Cardiovascular diseases (PowerPoint)

					Cardiovascular diseases




      Done by: Isra Abu Alreesh
              Alice Tayseer
Cardiovascular system
 The cardiovascular system carries
  oxygen and nutrients to all of the
  cells in the body.
 It also picks up carbon dioxide and
  other waste products that the body
  produces so that they can be
  disposed of.
 The main components of this system
  are the heart, blood vessels, and
  blood.
 When a problem arises within the
  system, it is known as a
  cardiovascular disease.
    Infectious disease of
            blood
•    What is sepsis?
    life-threatening medical condition, found in association
     with a known or suspected infection (usually but not
     limited to bacteria) whose signs and symptoms fulfill
     at least two of the following criteria of a systemic
     inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):
     – tachycardia >90 b/min (rest)
     – body temperature either high (>100.4F or 38C) or
       low (<96.8F or 36C)
     – increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute
       or a PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in
       arterial blood) <32 mm Hg
     – abnormal white blood cell count (>12000 cells/µL or
       <4000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of
       white blood cell)

•   Patients that meet the above criteria have sepsis and
    are also termed septic.
• Terms that are often used in place of
  sepsis are bacteremia, septicemia,
  and blood poisoning.
• However, bacteremia means the
  presence of bacteria in the blood; this
  can occur without any of the criteria
  listed above and should not be
  confused with sepsis. For example, you
  can brush your teeth and get
  bacteremia for a short time and have no
  SIRS criteria occur.
  What cause sepsis ? ?
Common bacterial causes of sepsis
 are gram-negative bacilli (for
 example, E. coli,P. aeruginosa, E.
 corrodens), S.
 aureus, Streptococcus species
 and Enterococcus species.

Candida species are some of the
 most frequent fungi that cause
 sepsis.
Bacterial sepsis
       Streptococcal
        septicemia
• A common cause
  (Streptococcus pyogenes).
  streptococcus causes severe
  fever, malaise, and dropping
  blood pressure.

• An important complication of
  streptococcal septicemia is
  endocarditis.
 Rheumatic fever
• is an immune reaction taking
  place in the heart tissues and
  is usually stimulated by
  antigens derived from
  Streptococcus pyogenes.
• Inflammation of the heart
  tissues is often accompanied
  by inflammation and arthritis
  of the joints, a condition
  called rheumatoid arthritis.
• Tularemia is due to a
  Gram-negative rod
  Francisella tularensis.
  – Patients experience a
    blood disorder
    accompanied by fever,
    malaise, and numerous
    nonspecific symptoms.
• Septicemic
  plague When the
  Gram-negative rod
  Yersinia pestis enters
  the blood.

• transmitted by its
  rodent reservoir, the
  rat flea.
               Brucellosis
• Brucellosis is also known as undulant fever.
• The bacterial agents …. genus Brucella.
• They are transmitted to humans by
  unpasteurized milk and contaminated meat.
• the bacteria cause fever, chills, and malaise.
                      Anthrax
• due to the Gram-positive, aerobic,
  sporeforming rod Bacillus anthracis.
• Spores are inhaled from the air, or
  they are acquired during contact with
  contaminated soil or animals such as
  sheep and cattle.


                       •In the bloodstream, B.
                       anthracis causes severe
                       hemorrhaging, and the spleen,
                       kidneys, and other bloodrich
                       organs become engorged with
                       blood
             Relapsing fever
• Relapsing fever is so named
  because of the recurrent periods
  of fever.

• Borrelia recurrentis transmitted
  by lice.It may also be
  transmitted among humans by
  ticks.

• Jaundice and rose-colored skin
  spots accompany the infection.
     Lyme disease
• Borrelia burgdorferi.
• transmitted by ticks of the genus
  Ixodes.
• first symptoms of Lyme disease is a
  bull's-eye rash occurring on the skin.
  The rash is called erythema chronicum
  migrans.

• After the rash fades and spirochetes
  enter the blood, fever and other
  symptoms appear.

• the heart is affected and irregular
  heartbeat may be observed.
 Rocky Mountain spotted fever
• caused by the rickettsia
  Rickettsia rickettsii.

• transmitted by ticks of the
  genus Dermacentor.

• The disease is characterized
  by a maculopapular skin
  rash (a “spotted rash”)
  occurring on the appendages
  and then spreading to the
  trunk. The fever is very high,
  and headaches accompany the
  disease.
Viral Diseases
Viremia
• is the presence of viruses in the
   bloodstream.
• commonly occurs in viral infections,
   but is dangerous only in certain
   infections.
“systemic” symptoms
headache, fever, skin rash, diarrhea, and
   muscle pains. Exact
   symptoms depend on a type of
   infection; there are no “specific
   symptoms of viremia”.
Primary and Secondary Viremia
• Primary viremia << invasion of
   viruses into the blood from the initial
   site of infection. Viruses can then
   infect various organs, like the lymph
   nodes or liver, and spread into the
   blood again after some days or weeks;
   this is secondary viremia.
                  Yellow fever.
• Transmitted by the mosquito
  Aedes aegypti .

• After injection, the virus
  spreads to the lymph nodes
  and blood, where it persists in
  the bloodrich organs such as
  the liver.

• Very high fever, nausea, and
  jaundice accompany the
  disease. The mortality rate is
  high.
• Transmitted by the Aedes
  aegypti mosquito
• cause fever and severe muscle,
  bone, and joint pains, leading to
  break bone fever .
• Successive exposures to the
  virus may result in dengue
  hemorrhagic fever ,in which
  extensive hemorrhaging occurs
  in the blood-rich organs .
Infectious
mononucleosis
caused by Epstein-Barr virus.
remain latent in the B-lymphocytes.
Symptoms
 sore throat, mild fever, enlarged spleen,
  and an elevation of infected B-
  lymphocytes known as Downey cells.
The viruses are often transmitted by saliva.
  Treatment usually consists of extensive
  bed rest, and recurrences are possible.

The virus of infectious mononucleosis is
  related to a type of tumor of the jaw
  tissues known as Burkitt's lymphoma.
  Acquired immune deficiency
       syndrome (AIDS)
Destruction of T-lymphocytes of the
 immune system was associated with these
 infections.
                      Vasculitis
• occurs when your body attacks your blood vessels. It's
  not always clear why this happens, infection, some
  cancers, certain immune system disorders or an allergic
  reaction may serve as the trigger.

• primary vasculitis “unknown”
• secondary vasculitis
   –   Infections
   –   Immune system diseases.
   –   Allergic reactions.
   –   Blood cell cancers.

Rheumatoid vasculitis<<
• Lymphangitis is an inflammation of
  the lymphatic channels that occurs as a
  result of infection at a site distal to the
  channel. The most common cause of
  lymphangitis in humans is Streptococcus
  pyogenes (Group A strep).
Continue with Alice
       ^_^
      CARDITIS
•   Carditis, inflammation of
    the heart, is most
    conveniently broken
    down into three
    categories:

1. Pericarditis
2. Myocarditis
3. Endocarditis
               • Pericarditis, inflammation of
                 the fibroserous sac enclosing
                 the heart, manifests itself as
PERICARDITIS     one of three types as a result
                 of the bodies reaction to the
                 infecting agent

               •    Acute serofibrinous
                   pericarditis - the result of
                   virus infection

               •    Acute purulent pericarditis -
                   the result of bacterial
                   infection (except
                   Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

               • Chronic pericarditis - the
                 result of infection by M.
                 tuberculosis or fungi
The most common viruses
  causing the disease are
  members of the Picornaviridae
  (enteroviruses)

• most common bacteria infecting
  the pericardium are the
  pyogenic cocci
  (Staphylococcus, Streptococcu
  s, Neisseria)

• Chronic pericarditis is most
  commonly caused by M.
  tuberculosis or Histoplasma
  capsulatum.
           MYOCARDITIS
• Many species of viruses, bacteria,
  chlamydia, rickettsia, fungi and protozoans
  can cause myocarditis. However, viruses
  are the most important infectious agents.
  Of these, the enteroviruses are the single
  most important group.

• Coxsackie B virus >> Direct viral damage
  of myocardial cell.
MYOCARDITIS
              ENDOCARDITIS
• inflammation of the membrane
  lining the chambers of the heart
  and covering the cusps of the
  various valves.

• Is caused directly by microbial
  colonization of the endocardium.
• or indirectly by induction of
  autoimmunity, as in acute
  rheumatic fever.
• Direct colonization is termed
  infective endocarditis
• Almost all bacteria and many fungi, when
  they get into the blood stream, can cause
            infective endocarditis.

    • 80% of the cases are caused by
       streptococci or staphylococci.
                    Serologic findings include:
                    •Hypergammaglobulinemia
                    •High levels of rheumatoid
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS   factor
• Low grade fever   •High levels of antinuclear
• Anorexia          antibody
• Fatigue           •High levels of circulating
• Weight loss       immune complexes
• Anemia
• Splenomegaly
                    Urinary findings may
                    include:
                    •Proteinuria
                    •Microscopic hematuria
                    •Red blood cell casts
 MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
• Chylamydia pneumoniae
   infection is one of risk factors that can
  induce plaque rupture. The plaque debris
  lodges in a blood vessel upon rupture and
  blocks blood flow.
     Myocardial
     abcesses

• is a suppurative
  infection of the
  myocardium,
  endocardium, native
  or prosthetic valves or
  perivalvular
  structures.
   Causes of myocardial abscess
 Associated with endocarditis
 – Native valve endocarditis
 – Prosthetic valve endocarditis   Miscellaneous:
 – Myocardial infection.            – Complications of acute MI
                                    – Trauma
                                    – Mechanical interventions -
                                      Catheterization, angioplasty,
                                      stent
                                    – Infection associated with
                                      L.V aneurysm
                                    – Infection associated with
                                      atrial myxoma
Associated with septicemia:         – Myocarditis and suppuration
  •Bronchopneumonias                  associated with HIV
  •Genitourinary infections         – Transplanted heart infection
Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases
                Toxoplasmosis
• caused by the sporozoan
  Toxoplasma gondii.

• In humans, the protozoa multiply
  in the bloodstream and undergo a
  complex reproductive cycle.

• Patients experience fever, with
  other constitutional abnormalities,
  but symptoms are generally mild.

• AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis can
  result in seizures and then brain
  inflammation, and it may be a
  cause of death.
              Malaria
• blood disease due to many species of the
  genus Plasmodium.
• transmitted by mosquitoes Anopheles.
• they invade the red blood cells in the
  merozoite form. Within the red blood cells,
  the protozoa undergo various stages of
  their life cycle, and eventually the red blood
  cells rupture to release large numbers of
  parasites.
• The toxic compounds released during the
  rupture cause the paroxysms of chills and
  fever that characterize malaria.
• Treatment is effective with drugs such as
  quinine, chloroquine, and primaquine.
  Schistosomiasis
• Schistosomiasis is caused by
  Schistosoma mansoni.

• The parasites multiply and live
  within the bloodstream

• Interfere with the flow of blood
  and lymph and cause local
  tissue damage.
            filariasis

Cause
(round worms) of the family
     Filariodidea. There are three
     types of these thread-like filarial
     worms:
•    Wuchereria bancrofti,90%
•    Brugia malayi, the remainder
•    B. timori, also causes the
     diseases.
transmitted to humans through
     mosquitoes.
Symptoms
The majority of infections
are asymptomatic. still
cause damage to the
lymphatic system
Acute episodes of local
inflammation involving
skin, lymph nodes and
lymphatic vessels often
accompany the chronic
lymphoedema or
elephantiasis.
Chagas disease
• American
  trypanosomiasis, is
  caused by infection
  with Trypanosoma
  cruzi.

• Transmitted by
  blood-sucking
  triatomine insects
  (kissing bugs)
Chronic chagasic
cardiomyopathy
Signs of congestion due to
isolated left-sided heart failure

Biventricular failure with
peripheral edema,
hepatomegaly, ascites, and
pulmonary congestion are more
common in the later stages.

Signs of thromboembolism may
appear, mostly with
embolization to the brain, lungs,
and extremities.
Thank you