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ODFW_346_2_Hatchery Impacts LWR Columbia Coho

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					              Hatchery Impacts: Lower Columbia River Coho Salmon


Hatchery programs for coho salmon in the Columbia River Basin are implemented for
two primary program objectives: harvest augmentation and reintroductions into historic
habitats that are currently vacant. Harvest augmentation programs are located below The
Dalles Dam and all hatchery smolts are marked. Reintroduction programs occur above
The Dalles Dam and release a substantial number of unmarked hatchery fish. These
reintroductions are outside of the area occupied by the listed ESU but move through the
area during freshwater migrations.

Oregon hatchery programs, including the stocks used and the current release locations
and release numbers are provided in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes the stocks that are
used in Washington and their release locations. Table 3 identifies the basins above The
Dalles Dam where reintroduction programs are occurring. Information about Columbia
Basin hatchery coho stocks, their origin, age, and brief management history, is provided
in Appendix 1 (summarized from SSHAG 2003).

The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) estimated that from 2000 through
2004, only about 5% to 10% of the unmarked coho salmon in the lower Columbia River
were wild, ESA-listed fish. The majority of unmarked coho were hatchery fish returning
to release locations above The Dalles Dam, with a smaller but significant number being
naturally produced fish from areas outside the native range for the species above
Willamette Falls. The primary wild populations are located in the Sandy and Clackamas
rivers in Oregon. Abundances for these populations, measured at Marmot and North
Fork dam fish ladders, are provided in Tables 4 and 5. ODFW also recognizes that a low
level of natural production occurs elsewhere in Oregon basins in the Lower Columbia
River ESU (Table 6).

Washington recognizes that some natural production occurs in Washington basins;
however’ adult abundances have not been quantified. This assessment does not attempt
to address hatchery risks to wild populations in Washington.

Hatchery programs may cause both genetic and ecological risks to wild populations.
Genetic risks are caused by interbreeding between hatchery and wild fish, which may
erode wild population fitness and alter life-history attributes such as timing of spawning
and fry emergence. Ecological risks include increased competition or other interactions
that can occur without interbreeding, and that may depress wild population productivity.
A short list of recommended literature about hatchery risk factors, emphasizing review
papers and recent publications, is provided in Appendix 2.

Hatchery risks to wild fish of the lower Columbia Coho ESU have changed substantially
over time, as most remaining populations consist of relatively few wild fish, often
intermixed with high proportions of hatchery fish that spawn naturally. Historically,
hatchery risks were probably high, although specific impacts are difficult to demonstrate.
Extensive out-planting of hatchery smolts and pre-smolts and straying by abundant



                                            1
hatchery adults occurred throughout the lower Columbia River Basin, particularly in the
1960s, 1970s and 1980s (ODFW 1991, Weitkamp et al. 1995). In 1982, ODFW adopted
a Coho Management Plan that expressly promoted the management of the Columbia
River Basin for hatchery coho salmon and intense harvest (ODFW 1982). The ecologic
and genetic effect of these hatchery programs, along with high harvest rates, are thought
to have contributed to the sharp decline of wild coho salmon in the lower Columbia Basin
and the extinction of numerous populations (Flagg et al.1995). The impacts were thought
to have been so severe that NOAA initially determined that no wild fish remained in the
lower Columbia that would warrant protection under the Federal Endangered Species Act
(Johnson et al. 1991). Partly because of the State of Oregon, which listed the few
remaining wild populations as a State of Oregon Endangered Species in the late 1990s,
the original NOAA decision was reversed, leading to federal listing in 2004.

For hatchery programs to pose risks to wild populations, wild and hatchery fish must
share breeding and/or rearing habitat, or migration areas. The most effective measure to
reduce hatchery risk is to isolate hatchery fish from wild populations. Fish sorting
facilities at Marmot and North Fork dams, on the Sandy and Clackamas Rivers,
respectively, have been used effectively to protect the fairly large wild populations of the
Lower Columbia Coho ESU remaining in these rivers. Since 2000, all hatchery adults
have been removed at these facilities, and releases of hatchery smolts have been restricted
to areas below the dams. ODFW estimates that 95% of the Sandy population and 70% of
the Clackamas population remain 100% free of hatchery fish at this time. However,
hatchery spawners are common below the dams, and the wild smolts must migrate to sea
with hatchery smolts, which can result in increased, perhaps severe, exposure to
predation.

It is likely that wild coho disappeared in many smaller subbasins of the lower Columbia
River in the 1990s. In these cases, hatchery programs may now pose an opportunity for
reintroduction and recovery, rather than a risk. Hatchery programs may be used to
benefit natural production by reintroductions into vacant historic habitats and possibly by
supplementation into occupied but under-seeded habitats. Although reintroductions are
included as a recovery strategy in the ODFW Endangered Species Management Plan for
Lower Columbia Coho Salmon (ODFW 2001), actions to date have been opportunistic
and incidental. Reproductive success by older hatchery stocks, such as most coho salmon
stocks in the lower Columbia River Basin (see Appendix 1), is expected to be poor.
However, strong natural selection can reverse poor fitness after the fish return to natural
environments, allowing natural populations to gradually reestablish. Stray hatchery fish
may be the only source of colonizers in some areas in the Lower Columbia Coho ESU,
particularly in the tributaries downstream of the Willamette River and in the Columbia
River Gorge. Abundance of wild (unmarked) coho salmon in these areas appears to have
improved during the good marine survival period of the early 2000s, possibly due to
some augmentation by natural-spawning hatchery strays (Table 6). Hatchery strays in the
Youngs Bay and Columbia River Gorge areas probably constitute 50% to 90% of the
current natural spawners. Hatchery strays in Clatskanie and Scappoose basins probably
constitute less than 30% of the current natural spawners.




                                             2
Conversely, the large proportions of hatchery strays among natural spawners during
recent decades have been implicated in the great reductions in the wild fish populations.
As long as this situation persists, reductions in fitness of juveniles, shifting forward of fry
emergence timing into the period of late winter/early spring storms, and competition for
habitat between hatchery and wild spawners and their progeny may impair recovery of
wild populations.

In any case, future risks due to hatchery programs would certainly be high if hatchery fish
are not eventually isolated from lower river wild populations as they reestablish and
stabilize. Previous evaluations of coho salmon hatchery programs in the lower Columbia
River demonstrated that as long as releases are restricted to acclimated hatchery smolts
that are released at the hatchery site where they were reared, straying by hatchery adults,
measured as a percent of the hatchery adults returning, is minimized. However, hatchery
strays may still be high when measured as a percent of wild abundance if wild
populations are very small and hatchery releases are very large. The size of hatchery
releases may need to be decreased in some areas if impacts due to strays are to be
controlled.

Not all hatchery programs in the Columbia River Basin are currently implemented using
lowest-risk strategies. For example, the Clatsop Economic Development Council
(CEDC) hatchery program uses fish that are reared at other locations then transferred to
net pens for acclimation in Youngs Bay and potentially other terminal fishery sites (Table
1). Fish from net pen acclimation facilities will stray into adjacent natural production
areas when they are ready to spawn.

The areas at highest future risk are probably the upper Columbia River Gorge, where
populations are subject to strays from the extensive releases of unmarked hatchery coho
salmon in upper Columbia River Basin reintroduction programs, and the Youngs Bay
area, where populations are subject to strays from extensive CEDC net pen releases.
Natural spawning populations in the Scappoose, Clatskanie and above the Big Creek weir
could probably be protected from extensive straying if future hatchery releases above
Tongue Point are restricted to the Big Creek Hatchery site and if sorting and removal of
hatchery fish is implemented at the Big Creek weir. However, managers should develop
a management plan that establishes natural abundance goals in other natural spawning
areas and determines when and how hatchery strays will begin to be managed to avoid
future risk to these newly established populations.




                                              3
                                     Tables

Table 1. Hatchery Programs in the Lower Columbia Coho ESU, Oregon Basins. Release
numbers are maximum or proposed goals. Actual annual releases may be lower. Data
from draft HGMPS (ODFW and USFWS).

Hatchery Stock Type(s) of          Release         Number of       Life Stage
               Program             Location(s)     Fish Released   Released
                                                   Annually
                                                   (maximum)
Big Creek       Isolated Harvest   Big Creek       535,000         Smolts
Stock 13        Augmentation       (RM 3.3)

                STEP/Educational Youngs Bay        5,000           Fingerlings

Bonneville      Isolated Harvest   Tanner Creek    1,250,000       Smolts
Stock 14        Augmentation

Sandy           Isolated Harvest   Cedar Creek,    700,000         Smolts
Stock 11        Augmentation       Sandy River

Eagle Creek     Isolated Harvest   Eagle Creek,    500,000         Smolts
National Fish   Augmentation       Clackamas
Hatchery                           River

CEDC            Isolated Harvest   Youngs Bay      1,225,000       Smolts
Program (may Augmentation
use Bonneville,                    Tongue Point    200,000         Smolts
Sandy or Eagle                     Blind Slough    300,000         Smolts
Creek stocks)




                                        4
Table 2. Coho salmon hatchery programs in Washington Basins in the Lower Columbia
River Basin.

Hatchery stock or program                     Release Location(s)

Little White Salmon River NFH                 Little White Salmon River

Toutle River “Type S”                         Green River, Cowlitz River

Washington “Type S” complex                   Chinook River
                                              Lewis River
                                              Kalama River
                                              Grays River
                                              Elochoman River

Cowlitz River “Type N”                        Cowlitz River

Washington “Type N” complex                   Lewis River
                                              Kalama River
                                              Elochoman River
                                              Washougal River

Lewis River “Wild”                            Cedar Creek, Lewis River



Table 3. Tribal hatchery programs for coho salmon reintroductions above Bonneville
Dam

Stocks                                        Basin

Bonneville and Eagle Creek NFS stocks         Umatilla Basin

                                              Yakima Basin

                                              Upper Columbia basins in Washington
                                              above Priest Rapids Dam




                                          5
Table 4. Abundance of wild Clackamas River coho salmon, 1957-2004

Year     Adult    Jack      Total           Year     Adult    Jack    Total
         count    count     count                    count    count   count

1957     484      114       598             1981     1,469    112     1,581
1958     309      213       522             1982     2,543    405     2,948
1959     1,046    284       1,330           1983     1,599    78      1,677
1960     670      1,515     2,185           1984     683      83      766
1961     1,449    740       2,189           1985     3,314    592     3,906
1962     2,665    454       3,119           1986     4,373    214     4,587
1963     513      1,366     1,879           1987     1,402    318     1,720
1964     1,879    597       2,476           1988     1,714    210     1,924
1965     3,312    625       3,937           1989     2,413    231     2,644
1966     527      250       777             1990     709      162     871
1967     1,096    402       1,498           1991     3,123    317     3,440
1968     4,154    542       4,696           1992     3,476    210     3,686
1969     1,420    434       1,854           1993     168      31      199
1970     2,220    531       2,751           1994     2,873    54      2,927
1971     3,912    183       4,095           1995     2,036    69      2,105
1972     978      116       1,094           1996     88       1       89
1973     644      96        740             1997     1,935    37      1,972
1974     901      36        937             1998     367      15      382
1975     1,133    56        1,189           1999     238      61      299
1976     1,215    19        1,234           2000     2,833    146     2,979
1977     893      49        942             2001     5,344    184     5,528
1978     790      57        847             2002     998      139     1,137
1979     1,138    47        1,185           2003     2,117    194     2,311
1980     3,192    50        3,242           2004     1,915    124     2,039




                                        6
Table 5. Abundance of wild Sandy River coho salmon, 1957-2004. No data are
available for some years.

Year     Adult     Jack     Total           Year      Adult    Jack      Total
         count     count    count                     count    count     count

1957                        264             1981                         620
1958                        330             1982      722      20        742
1959                        68              1983      26       34        60
1960                        1670            1984      798      8         806
1961                        1733            1985      1445     27        1472
1962                        1458            1986      1546     48        1594
1963                        2199            1987      1205     198       1403
1964                        1126            1988      1506     84        1590
1965                        1018            1989      2182     113       2295
1966     162       67       229             1990      376      80        456
1967     386       283      669             1991      1491     1         1492
1968     841       440      1281            1992      790      55        845
1969     411       305      716             1993      193      27        220
1970                                        1994      601      47        648
1971                                        1995      697      19        716
1972                                        1996      181      0         181
1973                                        1997      116      0         116
1974                                        1998      261      0         261
1975                                        1999      162      19        181
1976                                        2000      730      12        742
1977                        283             2001      1388     8         1396
1978                        426             2002      310      1         311
1979                        682             2003      1173     26        1199
1980                        635             2004      1025     7         1032




                                        7
Table 6. Recent abundance of wild coho salmon in other
Oregon population areas.

Year     Youngs Clatskanie Scappoose Gorge and
           Bay                       Hood
         and Big
          Creek
1999        0        0         0         12
2000       285      66         0         10
2001       171     131        360        20
2002       281     104        452       178
2003       217     563        319      3040
2004       142     398        722      4153




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                                       References

Draft HGMPs for:

Sandy Hatchery Coho Program (ODFW)
Bonneville Hatchery Coho Program (ODFW)
Big Creek Hatchery Coho Program (ODFW)
CEDC Hatchery Coho Program (ODFW)
Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery Coho Program (USFWS)

Flagg, T.A., et al. 1995. The effect of hatcheries on the native coho salmon populations
       in the lower Columbia River. pp. 366-375 in Schramm, H.L. and R.G. Piper
       editors, Uses and Effects of Cultured Fishes in Aquatic Ecosystems. American
       Fisheries Society Symposium No. 15. Bethesda MD.

Johnson, O.W. et al. 1991. Status Review for Lower Columbia River Coho Salmon.
      U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-202. Seattle Wa.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) 1982. Comprehensive plan for
      production and management of Oregon’s anadromous salmon and trout, part 2.
      Coho salmon plan considerations. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife,
      Portland, OR.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) 1991. Columbia Basin Coho Hatchery
      History. Compiled as comments to the NMFS Endangered Species Act
      Administrative Record. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland OR.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2001. Oregon Department of Fish
      and Wildlife’s Endangered Species Management Plan for Lower Columbia Coho
      Salmon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR.

Salmon and Steelhead Hatchery Assessment Group (SSHAG). 2003. Hatchery
      Broodstock Summaries and Assessments for Chum, Coho, and Chinook Salmon
      and Steelhead stocks within Evolutionarily Significant Units listed under the
      Endangered Species Act. NOAA Fisheries, Seattle WA.

Weitkamp, L., et al. 1995. Status Review of Coho Salmon from Washington, Oregon and
      California. U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-24.
      Seattle Wa.




                                                                                           9
                                           Appendix 1.

 Hatchery Stocks used in the Lower Columbia River Coho Salmon ESU
                   Information from SSHAG (2003)

Stock name: Big Creek coho salmon (ODFW #13).

Hatchery/collection site: The broodstock is currently collected at the weir at Big Creek
Hatchery, on Big Creek, Oregon. Hatchery fish are released into Big Creek and locations in
Youngs Bay.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: 1938.

Source: This broodstock was founded mostly from natural-origin coho collected in Big Creek.

Broodstock size/natural population size: This broodstock includes several hundred fish
annually drawn from a much larger return of hatchery fish. Very few wild fish are currently
captured at the weir. The largest capture occurred in 2000, when about 18 wild fish were
captured.

Subsequent events: Transfers into this broodstock occurred in 1944 and 1951 from the
Klaskanine Hatchery; in 1970 from Sandy River Hatchery; and in 1984 from the Bonneville
Hatchery. Otherwise, all broodstock collection occurred at Big Creek. Hatchery fish were not
marked so it is not clear how many wild fish may have been retained as broodstock. A temporary
weir was utilized just below the hatchery; however, Wallis (1963a) indicates that the weir was
removed after the egg quota was achieved. In the 1970s, a permanent weir was installed at the
Big Creek Hatchery to stop fish from spawning above the hatchery water intake. Very little
natural spawning habitat exists below the weir. The population of natural spawning coho in the
Lower Columbia River, declined sharply in the 1970s. It is likely that few, if any, wild fish have
been included in the broodstock since that time.

Recent events: Since the late 1990s, all hatchery fish have been marked. Examination of
returning adults has revealed that very few wild coho are returning to the Big Creek weir (less
than 20 in the best years). There is currently no effort to incorporate wild fish into the broodstock.

Relationship to current natural population: Natural-origin fish have not been incorporated into
this broodstock in many years. In general, there are very few unmarked coho in the Lower
Columbia River. It is likely that stray hatchery fish spawn in Lower Big Creek (although there is
not much habitat available), but they evidently are not producing many adults. The Willamette
and Lower Columbia River Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical
demographically independent populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU, although the
boundaries of such a population would be similar to the Big Creek fall-run chinook salmon DIP
(Myers et al. 2002).

Program goal: The Big Creek stock is a candidate for possible reintroductions in the Lower
Columbia under the Oregon State Endangered Species Act and Lower Columbia Coho Recovery



                                                                                                   10
Plan. The stock has been selected for this use because wild coho in the Lower Columbia are
largely extinct and this broodstock is one of the few remaining sources of fish from the historic
lower river gene pool. The Big Creek hatchery also provides coho eggs for STEP programs at
local High Schools.

Genetics data: The broodstock is clustered within the Lower Columbia River ESU (Weitkamp et
al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: Data not available.




                                                                                              11
Stock name: Tanner Creek coho salmon (ODFW #14.)

Hatchery/collection site: This broodstock is currently collected and released into Lower Tanner
Creek at Bonneville Hatchery, Oregon. It is also released into Young’s Bay as part of the net pen
program, and is the source of Oregon coho that are being released into the Upper Columbia
Basin, including in the Umatilla and Yakima Rivers.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in 1924.

Source: Coho salmon were historically collected in Eagle Creek, Herman Creek, and Tanner
Creek, and maintained as three separate broodstocks, although with considerable transfers among
them. These were eventually combined into a single broodstock. In addition to several transfers
from other hatcheries, including from the Oregon coast, local naturally produced coho were
included in these broodstocks. The coastal transfers, and transfers from Klaskanine Hatchery
(which also has been influenced by coastal fish) all occurred prior to 1950.

Broodstock size/natural population size: The broodstock has been very large. However, nearby
wild populations have been relatively very small since the 1970s.

Subsequent events: Local broodstock collection continued at the three locations, but the three
stocks were eventually combined into a single broodstock. Since the 1950s, the only transfers into
this stock were from Big Creek and Sandy hatcheries. Hatchery coho salmon were not marked so
it is not clear whether any natural-origin fish were being included in the broodstocks. Broodstock
collection protocols during the 1960s and early 1970s included the removal of excess early-return
coho salmon. It is thought that the early portion of the run has diminished considerably since
then. In the 1970s, the three creeks were blocked to prevent fish passage. Very little habitat
remained below the weirs. Accessible habitat in most surrounding basins in the Columbia River
Gorge is also limited by impassible waterfalls. Natural-origin populations in this area have
probably been very small since the 1970s.

Recent events: This broodstock is now exclusively collected from Tanner Creek at Bonneville
Hatchery and uses only returning hatchery adults for broodstock. There is no habitat below the
hatchery weir in Tanner Creek. Now that all hatchery fish are marked, it is evident that few, if
any, wild coho are ever seen there.

Relationship to current natural population: There are very few natural-origin coho along the
Oregon side of the Columbia Gorge and there is very little habitat available for them. Most creeks
in this area end at high waterfalls within the first mile of the creek. Hatchery fish may stray into
these areas. Tanner Creek and Eagle Creek, two of the larger creeks, are both blocked by hatchery
weirs. The current broodstock may have a later run-timing relative to the founding population.
The Willamette and Lower Columbia River Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined
historical demographically independent populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU,
although the boundaries for the population corresponding to this hatchery broodstock would be
similar to the Lower Gorge fall-run chinook salmon DIP (Myers et al. 2002).

Program goal: This broodstock is used to provide fish for fisheries. There are no plans to use it
under the Oregon State Recovery Plan. It is being used by the Umatilla and Yakama Tribes in
reintroduction efforts in the Yakima and Umatilla Basins.



                                                                                                 12
Genetics data: This broodstock clustered within the Lower Columbia River ESU (Weitkamp et
al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: There is no phenotypic data that could be used to compare wild and hatchery
fish in this area.




                                                                                         13
Stock name: Sandy River coho salmon (ODFW #11).

Hatchery/collection site: This broodstock is collected on Cedar Creek, a tributary of the lower
Sandy River at Sandy Hatchery, Oregon. It is currently released into Cedar Creek, and also into
Blind Slough as part of a net pen/terminal fisheries program.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: This broodstock was founded from natural-origin coho salmon in the Sandy River
in 1953.

Broodstock size/natural population size: The average wild population size in this basin, which
is counted at Marmot Dam, has been about 500 fish, dropping to as low as 116 fish in some years.
Few to no wild fish are seen in Cedar Creek where the broodstock is collected. The broodstock
includes several hundred fish.

Subsequent events: The only transfers into this stock were from Bonneville Hatchery in 1951,
1956, and 1967. Otherwise broodstock collection has occurred at Cedar Creek on the Lower
Sandy River. The Cedar Creek weir blocks fish passage. The hatchery fish were not marked until
the late 1990s, but given the current pattern of wild and hatchery fish distribution in this basin, it
is likely that few natural-origin coho were being incorporated into the broodstock.

Recent events: Now that the hatchery fish are 100% marked, it is evident that few wild coho
enter Cedar Creek. The hatchery weir currently blocks fish passage. There is currently no effort to
add wild fish to this broodstock.

Relationship to current natural population: Nearly all known wild coho in the Sandy Basin
pass above Marmot Dam to spawn in the upper basin. Since 2000, hatchery coho salmon have not
been allowed to pass the dam. Few hatchery fish are seen at the dam and it is thought that they
also did not pass the dam in large numbers prior to the 100% marking. Scale samples from the
early 1990s, which was prior to marking, also revealed no hatchery fish in the natural spawning
areas. There is no effort or plans to add wild coho to the broodstock. Currently fish are not able to
pass above the weir on Cedar Creek. The Willamette and Lower Columbia River Technical
Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical demographically independent populations
for the Lower Columbia River ESU, although the boundaries for the population corresponding to
this hatchery broodstock would be similar to the Sandy River late-fall run chinook salmon DIP
(Myers et al. 2002).

Program goal: This hatchery stock has been identified in the Oregon State Recovery Plan as a
candidate for reintroduction anywhere in the Lower Columbia. It is the only hatchery stock that
may be used for this purpose in the Sandy Basin, where a reintroduction is being planned for
Cedar Creek above the hatchery weir. There are no plans to supplement the existing wild Sandy
population. Currently the stock is used to provide fish for harvest.

Genetics data: This broodstock clusters within the Lower Columbia ESU (Weitkamp et al.1995).

Phenotypic data: Some data are available, but have not been analyzed.




                                                                                                   14
Stock name: Eagle Creek coho salmon.

Hatchery/collection site: The broodstock collection and hatchery fish release locations are both
on Eagle Creek, a tributary of the Lower Clackamas River, Oregon. The Eagle Creek Hatchery is
operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in the 1956.

Source: This broodstock was started by an introduction of Sandy Hatchery stock into Eagle
Creek. It was likely mixed with local wild coho salmon.

Broodstock size/natural population size: The naturally spawning population measured at North
Fork Dam has averaged 1,600 fish between 1990-2000, dropping to a low of 89 fish in the late
1990s. Few naturally produced coho enter Eagle Creek. The broodstock includes several hundred
fish.

Subsequent events: Since the initial founding, the stock has been collected at Eagle Creek
National Fish Hatchery (NFH)on the Lower Clackamas River. The coho salmon were not marked
during most of the program and it is not clear how many, if any, wild coho were used in the
brood. There is little habitat available above the hatchery due to natural barriers.

Recent events: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is now required to release any unmarked coho
they capture. There is no effort to use wild fish in the broodstock.

Relationship to current natural population: Starting in 2000, no hatchery coho are allowed
above North Fork Dam on the Clackamas River. Since all the hatchery coho have been marked, it
is evident that few to no hatchery coho arrive at the dam. Essentially, all wild coho spawn above
the dam. Wild fish are not added to the broodstock. The Willamette and Lower Columbia River
Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical demographically independent
populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU, although the boundaries for the population
corresponding to this hatchery broodstock would be similar to the Clackamas River
steelhead DIP (Myers et al. 2002).

Program goal: This broodstock is used to provide fish for fisheries. There is no plan it use it in
the Oregon State Recovery Plan. In addition to on-station releases, the program is providing
555,000 smolts for release into the Clearwater River and 1,000,000 smolts for the CEDC net-pen
program in Youngs Bay, Tongue Point, and Blind Slough.

Genetics data: This broodstock is clustered with other populations in the Lower Columbia River
ESU (Weitkamp et al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: There may be some phenotypic information available from the North Fork
Dam traps and at the hatchery, but it has not been analyzed.




                                                                                               15
Stock name: Little White Salmon River coho salmon.

Hatchery/collection site: The broodstock is collected at Little White Salmon NFH and reared
and released at Willard NFH, both located on the Little White Salmon River, Washington.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in 1957.

Source: Coho salmon stocks from a number of sources (including local late-run, early returning
Quinalt, Quilcene, Dungeness and Toutle Rivers were initially utilized to establish the run. Most
probably, coho salmon transferred to the Little White Salmon River from the Toutle River
Hatchery (Cowlitz River Basin) were responsible for sustained runs to the hatchery. Local
broodstock collection began in 1957 and may have included wild fish along with the returning
hatchery fish. It is not clear whether there were many wild fish in the Little White Salmon River
at the time, although there is little available habitat for naturally spawning salmonids in the Little
White Salmon River.

Broodstock size/natural population size: N/A.

Subsequent events: Broodstock collection occurred on site, but additional transfers from the
Toutle River occurred until 1963. Egg transfers have also been received from the Kalama,
Bonneville, Cascade, Speelyai, and Eagle Creek Hatcheries. This stock has a similar history as
other Washington Type S coho stocks.

Recent events: None.

Relationship to current natural population: WDFW does not identify a wild population as
being present in this basin. The Willamette and Lower Columbia River Technical Recovery Team
(TRT) has not determined historical demographically independent populations for the Lower
Columbia River ESU, although the boundaries for the population corresponding to this hatchery
broodstock would be similar to the Upper Gorge fall-run chinook salmon DIP (Myers et al.
2002).

Program goal: This broodstock is used to provide fish for fisheries.

Genetics data: None available.

Phenotypic data: No data that can be used to compare hatchery and wild fish have been
compiled.




                                                                                                   16
Stock name: Type S Toutle River coho salmon.

Hatchery/collection site: Broodstock collection and release of hatchery fish occurs at North Fork
Toutle River Hatchery on the Green River Cowlitz River Basin), Washington.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in the 1950s.

Source: This broodstock was largely founded from native coho salmon in the Toutle River. There
was a substantial wild coho salmon run into that basin when the hatchery opened. Possibly some
fish from Bonneville Hatchery were transferred into the stock at the time it was started. However,
Bonneville Hatchery records also indicate receiving Toutle River stock at that time so it is
possible that Toutle River fish were just sent to Bonneville for rearing while the new Toutle River
Hatchery was being completed.

Broodstock size/natural population size: The wild population size is not monitored, but is
thought to be very small.

Subsequent events: The broodstock was collected at the Toutle River Hatchery after it was
founded. The hatchery fish were not marked so it is not known if wild fish were added to it. After
the eruption of Mt. St. Helens and the destruction of the hatchery, adults were captured and
moved to Grays River Hatchery for rearing and release. Selective marking and subsequent
spawning allowed this stock to be kept separate. It was reintroduced into the parent stream
following hatchery reconstruction. In the 2001/2002 return year, 15,697 coho returned to the
hatchery, with 4,967 being retained for broodstock purposes (WDFW 2003).

Recent events: The hatchery fish are now marked, but there is apparently little information
available on wild Columbia River coho salmon in Washington. No other coho hatchery stocks
may be transferred into this basin or facility.

Relationship to current natural population (mixing between hatchery and wild): WDFW
describes the wild population as depressed, but has no abundance data for it. (WDF et al. 1992).
The Willamette and Lower Columbia River Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined
historical demographically independent populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU,
although the boundaries for the population corresponding to this hatchery broodstock would be
similar to the Toutle River fall-run chinook salmon DIP (Myers et al. 2002).

Program goal: The broodstock is used to provide fish for fisheries, and is a Mitchell Act funded
program.

Genetics data: Data not available.

Phenotypic data: No data that can be used to compare hatchery and wild fish have been
compiled. However, the broodstock is considered to be an “early-run” broodstock, which is
apparently similar to the original wild coho in the Toutle River. Broodstock collection occurs in
September and October.




                                                                                                17
Stock name: Type S coho stock complex.

Hatchery/collection site: This is a group of mixed-origin coho salmon from the Lower Columbia
River. It is characterized by an earlier run time (September and October) relative to other
Columbia River coho salmon populations (October to December). Records indicate coho salmon
from the Toutle River Hatchery were subsequently transferred to other facilities. Local
broodstock collection began at those facilities when the hatchery fish returned. Current
broodstock collection and hatchery fish release sites are:

   Chinook River at the Sea Resources Hatchery
   Lewis River at Lewis River Hatchery

   Grays River at Grays River Salmon Hatchery

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in the 1950s.

Source: This stock was founded by fish from the Toutle River, then combined with any local fish
that were available. Records specifically indicate that a substantial wild coho run was still present
in the Lewis River at the time the broodstock was transferred there.

Broodstock size/ natural population size: Data not available, but the abundance of natural
origin spawners relative to hatchery-origin spawners is thought to be quite low in most basins.

Subsequent events: After the initial transfer of fish from the Toutle River, the broodstocks were
primarily collected at the local sites from returning adults. However, the hatchery plans for these
facilities state that transfers between these sites could occur any time production goals were not
met locally. These transfers apparently occurred as needed at least into the mid-1990s, when the
hatchery plans were documented. Hatchery fish were not marked until the late 1990s, so it is not
known if wild fish were ever used in the broods.

Recent events: Hatchery fish are now 100% marked.

Relationship to current natural population: The inventory data for the Lewis River indicate
that the wild population is depressed. There are no data for the other basins, but WDFW describes
them as being depressed. Comparisons between the hatchery and natural population should be
based on the Type S stocks being of Toutle River origin.

Program goal: These hatchery programs are used to provide fish for harvest.

Genetics data: The early-run coho in Washington, analyzed from the Cowlitz and Lewis, cluster
with the Lower Columbia River ESU (Weitkamp et al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: These hatchery fish are specifically considered to be “early-run” coho, and are
collected in September and October. On the Lewis and Elochomin, a “late-run” coho stock is also
collected (see below). On the Lewis, it is possible the two have been mixed. On the Elochomin,




                                                                                                  18
the hatchery trap is closed for a period in late October to separate the run times. This is likely an
artificial separation.




                                                                                                  19
Stock name: Cowlitz River Type N coho salmon stock

Hatchery/collection site: The broodstock collection location and hatchery fish release site is at
Cowlitz Hatchery on the Cowlitz River, Washington.

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in the 1950s.

Source: The broodstock was founded with wild Cowlitz River coho salmon. Although hatchery
coho salmon from other ESUs were historically released into the Lower Columbia River,
including the Cowlitz River, there was a sizeable wild population still present in the basin during
the 1950s.

Broodstock size/natural population size: The current wild population is very small.

Subsequent events: The broodstock collection location for this stock has continued to be at
Cowlitz Hatchery. According to the hatchery plan for this program, no other coho stock may be
added to this broodstock or released into the Cowlitz Basin. Apparently none were transferred in
since the broodstock was established. The hatchery coho were not 100% marked so it is not clear
how long wild fish continued to be used in the broodstock.

Recent events: No other coho salmon stock may be added to this broodstock or released into the
Cowlitz Basin. In the 2001/2002 return year, 73,215 hatchery-origin coho returned to the
hatchery, with 5,477 being retained for broodstock purposes (WDFW 2003).

Relationship to current natural population: Inventory data for the Cowlitz indicate that the
wild population is depressed. In the 2001/2002 return year, 73,215 hatchery-origin fish and 6,175
natural-origin fish were intercepted at the hatchery (WDFW 2003). The Willamette and Lower
Columbia River Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical demographically
independent populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU, although the boundaries for the
population corresponding to this hatchery broodstock would be similar to the Lower Columbia
River fall-run chinook salmon DIP (Myers et al. 2002). Some fish are passed above the three
mainstem Cowlitz River dams into what may have resembled the Upper Cowlitz, Tilton, and
Cispus River spring-run chinook salmon DIPs.

Program goal: This broodstock is used for a reintroduction program in the Upper Cowlitz River,
above Cowlitz Falls Dam. N-type coho salmon are also released to support local recreational
fisheries programs.

Genetics data: Cowlitz coho cluster with the Lower Columbia ESU (Weitkamp et al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: This broodstock is collected between September and February, but it is
considered to be a “late-run” hatchery stock (Type N). Analyses of coho returns to the Cowlitz,
Washougal, Lewis, and Elochoman hatcheries indicated a significant delay in return timing, at a
rate of approximately 1.7 days/year (Fuss et al. 1998). Although this may be due to selection in
the hatchery, it was also suggested by the authors that the timing of in-river harvest could have
caused this effect.




                                                                                                 20
Stock name: Lewis River wild coho salmon

Hatchery/Collection Site: This stock is reared at the Speelyai Hatchery for release in into Cedar
Creek (Malinoski Acclimation Pond – Lewis River Basin) and for remote site incubators in Cedar
Creek and Celatchie Creek. This is part of a short term program (5 years beginning with the 2001
brood) in cooperation with Fish First.

Broodstock Origin and History:

Year Founded: Program was started with 2001 brood.

Broodstock size and population size: This is a small program, with 15,000 smolt released
annually and 10,000 eggs for each RSI. broodstock are collected from unmarked coho at the trap
on Cedar Creek. If collection is not sufficient at this site then unmarked coho are collected at
Merwin or Lewis River Hatchery.

Recent events: Eggs are otolith marked and smolts are tagged but not marked with an external
fin clip.

Relationship to current natural population: There are no data on natural spawning population
in Cedar Creek, but the natural spawning population is probably influenced by hatchery adults
returning to the Lewis River Hatchery. Unmarked adults used for broodstock may be of hatchery
origin, but poorly marked at the time of juvenile release. The Willamette and Lower Columbia
River Technical Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical demographically
independent populations for the Lower Columbia River ESU, although the boundaries for the
population corresponding to this hatchery broodstock would be similar to the North Fork Lewis
River steelhead DIP (Myers et al. 2002).




                                                                                               21
Stock name: Type N coho stock complex.

Hatchery/collection site: This is a group of mixed-origin coho salmon from the Lower
Columbia River. It is characterized by a later run time (late October to December). Records
indicate coho from the Cowlitz River Hatchery were subsequently transferred to other facilities.
Local broodstock collection began at those facilities when the hatchery fish returned. Current
broodstock collection and hatchery fish release sites are:

   Lewis River at Lewis River Hatchery
   Kalama River at Kalama Falls Hatchery
   Elochoman River at Elochoman Hatchery
   Washougal River at Skamania Hatchery

Broodstock origin and history

Year founded: Founded in the 1950s.

Source: The broodstock was founded from wild Cowlitz River coho. The broodstock was
subsequently transferred to the other rivers, and broodstock collection began locally. Some local
wild fish may have been included in these initial collections, especially in the Lewis River, which
was particularly noted as having a substantial wild population at the time of the transfer.

Broodstock size/natural population size: Various, but in general, wild populations on the
Washington side of Lower Columbia River are very small. Returns to the hatchery for the
2001/2002 return year are presented in the table below (data from WDFW 2003).
Hatchery Hatchery-Origin Adults Natural-origin (unmarked) adults:

Elochoman 7,349 36
Kalama Falls/Fallert Creek 16,741 -
Lewis River 60,280 593
Washougal 18,460 –

Subsequent events: After the initial transfer, broodstock collection began in each individual
river. However, the hatchery plans for these stocks indicate that transfers between these programs
were permitted as needed to meet production goals. The hatchery coho were not 100% marked, so
it is not clear if wild fish were used in the broodstock.

Recent events: The hatchery fish are now 100% marked.

Relationship to current natural population: Wild abundance on the Lewis is shown by
inventory data to be depressed. No data is available for the other locations, but WDFW
considers the populations to be depressed. The Willamette and Lower Columbia River Technical
Recovery Team (TRT) has not determined historical demographically independent populations
for the Lower Columbia River ESU, any consideration of the relationship of this broodstock with
local populations should be based on the Cowlitz River origin of this stock.

Program goal: This broodstock is used to provide fish for harvest.




                                                                                                22
Genetics data: The stocks that have been analyzed cluster with the Lower Columbia ESU
(Weitkamp et al. 1995).

Phenotypic data: Analyses of coho returns to the Cowlitz, Washougal, Lewis, and Elochoman
hatcheries indicated a significant delay in return timing, at a rate of approximately 1.7 days/year
(Fuss et al. 1998). Although this may be due to selection in the hatchery, it was also suggested by
the authors that the timing of in-river harvest could have caused this effect. Additionally, Fuss et
al. (1998) could not detect any significant changes in fecundity or size at age among the Type N
coho analyzed.




                                                                                                 23
                                  Appendix 2
                   Some Recommended Literature on Hatchery Risks

Berejikian, B.A., Mathews, S.B., and Quinn, T.P. 1996. Effects of hatchery and wild ancestry and
        rearing environments on the development of agonistic behavior in steelhead trout
        (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 2004–2014.

Chilcote, M.W. 2003. Relationship between natural productivity and the frequency of wild fish in
        mixed spawning populations of wild and hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss ).
        Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 60: 1057-1067.

Fleming, I.A., Jonsson, B., and Gross, M.R. 1994. Phenotypic divergence of sea-ranched, farmed
       and wild salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 2808–2824.

Fleming, I.A., Jonsson, B., Gross, M.R., and Lamberg, A. 1996. An experimental study of the
       reproductive behaviour and success success of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo
       salar). J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 893–905.

Ford, M. 2002. Selection in captivity during supportive breeding may reduce fitness in the wild.
       Conserv. Biol. 16: 815–925.

Heard, W.R. 1998. Do hatchery salmon affect the North Pacific Ocean ecosystem? North Pacific
       Anadromous Fisheries Commission Bulletin No 1:405-411.

Hilborn, R. and D. Eggers. 2000. A review of the hatchery programs for pink salmon in Prince
        William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries
        Society. 129: 333-350.

Hindar, K., N. Ryman, and F. Utter. 1991. Genetic effects of cultured fish on natural fish
        populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:945–957.

Kallio-Nyberg, I., and Koljonen, M.L. 1997. The genetic consequence of hatchery-rearing on life-
        history traits of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a comparative analysis of sea-
        ranched salmon with wild and reared parents. Aquaculture, 153: 207–224.

Kostow, K.E. 2004. Differences in juvenile phenotypes and survival between hatchery stocks
       and a natural population provide evidence for modified selection due to captive breeding.
       Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 61: 577-589.

Kostow, K.E., Marshall, A.R., and Phelps, S.R. 2003. Natural spawning hatchery steelhead
       contribute to smolt production but experience low reproductive success. Trans. Am. Fish.
       Soc. 132: 780–790.

Leider, S.A., Hulett, P.L., Loch, J.J., and Chilcote, M.W. 1990. Electrophoretic comparison of the
        reproductive success of naturally spawning transplanted and wild steelhead trout through
        the returning adult stage. Aquaculture, 88: 239–252.

Lichatowich, J. 1999. Salmon without rivers. Island Press, Covelo, Ca.




                                                                                               24
Lynch, M., and M. O’Hely. 2001. Captive breeding and the genetic fitness of natural populations.
       Conservation Genetics 2:363–378.

McLean, J.E., P. Bentzen and T.P. Quinn. 2004. Differential reproductive success of sympatric,
      naturally spawning hatchery and wild steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental
      Biology of Fishes. 69:.359-369.

McMichael, G.A., Pearsons, T.N., and Leider, S.A. 1999. Behavoiral interactions among
      hatchery-reared steelhead smolts and wild Onocrhynchus mykiss in natural streams. N.
      Am. J. Fish. Manag. 19: 948–956.

McMichael, G. A., T. N. Pearsons, and S. A. Leider. 2000. Minimizing ecological impacts of
      hatchery reared juvenile steelhead trout on wild salmonids in a Yakima basin watershed.
      Pages 365–380 in E. E. Knudsen, C. R. Steward, D. D. MacDonald, J.E. Willams and D.
      W. Reiser, editors. Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific salmon. Lewis Publishers,
      New York.

Nickelson, T. 2003. The influence of hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on the
       productivity of wild coho salmon populations in Oregon coastal basins. Canadian
       Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 60: 1050-1056.

Nickelson, T.E., M.F. Solazzi, and S.L. Johnson. 1986. Use of hatchery coho salmon
       (Oncorhynchus kisutch) presmolts to rebuild wild populations in Oregon coastal streams.
       Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 43: 2443-2449.

Reisenbichler, R. R., and S. P. Rubin. 1999. Genetic changes from artificial propagation of
       Pacific salmon affect the productivity and viability of supplemented populations. ICES
       Journal of Marine Science 56:459–466.

Ryman, N., and Laikre, L. 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective
       population size. Conserv. Biol. 5: 325–329.

Ryman, N., Jorde, P.E., and Laikre, L. 1995. Supportive breeding and variance effective
       population size. Conserv. Biol. 9: 1619–1628.

Waples, R. S. 1991. Genetic interactions between hatchery and wild salmonids: lessons from the
       Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:124–133.

Woodworth, L.M., Montgomery, M.E., Brisco, D.A., and Frankham, R. 2002. Rapid genetic
     deterioration in captive populations: causes and conservation implications. Conserv.
     Genet. 3: 277–288.




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