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A Framework for Business Process Architecture

VIEWS: 38 PAGES: 29

									A Framework
for
Business Process Architecture


                 Brett Champlin, MBA, CCP
                          President, ABPMP
             Board of Directors & Vice President, ICCP
  Adjunct Faculty, Heller College of Business, Roosevelt University
  Business Performance Improvement, Allstate Insurance Company
                    Do you know where your
                    processes are?
    Introduction

   A Short Story    • Are you doing Process Re-Design?
   The Zachman         – Reengineering? Improvement?
     Framework
                    • Are you implementing Workflow?
Business Process
     Framework         – Document Management? Task Management?
        The Goal
                    • What‟s a core process?
  How to Build It
                       – Support Process? Control Process?
        Benefits
                    • What‟s the difference between a Process
      Discussion
                       – Activity, Task, Operation, Method
                    • Where do you put all those process models and
                      designs?
                    • Should you buy a Process Modeling, Process
                      Engineering, or Business Process Management
                      package?
                                                                     2
                                     ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Business Process Architecture
    Introduction

   A Short Story    • Business NOT Systems Process
   The Zachman
     Framework
                      Architecture
Business Process
     Framework
                    • Define the Key Terms and Components
        The Goal    • Represent Key Points of View
  How to Build It
                    • Support Process Innovation Methods
        Benefits

      Discussion
                    • Support Process Management Program
                    • The Business “Blueprint”




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                               ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    A Short Story
    Introduction

   A Short Story    The Three Stone Masons
   The Zachman
     Framework
                    • Imagine a 14th Century Monk
Business Process
     Framework

        The Goal    • An Encounter with 3 Stone Masons
  How to Build It

        Benefits    • Carving Stones
      Discussion

                    • Building a Wall

                    • Building a Cathedral

                    • Context

                                                                 4
                                 ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
    Introduction

   A Short Story
                          A Process Architecture
   The Zachman
     Framework
                            is built with models
Business Process
     Framework
                     as a house is built with stones
        The Goal

  How to Build It      - but a collection of models
        Benefits

      Discussion
                                is no more a
                           Process Architecture
                    than a heap of stones is a house.
                              (with apologies to Poincare)




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                              ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
    Introduction


                       “A rock pile ceases to be
   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework

Business Process
                              a rock pile
     Framework

        The Goal
                    the moment a single man [sic]
  How to Build It          contemplates it,
        Benefits

      Discussion
                          bearing within him
                      the image of a cathedral”
                       - Antoine de Saint Exupery, author and aviator (1900-1945)




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                                   ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Zachman Information Systems
                    Architecture
    Introduction                            DATA                        PROCESS                       LOCATION                                        ROLE                       TIMING                      MOTIVATION

   A Short Story
                                   List of things important to     List of processes the           List of locations in which                 List of business              List of business events.        List of business goals.
                                   the business.                   business performs               the business operates                      responsibilities.
                                                                                                     .       .
                                                                                                      . . ..
                    BUSINESS                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BUSINESS

   The Zachman      SCOPE                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SCOPE


     Framework                     ENTITY:
                                   class of business thing
                                                                   PROCESS:
                                                                   class of business processes.    NODE: business location.
                                                                                                                                              RESP.: class of business
                                                                                                                                              responsibilities
                                                                                                                                                                            EVENT: class of significant
                                                                                                                                                                            business events.                ENDS: mission(s)/goal(s).

                                   Business entities & their       Flows between business          Communications links                       Business Organization.        Business Cycles.                Business Strategies
                                   inter-relationships             processes                       between locations
Business Process
     Framework
                    BUSINESS                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BUSINESS
                    MODEL                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MODEL
                                                                   PROCESS: business process       NODE: business unit
                                   ENTITY: business entity         I/O: business resource          LINK: business relationship                RESP: work unit/structure     EVENT: business event           ENDS: goal(s)/mission(s)

        The Goal                   REL'SHIP: business rule              (including information)       (org., product, information)            WORK: business resources      CYCLE: lapse/lag                MEANS: tactics/plans

                                   Model of the business data Flows between application            Distribution network                       Model of the access           Model of the process            Service Support
                                   and inter-relationships    functions                                                                       requirements.                 control structure.              Environment

  How to Build It   INFORMATION
                    SYSTEMS
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ----------------------         INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SYSTEMS
                    MODEL                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MODEL
                                                                   PROCESS: application function   NODE: I.S. function (processor,                                                                          ENDS: service level agreements

        Benefits                   ENTITY: data entity
                                   RELTNSHIP: data relationship
                                                                   I/O: user views (set of data
                                                                        elements).
                                                                                                            storage, etc.).
                                                                                                   LINK: line characteristics
                                                                                                                                              RESP: system privilege
                                                                                                                                              WORK: access requirements
                                                                                                                                                                            EVENT: logical process event
                                                                                                                                                                            CYCLE: precedence/timing
                                                                                                                                                                                                            MEANS: I/S plans & change tactics


                                   Database Design                 System Design                   System Architecture                        Access Design                 Processing Environment          Availability Design

      Discussion    TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                                                     IBM AS/400




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TECHNOLOGY
                    MODEL                                                                               Mainf rame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MODEL
                                                                                                                             IBM Compatible
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ENDS: benchmark models
                                   ENTITY: segment, row, record    PROCESS: computer function      NODE: hardware/system software             RESP: access authorizations   EVENT: physical process event   MEANS: availability of windows
                                   RELTNSHP: pointer, key, index   I/O: screen/device formats      LINK: line specifications                  WORK: access group            CYCLE: processing calendar      and measures
                                   Database Schema and             Program Code and Control Configuration Definition                          Access Definition             Job Processing Definition       Performance Definition
                                   Subschema Definition            Blocks

                    TECHNOLOGY                                                                                                                                                                                                               TECHNOLOGY
                    DEFINITION                                                                                                                                                                                                                 DEFINITION

                                   ENTITY: fields, access privledge                                                                                                         EVENT: transactions, job        ENDS: benchmark targets
                                   RELTNSHP: access methods,        PROCESS: source code           NODE: addresses                            RESP: access object           submittal                       MEANS: benchmark testing,
                                                addresses           I/O: control blocks            LINK: protocols                            WORK: access profiles         CYCLE: job & region schedules   system monitoring/tuning

                                   Data Storage Structures         Executable Code                 System Configuration                       Access Privileges             Processing Schedules            System Management
                                   and Access Mechanisms                                                                                                                                                    Facilities

                    INFORMATION                                          Programs, jobs,               Processors, networks,                      User-id‟s, access                                                                  INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                                                              Batch jobs, transactions, Monitoring facilities, problem
                    SYSTEM             Databases, data .....                                                                                                                                                                              SYSTEM
                                                                         transactions.....             switches. monitors.....                    controls .....              run/rerun instructions ..... management .....




                         Source: Zachman, John A.: “A Framework for Information Systems Architecture.” IBM Systems Journal. V26:N3 1987.


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                                                                                   ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Focuses or Topics
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework

Business Process
     Framework

        The Goal

  How to Build It
                       ?        ?              ?            ?            ?        ?
        Benefits      WHAT     HOW          WHERE          WHO          WHEN     WHY
      Discussion       is it    is it           are          is           do       are
                       made    made            things     involved      things   things
                        of                    located                   happen    done
                        ?        ?               ?           ?            ?         ?




                                                                                          8
                                        ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Perspectives or Views
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework          PLANNER                                     Scope or Context View

Business Process
     Framework
                        OWNER           Business/Product Requirements or Conceptual View
        The Goal

  How to Build It
                        DESIGNER                     System Model or Logical Design View
        Benefits

      Discussion
                        BUILDER                   Technical Model or Physical Design View




                        SUB-
                        CONTRACTOR            Detail Representation or Out-of-Context View




                        CONSUMER                               End Product or Usage View




                                                                                             9
                                   ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Zachman Framework
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework
                    CONTEXTUAL                                                            List of                     List of
                                                              List of        List of                    List of
                                         List of things                                Organization                  Business
Business Process            Scope                           Processes      Locations
                                                                                          Units
                                                                                                        Events
                                                                                                                    Goals/Stat.
     Framework

        The Goal    CONCEPTUAL            Business
                                                             Business
                                                                           Logistics    Work Flow       Master       Business
                                                             Process
                      Business Model     Entity Model                       Network       Model        Schedule        Plan
                                                              Model
  How to Build It

        Benefits        LOGICAL          Logical Data
                                                            Application     System       Human
                                                                                                      Processing     Business
                                                              Process       Network     Interface
                       System Model         Model                                                      Structure    Rule Model
                                                               Model         Model      Paradigm
      Discussion

                                                            Application     Network
                       PHYSICAL            Physical                                    Presentation     Control
                                                             Structure    Technology                               Rule Design
                     Technology Model     Data Model                                   Architecture    Structure
                                                               Chart         Model



                         OUT-OF-
                                              Data                          Network      Interface     Timing          Rule
                        CONTEXT                              Program
                                           Definition                     Components   Components     Definition   Specification
                        Components




                       PRODUCT                                                         ORGANIZATION
                                           DATABASE         APPLICATION    NETWORK                    SCHEDULE       STRATEGY
                    Functioning System




                                                                                                                             10
                                                          ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Focuses for Process?
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework

Business Process
     Framework

        The Goal

  How to Build It     WHY         WHEN            HOW          WHAT          WHO        WHERE
        Benefits      (purpose)   (period)        (process)    (product)     (person)    (place)

      Discussion
                      Goal        Events        Process       Output         Role       Facility




                                                                                                   11
                                             ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Meta Model
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework
                          PERIOD                     PROCESS
Business Process
     Framework

        The Goal

  How to Build It

        Benefits
                    PURPOSE                                      PRODUCT
      Discussion




                          PEOPLE                         PLACE


                              Adapted from Don Soulsby
                                                                       12
                              ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    What‟s Your Process “Stack”?
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman       PROCESS
     Framework

Business Process
     Framework                 ACTIVITY
        The Goal

  How to Build It         SUB-PROCESS
        Benefits

      Discussion                                                Standards

                                                                          Instructions
                                              TASK
                                                                              Forms

                                                                     Skills


                                                                                         13
                                     ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Domain Layering
    Introduction

   A Short Story
                            Business
   The Zachman
     Framework

Business Process
     Framework


                                               Operations
        The Goal

  How to Build It

        Benefits

      Discussion



                                                             Technical



                              Adapted from Don Soulsby
                                                                    14
                             ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Perspectives or Views
    Introduction

   A Short Story




                                                                                Business Operations Technology
                                                                                Domain
   The Zachman
     Framework         ENTERPRISE                         Strategic Planning


Business Process
     Framework
                       BUSINESS             Business Redesign/Reengineering

        The Goal




                                                                                          Domain
  How to Build It
                       OPERATIONS                       Process Improvement

        Benefits

      Discussion
                       DESIGNER                         Requirements Model




                       BUILDER                     Applications Specification




                                                                                                      Domain
                       SYSTEM OPERATOR                     Working System




                                                                                                                 15
                                    ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    A Business Process Framework
    Introduction                      WHAT/        HOW/         WHERE/        WHO/     WHEN/         WHY/
                                    INPUTS &   PROCESSES &    FACILITIES &   ROLE &   EVENTS &   MOTIVATION &
                                    OUTPUTS       TASKS       EQUIPMENT      SKILLS   DURATION     METRICS
   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework
                      BUSINESS
                       SCOPE                                 Business Model                                     ENTERPRISE
                                                                                                                  VIEWS




Business Process
     Framework        BUSINESS                                                                                  DIRECTOR/
                       MODEL
                                                        Operations Model                                         OWNER
                                                                                                                   VIEW
        The Goal

  How to Build It     LOGICAL                                                                                   ANALYST/


        Benefits
                      PROCESS
                       MODEL                            Procedural Model                                        DESIGNER
                                                                                                                  VIEW




      Discussion
                     WORKFLOW                                                                                    BUILDER/
                      MODEL
                                                Workflow Systems Model                                           MANAGER
                                                                                                                   VIEW




                                                                                                                OPERATOR
                    SPECIFICATION
                                           Physical/Technical Specifications                                      VIEW




                                                                                                                 MONITOR
                    PRODUCTION
                                                  Measurement & Control                                           VIEW




                                                                                                                  16
                                                      ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    A Business Process Architecture
    Introduction

   A Short Story
                                                           Strategy             Establish
   The Zachman                                              Level             Organization
     Framework                                                                Plans & Goals
                                                                                                              The Business Process Archiecture
Business Process                                                                                             Defines the Organizations' Value Chains
                                                                                                             and How All its Business Processes Fit
     Framework
                                 Business Process                                                           Together, are Managed and Measured, etc.

        The Goal                      Level
                                                                         Business Process
                                                                                                                            The Process Model that
  How to Build It                                                                                                            Defines How a Specific
                                                                                                                           Process is Defined in terms
                                                                                                                           of Subprocesses, Activites,
        Benefits                                                                Specific
                                                                                                                                       etc.
                                                                                Process

      Discussion
                                               Process Perfromed by Employees          Process Automated via IT Systems
                    Implementation
                         Level          Activity      Activity       Job         Human- Application         Data          Network
                                      Management    Measurement     Design          IT    Architecture   Architecture   Architecture
                                         Plan          Plan                     Interface
                                                                                  Model
                               Plans, Budgets,       Activity/    Job Aids                 Application      Database           Technology
                             Hiring, Resource      Performance        &         Screens Designs and       Designs & Data       Architecture
                           Allocation, Feedback,    Monitoring     Training        &          Code
                          Consequences               System       Programs      Reports

                                                           Physical Plant and Hardware Used.             Computer Hardware and Network Architectures


                                                      Source: Paul Harmon, BP Trends
                                                                                                                                                 17
                                                        ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Planning for Change
    Introduction

   A Short Story       Business Domain                    Technology Domain
   The Zachman
     Framework
                                 Strategic
Business Process
     Framework                    Plans
        The Goal    INNOVATION
                                                          Opportunities
  How to Build It                Business
        Benefits                  System                                   TECHNOLOGY
                                                                           PROJECTIONS
      Discussion


                       PRODUCT      PROCESS                         DATA   APPLICATION




                        PEOPLE       PLACE                     INTERFACE   DISTRIBUTION




                           Business Models             Technical Models
                                              ALIGNMENT
                                         Adapted from Don Soulsby
                                                                                          18
                                        ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
     ”...would you tell me, please
         which way I ought to go
         from here?"
     "That depends a good deal
       on where you want to get
       to," said the Cat.
     "I don't much care where----"
        said Alice.
     "Then it doesn't matter which
       way you go," said the Cat.




                                     19
ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
Words of Wisdom

• “Always design a thing by considering
  it in its next larger context -
       a chair in a room,
       a room in a house,
       a house in an environment,
       an environment in a city plan.”
  - Eero Saarinen




                                            20
            ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Goals of “Manage by Process”
    Introduction    We will be managing by process when:
   A Short Story
                    We agree   on what our processes are
   The Zachman
     Framework

Business Process
                    We know    how the processes interact
     Framework                 what each process delivers
        The Goal               how each process produces it‟s deliverables
  How to Build It
                               what skills are required for each process
                               how well each process performs
        Benefits

      Discussion    We can     measure effectively and
                               manage by these facts

                    We have    an owner for each process




                                                                        21
                                  ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Goals of Business Process Management
                    Systems Solutions
    Introduction    We will be delivering BPMS when:
   A Short Story
                    We can      - model and define our processes
   The Zachman
     Framework                    in a standard way
Business Process
                                  using standard tools
     Framework

        The Goal    We can      - generate the system from those models
  How to Build It
                                - capture real time performance data from the
                                  running system
        Benefits

      Discussion    We can      - monitor and manage the business process
                                  performance

                    We can      - simulate and predict the impact of change
                                  on the business process
                                - implement changes to the business process
                                  through the models

                                                                          22
                                  ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    What‟s a Process Model?
    Introduction

   A Short Story
                    • A Process Model is Information
   The Zachman
     Framework      • Contains:
Business Process       – one or more pictures (diagrams)
     Framework
                       – information about the objects on the diagram
        The Goal
                       – information about the relationships between the
  How to Build It
                         objects
        Benefits
                       – information about the relationships between the
      Discussion         objects in multiple diagrams
                       – information about how the thing it “models”
                         behaves or performs
                    • It is a vehicle for understanding
                      how things work


                                                                           23
                                     ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Build a Process Repository
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman         The Framework is a “blueprint” for a
     Framework

Business Process
                       Business Process Model „Repository‟
     Framework

        The Goal

  How to Build It
                             It is a map of the structure
        Benefits
                    for the Business Process Model Repository
      Discussion
                                  that can be used to
                         store, locate, access, and navigate
                      through enterprise process information




                                                                  24
                                  ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    BPMS Architecture
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework                                 Process
                                              Repository                          Process
Business Process                                                                 Audit Trail
     Framework                                                        Process                   Process
                                                                     Execution                 Optimization
        The Goal

  How to Build It
                       Business
        Benefits        Analyst

      Discussion
                                  Software
                                  Developer
                                                       Systems
                                                     Administrator                Business
                                                                                   Analyst
                             MODEL                     DEPLOY
                                                                                  MANAGE




                       Source: Business Process Management: The Third Wave, Howard Smith & Peter Fingar,
                                                ISBN 0929652339, 2003, Appendix B


                                                                                                              25
                                              ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Alternate BPMS Architecture
    Introduction
                                      MODEL
   A Short Story
                                                             Process
   The Zachman
                                                            Monitoring
     Framework
                                                            & Analysis
Business Process
     Framework                        Business
                                       Analyst
        The Goal

  How to Build It     Process
                     Repository
        Benefits

      Discussion
                                                                               Systems
                                                                              Adminstrator

                                                                               MANAGE


                                                              Process
                                                             Execution

                                  Software
                                  Developer

                                  DEPLOY
                                                                                             26
                                              ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
                    Benefits of a Business Process
                    Framework
    Introduction

   A Short Story
                    • Common Frame of Reference
   The Zachman
     Framework      • Integrated views of processes
Business Process
     Framework
                    • Consistent method of organization
        The Goal
                       – Persistent storage of process information
                           • the models are available
  How to Build It
                           • the models are in a consistent format
        Benefits

      Discussion
                    • A powerful information resource for the
                      organization to use in many new ways that
                      were previously not available or feasible




                                                                       27
                                       ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
A Parting Thought...


Wisdom is knowing what to do next…
Skill is knowing how to do it, and…
Virtue is doing it!
- David Starr Jordan




                                               28
               ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004
    Introduction

   A Short Story

   The Zachman
     Framework
                    You may contact me
Business Process    with any questions or feedback at:
     Framework

        The Goal

  How to Build It
                          Brett Champlin
        Benefits

      Discussion          president@abpmp.org
                          vicepres@iccp.org
                          brett@thechamplins.com



                                                               29
                               ABPMP Chicago – Jan. 15, 2004

								
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