Done by: Isra Abu Alreesh
The cardiovascular system carries
oxygen and nutrients to all of the
cells in the body.
It also picks up carbon dioxide and
other waste products that the body
produces so that they can be
The main components of this system
are the heart, blood vessels, and
When a problem arises within the
system, it is known as a
Infectious disease of
• What is sepsis?
life-threatening medical condition, found in association
with a known or suspected infection (usually but not
limited to bacteria) whose signs and symptoms fulfill
at least two of the following criteria of a systemic
inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):
– tachycardia >90 b/min (rest)
– body temperature either high (>100.4F or 38C) or
low (<96.8F or 36C)
– increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute
or a PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in
arterial blood) <32 mm Hg
– abnormal white blood cell count (>12000 cells/µL or
<4000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of
white blood cell)
• Patients that meet the above criteria have sepsis and
are also termed septic.
• Terms that are often used in place of
sepsis are bacteremia, septicemia,
and blood poisoning.
• However, bacteremia means the
presence of bacteria in the blood; this
can occur without any of the criteria
listed above and should not be
confused with sepsis. For example, you
can brush your teeth and get
bacteremia for a short time and have no
SIRS criteria occur.
What cause sepsis ? ?
Common bacterial causes of sepsis
are gram-negative bacilli (for
example, E. coli,P. aeruginosa, E.
aureus, Streptococcus species
and Enterococcus species.
Candida species are some of the
most frequent fungi that cause
• A common cause
streptococcus causes severe
fever, malaise, and dropping
• An important complication of
streptococcal septicemia is
• is an immune reaction taking
place in the heart tissues and
is usually stimulated by
antigens derived from
• Inflammation of the heart
tissues is often accompanied
by inflammation and arthritis
of the joints, a condition
called rheumatoid arthritis.
• Tularemia is due to a
– Patients experience a
accompanied by fever,
malaise, and numerous
plague When the
Yersinia pestis enters
• transmitted by its
rodent reservoir, the
• Brucellosis is also known as undulant fever.
• The bacterial agents …. genus Brucella.
• They are transmitted to humans by
unpasteurized milk and contaminated meat.
• the bacteria cause fever, chills, and malaise.
• due to the Gram-positive, aerobic,
sporeforming rod Bacillus anthracis.
• Spores are inhaled from the air, or
they are acquired during contact with
contaminated soil or animals such as
sheep and cattle.
•In the bloodstream, B.
anthracis causes severe
hemorrhaging, and the spleen,
kidneys, and other bloodrich
organs become engorged with
• Relapsing fever is so named
because of the recurrent periods
• Borrelia recurrentis transmitted
by lice.It may also be
transmitted among humans by
• Jaundice and rose-colored skin
spots accompany the infection.
• Borrelia burgdorferi.
• transmitted by ticks of the genus
• first symptoms of Lyme disease is a
bull's-eye rash occurring on the skin.
The rash is called erythema chronicum
• After the rash fades and spirochetes
enter the blood, fever and other
• the heart is affected and irregular
heartbeat may be observed.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
• caused by the rickettsia
• transmitted by ticks of the
• The disease is characterized
by a maculopapular skin
rash (a “spotted rash”)
occurring on the appendages
and then spreading to the
trunk. The fever is very high,
and headaches accompany the
• is the presence of viruses in the
• commonly occurs in viral infections,
but is dangerous only in certain
headache, fever, skin rash, diarrhea, and
muscle pains. Exact
symptoms depend on a type of
infection; there are no “specific
symptoms of viremia”.
Primary and Secondary Viremia
• Primary viremia << invasion of
viruses into the blood from the initial
site of infection. Viruses can then
infect various organs, like the lymph
nodes or liver, and spread into the
blood again after some days or weeks;
this is secondary viremia.
• Transmitted by the mosquito
Aedes aegypti .
• After injection, the virus
spreads to the lymph nodes
and blood, where it persists in
the bloodrich organs such as
• Very high fever, nausea, and
jaundice accompany the
disease. The mortality rate is
• Transmitted by the Aedes
• cause fever and severe muscle,
bone, and joint pains, leading to
break bone fever .
• Successive exposures to the
virus may result in dengue
hemorrhagic fever ,in which
extensive hemorrhaging occurs
in the blood-rich organs .
caused by Epstein-Barr virus.
remain latent in the B-lymphocytes.
sore throat, mild fever, enlarged spleen,
and an elevation of infected B-
lymphocytes known as Downey cells.
The viruses are often transmitted by saliva.
Treatment usually consists of extensive
bed rest, and recurrences are possible.
The virus of infectious mononucleosis is
related to a type of tumor of the jaw
tissues known as Burkitt's lymphoma.
Acquired immune deficiency
Destruction of T-lymphocytes of the
immune system was associated with these
• occurs when your body attacks your blood vessels. It's
not always clear why this happens, infection, some
cancers, certain immune system disorders or an allergic
reaction may serve as the trigger.
• primary vasculitis “unknown”
• secondary vasculitis
– Immune system diseases.
– Allergic reactions.
– Blood cell cancers.
• Lymphangitis is an inflammation of
the lymphatic channels that occurs as a
result of infection at a site distal to the
channel. The most common cause of
lymphangitis in humans is Streptococcus
pyogenes (Group A strep).
Continue with Alice
• Carditis, inflammation of
the heart, is most
down into three
• Pericarditis, inflammation of
the fibroserous sac enclosing
the heart, manifests itself as
PERICARDITIS one of three types as a result
of the bodies reaction to the
• Acute serofibrinous
pericarditis - the result of
• Acute purulent pericarditis -
the result of bacterial
• Chronic pericarditis - the
result of infection by M.
tuberculosis or fungi
The most common viruses
causing the disease are
members of the Picornaviridae
• most common bacteria infecting
the pericardium are the
• Chronic pericarditis is most
commonly caused by M.
tuberculosis or Histoplasma
• Many species of viruses, bacteria,
chlamydia, rickettsia, fungi and protozoans
can cause myocarditis. However, viruses
are the most important infectious agents.
Of these, the enteroviruses are the single
most important group.
• Coxsackie B virus >> Direct viral damage
of myocardial cell.
• inflammation of the membrane
lining the chambers of the heart
and covering the cusps of the
• Is caused directly by microbial
colonization of the endocardium.
• or indirectly by induction of
autoimmunity, as in acute
• Direct colonization is termed
• Almost all bacteria and many fungi, when
they get into the blood stream, can cause
• 80% of the cases are caused by
streptococci or staphylococci.
Serologic findings include:
•High levels of rheumatoid
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS factor
• Low grade fever •High levels of antinuclear
• Anorexia antibody
• Fatigue •High levels of circulating
• Weight loss immune complexes
Urinary findings may
•Red blood cell casts
• Chylamydia pneumoniae
infection is one of risk factors that can
induce plaque rupture. The plaque debris
lodges in a blood vessel upon rupture and
blocks blood flow.
• is a suppurative
infection of the
or prosthetic valves or
Causes of myocardial abscess
Associated with endocarditis
– Native valve endocarditis
– Prosthetic valve endocarditis Miscellaneous:
– Myocardial infection. – Complications of acute MI
– Mechanical interventions -
– Infection associated with
– Infection associated with
Associated with septicemia: – Myocarditis and suppuration
•Bronchopneumonias associated with HIV
•Genitourinary infections – Transplanted heart infection
Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases
• caused by the sporozoan
• In humans, the protozoa multiply
in the bloodstream and undergo a
complex reproductive cycle.
• Patients experience fever, with
other constitutional abnormalities,
but symptoms are generally mild.
• AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis can
result in seizures and then brain
inflammation, and it may be a
cause of death.
• blood disease due to many species of the
• transmitted by mosquitoes Anopheles.
• they invade the red blood cells in the
merozoite form. Within the red blood cells,
the protozoa undergo various stages of
their life cycle, and eventually the red blood
cells rupture to release large numbers of
• The toxic compounds released during the
rupture cause the paroxysms of chills and
fever that characterize malaria.
• Treatment is effective with drugs such as
quinine, chloroquine, and primaquine.
• Schistosomiasis is caused by
• The parasites multiply and live
within the bloodstream
• Interfere with the flow of blood
and lymph and cause local
(round worms) of the family
Filariodidea. There are three
types of these thread-like filarial
• Wuchereria bancrofti,90%
• Brugia malayi, the remainder
• B. timori, also causes the
transmitted to humans through
The majority of infections
are asymptomatic. still
cause damage to the
Acute episodes of local
skin, lymph nodes and
lymphatic vessels often
accompany the chronic
caused by infection
• Transmitted by
Signs of congestion due to
isolated left-sided heart failure
Biventricular failure with
hepatomegaly, ascites, and
pulmonary congestion are more
common in the later stages.
Signs of thromboembolism may
appear, mostly with
embolization to the brain, lungs,