Hinduism Hinduism Originated with the Aryans mixing cultures with the indigenous people. – This included the Harappans. – Aryans brought the polytheistic belief. Hindu pantheon contains over 33,000 deities. – Multiple gods are manifestations of one reality. Hinduism The Vedas. – Oldest sacred book. – Instructions for sacrifice and hymns used in ceremonies. – Source of Hindu understanding of the universe. – Created by the Aryans. – Written in Sanskrit. – Divided into four parts. – Still held in high regard today. Hinduism The Upanishads – The fourth section of the Vedas. – Philosophical statements that become the bases for Hindu philosophy. Hinduism Reincarnation – Souls are reborn until they reach Brahman. – Karma – Moral and political justification for caste system. – Gave hope for the poor. – Sacred cows Value of cattle in Aryan pastoral society. Source of money and food. – Dharma “the Law” Law of human behavior depending on your caste. – Concrete vision of the future. Hinduism Devotion to the three major gods. Brahman, the creator. – Ultimate reality. – Only two temples were dedicated to him. – Depicted in red with three bearded faces. – He is a depiction of all three gods. Vishnu, the preserver. – A god of love, benevolence, and forgiveness. – Believed to have appeared on earth in nine forms. – He will return at “the end of time”. Hinduism Devotion to the three major gods. Siva, the destroyer. – The most popular and well know god. – Developed from the Aryan god Rudra. – The god of death, destruction, and disease. – The god of dance. – The god of vegetable, animal, and human reproduction. “Death is but the prelude to rebirth”. Caste System Brahmans – Priestley class. – In charge of religious ceremonies. Kshatriyas – Warriors. Vaisyas – Commoners. – Merchants and farmers. Sudras – Majority of the population. – Peasants and people that performed manual labor. – Limited rights in society. Caste System Untouchables – Not even considered a social class. – Menial, degrading tasks Picking up trash, removing dead bodies, etc. – 5% of the ancient Indian population. – Not considered human. Their presence was harmful to others. – Other Indians would not touch them or eat food handled by them. – They had to make sure everyone knew where they were. Buddhism Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Lived from 562-483 BC. He is sheltered from all bad things in life until he travels outside his father’s palace in 533 BC. In the same year, he leaves the palace. – Leaves behind everything he owns and shaves his head. Lives as a homeless wandering. – Studies under Brahman teachers – Develops his own disciples. Reaches the “Great Enlightenment” after seven weeks of meditation. – Fully attains the status of Buddha at age 35. Buddhism Another interpretation of Hinduism. Rejected the authority of the Vedas and the caste system. – Offered a vision of salvation based on individual effort. Missionaries. – Would eventually spread through China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. Slowly pushed aside in India by a resurgence of Hinduism. – Also hindered by the spread of Islam. Buddhism Buddha’s teachings were based on the things he observed. Looking at life with a straight forward approach. – The world is constantly changing, nothing is permanent. Free yourself from attachments. “The Three Marks of Existence” 1. Pain 2. Impermanence 3. Egolessness Buddhism Asoka “Greatest ruler in the history of India.” Originally ruled by force until becoming Buddhist. Ruled by benevolence. – Shelters on trade routes. – Sent out Buddhist missionaries. Empire declined after his death in 232 BCE. Buddhism the Four Noble Truths 1. Life means suffering. – Life is frustrating and painful. – Pain, sickness, injury, tiredness, old age, and death. – “as happy moments pass by, we ourselves and out loved ones will pass away one day, too.” 2. The origin of suffering is attachment. – The reasons for suffering are desire, passion, pursuit of wealth, and prestige, striving for fame and popularity, etc. Basically craving and clinging. – Loss of something is inevitable, as a result suffering will follow. – Objects of attachment also include “self”. “self” is an imaginary entity, a part of the universe. Buddhism the Four Noble Truths 3. The cessation of suffering is attainment. – Cessation can be reached by attaining “nirodha”. The unmaking of craving and attachment. – Suffering can be overcome by removing the cause of suffering. – Nirvana. 4. The path to the cessation of suffering. – The middle way between hedonism and asceticism. – The path is like “wandering on the of becoming”. Every rebirth is subject to karma. Buddhism the Eightfold Path 1. Right View – wisdom – The beginning and the end of the path. – Right thoughts and actions. 2. Right Intention – wisdom – Commitment to ethical and mental self- improvement. – Resist the pull of desire, feeling of anger, and acts of cruelty. Buddhism the Eightfold Path 3. Right Speech – ethical conduct – First principle of ethical conduct. – Abstain from lies, slanderous comments, offensive words towards others, and idle chatter. – Tell the truth, speak friendly, warm, and gently when talking to others. 4. Right Action – ethical conduct – Deeds that involve bodily actions. – Abstain from killing (including suicide), stealing, robbery, fraud, deceitfulness, dishonesty, and sexual misconduct. – Act kindly, compassionately, honestly, respect the property of others, and respectful sexual conduct. Buddhism the Eightfold Path 5. Right Livelihood – ethical conduct – Money should be earned legally and peacefully. – Avoid dealing with weapons, living beings (slaughtering animals, slave trade and prostitution), meat production, and poisons (including alcohol and drugs). 6. Right Effort – mental development – The right work ethic. – Prevent the creating of evil states, abandon evil states that have already been created, create good states, and maintain good states that already exist. Buddhism the Eightfold Path 7. Right Mindfulness – mental development – Be in control of your body’s senses. – Contemplation of the body, feeling (repulsive, attractive, or neutral), the state of mind, and the phenomena. 8. Right Concentration – mental development – The practice of meditation. Jainism Jainism Response to Hinduism and rejection of castes system. Founded by Mahavira – Also considered the last of 23 founders. Tirthankaras – “ford builders” or “crossing builders” Jainism Mahavira 599-527 BCE. Parallels the life of Buddha. Family wealth vs. poverty. Became far more extreme Ahimsa yields true release Ahimsa produces Jina. – Release from this life or conqueror over attachment, hence the name Jain. Jainism Teachings Reincarnation. – Until one finally breaks the cycle. Karma is the glue that sticks with you through life. Reduce involvement and one reduces karma. Dualism: – Jiva Soul = good, pure, eternal. – Ajiva Matter = bad, impure, temporal. Asceticism cleanses the soul of the karma. Salvation comes from one’s work. God, prayers, rituals, etc. aren’t necessary. Jainism the Five Vows 1. Ahimsa 2. Speak the truth 3. Don’t steal 4. Celibacy 5. Renounce attachments Jainism Sects 1. White Clad • Located in northern India. • Will wear white clothes. 2. Sky Clad • Located in southern India. • Nudist. 3. Sub-group of the White Clad • Reject temples.