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   Originated with the Aryans mixing
    cultures with the indigenous people.
    –   This included the Harappans.
    –   Aryans brought the polytheistic belief.
   Hindu pantheon contains over
    33,000 deities.
    –   Multiple gods are manifestations of one
   The Vedas.
    –   Oldest sacred book.
    –   Instructions for sacrifice and hymns used in
    –   Source of Hindu understanding of the universe.
    –   Created by the Aryans.
    –   Written in Sanskrit.
    –   Divided into four parts.
    –   Still held in high regard today.
   The Upanishads
    –   The fourth section of the Vedas.
    –   Philosophical statements that become
        the bases for Hindu philosophy.
   Reincarnation
    –   Souls are reborn until they reach Brahman.
    –   Karma
    –   Moral and political justification for caste system.
    –   Gave hope for the poor.
    –   Sacred cows
            Value of cattle in Aryan pastoral society.
            Source of money and food.
    –   Dharma
            “the Law”
            Law of human behavior depending on your caste.
    –   Concrete vision of the future.
Devotion to the three major gods.

   Brahman, the creator.
    –   Ultimate reality.
    –   Only two temples were dedicated to him.
    –   Depicted in red with three bearded faces.
    –   He is a depiction of all three gods.

   Vishnu, the preserver.
    –   A god of love, benevolence, and forgiveness.
    –   Believed to have appeared on earth in nine
    –   He will return at “the end of time”.
Devotion to the three major gods.

   Siva, the destroyer.
    –   The most popular and well know god.
    –   Developed from the Aryan god Rudra.
    –   The god of death, destruction, and
    –   The god of dance.
    –   The god of vegetable, animal, and
        human reproduction.
           “Death is but the prelude to rebirth”.
              Caste System
   Brahmans
    –   Priestley class.
    –   In charge of religious ceremonies.
   Kshatriyas
    –   Warriors.
   Vaisyas
    –   Commoners.
    –   Merchants and farmers.
   Sudras
    –   Majority of the population.
    –   Peasants and people that performed manual
    –   Limited rights in society.
                 Caste System
   Untouchables
    –   Not even considered a social class.
    –   Menial, degrading tasks
            Picking up trash, removing dead bodies, etc.
    –   5% of the ancient Indian population.
    –   Not considered human.
            Their presence was harmful to others.
    –   Other Indians would not touch them or eat
        food handled by them.
    –   They had to make sure everyone knew where
        they were.
                 Siddhartha Gautama
   Lived from 562-483 BC.
   He is sheltered from all bad things in life until
    he travels outside his father’s palace in 533 BC.
   In the same year, he leaves the palace.
    –  Leaves behind everything he owns and shaves his
   Lives as a homeless wandering.
    –   Studies under Brahman teachers
    –   Develops his own disciples.
   Reaches the “Great Enlightenment” after seven weeks
    of meditation.
    –   Fully attains the status of Buddha at age 35.
   Another interpretation of Hinduism.
   Rejected the authority of the Vedas and
    the caste system.
    –   Offered a vision of salvation based on
        individual effort.
   Missionaries.
    –   Would eventually spread through China, Japan,
        Korea, and Southeast Asia.
   Slowly pushed aside in India by a
    resurgence of Hinduism.
    –   Also hindered by the spread of Islam.
   Buddha’s teachings were based on the
    things he observed.
   Looking at life with a straight forward
    –   The world is constantly changing, nothing is
   Free yourself from attachments.
   “The Three Marks of Existence”
         1. Pain
         2. Impermanence
         3. Egolessness

   “Greatest ruler in the history of India.”
   Originally ruled by force until becoming
   Ruled by benevolence.
    –   Shelters on trade routes.
    –   Sent out Buddhist missionaries.
   Empire declined after his death in 232
                        the Four Noble Truths

1.       Life means suffering.
     –    Life is frustrating and painful.
     –    Pain, sickness, injury, tiredness, old age, and
     –    “as happy moments pass by, we ourselves and out
          loved ones will pass away one day, too.”
2.       The origin of suffering is attachment.
     –    The reasons for suffering are desire, passion,
          pursuit of wealth, and prestige, striving for fame
          and popularity, etc.
             Basically craving and clinging.
     –    Loss of something is inevitable, as a result
          suffering will follow.
     –    Objects of attachment also include “self”.
             “self” is an imaginary entity, a part of the universe.
                        the Four Noble Truths

3. The cessation of suffering is attainment.
     –    Cessation can be reached by attaining “nirodha”.
             The unmaking of craving and attachment.
     –    Suffering can be overcome by removing the cause
          of suffering.
     –    Nirvana.
4.       The path to the cessation of suffering.
     –    The middle way between hedonism and asceticism.
     –    The path is like “wandering on the of becoming”.
             Every rebirth is subject to karma.
                     the Eightfold Path

1.       Right View – wisdom
     –   The beginning and the end of the path.
     –   Right thoughts and actions.
2. Right Intention – wisdom
     –   Commitment to ethical and mental self-
     –   Resist the pull of desire, feeling of anger,
         and acts of cruelty.
                    the Eightfold Path
3.       Right Speech – ethical conduct
     –   First principle of ethical conduct.
     –   Abstain from lies, slanderous comments, offensive
         words towards others, and idle chatter.
     –   Tell the truth, speak friendly, warm, and gently
         when talking to others.
4.       Right Action – ethical conduct
     –   Deeds that involve bodily actions.
     –   Abstain from killing (including suicide), stealing,
         robbery, fraud, deceitfulness, dishonesty, and
         sexual misconduct.
     –   Act kindly, compassionately, honestly, respect the
         property of others, and respectful sexual conduct.
                       the Eightfold Path
5.       Right Livelihood – ethical conduct
     –    Money should be earned legally and peacefully.
     –    Avoid dealing with weapons, living beings
          (slaughtering animals, slave trade and
          prostitution), meat production, and poisons
          (including alcohol and drugs).
6.       Right Effort – mental development
     –    The right work ethic.
     –    Prevent the creating of evil states, abandon evil
          states that have already been created, create good
          states, and maintain good states that already exist.
                  the Eightfold Path

7. Right Mindfulness – mental
  –   Be in control of your body’s senses.
  –   Contemplation of the body, feeling
      (repulsive, attractive, or neutral), the state
      of mind, and the phenomena.
8. Right Concentration – mental
  –   The practice of meditation.
 Response to Hinduism and rejection of castes
 Founded by Mahavira
    – Also considered the last of 23 founders.
   Tirthankaras
    – “ford builders” or “crossing builders”
 599-527 BCE.
 Parallels the life of Buddha.
 Family wealth vs. poverty.
 Became far more extreme
 Ahimsa yields true release
 Ahimsa produces Jina.
    – Release from this life or conqueror over
      attachment, hence the name Jain.
   Reincarnation.
    – Until one finally breaks the cycle.
 Karma is the glue that sticks with you
  through life.
 Reduce involvement and one reduces karma.
 Dualism:
    – Jiva
        Soul = good, pure, eternal.
    – Ajiva
        Matter = bad, impure, temporal.
   Asceticism cleanses the soul of the karma.
   Salvation comes from one’s work.
   God, prayers, rituals, etc. aren’t necessary.
            the Five Vows

1.   Ahimsa
2.   Speak the truth
3.   Don’t steal
4.   Celibacy
5.   Renounce attachments
1.   White Clad
      • Located in northern
      • Will wear white clothes.
2.   Sky Clad
      • Located in southern
      • Nudist.
3.   Sub-group of the
     White Clad
      • Reject temples.