Docstoc

hinduism__buddhism__and_jainism_powerpoint_2010-11

Document Sample
hinduism__buddhism__and_jainism_powerpoint_2010-11 Powered By Docstoc
					Hinduism
                Hinduism
   Originated with the Aryans mixing
    cultures with the indigenous people.
    –   This included the Harappans.
    –   Aryans brought the polytheistic belief.
   Hindu pantheon contains over
    33,000 deities.
    –   Multiple gods are manifestations of one
        reality.
                  Hinduism
   The Vedas.
    –   Oldest sacred book.
    –   Instructions for sacrifice and hymns used in
        ceremonies.
    –   Source of Hindu understanding of the universe.
    –   Created by the Aryans.
    –   Written in Sanskrit.
    –   Divided into four parts.
    –   Still held in high regard today.
                 Hinduism
   The Upanishads
    –   The fourth section of the Vedas.
    –   Philosophical statements that become
        the bases for Hindu philosophy.
                        Hinduism
   Reincarnation
    –   Souls are reborn until they reach Brahman.
    –   Karma
    –   Moral and political justification for caste system.
    –   Gave hope for the poor.
    –   Sacred cows
            Value of cattle in Aryan pastoral society.
            Source of money and food.
    –   Dharma
            “the Law”
            Law of human behavior depending on your caste.
    –   Concrete vision of the future.
Hinduism
Devotion to the three major gods.

   Brahman, the creator.
    –   Ultimate reality.
    –   Only two temples were dedicated to him.
    –   Depicted in red with three bearded faces.
    –   He is a depiction of all three gods.


   Vishnu, the preserver.
    –   A god of love, benevolence, and forgiveness.
    –   Believed to have appeared on earth in nine
        forms.
    –   He will return at “the end of time”.
Hinduism
Devotion to the three major gods.

   Siva, the destroyer.
    –   The most popular and well know god.
    –   Developed from the Aryan god Rudra.
    –   The god of death, destruction, and
        disease.
    –   The god of dance.
    –   The god of vegetable, animal, and
        human reproduction.
           “Death is but the prelude to rebirth”.
              Caste System
   Brahmans
    –   Priestley class.
    –   In charge of religious ceremonies.
   Kshatriyas
    –   Warriors.
   Vaisyas
    –   Commoners.
    –   Merchants and farmers.
   Sudras
    –   Majority of the population.
    –   Peasants and people that performed manual
        labor.
    –   Limited rights in society.
                 Caste System
   Untouchables
    –   Not even considered a social class.
    –   Menial, degrading tasks
            Picking up trash, removing dead bodies, etc.
    –   5% of the ancient Indian population.
    –   Not considered human.
            Their presence was harmful to others.
    –   Other Indians would not touch them or eat
        food handled by them.
    –   They had to make sure everyone knew where
        they were.
Buddhism
                      Buddhism
                 Siddhartha Gautama
   Lived from 562-483 BC.
   He is sheltered from all bad things in life until
    he travels outside his father’s palace in 533 BC.
   In the same year, he leaves the palace.
    –  Leaves behind everything he owns and shaves his
       head.
   Lives as a homeless wandering.
    –   Studies under Brahman teachers
    –   Develops his own disciples.
   Reaches the “Great Enlightenment” after seven weeks
    of meditation.
    –   Fully attains the status of Buddha at age 35.
                 Buddhism
   Another interpretation of Hinduism.
   Rejected the authority of the Vedas and
    the caste system.
    –   Offered a vision of salvation based on
        individual effort.
   Missionaries.
    –   Would eventually spread through China, Japan,
        Korea, and Southeast Asia.
   Slowly pushed aside in India by a
    resurgence of Hinduism.
    –   Also hindered by the spread of Islam.
                 Buddhism
   Buddha’s teachings were based on the
    things he observed.
   Looking at life with a straight forward
    approach.
    –   The world is constantly changing, nothing is
        permanent.
   Free yourself from attachments.
   “The Three Marks of Existence”
         1. Pain
         2. Impermanence
         3. Egolessness
               Buddhism
                      Asoka

   “Greatest ruler in the history of India.”
   Originally ruled by force until becoming
    Buddhist.
   Ruled by benevolence.
    –   Shelters on trade routes.
    –   Sent out Buddhist missionaries.
   Empire declined after his death in 232
    BCE.
                         Buddhism
                        the Four Noble Truths

1.       Life means suffering.
     –    Life is frustrating and painful.
     –    Pain, sickness, injury, tiredness, old age, and
          death.
     –    “as happy moments pass by, we ourselves and out
          loved ones will pass away one day, too.”
2.       The origin of suffering is attachment.
     –    The reasons for suffering are desire, passion,
          pursuit of wealth, and prestige, striving for fame
          and popularity, etc.
             Basically craving and clinging.
     –    Loss of something is inevitable, as a result
          suffering will follow.
     –    Objects of attachment also include “self”.
             “self” is an imaginary entity, a part of the universe.
                         Buddhism
                        the Four Noble Truths

3. The cessation of suffering is attainment.
     –    Cessation can be reached by attaining “nirodha”.
             The unmaking of craving and attachment.
     –    Suffering can be overcome by removing the cause
          of suffering.
     –    Nirvana.
4.       The path to the cessation of suffering.
     –    The middle way between hedonism and asceticism.
     –    The path is like “wandering on the of becoming”.
             Every rebirth is subject to karma.
                   Buddhism
                     the Eightfold Path

1.       Right View – wisdom
     –   The beginning and the end of the path.
     –   Right thoughts and actions.
2. Right Intention – wisdom
     –   Commitment to ethical and mental self-
         improvement.
     –   Resist the pull of desire, feeling of anger,
         and acts of cruelty.
                     Buddhism
                    the Eightfold Path
3.       Right Speech – ethical conduct
     –   First principle of ethical conduct.
     –   Abstain from lies, slanderous comments, offensive
         words towards others, and idle chatter.
     –   Tell the truth, speak friendly, warm, and gently
         when talking to others.
4.       Right Action – ethical conduct
     –   Deeds that involve bodily actions.
     –   Abstain from killing (including suicide), stealing,
         robbery, fraud, deceitfulness, dishonesty, and
         sexual misconduct.
     –   Act kindly, compassionately, honestly, respect the
         property of others, and respectful sexual conduct.
                      Buddhism
                       the Eightfold Path
5.       Right Livelihood – ethical conduct
     –    Money should be earned legally and peacefully.
     –    Avoid dealing with weapons, living beings
          (slaughtering animals, slave trade and
          prostitution), meat production, and poisons
          (including alcohol and drugs).
6.       Right Effort – mental development
     –    The right work ethic.
     –    Prevent the creating of evil states, abandon evil
          states that have already been created, create good
          states, and maintain good states that already exist.
                Buddhism
                  the Eightfold Path

7. Right Mindfulness – mental
   development
  –   Be in control of your body’s senses.
  –   Contemplation of the body, feeling
      (repulsive, attractive, or neutral), the state
      of mind, and the phenomena.
8. Right Concentration – mental
   development
  –   The practice of meditation.
Jainism
                       Jainism
 Response to Hinduism and rejection of castes
  system.
 Founded by Mahavira
    – Also considered the last of 23 founders.
   Tirthankaras
    – “ford builders” or “crossing builders”
                 Jainism
                    Mahavira
 599-527 BCE.
 Parallels the life of Buddha.
 Family wealth vs. poverty.
 Became far more extreme
 Ahimsa yields true release
 Ahimsa produces Jina.
    – Release from this life or conqueror over
      attachment, hence the name Jain.
                     Jainism
                        Teachings
   Reincarnation.
    – Until one finally breaks the cycle.
 Karma is the glue that sticks with you
  through life.
 Reduce involvement and one reduces karma.
 Dualism:
    – Jiva
        Soul = good, pure, eternal.
    – Ajiva
        Matter = bad, impure, temporal.
   Asceticism cleanses the soul of the karma.
   Salvation comes from one’s work.
   God, prayers, rituals, etc. aren’t necessary.
              Jainism
            the Five Vows

1.   Ahimsa
2.   Speak the truth
3.   Don’t steal
4.   Celibacy
5.   Renounce attachments
                    Jainism
                          Sects
1.   White Clad
      • Located in northern
        India.
      • Will wear white clothes.
2.   Sky Clad
      • Located in southern
        India.
      • Nudist.
3.   Sub-group of the
     White Clad
      • Reject temples.

				
DOCUMENT INFO