implement these measures for different types of information you may provide to

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               16

           Yahoo! continues to evaluate and implement enhancements in security technology and practices;

however we can only take steps to help reduce the risks of unauthorized access. Each individual using

the Internet can take steps to help protect their information and further minimize the likelihood that a

security incident may occur.

List of Yahoo Services:

  * Yahoo! Advertising - A combination of advertising services owned by Yahoo!

  * Yahoo! Answers - Yahoo! Answers is a service that allows users to ask and answer questions other

users post. It competes with Ask MetaFilter. Yahoo! Answers uses a points system whereby points are

awarded for asking and answering questions, and deducted for deleting a question or answer, or getting


  * Yahoo! Avatars - Yahoo! Avatars allows users to create personalized character images, also known

as avatars, which are displayed on Yahoo! Messenger, Yahoo! Answers and the user's Yahoo! 360°


  * Yahoo! Babel Fish - Yahoo! Babel Fish is a translation service.

  * Yahoo! Bookmarks -Yahoo! Bookmarks is a private bookmarking service. All Users from Yahoo

MyWeb were transfered to this service.

  * Yahoo! Buzz- Yahoo! Buzz is a community based publishing service much like that of Digg, where

users can buzz about certain stories and allow them to be featured on the main page of the site.

  * Yahoo! Developer Network-Yahoo! Developer Network offers resources for software developers

which use Yahoo! technologies and Web services.

  * Yahoo! Directory-Yahoo! was first formed as a web directory of web sites, organized into a hierarchy

of categories and subcategories, which became the Yahoo! Directory. Once a human-compiled directory,
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                17

Yahoo! Directory now offers two methods of inclusion: Standard, which is free and only available for non-

commercial categories, and Express, which charges over US$300 for a quick inclusion in the directory.

   * Yahoo! Finance- Yahoo! Finance offers financial information, including stock quotes and stock

exchange rates.

   * Yahoo! Games-Yahoo! Games allows users to play games, such as chess, billiards, checkers and

backgammon, against each other. Users can join one of various rooms and find players in these rooms to

play with. Most of the games are Java applets, although some require the user to download the game,

and some games are single-player.

* Yahoo! Geocities-Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service which offers 15 MB of web space. It was

formed in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet and allowed users to select a "city" to place their site in,

based on the site's content. It was purchased by Yahoo! in 1999. Yahoo! implemented changes, such as

changing the Terms of Service, introducing advertisements on GeoCities pages and introducing a

premium hosting service. Yahoo! GeoCities is being abandoned for a strictly premium hosting service with

current Yahoo! Geocities pages becoming unavailable on October 26, 2009.

   * Yahoo! Groups-Yahoo! Groups is a free groups and mailing list service which competes with Google

Groups. It was formed when Yahoo! acquired eGroups in August 2000. Groups are sorted in categories

similar to the Yahoo! Directory. Yahoo! Groups also offers other features such as a photographic album,

file storage and a calendar.

   * Yahoo! HotJobs- Yahoo! HotJobs provides tools and advice to job seekers.

   * Yahoo! Kids- Yahoo! Kids is a children's version of the Yahoo! portal. It also offers some online safety


   * Yahoo! Local- Find local businesses and services and view the results on a map. Refine and sort

results by distance, topic, or other factors. Read ratings and reviews. Uses hCalendar and hCard
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microformats, so that event and contact details can be downloaded directly into calendar and address-

book applications.

  * Yahoo! Live- Allows users to broadcast videos in real time.

  * Yahoo! Mail-Yahoo! acquired Four11 on 8 October 1997, and its webmail service Rocketmail became

Yahoo! Mail. Since Google released Gmail on 1 April 2004, Yahoo! Mail has made several improvements

to keep ahead of the competition, which also includes MSN Hotmail and AOL Mail. Yahoo! Mail is the

only web-based email service that offers unlimited storage for all users. On 9 July 2004, Yahoo! acquired

an e-mail provider named Oddpost and used its technology to create Yahoo! Mail Beta, which uses Ajax

to mimic the look and feel of an e-mail client. On 19 June 2008, Yahoo Mail introduced its 2 new email

domains: and ("" and "" at

  * Yahoo! Maps- Yahoo! Maps offers driving directions and traffic.

  * Yahoo! Messenger-Yahoo! Messenger is an instant messaging service first released on 21 July 1999,

which competes with AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger, Google Talk, ICQ and QQ. It offers

several unique features, such as IMvironments, custom status messages, and custom avatars. On 13

October 2005, Yahoo! announced that Yahoo! Messenger and MSN Messenger would become


  * Yahoo! Mobile- Yahoo! Mobile is a mobile website used predominantly in the UK. It offers mobile

downloads such as ringtones.

  * Yahoo! Movies- Yahoo! Movies offers showtimes, movie trailers, movie information, gossip, and


  * Yahoo! Music- Yahoo! Music offers music videos and internet radio (LAUNCHcast), a for-fee service

known as Yahoo! Music Unlimited and the Yahoo! Music Engine- which has been sold to Rhapsody on

Oct. 31st, 2008.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             19

  * Yahoo! New- News updates and top stories at Yahoo! News, including world, national, business,

entertainment, sports, weather, technology, and weird news.

  * Yahoo! OMG- OMG is a Yahoo! Entertainment online tabloid with most content provided by Access

Hollywood and X17.

  * Yahoo! Parental Controls- Yahoo! Parental Controls are special controls given by parents for their

children, closely associated with Yahoo! Kids.

  * Yahoo! Personals- Yahoo! Personals is an online dating service with both free and paid versions.

However, the free service is limited, as only paying users can contact users they meet through Yahoo!

Personals and exchange contact information.

  * Yahoo! Pipes- Yahoo Pipes is a free RSS mashup visual editor and hosting service.

  * Yahoo! Publisher Network- Yahoo! Publisher Network is an advertising program, which is currently in

beta and only accepts US publishers.

  * Yahoo! Real Estate- Yahoo! Real Estate offers real estate-related information and allows users to find

rentals, mew houses, real estate agents, mortgages and more.

  * Yahoo! Search- Yahoo! Search is a search engine which competes with MSN Search and market

leader Google. Yahoo! relied on Google results from 26 June 2000 to 18 February 2004, but returned to

using its own technology after acquiring Inktomi and Overture (which owned AlltheWeb and AltaVista).

Yahoo! Search uses a crawler named Yahoo! Slurp.

  * Yahoo! Search Marketing-Yahoo! Search Marketing provides pay per click inclusion of links in search

engine result lists, and also delivers targeted ads. The service was previously branded as Overture

Services after Yahoo! acquired Overture in 2003.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              20

  * Yahoo! Shopping- Yahoo! Shopping is a price comparison service, that allows users to search for

products and compare prices of various online stores.

  * Yahoo! Small Business- Yahoo! Small Business offers web hosting, domain names and e-commerce

services for small businesses.

  * Yahoo! Sports-Yahoo! Sports offers sports news, including scores, statistics, and fixtures. It includes

a "fantasy team" game.

  * Yahoo! Tech -Yahoo! Tech offers reviews and advice for buying and using electronics.

  * Yahoo! Travel- Yahoo! Travel offers travel guides, booking and reservation services.

  * Yahoo! TV-Yahoo! TV offers TV listings and scheduled recordings on Tivo box remotely.

  * Yahoo! Video-Yahoo! Video is a video sharing site.

  * Yahoo! Voice - Yahoo! Voice is formely known as Dialpad. It is a Voice over IP PC-PC, PC-Phone

and Phone-to-PC service.

  * Yahoo! Web Analytics -       IndexTools was acquired by Yahoo! and re-branded as 'Yahoo! Web


  * Yahoo! Widgets-Yahoo! Widgets is a cross-platform desktop widget runtime environment. The

software was previously distributed as a commercial product called 'Konfabulator' for Mac OS X and

Windows until it was acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded 'Yahoo! Widgets' and made available for free.

Security Steps We Have Taken

       Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

    Yahoo! uses SSL (Secure Socket Layer) encryption when transmitting certain kinds of information,

such as financial services information or payment information. An icon resembling a padlock is displayed
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               21

on the bottom of most browsers window during SSL transactions that involve credit cards and other forms

of payment. Any time Yahoo! asks you for a credit card number on Yahoo! for payment or for verification

purposes, it will be SSL encrypted. The information you provide will be stored securely on our servers.

Once you choose to store or enter your credit card number on Yahoo!, it will not be displayed back to you

in its entirety when you retrieve or edit it in the future. Instead of the entire number, you will only see

asterisks and either the first four digits or the last four digits of your number.

       Security Key

    The Yahoo! Security Key is an additional optional layer of security to control access to sensitive

information or services on Yahoo!. Users of financial services such as Yahoo! Wallet, PayDirect, Yahoo!

Bill Pay, and Money Manager are asked to create a security key during the sign-up process or when you

purchase certain services that require a Yahoo! Wallet. Please note that the Security Key automatically

"times out" after an hour and requires the user to sign in again to access Security Key protected areas.

       Secure Storage

    Yahoo! maintains reasonable physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards that comply with federal

regulations to protect personal information about you.

       Vendors and Partners

    Yahoo! works with vendors and partners to protect the security and privacy of user information.

       Employee and Contractor Access to Information

    Yahoo! limits access to personal information about you to those employees who we reasonably

believe need to come into contact with that information to provide products or services to you or in order

to do their jobs.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              22

       Education and Training for Employees

    Yahoo! has implemented a company-wide education and training program about security that is

required of every Yahoo! Employee.

What is Google?

        Google Inc. is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its

Internet search, e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking, and video sharing services

as well as selling advertising-free versions of the same technologies. Google has also developed an open

source web browser and a mobile operating system. The Google headquarters, the Googleplex, is

located in Mountain View, California. As of March 31, 2009 (2009 -03-31), the company has 19,786 full-

time employees. The company is running thousands of servers worldwide, which process millions of

search requests each day and about 1 petabyte of user-generated data every hour.

        Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford

University and the company was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4, 1998.

The initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, raising $1.67 billion, implying a value for the

entire corporation of $23 billion. Google has continued its growth through a series of new product

developments, acquisitions, and partnerships. Environmentalism, philanthropy and positive employee

relations have been important tenets during the growth of Google. The company has been identified

multiple times as Fortune Magazine's #1 Best Place to Work, and as the most powerful brand in the

world. Alexa ranks Google as the most visited website on the Internet.

        Google's mission is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and

useful". The unofficial company slogan, coined by former employee and Gmail's first engineer Paul

Buchheit, is "Don't be evil". Criticism of Google includes concerns regarding the privacy of personal

information, copyright, and censorship.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             23

History of Google:

        Google began in January 1996, as a research project by Larry Page, who was soon joined by

Sergey Brin, when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. They hypothesized

that a search engine that analyzed the relationships between websites would produce better ranking of

results than existing techniques, which ranked results according to the number of times the search term

appeared on a page. Their search engine was originally nicknamed "BackRub" because the system

checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. A small search engine called Rankdex was

already exploring a similar strategy.

        Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant web pages must

be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested their thesis as part of their

studies, and laid the foundation for their search engine. Originally, the search engine used the Stanford

University website with the domain The domain was registered on 15

September 1997, and the company was incorporated as Google Inc. on 4 September 1998 at a friend's

garage in Menlo Park, California. The total initial investment raised for the new company amounted to

almost $1.1 million, including a $100,000 check by Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the founders of Sun


        Both Brin and Page had been against using advertising pop-ups in a search engine, or an

"advertising funded search engines" model, and they wrote a research paper in 1998 on the topic while

still students. However, they soon changed their minds and early on allowed simple text ads.

        In March 1999, the company moved into offices in Palo Alto, home to several other noted Silicon

Valley technology startups. After quickly outgrowing two other sites, the company leased a complex of

buildings in Mountain View, California at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway from Silicon Graphics (SGI) in

2003. The company has remained at this location ever since, and the complex has since come to be

known as the Googleplex (a play on the word googolplex). In 2006, Google bought the property from SGI

for $319 million.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.            24

        The Google search engine attracted a loyal following among a growing number of Internet users,

who liked its simple design and useful results. In 2000, Google began selling advertisements associated

with search keywords. The ads were text-based to maintain an uncluttered page design and to maximize

page loading speed. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bid and clickthroughs, with

bidding starting at 5 cents per click. This model of selling keyword advertising was pioneered by (later renamed Overture Services, before being acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo!

Search Marketing). was an Idealab spin off created by Bill Gross, and was the first company to

successfully provide a pay-for-placement search service. Overture Services later sued Google over

alleged infringements of Overture's pay-per-click and bidding patents by Google's AdWords service. The

case was settled out of court, with Google agreeing to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in

exchange for a perpetual license. Thus, while many of its dot-com rivals failed in the new Internet

marketplace, Google quietly rose in stature while generating revenue.

        A patent describing part of the Google ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted on 4

September 2001. The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as

the inventor.

        The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of the word "googol",[ which refers to 10100,

the number represented by a 1 followed by one hundred zeros. Having found its way increasingly into

everyday language, the verb "google" was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the

Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                25

Product and Services of Google:

    Google has created services and tools for the general public and business environment alike,

including Web applications, advertising networks and solutions for businesses.

       Advertising

    99% of Google's revenue is derived from its advertising programs. For the 2006 fiscal year, the

company reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112 million in licensing and

other revenues. Google is able to precisely track users' interests across affiliated sites using DoubleClick

technology and Google Analytics. Google's advertisements carry a lower price tag when their human ad-

rating team working around the world believes the ads improve the company's user experience.Google

AdWords allows Web advertisers to display advertisements in Google's search results and the Google

Content Network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme.Google AdSense website

owners can also display adverts on their own site, and earn money every time ads are clicked. Google

began in March 2009 to use behavioral targeting based on users' interests.

    Google has also been criticized by advertisers regarding its inability to combat click fraud, when a

person or automated script is used to generate a charge on an advertisement without really having an

interest in the product. Industry reports in 2006 claim that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were in

fact fraudulent or invalid.

    In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed

Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on their web pages. The alliance between the two companies

was never completely realized due to antitrust concerns by the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result,

Google pulled out of the deal in November, 2008.

       Software

    The Google web search engine is the company's most popular service. As of August 2007, Google is

the most used search engine on the web with a 53.6% market share, ahead of Yahoo! (19.9%) and Live

Search (12.9%).Google indexes billions of Web pages, so that users can search for the information they
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             26

desire, through the use of keywords and operators, although at any given time it will only return a

maximum of 1,000 results for any specific search query. Google has also employed the Web Search

technology into other search services, including Image Search, Google News, the price comparison site

Google Product Search, the interactive Usenet archive Google Groups, Google Maps, and more.

    In early 2006, the company launched Google Video, which allowed users to both upload videos, and

search and watch videos from the larger Internet. In 2009 uploads to Google video were discontinued.

    Google has also developed several desktop applications, including Google Desktop, Picasa,

SketchUp and Google Earth, an interactive mapping program powered by satellite and aerial imagery that

covers the vast majority of the planet. Many major cities have such detailed images that one can zoom in

close enough to see vehicles and pedestrians clearly. Consequently, there have been some concerns

about national security implications; contention is that the software can be used to pinpoint with near-

precision accuracy the physical location of critical infrastructure, commercial and residential buildings,

bases, government agencies, and so on. However, the satellite images are not necessarily frequently

updated, and all of them are available at no charge through other products and even government

sources; the software simply makes accessing the information easier. A number of Indian state

governments have raised concerns about the security risks posed by geographic details provided by

Google Earth's satellite imaging.

    Google has promoted their products in various ways. In London, Google Space was set-up in

Heathrow Airport, showcasing several products, including Gmail, Google Earth and Picasa. Also, a similar

page was launched for American college students, under the name College Life, Powered by Google.

    In 2007, some reports surfaced that Google was planning the release of its own mobile phone,

possibly a competitor to Apple's iPhone. The project, called Android, turned out not to be a phone, but an

operating system. It provides a standard development kit that will allow any "Android" phone to run

software developed for the Android SDK, no matter the phone manufacturer. In September 2008, T-

Mobile released the first phone running the Android platform, the G1.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 27

    Google Translate aka Google Language Tools is a server-side machine translation service, which can

translate 35 different languages to each other, forming 595 language pairs. Browser extension tools (such

as Firefox extensions) allow for easy access to Google Translate from the browser. The software uses

corpus linguistics techniques from translated documents, (such as United Nations documents, which are

professionally translated) to extract translations accurate up to 88 percent. A "suggest a better translation"

feature appears with the original language text in a pop-up text field, allowing users to indicate where the

current translation is incorrect or else inferior to another translation.

    On 1 September 2008, Google pre-announced the upcoming availability of Google Chrome, an open-

source web browser, which was released on 2 September 2008.

    On 7 July 2009, Google announced the project to develop Google Chrome OS, an open-source

Linux-based operating system in a "window of opportunity"

       Gmail

    Gmail is a free webmail, POP3 and IMAP service provided by Google. In the United Kingdom and

Germany, it is officially called Google Mail.

    Gmail was launched as an invitation-only beta release on April 1, 2004 and it became available to the

general public on February 7, 2007. As of July 2009 it has 146 million users monthly. The service was

upgraded from beta status on July 7, 2009, along with the rest of the Google Apps suite.

    With an initial storage capacity offer of 1 GB per user, Gmail significantly increased the webmail

standard for free storage from the 2 to 4MB its competitors offered at that time. The service currently

offers over 7350 MB of free storage with additional storage ranging from 10 GB to 400 GB available for

$20 to $500 (US) per year.

    In February 2006, Google released Gmail Chat, using the same tools used in Google Talk.

Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet forum. Software

developers know Gmail for its pioneering use of the Ajax programming technique.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             28

Gmail runs on Google Servlet Engine and Google GFE/1.3 which run on Linux.

       Enterprise Products

    Google entered the Enterprise market in February, 2002 with the launch of its Google Search

Appliance, targeted toward providing search technology to larger organizations. Providing search for a

smaller document repository, Google launched the Mini in 2005.

    Late in 2006, Google began to sell Custom Search Business Edition, providing customers with an

advertising-free window into's index. In 2008, Google re-branded its next version of Custom

Search Business Edition as Google Site Search.

    In 2007, Google launched Google Apps Premier Edition, a version of Google Apps targeted primarily

at the business user. It includes such extras as more disk space for e-mail, API access, and premium

support, for a price of $50 per user per year. A large implementation of Google Apps with 38,000 users is

at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    Also in 2007, Google acquired Postini and continued to sell the acquired technology as Google

Security Services.

       Googleplex

    Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, is referred to as "the Googleplex" in a play of

words; a googolplex being 1010100, or a one followed by a googol of zeros, and the HQ being a complex

of buildings (cf. multiplex, cineplex, etc). The lobby is decorated with a piano, lava lamps, old server

clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and

bicycles. Each employee has access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are

scattered throughout the campus and include a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker

rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, assorted video games, foosball, a baby grand piano, a

pool table, and ping pong.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              29

List of Services:

  * Chrome (Windows XP/Vista, GNU/Linux (Beta), Mac OS X (Beta))-Web browser.

  * Desktop (Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 2000 SP3+/XP/Vista) - Desktop search application, that indexes

e-mails, documents, music, photos, chats, Web history and other files. It allows the installation of Google


  * Earth (Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 2000/XP/Vista, iPhone)- Virtual globe that uses satellite imagery,

aerial photography and GIS over a 3D globe.

  * Gmail/Google Notifier (Mac OS X, Windows 2000/XP)- Alerts the user of new messages in their

Gmail account.

  * Pack (Windows XP/Vista)- Collection of computer applications -- some Google-created, some not --

including Google Earth, Google Desktop, Picasa, Google Talk, StarOffice and Google Chrome.

  * Photos Screensaver-Slideshow screensaver as part of Google Pack, which displays images sourced

from a hard disk, or through RSS and Atom Web feeds.

  * Picasa (Mac OS X, Linux and Windows 2000/XP/Vista)- Photo organization and editing application,

providing photo library options and simple effects.

  * Picasa Web Albums Uploader (Mac OS X)- An application to help uploading images to the "Picasa

Web Albums" service. It consists of both an iPhoto plug-in and a stand-alone application.

  * Quick search box (Windows)- A tool box like run in windows from where you can avail all the features

of the run dialog,type a keyword and search google and type a web URL and launch it from the default

web client. This tool box is very user friendl

  * Secure Access (Windows 2000/XP)- VPN client for Google WiFi users, whose equipment does not

support WPA or 802.1x protocols
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                30

  * SketchUp (Mac OS X and Windows 2000/Windows XP)-Simple 3D sketching program with unique

dragging interface and direct integration with Google Earth.

  * Talk (Windows 2000/Windows XP/Server 2003/Vista)- Application for VoIP and instant messaging. It

consists of both a service and a client used to connect to the service, which uses the XMPP protocol.

  * Visigami (Mac OS X Leopard)- Image search application screen saver that searches files from

Google Images, Picasa and Flickr.

  * Pinyin IME (Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows Vista) (Google China)- Input Method Editor that is

used to convert Chinese Pinyin characters, which can be entered on Western-style keyboards, to

Chinese characters

  * Blogger Web Comments (Firefox only)- Displays related comments from other Blogger users.

  * Dashboard Widgets for Mac (Mac OS X Dashboard Widgets)- Collection of mini-applications including

Gmail, Blogger and Search History.

  * Gears (Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari)-         A browser plug-in that enables

development of off-line browser applications.

  * Send to Mobile (Firefox)- Allows users to send text messages to their mobile phone (US only) about

web content.

  * Toolbar (Firefox and Internet Explorer)-Web browser toolbar with features such as a Google Search

box, phishing protection, pop-up blocker as well as the ability for website owners to create buttons.

  * Blogger Mobile-Only available on some US networks. Allows you to post to your Blogger blog from a

mobile device.

  * Calendar- Read a list of all Google Calendar events from a mobile device. There is also the option to

quickly add events to your personal calendar.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              31

  * Gmail- Access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser.

Alternatively, Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages


  * News- Access Google News on a mobile device using a simpler interface compared to the full online


  * Google Mobilizer-Makes any web page mobile-friendly.

  * iGoogle-Simple version of iGoogle - you must visit the information page to choose which modules to

display on your personal mobile version as not all modules are compatible.

  * Product Search- Updated version of the previous Froogle Mobile

  * Reader-View Google Reader on a mobile device.

  * Mobile search- Search web pages, images, local listings and mobile-specific web pages through the

Google search engine. If a webpage is not tailored for a mobile device Google will provide a simple text

version of the webpage generated using an algorithm.

  * Picasa Web Albums- Lets you view photo albums that you have stored online.

  * Google Latitude- Google Latitude is a mobile geolocation tool that lets your friends know where you

are via Google Maps.

  * Gmail- A downloadable application that has many advantages over accessing Gmail through a web

[interface] on a mobile such as the ability to interact with Gmail features including labels and archiving.

Requires a properly configured Java Virtual Machine, which is not available by default on some platforms

(such as Palm's Treo).

  * Maps- Mobile application for viewing maps on a mobile device, available for Android, BlackBerry,

Windows Mobile, iPhone OS, Symbian, J2ME and Palm OS smartphones or any phone with a properly

configured Java Virtual Machine.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               32

  * Mobile Updater (BlackBerry only)- Keeps all Google mobile products up-to-date. Also allows

installation or uninstallation of these products.

  * Sync-Synchronizes a mobile phone with multiple Google calendars as well as contacts using a

Google Account.

  * Talk (BlackBerry only)-VoIP application exclusively for BlackBerry smartphones.

  * Talk (Android only)-Text chat application, lacking the VoIP function present in BlackBerry version.

  * Sky Map (Mobile, Android only)- Augmented reality program displaying a star map which is scrolled

by moving the phone.

  * YouTube- A downloadable application for viewing YouTube videos on selected devices.

  * Ad Planner- An online tool that allows users to view traffic estimates for popular web sites and create

media plans.

  * Ad Manager- A hosted ad management solution

  * AdSense- Advertisement program for Website owners. Adverts generate revenue on either a per-click

or per-thousand-ads-displayed basis, and adverts shown are from AdWords users, depending on which

adverts are relevant.

  * AdWords- Google's flagship advertising product, and main source of revenue. AdWords offers pay-

per-click (PPC) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads.

  * AdWords Website Optimizer- Integrated AdWords tool for testing different website content, in order to

gain to the most successful advertising campaigns.

  * Audio Ads-Radio advertising program for US businesses. Google began to roll this product out on 15

May 2007 through its existing AdWords interface, however has been discontinued.

  * Click-to-Call- Calling system so users can call advertisers for free at Google's expense from search

results pages. This service was discontinued.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              33

  * DoubleClick-Internet ad serving provider.

  * Grants-Scheme for non-profit organizations to benefit from free Cost-Per-Click advertising on the

AdWords network.

  * TV Ads-CPM-driven television advertising scheme available on a trial basis, currently aimed towards

professional advertisers, agencies and partners.

  * 3D Warehouse- Google 3D Warehouse is an online service that hosts 3D models of existing objects,

locations (including buildings) and vehicles created in Google SketchUp by the aforementioned

application's users. The models can be downloaded into Google SketchUp by other users or Google


  * Apps-Custom domain and service integration service for businesses, enterprise and education,

featuring Gmail and other Google products.

  * Blogger- Weblog publishing tool. Users can create a custom, hosted blogs with features such as

photo publishing, comments, group blogs, blogger profiles and mobile-based posting with little technical


  * Calendar- Free online calendar. It includes a unique "quick add" function which allows users to insert

events using natural language input. Other features include Gmail integration and calendar sharing. It is

similar to those offered by Yahoo! and MSN.

  * Docs- Document, spreadsheet and presentation application, with document collaboration and

publishing capabilities.

  * FeedBurner-News feed management services, including feed traffic analysis and advertising facilities.

  * Friend Connect- Friend Connect is an online service that empowers website and blog owners to add

social features to their websites. It also allows users to connect with their friends on different websites

that have implemented Google Friend Connect on their website.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                34

  * Gadgets- Mini-applications designed to display information or provide a function in a succinct manner.

Available in Universal or Desktop format.

  * Profiles-It is simply how you present yourself on Google products to other Google users. It allows you

to control how you appear on Google and tell others a bit more about who you are.

  * Gmail (Also known as Google Mail)- Free Webmail IMAP and POP e-mail service provided by

Google, known for its abundant storage and advanced interface. It was first released in an invitation-only

form on April 1, 2004. Mobile access and Google Talk integration is also featured.

  * iGoogle (Previously Google Personalized Homepage)- Customizable homepage, which can contain

Web feeds and Google Gadgets, launched in May 2005. It was renamed to iGoogle on April 30, 2007

(previously used internally by Google).

  * Notebook- Web clipping application for saving online research. The tool permits users to clip text,

images, and links from pages while browsing, save them online, access them from any computer, and

share them with others. Google recently stopped development on Notebook and no longer accepts sign-

ups, While old users can still access their notebooks, newcomers are offered to try other services such as

Google Docs and Google Bookmarks.

  * Knol-Knol is a service that enables subject experts and other users, write authoritative articles related

to various topics.

  * Marratech e-Meeting- Web conferencing software, used internally by Google's employees. Google

acquired the software from creator Marratech on April 19, 2007. Google has not yet stated what it will do

with the product.

  * Orkut-Social networking service, where users can list their personal and professional information,

create relationships amongst friends and join communities of mutual interest. In November 2006, Google

opened Orkut registration to everyone, instead of being invitation only.

  * Panoramio-Photos of the world.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 35

  * Picasa Web Album- Online photo sharing, with integration with the main Picasa program.

  * Reader-Web-based news aggregator, capable of reading Atom and RSS feeds. It allows the user to

search, import and subscribe to feeds. The service also embeds audio enclosures in the page. Major

revisions to Google Reader were made in October 2006.

  * Sites (Previously Jotspot)- Website creation tool for private or public groups, for both personal and

corporate use.

  * SMS Channels (Google India Only)- Launched September 2008, allows users to create and

subscribe to channels over SMS. Channels can be based on RSS feeds.

  * Questions and Answers (Google Russia Only)- Community-driven knowledge market website.

Launched on June 26, 2007 that allows users to ask and answer questions posed by other users.

  * Voice- Known as "GrandCentral" before 2009-03-11, this is a free voice communications product that

includes a POTS telephone number. It includes a follow-me service that allows the user to forward their

Google voice phone number to simultaneously ring up to 6 other phone numbers. It also features a

unified voice mail service, SMS and free outgoing calls via Google's "click2call" and 3rd party dialers.

  * Wave- Still in early developmental stages, Google Wave is a product that helps users communicate

and collaborate on the web. A "wave" is equal parts conversation and document, where users can almost

instantly communicate and work together with richly formatted text, photos, videos, maps, and more.

  * YouTube- Popular free video sharing Web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips.

In October 2006, Google, Inc., announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for $1.65

billion USD in Google's stock. The deal closed on 13 November 2006.

  * Google Sidewiki- Google Sidewiki is a browser sidebar that enables you to contribute and read

helpful information alongside any web page      he service came to be online since ep      ,     .

  * Maps-Mapping service that indexes streets and displays satellite and street-level imagery, providing

driving directions and local business search.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 36

  * Map Maker- Edit the map in more than a hundred countries and watch your edits go into Google

Maps. Become a citizen cartographer and help map your world.

  * Mars-Imagery of Mars using the Google Maps interface. Elevation, visible imagery and infrared

imagery can be shown. It was released on March 13, 2006, the anniversary of the birth of astronomer

Percival Lowell.

  * Moon- NASA imagery of the moon through the Google Maps interface. It was launched on July 20,

2005, in honor of the first manned Moon landing on July 20, 1969.

  * Sky Map-An Internet tool for viewing the stars and galaxies, you can now access this tool through a

browser version of "Google Sky".

  * Ride Finder- Taxi, limousine and shuttle search service, using real time position of vehicles in 14 US

cities. Ride Finder uses the Google Maps interface and cooperates with any car service that wishes to


  * Transit- Public transport trip planning through the Google Maps interface. Google Transit was

released on December 7, 2005, and is now fully integrated with Google Maps

  * Accessible Search- Search engine for the blind and visually impaired. It prioritises usable and

accessible web sites in the search results, so the user incurs minimal distractions when browsing.

  * Alerts- E-mail notification service, which sends alerts based on chosen search terms, whenever there

are new results. Alerts include web results, Groups results news, and video.

  * Base- Google submission database, that enables content owners to submit content, have it hosted

and make it searchable. Information within the database is organized using attributes.

  * Blog Search- Weblog search engine, with a continuously-updated search index. Results include all

blogs, not just those published through Blogger. Results can be viewed and filtered by date.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                37

  * Book Search (Previously Google Print)-Search engine for the full text of printed books. Google scans

and stores in its digital database. The content that is displayed depends on the arrangement with the

publishers, ranging from short extracts to entire books.

  * Checkout- Online payment processing service provided by Google aimed at simplifying the process

of paying for online purchases. Webmasters can choose to implement Google Checkout as a form of


  * Code Search- Search engine for programming code found on the Internet.

  * Dictionary- Once part of Google Translate, it is now a standalone service that allows searching of

words and phrases from over 22 languages.

  * Directory- Collection of links arranged into hierarchical subcategories. The links and their

categorization are from the Open Directory Project, but are sorted using PageRank.

  * Directory (Google China)-Navigation directory, specifically for Chinese users.

  * Experimental Search- Options for testing new interfaces whilst searching with Google, including

Timeline views and keyboard shortcuts.

  * Finance-Searchable US business news, opinion, and financial data. Features include company-

specific pages, blog search, interactive charts, executive‘s information, discussion groups and a portfolio.

  * Groups- Web and e-mail discussion service and Usenet archive. Users can join a group, make a

group, publish posts, track their favorite topics, write a set of group web pages updatable by members

and share group files. In January, 2007, version 3 of Google Groups was released. New features include

the ability to create customized pages and share files.

  * Image Labeler- Game that induces participants to submit valid descriptions (labels) of images in the

web, in order to later improve Image Search.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               38

  * Image Search-      Image search engine, with results based on the filename of the image, the link text

pointing to the image and text adjacent to the image. When searching, a thumbnail of each matching

image is displayed.

  * Language Tools- Collection of linguistic applications, including one that allows users to translate text

or web pages from one language to another, and another that allows searching in web pages located in a

specific country or written in a specific language.

  * Life Search (Google China)- Search engine tailored towards everyday needs, such as train times,

recipes and housing.

  * Movies- A specialized search engine that obtains Film showing times near a user-entered location as

well as providing reviews of films compiled from several different websites.

  * Music (Google China)- A site containing links to a large archive of Chinese pop music (principally

Cantopop and Mandopop), including audio streaming over Google's own player, legal lyric downloads,

and in most cases legal MP3 downloads. The archive is provided by (i.e. this service does not

search the whole Internet) and is only available in mainland China. It is intended to rival the similar, but

containing links to illegal music, service provided by Baidu.

  * News- Automated news compilation service and search engine for news. There are versions of the

aggregator for more than 20 languages. While the selection of news stories is fully automated, the sites

included are selected by human editors.

  * News Archive Search- Feature within Google News, that allows users to browse articles from over

200 years ago.

  * Patent Search-Search engine to search through millions of patents, each result with its own page,

including drawings, claims and citations.

  * Product Search (Previously Froogle)- Price engine that searches online stores, including auctions, for

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                     39

  * Rebang (Google China)- Google China's search trend site, similar to Google Zeitgeist. Currently part

of Google Labs.

  * Scholar- Search engine for the full text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats

and scholarly fields. Today, the index includes virtually all peer-reviewed journals available online.

  * Sets- List of items generated when the user enters a few examples. For example, entering "Green,

Purple, Red" produces the list "Green, Purple, Red, Blue, Black, White, Yellow, Orange, Brown."

  * SMS- Mobile phone short message service offered by Google in several countries, including the USA,

Japan, Canada, India and China and formerly the UK, Germany and Spain. It allows search queries to be

sent as a text message. The results are sent as a reply, with no premium charge for the service.

  * Squared- Creates tables of information about a subject from unstructured data

  * Suggest- Auto-completion in search results while typing to give popular searches.

  * University Search- Listings for search engines for university websites.

  * U.S. Government Search-Search engine and Personalized Homepage that exclusively draws from

sites with a .gov TLD.

  * Video- Video search engine and online store for clips internally submitted by companies and the

general public. Google's main video partnerships include agreements with CBS, NHL and the NBA. Also

searches videos posted on YouTube, Metacafe, Daily Motion, and other popular video hosting sites.

  * Voice Local Search-Non-premium phone service for searching and contacting local businesses

  * Web History (Previously Google Search History / Personalized Search)- Web page tracking, which

records Google searches, Web pages, images, videos, music and more. It also includes Bookmarks,

search trends and item recommendations. Google released Search History in April 2005, and then

expanded and renamed the service to Web History in April 2007 as it started to also record browsing

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              40

  * Web Search- Web search engine, which is Google's core product. It was the company's first creation,

coming out of beta on September 21, 1999, and remains their most popular and famous service. It

receives 1 billion requests a day and is the most used search engine on the Internet.

  * Analytics-Traffic statistics generator for defined websites, with strong AdWords integration.

Webmasters can optimize their ad campaigns, based on the statistics that are given. Analytics is based

on the Urchin software and the new version released in May 2007 integrates improvements based on

Measure Map.

  * Gapminder- Data trend viewing platform to make nations' statistics accessible on the internet in an

animated, interactive graph form.

  * Trends- Graph plotting application for Web Search statistics, showing the popularity of particular

search terms over time. Multiple terms can be shown at once. Results can also be displayed by city,

region or language. Related news stories are also shown.

  * Zeitgeist-Collection of lists of the most frequent search queries. There are weekly, monthly and yearly

lists, as well as topic and country specific lists. Closed 22 May 2007 and replaced by "Hot Trends, a

dynamic feature in Google Trends".

  * Google Search Appliance- Hardware device that can be hooked to corporate intranets for

indexing/searching of company files.

  * Google Mini -Reduced capacity and less expensive version of the Google Search Appliance.

  * Google MK-14- A 4U rack mounted server for Google Radio Automation system.

  * GOOG-411-Google's directory assistance service, which can be used free of charge from any

telephone in the US and Canada.

  * Health- Puts you in charge of your health information. It claims to be safe, secure, and free. Organize

your health information all in one place.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             41

Privacy Policy

        At Google we recognize that privacy is important. This Privacy Policy applies to all of the

products, services and websites offered by Google Inc. or its subsidiaries or affiliated companies except

DoubleClick (DoubleClick Privacy Policy) and Postini (Postini Privacy Policy); collectively, Google‘s

―services ‖ In addition, where more detailed information is needed to explain our privacy practices, we

post supplementary privacy notices to describe how particular services process personal information.

These notices can be found in the Google Privacy Center.

        Google adheres to the US Safe Harbor Privacy Principles of Notice, Choice, Onward Transfer,

Security, Data Integrity, Access and Enforcement, and is registered with the U.S. Department of

Commerce‘s afe Harbor Program.

Information we collect and how we use it:

    We offer a number of services that do not require you to register for an account or provide any

personal information to us, such as Google Search. In order to provide our full range of services, we may

collect the following types of information:

       Information you provide – When you sign up for a Google Account or other Google service or

        promotion that requires registration, we ask you for personal information (such as your name,

        email address and an account password). For certain services, such as our advertising programs,

        we also request credit card or other payment account information which we maintain in encrypted

        form on secure servers. We may combine the information you submit under your account with

        information from other Google services or third parties in order to provide you with a better

        experience and to improve the quality of our services. For certain services, we may give you the

        opportunity to opt out of combining such information.

       Cookies – When you visit Google, we send one or more cookies – a small file containing a string

        of characters – to your computer or other device that uniquely identifies your browser. We use

        cookies to improve the quality of our service, including for storing user preferences, improving
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.            42

       search results and ad selection, and tracking user trends, such as how people search. Google

       also uses cookies in its advertising services to help advertisers and publishers serve and manage

       ads across the web. We may set one or more cookies in your browser when you visit a website,

       including Google sites that use our advertising cookies, and view or click on an ad supported by

       Google‘s advertising services

      Log information – When you access Google services, our servers automatically record

       information that your browser sends whenever you visit a website. These server logs may include

       information such as your web request, Internet Protocol address, browser type, browser

       language, the date and time of your request and one or more cookies that may uniquely identify

       your browser.

      User communications – When you send email or other communications to Google, we may

       retain those communications in order to process your inquiries, respond to your requests and

       improve our services.

      Affiliated Google Services on other sites – We offer some of our services on or through other

       web sites. Personal information that you provide to those sites may be sent to Google in order to

       deliver the service. We process such information under this Privacy Policy. The affiliated sites

       through which our services are offered may have different privacy practices and we encourage

       you to read their privacy policies.

      Gadgets – Google may make available third party applications through its services. The

       information collected by Google when you enable a gadget or other application is processed

       under this Privacy Policy. Information collected by the application or gadget provider is governed

       by their privacy policies.

      Location data – Google offers location-enabled services, such as Google Maps for mobile. If you

       use those services, Google may receive information about your actual location (such as GPS

       signals sent by a mobile device) or information that can be used to approximate a location (such

       as a cell ID).
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               43

       Links – Google may present links in a format that enables us to keep track of whether these links

        have been followed. We use this information to improve the quality of our search technology,

        customized content and advertising. Read more information about links and redirected URLs.

       Other sites – This Privacy Policy applies to Google services only. We do not exercise control

        over the sites displayed as search results, sites that include Google applications, products or

        services, or links from within our various services. These other sites may place their own cookies

        or other files on your computer, collect data or solicit personal information from you.

    Google only processes personal information for the purposes described in this Privacy Policy and/or

the supplementary privacy notices for specific services. In addition to the above, such purposes include:

       Providing our services, including the display of customized content and advertising;

       Auditing, research and analysis in order to maintain, protect and improve our services;

       Ensuring the technical functioning of our network;

       Protecting the rights or property of Google or our users; and

       Developing new services.

    You can find more information about how we process personal information by referring to the

supplementary privacy notices for particular services.

    Google processes personal information on our servers in the United States of America and in other

countries. In some cases, we process personal information on a server outside your own country. We

may process personal information to provide our own services. In some cases, we may process personal

information on behalf of and according to the instructions of a third party, such as our advertising

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                  44

Choices for personal information:

        When you sign up for a particular service that requires registration, we ask you to provide

personal information. If we use this information in a manner different than the purpose for which it was

collected, then we will ask for your consent prior to such use.

        If we propose to use personal information for any purposes other than those described in this

Privacy Policy and/or in the specific service privacy notices, we will offer you an effective way to opt out of

the use of personal information for those other purposes. We will not collect or use sensitive information

for purposes other than those described in this Privacy Policy and/or in the supplementary service privacy

notices, unless we have obtained your prior consent.

        Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, but you can reset your browser to refuse all

cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, some Google features and services may not

function properly if your cookies are disabled.

        Google uses the DoubleClick advertising cookie on AdSense partner sites and certain Google

services to help advertisers and publishers serve and manage ads across the web. You can view, edit,

and manage your ads preferences associated with this cookie by accessing the Ads Preferences

Manager. In addition, you may choose to opt out of the DoubleClick cookie at any time by using

DoubleClick‘s opt-out cookie.

        You can decline to submit personal information to any of our services, in which case Google may

not be able to provide those services to you.

Information sharing

    Google only shares personal information with other companies or individuals outside of Google in the

following limited circumstances:

       We have your consent. We require opt-in consent for the sharing of any sensitive personal

Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                45

       We provide such information to our subsidiaries, affiliated companies or other trusted businesses

        or persons for the purpose of processing personal information on our behalf. We require that

        these parties agree to process such information based on our instructions and in compliance with

        this Privacy Policy and any other appropriate confidentiality and security measures.

       We have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is

        reasonably necessary to (a) satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable

        governmental request, (b) enforce applicable Terms of Service, including investigation of potential

        violations thereof, (c) detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or technical issues, or

        (d) protect against harm to the rights, property or safety of Google, its users or the public as

        required or permitted by law.

    If Google becomes involved in a merger, acquisition, or any form of sale of some or all of its assets,

we will ensure the confidentiality of any personal information involved in such transactions and provide

notice before personal information is transferred and becomes subject to a different privacy policy.

    We may share with third parties certain pieces of aggregated, non-personal information, such as the

number of users who searched for a particular term, for example, or how many users clicked on a

particular advertisement. Such information does not identify you individually.

Information security

        We take appropriate security measures to protect against unauthorized access to or unauthorized

alteration, disclosure or destruction of data. These include internal reviews of our data collection, storage

and processing practices and security measures, as well as physical security measures to guard against

unauthorized access to systems where we store personal data.

        We restrict access to personal information to Google employees, contractors and agents who

need to know that information in order to operate, develop or improve our services. These individuals are

bound by confidentiality obligations and may be subject to discipline, including termination and criminal

prosecution, if they fail to meet these obligations.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                   46

Data integrity

        Google processes personal information only for the purposes for which it was collected and in

accordance with this Privacy Policy or any applicable service-specific privacy notice. We review our data

collection, storage and processing practices to ensure that we only collect, store and process the

personal information needed to provide or improve our services or as otherwise permitted under this

Policy. We take reasonable steps to ensure that the personal information we process is accurate,

complete, and current, but we depend on our users to update or correct their personal information

whenever necessary.

Accessing and updating personal information

        When you use Google services, we make good faith efforts to provide you with access to your

personal information and either to correct this data if it is inaccurate or to delete such data at your request

if it is not otherwise required to be retained by law or for legitimate business purposes. We ask individual

users to identify themselves and the information requested to be accessed, corrected or removed before

processing such requests, and we may decline to process requests that are unreasonably repetitive or

systematic, require disproportionate technical effort, jeopardize the privacy of others, or would be

extremely impractical (for instance, requests concerning information residing on backup tapes), or for

which access is not otherwise required. In any case where we provide information access and correction,

we perform this service free of charge, except if doing so would require a disproportionate effort. Some of

our services have different procedures to access, correct or delete users‘ personal information We

provide the details for these procedures in the specific privacy notices or FAQs for these services.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.              47

                                           Research Method

        The researcher used Internet method of research to gather important data and relevant

information that were needed in order to finish this study.

Internet Method. The only method that was used by the researcher since the topic was generally be

found only in the internet. Internet is widely and readily accessible to hundreds and millions of people in

many part of the world, it can provide practically instant information on most topics, and is having a

profound impact on the way in which ideas are formed and knowledge is created.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                 48

                                          Research Findings


        Initially, the term portal was used to refer to well-known Internet search and navigation sites that

provided a starting point for web consumers to explore and access information on the World Wide Web.

        The original portals were search engines. The initial value proposition was to offer a full text index

of document content and a chance to take advantage of the hyperlinking capabilities built into the web


        Internet navigation sites, such as Yahoo!, Excite, Infoseek, AOL, MSN, Netscape Netcenter and

Lycos, represented the next phase of portal development. The term "Internet portal" (or "web portal")

began to be used to describe these mega-sites because many users used them as a "starting point" for

their web surfing. The term "search engine" had become inadequate to describe the breadth of the

offerings, although search and navigation are still pivotal to most people's online experience. Compared

to the original Internet search engines, Internet portals offer a more structured, navigable interface.

Browsing an organized hierarchy of categories developed by people (rather than computers) who scoured

the Internet for relevant and useful Websites is more effective than issuing a keyword search against the

entire Web.

        While these public Internet portals continue to flourish, the market for portal technology is

increasingly focused on the better delivery of corporate information. Portal technology has significantly

matured since the public search sites were first built, and has been used to build a diverse range of portal

types, including specialized portals, enterprise portals, workspace portals, marketspace portals,

knowledge portals etc.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                   49

Definition of Today’s Portals

        Traditionally, a portal denotes a gate, a door, or entrance. In the context of the World Wide Web,

it is the next logical step in the evolution to a digital culture. Web pages are not completely self-referential

anymore, but allow for personalization, workflow, notification, knowledge management and groupware,

infrastructure functionality, and integration of information and applications. The idea of a portal is to

collect information from different sources and create a single point of access to information - a library of

categorized and personalized content. It is very much the idea of a personalized filter into the web.

        Portals are often the first page the web browser loads when users get connected to the Web or

that users tend to visit as an anchor site. They offer users a surplus value of service based on the

features of classic search engines: a well trained concierge who knows where to search and find; a well-

assorted newspaper kiosk that keeps the latest market information about the surfer‘s personal stocks

ready; free communications possibilities like email or discussion boards. Thus, the traditional virtual

roadhouses -the search engines- become feel-good entrance halls, a gateways to the internet, easy, one-

stop embarkation points for the daily Web-surfing sessions. The hope behind the idea of a portal: surfer

start their voyage into the web in a modern entrance hall, and preferably find their way back to the starting

point without major difficulty.

What a portal does:

       Enables universal login

       Handles both structured and unstructured data

       Facilitates multi-channel consistency

       Facilitates messaging and notification

       Automated tuning: pervasive content can be tuned based on personalization, location, browser,


       Integration to other systems
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.             50

Key features of portals:

        Security

        Access different data

        Transactions

        Search

        Publish Content

        Personal Content

What a portal is not:

        It is not just a Website (which is usually characterized by static information)

        It is not just a personalized intranet

        It is not just a personalized extranet

        It is not just a personalized front end for business applications

        It is not just groupware

        It is not just a personalized knowledge management solution

        It is not just a sophisticated search engine

Instead, a portal is nothing less than just one personalizable, browser based user interface to all the

components mentioned above.

What are the Major Functions of Portals?

    According to the analyst and consulting company Ovum - as described in their study "Enterprise

Portals: New Strategies for Information Delivery", 2000 - the ideal portal is based on eight functionality


        search and navigation

        information integration (content management)
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                     51

       personalization

       notification (push technology)

       task management and workflow

       collaboration and groupware

       integration of applications and business intelligence

       infrastructure functionality

    Although most of the functionality is not new, what is new is the idea that the business value of the

whole is considerably more than the sum of its parts. Thus, a successful portal does not only consist of

either a good collaboration support or a good integration of the information sources. Rather it consists of -

just like a successful cooking recipe - a well-integrated mixture of the basic portal functionalities.

Search and Navigation

        This functionality forms the basis for most of the successful public web portals meaning that a

successful portal should support its users in an efficient search for contents.

A portal should:

       automatically present its users with the information appropriate to the user‘s role

       suggest additional information to the user, and/or allow the user to voluntarily personalize the

        information presented by the portal

       allow the user to search for information that was not previously known to be relevant to the user‘s

        role, but which may be available through the portal

Information Integration

        A portal should warrant the integration of information from disparate sources. Moreover, the user

should also be able to optimally use this information. There are several mechanisms for doing this. One

such promising technique of innovative interfaces is the Unified Content API (Application Programming
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                52

Interface) which speeds up the development of portal applications. The Unified Content API supports all

current tools for developing web environments, such as JAVA, C++, ActiveX, Visual- and Non-Visual-

Java Beans.


        Personalization is vital to the delivery of appropriate information to portal users: each user gets

only the information which is specifically tailored to his/her needs. Personalization should be based on

user roles, as well as user preferences.

There are several types of personalization:

       Personalization                                    of                                    navigation

        e.g. shortcuts to specific information, mostly known as bookmarks or favorites

       Personalization                                   of                                   data/content

        e.g. which stocks do I want to see in my stock ticker

       Personalization                                         of                                    layout

        e.g. what information appears where on the screen, in which format, color or size

An important high-level distinction exists between:

       Design                                                                              personalization

        the initial appearance of the portal, which may be ‗pre-personalized‘ according to the user‘s role

       Voluntary                                                                           personalization

        where the user is offered a menu of personalization options to choose from

       Involuntary                                                                         personalization

        where the system itself unilaterally makes decisions for the user according to ‗guesses‘ about

        user preferences
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               53


          Notification (push technology) is referred to as a system in which a user receives information

automatically from a network server. Push technologies are designed to send information and software

directly to a user‘s desktop without the user actively requesting it   hus, the user has the opportunity to

subscribe to active information sources (such as newsfeeds and periodically updated reports) and ask to

be alerted when documents are updated.

Task Management and Workflow

          Portals providing task management services can help users take part in and/or manage formally

defined business processes.

          The workflow functionality allows the automation of business processes. Thus, as part of a

workflow-automated business process, a portal should be able to prompt its users when they have tasks

to perform.

Collaboration and Groupware

      Knowledge management and groupware ensure that the required information is stored in the right

place and in the right mode. By this means the right persons are brought together with the right

information. Groupware software assists in less formal collaboration than workflow tools. As with workflow

automation, groupware increases the value delivered by many types of specialized portals; for example,


         increases the attractiveness of business-to-consumer e-commerce portals

         enables informal communication between suppliers and customers in business-to-business e-

          commerce portals
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                     54

    Supply chain portals are also dependent on collaboration support in order to help suppliers and their

customers manage their relationships. Moreover, collaboration support is a key requirement for

knowledge portals.

Integration of Applications/Business Intelligence

    In addition to the already mentioned functionalities, a portal can integrate and support a specific

application type, for example:

       an application service provider (ASP) application

       business intelligence (BI) functionality

       support for e-commerce

Infrastructure Functionality

        The infrastructure functionality constitutes the fundament for the work environment - the other 7

functionalities mentioned above build up on this one. The runtime infrastructure associated with the portal

will have a primary effect on manageability, scalability, security and availability.

What is the Basic Architecture of Portals?

        If you bring to mind once again the eight functionalities of an ideal portal and then take a look at

real portals, that is portal projects already put into action, you will probably notice some discrepancies:

Some portals may attach importance to collaboration while others lay stress on notification, depending on

the specific needs of the portal‘s clientele, but also on the technological capabilities of the portal‘s carrier

        Most of today‘s portal solutions meet the requirements of only single functionalities, thus

providing a partial solution for particular problem areas. This is exactly were the theoretical distinction

between horizontal and vertical portals becomes crucial.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               55

Definition of Horizontal Portal

        Horizontal portals target the entire Internet community. These sites, often referred to as

"megaportals", usually contain search engines and provide the ability for user to personalize the page by

offering various channels (i.e. access to other information such as regional weather, stock quotes or news


        Yahoo! and Lycos constitute megaportals. These portals are also gateways to contents and

services of other offertory.

Definition of Vertical Portal

        According to Gartner Group, vertical portals differ only in their more specific objects and contents

from horizontal portals; the technology employed remains the same.

        Most of the times, vertical portals offer information and services customized to niche audiences

about a particular area of interest. Vertical industry portals, known as vortals, are sites that provide a

gateway to information related to a particular industry, such as, insurance, automobiles, etc.

    There are innumerable possibilities for establishing special vertical portals on the market. The

numerous solutions can be divided into 3 major groups that partially overlap:

       Corporate                                                                                  Portals:

        provide personalized access to selected information of a specific company

       Commerce                                                                                   Portals:

        support business-to-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce

       Pervasive                                                                                  Portals:

        support         access         via        Pervasive         Devices          such    as       PDAs

        Particularly this type of vertical portal will have a great stake in the future.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.                    56

Common Architecture of Horizontal and Vertical Portal

        Yet, no matter what type of portal - they all should conform to a basic architecture. Vertical portals

make only sense if they are not established independently, but as a particular occurrence of a common

platform - that is the horizontal portal. This horizontal portal performs and fulfills all the functionalities of

an ideal portal discussed above.

        The basic architecture of portals is depicted in figure 1. The middle part encompasses all the

functionalities and services of an ideal portal, the horizontal portal. These functionalities should at least in

part be fulfilled by any portal, no matter how narrow its focus. The bottom part - connectivity services -

should be able to integrate any data type that comes into question. Finally, the upper area corresponds to

the user interface which enables the presentation of all data and applications.

                                 Figure 1: The basic architecture of portals

        Any portal meets the requirements of this 3-layer-architecture and any portal should meet the

mentioned basic functionalities. However, despite this common feature, the market keeps ready a huge

palette of various portals. One of the richest taxonomy of portals is the one provided by Ovum.
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               57

What are the Major Portal Types?

        The analyst and consulting company Ovum has set up a detailed taxonomy of portal types, their

hierarchical affiliations included Figure   depicts Ovum‘s hierarchy of portal types Following you will find

short descriptions of the major portal types.

                                   Figure 2: Ovum's taxonomy of portals
Yahoo Versus Google: A Comparative Study intended for the Efficiency of Web Portals.               58

Specialized Portals

        Specialized portals are designed for a specific purpose. One such specialized portal is an ASP

(Application Service Provider) portal that provides its customers with access to applications via an

extranet or the Internet.

Marketspace Portals

        Ovum: Marketspace portals exist to support business-to-business or business-to-consumer e-


Major functionalities:

       software support for e-commerce transactions

       ability to find and access rich information about the products on sale

       ability to participate in discussion groups with other vendors and/or buyers

Public Web Portals

        Ovum: Public web portals exist to provide easy-to-use and attractive services to the public.

Major functionalities:

       extensive search and/or navigation system

       great variety of service offerings

       mega-sites used as "starting point" for the web surfing

Enterprise Portals

        Ovum: An enterprise portal (sometimes called a corporate portal) provides personalised access

to an appropriate range of information about a particular company.
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        Enterprise portals have become one of the hottest new technologies of the Internet. Initially called

intranet portals - enterprise portals existing for the benefit of the company‘s own employees, this set of

technologies has developed to assist and provide access to a company‘s business partners (suppliers,

customers) as well.

        As opposed to public web portals, enterprise portals aim at providing a virtual workplace for each

individual using them - executives, employees, suppliers, customers, third-party service providers. Rather

than offering access to consumer goods, services, and information, enterprise portals are designed to

give each individual using them access to all of the information, business applications, and services

needed to perform their jobs.

        A company‘s public Website itself is not automatically a corporate portal It can become one if the

Website provides personalization and navigation functionality, as many is beginning to do.

        More advanced enterprise portal solutions provide access via mobile devices, such as cell

phones, PDA‘s, handheld PC‘s etc facilitating on the road work, decision making, and business


Workspace Portals

        Ovum: A workspace portal is a single, coherent, integrated portal that presents its users with all

the information they need to carry out their jobs.

        According to Ovum, the workspace portal represents the radical vision of a portal providing the

user interface people always wanted and never had: A user interface making available all the information

necessary for an employee‘s job role       he current alternatives to a workspace portal are specialized

portals and/or the contemporary Windows desktop. Thus, the advantages workspace portals have to offer

over these alternatives ought to be evident and convincing.

        A ‗complete‘ enterprise portal - an enterprise portal that provides efficient personalization with the

appropriate information - is a promising candidate for a workspace portal.
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Knowledge Portals

        Ovum: Knowledge portals increase the effectiveness of knowledge workers by providing easy

access to information that is necessary or helpful to them in one or more specific roles.

        Knowledge portals are not mere intranet portals since the former are supposed to provide extra

functionality such as collaboration services, sophisticated information discovery services and a

knowledge map.

What is the Future Trend?

        A great number of analysts‘ reports inquire the future development of portals One of the most

popular reports is the hype cycle of emerging technologies for 2000 released by the Gartner Group. The

cycle is depicted in figure 3.

                                 Figure 3: Hype cycle of emerging technologies

        The hype cycle covers information such as which emerging technologies should early adopters

be examining for competitive advantage and how technology planners should identify the technologies
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and applications that will generate maximum benefit for the organization. Technologies at the peak of

inflated expectations in this hype cycle include wireless Web/WAP, ASPs, and Webtops.

        The Gartner Group expects the first portal euphoria to calm down within 2 years. Only by then will

the broader market exactly know which specific portal functionalities are relevant and indispensable.

        What is for sure by now is that ―No portal plan today can fail to take into account the boom in

wireless devices and mobile computing‖.
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Based on the gathered data, the following conclusions were gathered:

           1. Google is devoted to a single-minded mission: transforming the way the world finds and

               stores information, even if that means sending people somewhere else while Yahoo is

               taking a more multi-dimensional approach as it strives to be all things for all people – a

               one stop destination for creation, work and research.

           2. Google offers free versions of almost all of its services, while Yahoo looks for ways to

               charge its visitors.

           3. Google has a philosophy of keeping things simple so that people can used it without

               getting confused, while Yahoo are rich in application and their product are more

               customizable and complex for the beginners.

           4. Google provides more services than Yahoo.
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