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					Everything You
Always Wanted
To Know About
   Skin Care
               TABLE OF CONTENTS

FROM THE AUTHOR'S DESK ........................................ 5

1 HUMAN SKIN THE BASICS ...................................... 6
 THE SKIN STRUCTURE .................................................................... 6
 THE SKIN TYPES - TEXTURES .......................................................... 6
   NORMAL SKIN ............................................................................... 7
   OILY SKIN .................................................................................... 7
   DRY SKIN ..................................................................................... 7
   COMBINATION SKIN ...................................................................... 7
 IDENTIFY YOUR SKIN TYPE – THE TEST.......................................... 8
 KNOW THE BASICS - FUNCTIONS YOUR SKIN PERFORMS ............... 8
   PROTECTION: ............................................................................... 8
   SENSATION: ................................................................................. 9
   HEAT REGULATION: ....................................................................... 9
   PREVENTS MOISTURE LOSS: ........................................................... 9
   VITAMIN PRODUCTION: .................................................................. 9
   COMMUNICATION: ......................................................................... 9
 THE SKIN WOES .............................................................................. 9
 10 IMPORTANT SKIN TRUTHS ....................................................... 10


2 ACNE THE UNIVERSAL MALADY ............................ 12
 TYPES OF ACNE ............................................................................. 12
  ACNE VULGARIS – I (MILD) ........................................................... 12
  ACNE VULGARIS – II (SEVERE) ....................................................... 13
  ACNE ROSACEA ............................................................................ 13
  SEVERE FORMS ............................................................................ 14
 CAUSATIVE FACTORS .................................................................... 14
  PRIMARY CAUSES ......................................................................... 14
  DIETARY HABITS .......................................................................... 15
 TREATMENT MEASURES ................................................................ 15
  AIM OF TREATMENT ...................................................................... 15
  TOPICAL BACTERICIDALS .............................................................. 16
  TOPICAL ANTIBIOTICS .................................................................. 16
  ORAL ANTIBIOTICS ....................................................................... 16
  HORMONAL TREATMENTS .............................................................. 17
  TOPICAL RETINOIDS ..................................................................... 17
  VITAMINS, MINERALS AND HERBS .................................................. 17
  OTHER METHODS INCLUDE: ........................................................... 17




                           Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care                  2
3 DRY SKIN THE NATURAL PROBLEM ....................... 19
 XEROSIS - THE CHECKLIST ........................................................... 19
 CAUSES OF DRY SKIN ................................................................... 20
  GENERAL REASONS ...................................................................... 20
  MEDICAL REASONS ....................................................................... 20
 THE CARE REGIME ........................................................................ 21
  BASIC STEPS ............................................................................... 21
  LIFESTYLE MEASURES ................................................................... 22
 BEAUTY CARE ............................................................................... 23
  MORNING SKIN CLEANSER ............................................................ 23
  BEAUTY MASK .............................................................................. 23


4 AGING AND SKIN CARE ......................................... 24
 THE CORRELATION ....................................................................... 24
  IMPORTANT SIGNS ....................................................................... 25
  KEY PROBLEMS ............................................................................ 25
 SELF CARE .................................................................................... 25
 ANTI-AGING PRODUCTS ............................................................... 27


5 THE 3-STEP REGIMEN ............................................ 27
 CLEANSING ................................................................................... 28
  THE BASICS ................................................................................. 28
  THE TECHNIQUE ........................................................................... 28
 EXFOLIATING ............................................................................... 29
  THE BASICS ................................................................................. 29
  THE TECHNIQUE ........................................................................... 29
  TONING ...................................................................................... 30
 MOISTURIZING ............................................................................. 31
  THE BASICS ................................................................................. 31
  THE TECHNIQUE ........................................................................... 31


6 FACIAL SKIN CARE ................................................ 32
 YOUR SKIN CARE PRODUCTS ........................................................ 32
  SKIN CARE PRODUCTS – KEY INGREDIENTS ..................................... 32
 CHOOSING COSMETICS – WHAT TO CONSIDER............................. 33


7 SKIN DISEASES AND CONDITIONS ........................ 36
 SKIN CANCER ............................................................................... 37
  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ................................................................. 37
  KEY CAUSES ................................................................................ 38
  TYPES OF SKIN CANCER ................................................................ 38
 PSORIASIS ................................................................................... 40
  KINDS OF PSORIASIS ................................................................... 40
  CAUSES OF PSORIASIS ................................................................. 41
  KEY TRIGGERS ............................................................................. 42
  TREATMENT MODALITIES............................................................... 43


                           Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care                 3
 ECZEMA ........................................................................................ 43
  COMMON FORMS .......................................................................... 43
  RARE FORMS ............................................................................... 44
  TREATMENT MEASURES ................................................................. 44
  PREVENTIVE MEASURES ................................................................ 45
 ALLERGIES .................................................................................... 46
  TYPES OF SKIN ALLERGIES ............................................................ 46
  CAUSATIVE FACTORS .................................................................... 48


8 CURE, REMEDIES AND THERAPIES ......................... 49
 BEAUTY PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES .............................................. 49
  FRECKLES.................................................................................... 49
  WHITEHEADS ............................................................................... 50
  DARK UNDER-EYE CIRCLES ............................................................ 50
  ENLARGED PORES ........................................................................ 50
  WARTS ........................................................................................ 50
  UNDER-EYE BAGS ......................................................................... 51
  STRETCH MARKS .......................................................................... 51
 YOUR SELF CARE KIT .................................................................... 51
  10 GOLDEN RULES OF SKIN CARE................................................... 51
  ESSENTIAL OILS........................................................................... 52
 TOP 10 HOME BEAUTY AGENTS ..................................................... 53


THE LAST WORD ....................................................... 55




                           Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care                  4
      FROM THE AUTHOR'S DESK
Self care is the cornerstone of success in life. How you care for yourself
actually reflects on the respect you have for your life and the success you are
willing to make out of it.

The urge to achieve more has spiralled and so have the stress levels. As we
rummage through the maze of commercial pursuits, we often tend to
comfortably overlook the toll this scramble has on our body, mind and soul.
The old adage Health is Wealth might have gone down as a mere point in
literature, but it definitely holds true the most today than ever earlier.

Ignorance is bliss, surely they say! Unfortunately, the reverse is quite true if
what we are talking about is your skin. As in, just take a long and hard look
at the mirror. What do you see? Are freckles and wrinkles glaring at you
where earlier it was all nice and rosy? If what you see scares the life out of
you, its probably time you got up and took note of the warning signals your
body is throwing up.

Skincare is an integral part of our beauty regimen. Beautiful skin is
something money just can’t buy. Money can get you the tools, but the
applications and discipline are all yours.

Nature has bestowed some of the most beautiful gifts to man. Our skin, all
flawless and tender at birth, is just one of them. How we tend to it will
determine how our skin will age in our later life.

Rise to the moment, take up the ugly demon by its horns and resort yourself
to a daily, disciplined regimen of skin care, leading all the way to a new,
rejuvenated you.

Read on further, as we unravel the secret for you, taking you on the
wonderful journey of totally transforming how you look and of course, the
way you feel.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care        5
                            1
                       HUMAN SKIN
                       THE BASICS
Skin is the largest organ of the human body. From being a mere outer
covering that holds all of it together, its functions range up to protecting the
entire system from external atmosphere and of course, making you look and
feel good.




THE SKIN STRUCTURE
For a deeper understanding, first let's have an insight into the basic skin
structure in this context.

Human skin basically has three main layers and various types of cells. These
layers include:

   •   Epidermis, which provides waterproofing and a protection against
       infection

   •   Dermis, which is basically a location for the appendages of the skin

   •   Hypodermis, the subcutaneous adipose layer




THE SKIN TYPES - TEXTURES
As we will demonstrate in the next chapters, skin care requires a process of
careful planning, deliberation and discipline.

Before we set out to do that, you first need to know what type of skin you
have. That's equally important to know as the basics of care for each skin
type can differ considerably from one another.

Read on as we give you an insight into each of the four main skin types along
with their basic features.


                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care    6
NORMAL SKIN

Normal skin is widely accepted as the middle path between an oily and a dry
skin. The main features of this skin type are an even tone and soft and
smooth texture. Such type of skin has no visible blemishes or pores and
neither it has any greasy patches or flaky areas.

With a smooth and supple surface, this type of skin glows with inner health,
only if it results from good blood circulation and excellent bodily fitness.



OILY SKIN

Oily skin is basically shiny and thick, having a dull tone to it. Skin that
remains chronically oily mostly has coarse pores, pimples and blemishes.
This type of skin is also prone to a lot of blackheads.

In individuals with oily skin, the sebaceous glands are quite overactive and
hence produce excess oil than is required. It is this oil that oozes out and
gives the skin a greasy shine. The pores are also enlarged, giving the skin a
coarse look.


DRY SKIN

Dry skin has a very low level of sebum and is thus highly prone to sensitivity.
This type of skin mostly has a parched look, which is caused by its instability
to retain moisture.

In individuals with dry skin, it is a must to apply some form of a moisturising
agent after washing. In cases of excessive dryness, chapping and cracking
usually occurs. Besides, dry skin is also tightly drawn over the bones. It has
a dull look to it, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes.

In the further chapters, you can get a lot of further information about caring
for your dry skin.


COMBINATION SKIN

As the name suggests, this type of skin is a combination of both, oily as well
as dry skin. One of the most typical features is a greasy T-zone, which
basically comprises of the nose, forehead and chin, along with a dry panel
consisting of cheeks, mouth and areas around the eyes.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care      7
IDENTIFY YOUR SKIN TYPE – THE TEST
Identifying your own skin type is the first step to skin care. Once you've done
that, you can then move on to chalk out your own skin care plan.

To identify your skin type, you can simply conduct the self-test we've
explained below.

Take a dry tissue and wipe your face carefully with it, immediately after you
wake up in the morning. Once done, read the results as follows:

   •   If there is oil on the tissue, you have an oily skin

   •   If you find grease only on the centre panel, then you have combination
       skin

   •   If there is no grease on the tissue altogether, you either have a dry
       skin or normal skin

   •   In case your skin is left feeling too stretched or too tight, shiny and
       patched, then you have dry skin

   •   In case your skin is left feeling smooth, supple and elastic, then you a
       normal skin




KNOW THE BASICS - FUNCTIONS YOUR SKIN
PERFORMS
For you to be able to chalk out your skin care regimen, you first need to have
some information of what functions does your skin actually perform. Below,
we've briefly discussed the most important functions of this part of your
body.


PROTECTION:

To begin with, your skin acts as an anatomical barrier and protects the
human body from the external environment. Scientifically, the langerhans
cells that are present in the skin are actually a part of the adaptive immune
system.

On the whole, our skin protects us from the following:



                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care     8
   •   Mechanical impact, such as pressure
   •   Thermic impact, such as heat, cold
   •   Chemical impact, such as acids
   •   Micro organisms such as bacteria and viruses
   •   UV-radiation


SENSATION:

The vast series of nerve endings present in the skin enable you to feel and
react to the sensations of heat, cold, touch, pressure, vibration and injury.


HEAT REGULATION:

Human skin contains a very high amount of blood circulation; this in turn
allows it to maintain exact control of energy loss by radiation, convection and
conduction.


PREVENTS MOISTURE LOSS:

The skin has a capability to minimise the fluid loss from the body in a much
natural manner and serves as an impermeable barrier to fluid loss.


VITAMIN PRODUCTION:

The skin of human beings also produces vitamin D through exposure to
ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.


COMMUNICATION:

Through non-verbal expression such as paling and blushing, the skin acts a
medium of communication and tends to convey a lot about the individual's
state of mind.




THE SKIN WOES
Your skin suffers and faces most of the hazardous elements of the outer
world. From dust to pollution, stress and improper lifestyle, there are
innumerable factors that attack your skin, stealing its moisture, giving it
impurities and a thousand other woes. The most common and harmful



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care     9
enemies of your skin, which can damage it, at times, even beyond repair,
include:

   1.   Air Pollution
   2.   Alcohol
   3.   Drugs
   4.   Tobacco
   5.   Frequent weight gain and loss
   6.   Excessive massage
   7.   Gadgets and overrated products
   8.   Fatigue
   9.   Improper diet




10 IMPORTANT SKIN TRUTHS
If you are still a novice in skin care and have most of your knowledge only
from books and magazines, here we furnish a list of a few facts about your
skin which might not be known that well.

Read on further to learn these amazing truths about your skin.

   1. When skin turns dry, it needs to rejuvenate with water, not oil.

   2. People with fairer complexion tend to be more prone to skin cancer.

   3. Actinic keratoses is the first sign of severe skin damage.

   4. It takes your skin about 28 days to produce new and healthy skin cells
      and remove the old cells.

   5. Protection of your skin from sun is the single most important practice
      in skin care.

   6. Skin cancer is the most serious and obvious consequence of prolonged
      and extensive sun exposure.

   7. A simple cleansing routine is the most important part of a skin care
      regimen.

   8. More than 60% of skin care products available in the market lack
      quality and prior testing for side effects.

   9. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma account for almost
      80% of all the recent cases of skin cancer.



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 10
   10.In women, the melanoma skin cancer is becoming increasingly
      common; only next to the rate of lung cancer.


Read on as we reveal the concepts of quality skin care, the hazards your skin
faces, their cures, remedies and above all, what you can do for this amazing
organ of your body on your own.

In the next chapter, we've discussed the problem of acne, along with its
causes, cures and all other allied aspects.




                      Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 11
                  2
                ACNE
        THE UNIVERSAL MALADY
The glands present in our body, work as regulatory organs, taking care of our
bodily functions and ensuring that all the mechanism moves smoothly. Any
malfunction of even one of them can thus result into a major abnormality
and even a disease. It is this malfunction of the glands that causes some of
the biggest problems faced by man, such as the likes of acne.

Acne is basically the sum total of the consequences of over-activity and
disorderly activity of the sebaceous glands present in our body. These glands
are greater in number on the face. When they get overactive, they further
give rise to the much-dreaded disturbances and eruptions on the face, which
we commonly refer to as acne.

To understand how to prevent and cure acne, it is first important to
understand the types of acne and main causes of this skin problem. Read on
as we outline each of the factors involved.




TYPES OF ACNE
Acne is one of the most widespread skin problems and affect close to 80% of
the total population. So much so, that research figures indicate that acne
accounts for a whopping 70% of the total dermatologists visits at a given
point of time.

However, this skin condition can exist in various levels of intensity and
various forms, depending upon the cause and other related factors. For a
better understanding, here we've listed the various types of acne, with their
appropriate details.


ACNE VULGARIS – I (MILD)

This is the most common form of acne and can present itself in various
forms, including the below:




                      Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 12
1. Whiteheads: Whiteheads basically result when a pore is completely
blocked, thus trapping the sebum (oil), bacteria and dead skin cells, causing
a white spot to appear.

2. Blackheads: These occur when the pore is only partially blocked, allowing
some of the trapped sebum (oil), bacteria and dead skin cells to slowly drain
to the surface. Contrary to the common belief, the black color is not caused
due to dirt, but due to the reaction of melanin with oxygen present in the air.

3. Papules: Papules are basically the inflamed, red and tender red bumps,
without a head. They are best left untouched; else they can even end up in
major scarring.

4. Pustules: This looks quite similar to a whitehead, but is quite inflamed
and appears as a red circle with a white or yellow centre.



ACNE VULGARIS – II (SEVERE)

Nodules and cysts, as explained below basically characterize this type of
acne:

1. Nodules: Nodular acne basically comprises of acne spots which are much
larger and can turn very painful. They look like large, hard bumps under the
skin's surface and often tend to end in scars.

2. Cysts: An acne cyst can look quite like the nodule, except for the fact that
it is filled with pus and can be very painful. It is important not to squeeze the
acne cyst to avoid infection and scarring.



ACNE ROSACEA

This form of acne usually affects individuals above the age of 30. It normally
appears as a red-colored rash which is normally confined to the cheeks,
nose, forehead and the chin.

Bumps, pimples and skin blemishes often also accompany the redness, while
the blood vessels might also become more visible. Interestingly, though this
form of acne is found less frequently amongst men, but when it does, men
can suffer form a much more severe form of acne rosacea. In most severe
cases, acne rosacea can cause swelling of the nose and also growth of excess
tissue, a condition referred to as rhinophyma.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 13
SEVERE FORMS

The severe forms of acne listed below are quite rare, but can be quite
debilitating when they occur, especially for the psychological health of the
sufferer.

These include:

   •   Acne Conglobata
   •   Acne Fulminans
   •   Gram-Negative Folliculitis
   •   Pyoderma Faciale




CAUSATIVE FACTORS
There has been a huge amount of research in trying to analyze the various
sets of causes of acne. Studies conducted across decades have pointed out at
a vast variety of reasons, ranging from environment, genes and diet to
personal lifestyle.

For self-understanding, the main causes of acne can be studied under two
broad heads:

   •   Primary causes
   •   Dietary habits



PRIMARY CAUSES

The chief causes of acne can be listed as under:

   •   Family history
   •   Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles, puberty
   •   Over activity of adrenal glands
   •   Hyperactive sebaceous glands
   •   Accumulation of dead skin cells
   •   Bacteria present in pores of the skin
   •   Excessive irritation or scratching
   •   Using anabolic steroids
   •   Using medicines containing halogens
   •   Heredity




                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 14
DIETARY HABITS

The most prominent items in this category which could probably cause acne
include:

   •   Milk
   •   Seafood
   •   Excessive carbohydrates
   •   Vit A/E
   •   Fatty and greasy foods




TREATMENT MEASURES
If you too get up in the morning and dread looking into the mirror since you
do not want to discover a yet another ugly mark on your face, there is some
good news for you.

Here is what experts have to say:

The enormous facial disfigurement which is left in the wake of acne is only
due to the fact that most of the victims believe that there in no cure for acne
and that it is normal part of growing up. In reality, its not!



AIM OF TREATMENT

Before you try to analyze the various options of treatment available for acne,
it is important that you remember that any treatment procedure for acne
should be conducted with the following key 10 aims and objectives:

   1. Ensuring proper cleansing
   2. Curing and preventing blackheads
   3. Minimizing oiliness of the skin
   4. Closing the pores
   5. Curing existing eruptions
   6. Preventing further infection
   7. Discouraging wrinkling
   8. Offering protection against environmental pollution
   9. Providing a suitable medicated base to keep the skin moisturized
   10.Removal of scars




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 15
In the section that follows, we've outlined some of the main treatment
methods you can follow for curing your problem of acne.


TOPICAL BACTERICIDALS

Mild to moderate acne often responds quite well to over-the-counter
bactericidal products containing benzoyl peroxide.

This particular chemical acts as a keratolytic, dissolving the keratin that plugs
the pores causing acne. In addition, it also prevents new lesions by killing the
Propionibacterium acnes or P. acnes.

Ideally, the treatment of acne should involve a daily use of a low-
concentration of benzyol peroxide preparations in combination with the
suitable non-comedogenic moisturizers.


TOPICAL ANTIBIOTICS

The condition of acne is often worsened by the harmful bacteria trapped in
the blocked follicles. You can use a variety of topical antibiotics that can kill
these bacteria, thereby curing the problem.

The most effective and popular amongst these include:

   •   Erythromycin
   •   Clindamycin
   •   Stiemycin
   •   Tetracycline
   •

ORAL ANTIBIOTICS

This form of treatment is usually considered effective, but advisable for mild
to moderate acne, as the results can often be short-term.

The main products used in this category include:

   •   Erythromycin
   •   Tetracycline
   •   Oxytetracycline
   •   Doxycycline
   •   Minocycline
   •   Lymecycline
   •   Trimethoprim




                         Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 16
HORMONAL TREATMENTS

This form of treatment is especially useful for women. The most effective in
this category is the combined effect of estrogen and progesterone method of
hormonal contraception. Another effective product is Cyproterone, the anti-
testosterone, in combination with estrogen, such as Diane 35.

An injection of cortisone administered directly into the pimple which does not
respond to other milder form of treatments has also often been found quite
effective.



TOPICAL RETINOIDS

Topical retinoids are a group of medications advised for normalizing the
follicle cell lifecycle. Though they are related to vitamin A, but they are
administered as topicals and generally do not have as many side effects.

The most commonly used products in this category include:

   •   Tretinoin (Retin-A)
   •   Adapalene (Differin)
   •   Tazarotene (Tazorac)



VITAMINS, MINERALS AND HERBS

In case your acne has occurred due to faulty dietary habits, which is quite
often the reason, the intake of following vitamins, herbs and minerals can be
of good help:

   • Vitamin A and zinc
   • Vitamin B6 and folic acid, especially for acne related to menstrual
   dysfunction
   • Antioxidants and multivitamins
   • Vitamin B2 for acne rosacea
   • Echinacea
   • Ginko biloba
   • Marshmallow
   • Calendula
   • Sarsaparilla



OTHER METHODS INCLUDE:



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 17
   •   Oral retinoids
   •   Photodynamic therapy
   •   Laser treatment


In the next chapter, you will learn more about dry skin and the care required
for preventing and curing excessive dryness.




                      Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 18
                  3
               DRY SKIN
         THE NATURAL PROBLEM

Human skin thrives on moisture and nourishment. To stay smooth and
supple, it is important your skin retains its natural moisture and also gets its
regular nutritional supplements, both cosmetic and dietary.

All the more attention needs to be showered if your skin happens to be of the
dry nature or if you are aging. In both of these situations, your skin will
demand extra care, which will even worsen in the winters or if you live in a
centrally heated environment.


XEROSIS - THE CHECKLIST
To check whether you have a dry skin or xerosis, simply go through the
following checklist and you will know.

Does your skin have a few flaky patches that disappear when you apply rich
  moisturizing creams?

Does your skin look fine-textured, which further means that the pores are
  not at all visible?

Does your skin have tiny expression lines around the eyes, which somehow
  do not seem to disappear?

Does the skin of your neck and cheeks look crepey?


If you think any of the above symptoms appear to be similar to that of your
skin, then you definitely have dry skin. Read on as we give you detailed
information on how to care for your dry skin, in the next section.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 19
CAUSES OF DRY SKIN
Though the skin types are largely determined by birth, yet there are certain
other factors as well that can make your skin drier and worsen the existing
texture of your skin.

The main causes of dry skin can be divided into 2 categories, including the
general and medical reasons, as we've discussed below.


GENERAL REASONS

   •   Weather:
       With a fall in temperature and humidity levels, winters can become
       one of the major causes of the dryness in your skin. However, if you
       happen to be living in a desert region, then this becomes the opposite
       and summers can affect your skin adversely.

   •   Central heating:
       There are various elements in your living environment which can
       induce dryness in the skin. These include:

          o   Central air
          o   Heating
          o   Wood burning stoves
          o   Space heaters
          o   Fireplaces

   •   Hot baths and showers:
       Frequent showering can often lead to breakage of the lipid barriers in
       your skin. The same can also happen if you swim a lot in heavily
       chlorinated pools.

   •   Harsh soaps and detergents:
       Especially in the case of women, there are many popular soaps and
       detergents that can strip lipids and water from your skin. The most
       damaging types of products include deodorant and antibacterial soaps
       along with a lot of shampoos.




MEDICAL REASONS

Apart from the above, there are certain diseases and medical conditions that
can cause excessive dry skin, even reaching up to a painful stage, calling for
immediate treatment.


                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 20
The most prominent amongst these are:
   •   Psoriasis
   •   Thyroid disorders
   •   Seborrheic dermatitis
   •   Allergic contact dermatitis
   •   Atopic dermatitis
   •   Athlete's foot
   •   Alcohol and drugs such as diuretics
   •   Dehydration


THE CARE REGIME


BASIC STEPS

The following section carries the most important measures you need to adopt
for maintenance of your dry skin.

   •   Sleep
       Try to maintain a regular sleep schedule. Experts advise having a
       minimum eight-hour sleep everyday to keep your skin healthy,
       especially if you have dry skin.

   •   Cleansing
       You should be very careful when choosing your cleanser in case you
       have dry skin. Select a cleanser that will effectively remove all the
       pore-clogging debris, but without leaving your skin taut, dry or
       stripped of its natural protective oils.

   •   Toning
       Toning is a very important follow-up step to cleansing. It effectively
       removes the last stages of the cleanser and also dissolves dirt.
       Besides, toning also stimulates surface circulation. An ideal skin tonic
       for dry skin is a preparation of mint combined with a honey base.

   •   Nourishment
       This step is important to help you prevent dryness from aggravating.
       The ideal time to follow this part of your care regimen is just before
       you go to bed at night. For a smooth and well-nourished skin, apply a
       nourishing cream with an orange base every night, smoothing it over
       the face and going downwards towards the chin.

   •   The eye region
       For individuals with a dry skin, the eyes are one of the most sensitive
       areas as these lack the sebaceous glands and hence require extra



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 21
       care. Experts suggest using an almond-lanolin cream, right form the
       inner corner of the eyes outwards, applying it very gently.

   •   The bath routine
       Since water, soap or cleanser can considerably draw moisture from
       your skin, it is important for you to follow a regular pre-bath routine to
       keep your skin moisturized. To begin with, use a good pre-bath cream
       followed by a generous massage of vanishing cream after you've had
       your bath.



LIFESTYLE MEASURES

As much problematic as dry skin might be, it is always possible to maintain a
fine-textured and healthy dry skin. All it takes is a few practical self-care
measures and a little bit of precaution to maintain a problem-free dry skin.

In this section, we have listed out a brief set of simple guidelines to follow in
your daily routine to help you take care of your dry skin.

   1. Try to take a bath with lukewarm water as far as possible. Try to
      spend a minimum amount of time in the shower.

   2. Avoid using harsh soaps for your bath or even for washing hands.
      Prefer to use skin cleansers such as Cetaphil Lotion, Oilatum-AD and
      Aquanil.

   3. Do not use deodorant soaps, as these tend to be very harsh and
      drying.

   4. Avoid heavy usage of a washcloth in cleansing. Blot or pat dry yourself
      gently when towel drying.

   5. Immediately after you've used water or a cleanser on yourself, apply a
      suitable moisturizer. Choose one of the products from Cetaphil,
      Moisture lot Eucerin Cream.

   6. Whenever you plan to face the sun, cover all the areas that are likely
      to be exposed to the sun and use an appropriate sunscreen with SPF
      15 or greater. This will include all areas like the face, ears, hands and
      back of the neck.

   7. Only use All-free, Tide-free or Cheer-free detergents for all types of
      laundry. Do not use much of fabric softeners.

   8. Use cotton percale sheets on your bed.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 22
   9. During the season when your home is centrally heated, use a
      humidifier to prevent any harmful impact on your skin.




BEAUTY CARE
If you too suffer from dry skin and prefer using homemade products than
going in or the commercial ones, we've got some good help for you.

You can try one of the beauty packs listed below for gaining relief. For best
results, try and use each one of them several times, before you can know
which ones suits you the best.



MORNING SKIN CLEANSER

This pack needs to be applied just 15 minutes prior to your bath every
morning and comprises of:

   •   1 egg yolk
   •   1 teaspoon orange juice
   •   1 teaspoon olive oil
   •   Few drops of rose water
   •   Few drops of lemon juice


BEAUTY MASK

The below ingredients should be mixed thoroughly and applied as a mask:

   •   1 egg
   •   1 teaspoon honey
   •   ½ teaspoon olive oil
   •   Few drops of rose water

Besides following a regular night moisturizing routine and taking a milk bath
once in a week also helps considerably.

Read on as we discover the intensive impact age can have on your skin and
how to manage the same.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 23
                    4
           AGING AND SKIN CARE

It is surely quite intriguing how something as natural as age can become a
massive problem for the human body itself. There will not be a single organ
that is able to escape the negative impact of aging, ranging right from the
bones, and vision, going up to the hearing capacity and finally the skin.

Before we go on to understand how to manage your skin in the later years of
life and the basics of self-care, first let's see what is the correlation between
your skin and ageing.

Is it just a cosmetic problem or a does a lot of logic lies beneath those layers
of skin? Read on to find out more.


THE CORRELATION
At birth, each of us is blessed with a soft, smooth and flawless skin. With the
passage of time, our skin like all the other organs of our body comes under
the weather all the more, as it faces the maximum exposure to the outer
environment. Be it pollution, dust or even stress, the first usual causality will
be our skin.

As we progress from our innocent infancy to mysterious teens, our skin is
living its own life too, facing hardships and recovering from setbacks.

However, the mechanism of immunity and self-healing is so strong that we
just don’t tend to notice the hard work our skin's doing and hence tend to
neglect it. The more-or-less-smoother phase goes on until we reach our late
thirties or even early forties. And that is just when the woes begin.

It is somewhere around this time that our skin begins to show the two most
dreaded signs of age, namely:

   •   Loss of elasticity
   •   Excessive dryness




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 24
IMPORTANT SIGNS

Wrinkling is usually the first sign of ageing on the skin. However, there are a
variety of other signs your skin could show when it begins to age beyond a
certain point.

Here we list some of the main signs which will signal that age is catching up
and your skin is being affected.

   •   Pigment changes
   •   Surface roughness
   •   Wrinkles
   •   Laxity or looseness of the skin
   •   Benign skin growths
   •   Telangiectasia
   •   Skin cancer



KEY PROBLEMS

As your skin begins to age, there are a series of problems that might catch
up, in specific context to your skin. From the skin around eyes to lips and on
the neck, each of the skin regions undergoes an upheaval as it faces all new
hardships.

For better understanding, we've listed each of the skin related problems
according to different age groups.




  In 30s                      In 40s                  In 50s
  Fine Lines                  Blotchy skin            Sagging skin
  Uneven skin tone            Dark spots              Age spots
  Wrinkles around the
  eyes                        Dull, dry, rough skin   Thinning lips
  Skin breakouts              Frown lines             Turned down mouth
                              Furrows


Static dermatitis and exfoliative dermatitis are other ailments that can also
adversely affect the elderly.


SELF CARE


                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 25
The most important step you can take to prevent age from showing on your
skin is to start you skin care regimen early on in life.

However, once you've reached the ripened years of life and are keen enough
to ensure that you do not suffer from any major skin malady, follow the
below set of self care tips and save yourself from the unforeseen hazards.

   •   Cleanliness
       Be sure to keep your skin absolutely clean. Make it a point to have a
       bath everyday, especially in summers and wash yourself properly in
       areas like armpits, underparts and feet.

   •   Attire
       The clothes and footwear you wear should be loose, especially for
       those individuals who tend to sweat a lot. Avoid wearing nylon socks
       or plastic sport shoes as these can lead to a fungal infection of the
       foot, known as Hong Kong foot.

   •   Itchiness
       Age causes the oily secretions to increase considerably, further leading
       to dry skin and itchiness. Faulty habits such as scratching or using hot
       water for stimulation can actually worsen the problem. If itching is
       done to the point that the skin becomes broken, it can even cause
       infection or inflammation.

   •   Dry Skin
       Use a good moisturizing cream that suits your skin on a regular basis.
       Excessive dryness can lead to itching, thereby forming a viscous circle.
       This is most true after you've just had a bath. Using a good bath oil
       can be an effective solution to the problem.

   •   Bathing
       Hot water can easily wash away the oil secretions protecting your skin.
       Use only warm water for your bath. As far as possible, take a bath
       only with a mild soap or bathing gels. If you think you can, try and
       skip bathing in extreme winters for a day or two in between.

   •   WARNING Signs
       If you think that you are not being able to cure itching in spite of the
       best of your efforts or if your skin is showing abnormal signs, consult
       your healthcare provider right away. Any delay in this can actually cost
       you a fortune, in terms of both health and resources.


To sum up, the secret is to keep your skin hydrated, moisturized and clean at
all the times and also to be alert to sense any possible warning signs your
skin gives you.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 26
ANTI-AGING PRODUCTS
There is a vast range of anti-aging products available today. From skin
tightening to rejuvenation and overall skin repair, these anti-aging products
serve a series of purposes, benefiting the overall aim of anti-aging skin care.

Here we give you a brief listing of the various product categories for this
purpose.


   •   Anti Aging Facial Serums
       This type of cosmetic contains a very high concentration of skin
       rejuvenating ingredients for the right amount of skin regeneration. For
       best results, it is ideally to be used at bedtime.

   •   Eye creams
       This type of antiaging product caters to the delicate skin around the
       eyes and aims at reducing fine line and improving the overall skin
       texture. Such creams often carry botanicals that are well-known for
       their rejuvenating properties.

   •   Neck Serums
       The neck serum is designed with an aim to décolletage and make the
       skin around the neck resilient. The overall impact of this type of
       product considerably reduces the impact of aging on the skin.

   •   Anti aging Facial Toners
       This particular product provides an alcohol-free toning, to complement
       the anti aging skin care regimen. Products like these combine highly
       effective skin rejuvenating botanicals such as silk protein, hyaluronic
       acid and biocell collagen.

   •   Anti aging facial cleansers
       Such products are extremely useful in cleansing the aging or sun
       damaged skin. The most common ingredients include botanical
       extracts and essential oils, both of which are alcohol and detergent-
       free.


In addition, products like anti aging clay masks and wrinkle creams are also
quite effective in delaying the signs of ageing.



                      5
             THE 3-STEP REGIMEN
                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 27
Now, since you've gone through some of the most amazing facts about this
wonderful organ of your body and the amazing and equally significant
functions it does for you, its time for you to plan out your skin care discipline.

If you thought that the ages old skin care routine your grandma taught you
was enough, its time to think again. Times have changed. And with it the
way our body reacts to the external atmosphere has also changed. The
pollution levels were never that high, nor were the keenness to keep yourself
looking young till you can.

Since centuries, dermatologists and beauty therapists have been giving their
veto on the time-tested and highly effective 3-step skin care regimen,
comprising of the three essential steps of facial skin care, which are:

   •   Cleansing
   •   Exfoliating
   •   Moisturizing


CLEANSING
Facial cleansing is the cornerstone of your daily facial care regime. Due to its
significance in the process of quality skin care and its impact on the health of
your skin, it is important that you know the exact ways to apply a cleanser as
well as how to choose the right product.


THE BASICS

A cleanser is basically a facial care product used in the daily skin care
routine. An extremely important part of beauty care, cleansers are used to
remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil and dirt along with other types of
pollutants from the skin of the face. This ingredient of everyday skin care
helps in unclogging pores and preventing skin conditions such as acne.

Generally, mild daily cleansers are suited to all types of skin and can also be
used quite frequently within the day. Such type of cleansers will tenderly lift
and rinse away the impurities, leaving the skin fresh and glowing.


THE TECHNIQUE

Experts suggest that the best time to use a cleanser is when you've just
arrived back home or right before you go to sleep. In this manner, the



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 28
results will be most effective, as you will not have to face the sun or even
any outer environment.

Besides, it is also important to choose a cleanser that does not have harsh
chemicals that can possibly dry out the skin. Make sure you read the
ingredients before you buy any such product. Besides, the cleansers should
also be applied gently, so as to avoid any abrasion or scraping on the skin.

To know the best way to use a cleanser, follow these steps:

   •   Remove any make-up with a make-up remover
   •   Use warm water to loosen the dirt and clogged pores
   •   Take a small quantity of the cleanser and rub it in your fingers
   •   Gently slather on and rinse with cool or lukewarm water

In addition to this, weekly use of a deep-pore cleanser which effectively
exfoliates the skin also gives you a bright and shiny renewed complexion.




EXFOLIATING


THE BASICS

This is perhaps the most often missed step in the skin care regimen. Mostly,
people tend to confuse it with toning, which is absolutely not the case.
Ironically, it is exfoliation that makes your skin look more fresh and young
than anything else does.

For instance, studies have always shown that the skin of men generally
seems to be more youthful than that of women, which is probably due to the
fact that they shave and hence exfoliate regularly.


THE TECHNIQUE

There are three basic ways in which you can exfoliate. These include:

   •   Microdermabrasion
   •   Chemical peels
   •   Retinoids

Experts recommend exfoliating the skin with microdermabrasion once a week
to keep the skin in the right condition. Meanwhile, scrubs are known to work
by removing the top layer of dead skin cells that tend to dull the complexion.



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 29
When choosing an exfoliating agent, make sure that the grains are not too
large, as is the case in many of the cheaper products. This can actually cause
more harm than good in the longer run.


TONING

A toner is typically a lotion designed to cleanse the skin and shrink pores,
used as a regular part of facial skin care. A good quality skin toner restores
the proper pH balance, refines pores and adequately prepares the skin for
moisturizing.

Adding on, a toner often used after cleansing or even as an interim cleanser,
removes dirt and impurities, besides refreshing the skin. The right use of a
toner leaves the skin with a much refreshed and balanced complexion.

There are many ways in which a toner is generally applied. These include:

   • With a damp cotton wool
   • Spraying on top the face with a vaporizer
   • By applying a tonic gauze facial mask, which is basically a piece of
   gauze covered with the toner, left on the face for a few minutes

There are various categories and types of toners available in the market
today. These include:

 • Skin bracers or fresheners
   The mildest form and advisable for dry, dehydrated, dry, sensitive and
   normal skins

 • Skin tonics
   Slightly stronger and containing a small quantity of alcohol. Strongly
   advised for normal, combination as well as oily skin

 • Astringents
   The strongest form of toner, containing a very high proportion of alcohol,
   antiseptic ingredients, water and a humectant ingredient. Commonly
   recommended for oily skins


Whether or not you use a toner as a part of the exfoliating step is totally
your choice. If you think it suits your skin and adds on to the comfort level,
just go for it.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 30
MOISTURIZING


THE BASICS

Moisturizers are the skin's health drink. Keeping your skin hydrated is crucial
if you want to keep your skin healthy. Moisturizers contain beneficial
ingredients like lavender that sooth and moisturize effectively. Besides,
ingredients like CoQ10 and vitamin C also enhance protection from free
radicals, which actually cause damage to the skin.

There are various factors that can alter the moisture level of the skin. These
can include weather, environment, temperature changes, time in the sun and
diet.


THE TECHNIQUE

A regular regimen of moisturizing will help your skin maintain its vibrant
elasticity and will also leave you feeling soothed and nurtured.

The most important fact to keep in mind is to choose the right type of
moisturizer. Here is the 4-point checklist you need to ensure when selecting
a moisturizer:

The fragrance should be good
It should feel soft on your skin
It should gel with your skin without much effort and greasiness
There should be no sensation of irritation or burning after you've applied it


Depending on your individual lifestyle and occupational requirements, you
can also use a moisturizer that carries a high proportion of SPF and other
similar ingredients.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 31
                        6
                FACIAL SKIN CARE
Proper skin care techniques are crucial for your overall health. However, your
face being the most exposed part of your body faces the maximum hazards
and hence, needs most of attention.

In this chapter, we've outlined some of the basics of facial skin care, besides
furnishing some basic information on the products involved.


YOUR SKIN CARE PRODUCTS

SKIN CARE PRODUCTS – KEY INGREDIENTS
The cosmetics for daily as well as professional use vary over a vast range.
Hence, it is quite natural for these to carry ingredients of an equally diverse
quality, which is probably difficult to fathom and study under a single head.

However, there is a certain set of ingredients which are normally present in
almost of all the cosmetics we use. In the following section, we give you a
brief description of each one of these, along with the method in which they
are obtained.

   •   Vehicles:
       These are ingredients like alcohol or water and other base substances
       that carry the other ingredients in the cosmetics. Vehicles usually
       make up for the largest part of the cosmetic or product.

   •   Algae:
       This is basically a sea product which contains minerals and
       phytohormones. This ingredient is widely used in facial masks and
       other products to remineralize and revitalize the skin.

   •   Collagen
       This is a fibrous substance, used as an upper moisturizer and is
       available in the form of creams, lotions and many of the facial masks.

   •   Herbs:
       These are basically the plant materials that contain phytohormones


                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 32
       and have specific healing agents such as stimulating agents, soothing
       agents, emollients and astringents.

   •   Alcohol:
       This is a colorless liquid or a waxy solid that is obtained from the
       fermentation of certain sugars. It is very widely used in perfumes,
       lotions and tonics.

   •   Alum:
       This is basically a compound of aluminum, potassium or ammonium
       sulfate and is supplied in the form of crystals or powder. This
       ingredient has a strong astringent action and is widely used in skin
       tonics and lotions.

   •   Glycerin:
       Glycerin is a sweet, colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid formed by the
       decomposition of oils, fats and molasses. An extremely effective skin
       softener, it is widely used in cuticle oils, face creams and lotions.


Other ingredients include:

   •   Ammonia water
   •   Boric acid
   •   Potassium hydroxide
   •   Sodium bicarbonate
   •   Sodium hydroxide
   •   Witch hazel
   •   Zinc oxide




CHOOSING COSMETICS – WHAT TO CONSIDER
Skin care is a never-ending process of disciplined routine, good quality
products and careful self-analysis.

In the other sections, we've given you a deep insight into the various steps
of your beauty care, along with an outline of the possible skin diseases you
can suffer from.

However, most of the process boils down to one simple fact – what is the
quality of your skin care products and whether you have chosen the right
type of skin care product for yourself.

In the section that follows, we've given you a practical set of guidelines and
rules to consider as you set out to develop your own skin care kit.



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 33
•   Skin Tone
    The cosmetics you choose to apply on your face must match the tone
    of your skin and also complement it properly. For instance, in case you
    have an olive or chocolaty skin tone, then you must choose a darker
    foundation. On the other hand, women with fairer skin should rather
    choose a lighter foundation, implying lighter tones.

•   Price Vs. Quality
    Your face is perhaps your most prized possession. Though it is a
    common belief that price doesn't essentially ensure quality, yet the
    same almost always applies to cosmetics. Never attempt to save
    money on the cosmetics you are going to use on your skin. You might
    just end up spending all the more in healing the damage done later.

•   Type of Skin
    Each one of us has a different type of skin. A cosmetic designed for
    dry skin could actually damage your skin if it is of the oily type. Using
    cosmetics that are not meant for your own skin type can cause
    problems ranging from allergies to irritation and even serious skin
    diseases. You can determine your skin type just by doing the small
    self-test in chapter 1.

•   Color coordination
    Before you purchase a cosmetic for your make-up, ensure that its
    color tone matches that of your own skin. You must ensure that there
    is proper color harmony and the cosmetic you choose enhances the
    natural color of your skin.

•   Personal taste
    When you choose a cosmetic for yourself, make sure it reflects the
    type of personality you have. One particular type of cosmetic might
    not suit two people alike and similarly, two personalities also. For
    instance, some people look really good with a heavily made-up face,
    while others look attractive with a simple make-up. Choosing a
    cosmetic tone in line with your own personality makes the effect much
    more dramatic.

•   The Ingredients
    Make sure you know the ingredients of a cosmetic before you purchase
    it. Read the label listings carefully for any possible side effects. For
    instance, ingredients such as animal derivatives, microbes and
    petroleum by-products might cause conditions like allergy, dermatitis
    and the like. Go through our section on cosmetics earlier in this
    chapter for further knowledge in this.

•   Research
    Before you settle for a particular brand of a product, conduct your own
    research about the same and check for any possible effects. To be on


                    Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 34
the safer side, you can even take references from other users and thus
choose a cosmetic which is likely to give you the best of results.




               Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 35
                      7
              SKIN DISEASES AND
                 CONDITIONS

Skin problems, in whatever form and intensity, are always a nightmare for
the victim. However, if the effect remains cosmetic, then these are still
bearable and almost always, within cure.

The allergies, conditions and diseases of the skin can vary to a great degree,
in terms of intensity, cause, cure as well as the overall impact. Generally
speaking, a skin problem turns in to a scare when there is a scope of it
turning from a cosmetic issue to a medical one. For instance, a mild and
recurring rash on the inside of your elbow could normally be taken as a
reaction to a particular cream, lotion or even a medical ointment. However, it
begins to take a serious note when the rash refuses to go away, worsening
instead and causing pain which could be even intolerable at times.

It is these situations that necessitate that we learn the basics and a few
details about the various skin diseases, what causes them, what are the
signs and how do we take up the treatment of the same.

For the purpose of clarity, we've discussed each of the relevant skin diseases
and conditions under the following two categories:


   •   Category I:
       Diseases, which can be life-threatening or fatal

   •   Category II:
       Allergies


As discussed above, these diseases generally appear as a mild symptom of
common rash or an allergy. Gradually, they begin to show symptoms of a
more serious and deeper problem, which probably calls for an immediate
diagnosis and a consequent prognosis.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 36
Treatment is usually intensive and very strong, though such diseases are
often fatal. The key point to be noted here is that in majority of life-
threatening skin diseases such as skin cancer, the treatment is aimed at a
moderate correction of the problem, which means that it will lead to a sure
and effective delay in the demise of the patient.


For instance, in the case of skin cancer, chemotherapy combined with other
therapies usually cures the patient in such a manner that the further growth
of cancerous cells is halted to a great extent, thereby giving a curative effect.

Read on, as we give you further detailed information on many of these
diseases and conditions.




SKIN CANCER
The medical jargon defines skin cancer as a malignant growth found in the
outer layers of the skin.

According to the layman definition, it is a growth of cancerous cells usually
first spotted in the outermost layer of skin.



SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The most common and prominent sign of skin cancer is a change in the
appearance of the skin. For instance, it can present itself as a new growth or
a sore that doesn't heal in the usual time span.

The most common set of signs and symptoms include:

   •   Crabs and ulcers in the skin
   •   Changes in existing moles
   •   Appearance of a raised, smooth and pearly bump on the sun-exposed
       skin of the head, neck or shoulders. This is normally the case when
       there is a development of the basal cell carcinoma.
   •   Development of a red, scaling, thickened patch on the sun-exposed
       skin, accompanied by ulceration and bleeding. This is most commonly
       the case when the squamous cell carcinoma begins to develop.
   •   In case of the third form of cancer, the melanomas are generally
       brown to black looking lesions. A significant change in the size, shape,




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 37
       color or elevation of the mole is the most important sign of the
       development of this type of cancer.



KEY CAUSES

Chronic inflammation of the skin is by and large accepted as the primary
cause of skin cancer.

Here we've listed the main causes and risk factors that can predispose you to
the development of skin cancer.


   •   Sunburn:
       Excessive sunburn or sun damage is considered quite hazardous,
       especially if it happens in the early life. Research significantly indicates
       towards the role of UVA and UVB in causing DNA damage,
       consequently causing cancer.

   •   Unhealed wounds:
       Chronic burns and wounds which are unhealed can predispose you to
       the risk of suffering from skin cancer. Known as the Marjolin's ulcers,
       such injuries can actually lead to the development of squamous cell
       carcinoma.



TYPES OF SKIN CANCER

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

This is the most common form of skin cancer. In fact, the basal cell
carcinoma accounts for more than 90 percent of all skin cancers in the US.
This particular type of cancer almost never spreads to the other parts of the
body. However, they can definitely cause damage by growing and
consequently attacking the surrounding tissue as well.

Most commonly affected individuals include those with a light-colored skin
and also undergoing prolonged exposure to sun. The most common areas of
the body to be affected include the chest, back, arms, legs and scalp.

For further understanding, it is important to know that the basal cell
carcinoma usually begins as a small, dome-shaped bump and is mostly
covered by small and superficial blood vessels which care called
telangiectases. This spot is usually shiny and translucent, often referred to as
'pearly'.



                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 38
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

This particular form of cancer begins in the squamous cell, which are the thin
and flat cells that appear like fish scales under the microscopic vision. These
cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin along with the
lining of the hollow organs of the body and the passages of the respiratory
and digestive tracts.

As far as the prevalence of this type of cancer is concerned, it occurs roughly
one-quarter as often as the basal cell carcinoma. As in the case of basal cell
carcinoma, the most commonly affected individuals are those with a light-
colored skin and history of prolonged sun exposure.

In addition, men are also more prone to be affected by this kind of cancer
than women.

The above two forms of cancer are also referred to as the nonmelanoma skin
cancer. The most common methods of the treatment of these types of cancer
include:

   •   Curettage and desiccation
   •   Surgical excision
   •   Radiation therapy
   •   Cryosurgery
   •   Mohs micrographic surgery


While these are generally not fatal, but it is important to cure them early on
from preventing further damage. Besides, these cancers rarely metastasize
to other parts of the body.


Melanoma

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the skin known as
melanocytes. These melanocytes are basically the cells that produce melanin,
which further give the skin its natural color. It is the cluster of these
melanocytes and surrounding tissue that form noncancerous growths which
are known as moles.

This form of cancer primarily occurs when melanocytes or these pigment
cells become malignant. The condition is known as cutaneous melanoma
when it starts in the skin. Meanwhile, this form of cancer can also occur in
the eyes or the meninges. When it spreads, this type of cancer usually shows
up nearby the lymph nodes.



                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 39
The patients suffering from melanoma can usually opt for one of the below
listed treatments or choose to take up any of these in combination.

   •   Surgery
   •   Chemotherapy
   •   Biological therapy
   •   Radiation therapy




PSORIASIS
Psoriasis is basically an inflammatory skin condition, typically characterised
by the appearance of red and scaly patches on the skin. The patches, known
as psoriatic plaques are the centre point of inflammation and also excessive
skin production.
In this skin disease, the skin begins to accumulate at these spots and begins
to take on a different silvery-white appearance. Though such plaques usually
occur on the skin of elbows and knees, yet it is also quite common to see
these on the skin of scalp and genitals.

Once it has appeared, Psoriasis then tends to develop a chronic recurring
pattern. These often vary in severity, ranging right from minor localised
patches to the complete body coverage.

Psoriatic dystrophy, an associated condition can also be seen frequently and
is characterized by an impact on the fingernails and toenails.


KINDS OF PSORIASIS

In this section, we've listed and briefly explained each of the seven main
types of Psoriasis, along with their key symptoms.

   •   Plaque psoriasis:
       This is the most common form of Psoriasis and affects up to 80% of
       people suffering from the condition. This form of the disease typically
       appears as a raised area of inflammation covered with silvery white
       and scaly skin.

   •   Flexural Psoriasis:
       Also known as Inverse Psoriasis, this condition appears as smooth but
       inflamed patches of skin. It usually occurs in skin folds and more
       particularly around the genitals, armpits, under an overweight
       stomach and under the breasts.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 40
   •   Guttate Psoriasis:
       This condition is characterized by numerous small and oval spots. Such
       spots usually appear over the large areas of the body, such as the
       trunk, limbs and scalp.

   •   Pustular Psoriasis: This form of the disease appears as raised
       bumps, filled with non-infectious pus. The skin under and surrounding
       this area is red and tender. Though it normally occurs in the hands and
       feet, yet it can very well be generalized and widespread throughout
       the body.

   •   Nail Psoriasis:
       This condition presents itself in the form of a series of changes in the
       appearance of the finger and toe nails. The changes can include
       discoloring under the nail plate, pitting of nails, thickening of the skin
       under the nail and loosening or crumbling of the nail.

   •   Psoriatic arthritis:
       This involves joint and connective tissue inflammation. Though it can
       affect any of the joints, yet it is most common in the joints of the
       fingers and toes. It usually results in a sausage-shaped swelling of the
       fingers and toes, also known as dactylitis.

   •   Erythodermic Psoriasis:
       This form of the disease manifests itself in a widespread inflammation
       and exfoliation of the skin across most of the body surface. Usual
       symptoms include severe itching, swelling and even pain.



CAUSES OF PSORIASIS

Researchers generally vary on listing down the precise causes of the
development of Psoriasis. However, in the following section, we've listed out
the main set of possible causes, culled from various findings across decades.

   •   Immune mediated:
       Psoriasis is often regarded as an immune-mediated condition. This
       basically means that it is caused by faulty signals that are present in
       the body's immune system, indicating to the body to over-react and
       accelerate the growth of skin cells.

   •   Genes:
       The genetic make-up of a few individuals has also been found
       associated with the development of Psoriasis. The chances of
       developing Psoriasis dramatically increase when a close blood relative
       suffers from the disease.




                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 41
KEY TRIGGERS

Psoriasis is generally caused by a set of triggers that inflame the condition,
either to a small extent or to the level of the full-blown disease.

Read on, as we discuss some of the main triggers of this condition.


1. Infection:

There are a number of skin conditions and infections which can further
trigger off an episode of Psoriasis. The main amongst these include:


   •   Candida albicans
   •   Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
   •   Staphylococcal skin infections (boils)
   •   Strep throat
   •   Viral upper respiratory condition


2. Reaction to medication:

A number of medications can also trigger off Psoriasis in a few selected set of
patients. These include:

   •   Anti-malarial drugs
   •   Beta-blockers
   •   Corticosteroids
   •   Indomethacin, the nonsteroidal medication used to treat arthritis
   •   Lithium


3. Skin Injury:

New lesions generally appear after suffering from a skin injury or a wound.

Besides, stress and variant climatic conditions are also sometimes considered
as trigger points for the development of Psoriasis.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 42
TREATMENT MODALITIES

The various treatment modalities adopted for relief from Psoriasis falls in
three main categories, as we've explained below:

   •   Topical, which comprises of applications on the skin and usually ideal
       for mild to moderate Psoriasis

   •   Phototherapy, involves the application of ultraviolet light to the skin
       and useful for moderate to severe Psoriasis

   •   Systemic, administered orally or by injection or infusion and applicable
       for moderate, severe or disabling Psoriasis.




ECZEMA
Eczema is basically an umbrella term used for a group of skin conditions,
which typically cause the skin to become red, irritated and itchy. A form of
dermatitis or an inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, eczema might
also be identified by the presence of one or more of the symptoms listed
below:

   •   Skin oedema
   •   Crusting
   •   Flaking
   •   Blistering
   •   Cracking
   •   Oozing
   •   Bleeding
   •

There are basically four common types of eczema, while the other six types
of eczema also exist, but are seen quite rarely.

In the following sections, we give you a quick insight into each one of these.



COMMON FORMS

There are four basic common forms of eczema that can occur. Read on a
brief a description of each one of these.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 43
   •   Atopic eczema:
       Also known as infantile or flexural eczema or atopic dermatitis, atopic
       eczema is believed to affect individuals with a family history of the
       disease. This form of eczema is also seen in families where certain
       members are afflicted with hay fever and asthma. The most
       conspicuous symptom in this case is an itchy rash on the face, scalp,
       neck, inside of elbows, behind the knees and buttocks.

   •   Contact dermatitis: This form of eczema exists in further two forms,
       including:

          o   Allergic - Triggered off by an allergen, such as poison ivy or
              nickel
          o   Irritant – Resulting from direct reaction to a solvent

   •   Xerotic eczema:
       This form of eczema occurs when the condition of dry skin worsens
       beyond such a point that it turns into eczema. Most affected areas of
       the body include limbs and trunks. Quite common amongst the older
       population, this form of eczema almost always worsens in winters.

   •   Seborroheic dermatitis: Also known as the cradle cap in infants, this
       form of eczema causes dry or greasy scaling of the scalp and
       eyebrows. Most conspicuous symptoms include pimples and red
       patches on the skin.



RARE FORMS

The less common forms of eczema include:
   •
   • Dyshidrosis
   • Discoid eczema
   • Venous eczema
   • Dermatitis herpetiformis
   • Neurodermatitis
   • Autoeczematization



TREATMENT MEASURES

The main aim of treatment methods adopted for eczema is to reduce the
symptoms and relieve the patient from the pain and discomfort. Experts
suggest that while there might not be a total cure for the disease, yet
resolving the symptoms might act therapeutic to quite an extent.




                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 44
In the following sections, we've discussed each of the options available, along
with necessary details.

     •   Emollients:
         These are necessary to reduce water loss and hence prevent dryness
         which is associated with eczema. These are available in the form of
         ointments for extremely dry skin and creams and lotions for mild to
         moderate or 'wet' eczema.

     •   Topical steroids:
         In the case of a flare-up of eczema, the skin often becomes inflamed,
         necessitating the use of a steroid cream. Topical steroids basically
         come in four strengths, including:

            o   Mild
            o   Moderately potent
            o   Potent
            o   Very potent

         Such medications are applied as a thin coat over the affected area or
         as other wise prescribed by your doctor.

•    Oral steroids:
     These are prescribed in severe cases, mostly where the use of topical
     steroids has been ineffective.

•    Topical immunomodulators:
     This is one of the latest forms of medication available for eczema and
     should be administered under medical supervision only.

•    Other options available include:

            o   Anti-histamines
            o   Wet wrap bandaging
            o   Ultra violet treatment



PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Since there is no sure cure for eczema, experts generally advise strictly
following a certain set of preventive measures. The main amongst these
include:

    • Avoiding substances that could irritate or stress your skin, which could
      mainly include household cleaners, drying soaps, detergents and
      fragranced lotions.




                         Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 45
 • Stay away from water as much as possible and take only short and warm
   baths.

 • Keep your environment dust-free and maintain hygienic surroundings.

 • Wear only cotton clothes

 • Moisturize your skin with a fragrance-free moisturizer such as petroleum
   jelly to prevent the skin from becoming irritated and cracked

 • Avoid scratching on the itchy surface as far as possible.

 • Avoid facing any sudden changes in temperature, which could further
   lead to increased sweating.

 • Avoid stress as far as possible and take the prescribed medication
   regularly.




ALLERGIES
A skin allergy typically causes the human body to display a heightened
sensitivity to a specific set of substances. In turn, the immune system
overreacts if these substances get in contact with the body or are absorbed
by it.

Skin allergies account for at least 70% of all skin-related problems. The most
conspicuous and immediate symptom of skin allergies is a red, bumpy, scaly,
itchy or swollen skin. The causative factors can include a vast variety of
reasons, ranging from plants, pets, medicines and food, going up to jewellery
and even your basic clothing.



TYPES OF SKIN ALLERGIES

Since centuries, both the experts and patients have been getting perplexed
over the sudden outburst of allergic reactions in human skin. Very often, the
reasons are difficult to make out, though the resulting allergy can very well
mar the very quality of your daily life.

Skin allergies usually occur in a lot of forms and due to a series of reasons,
which are quite often unknown. In the following sections, we give you a brief
description of the most common categories of skin allergies, along with their
essential details.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 46
Hives

Often referred to as acute urticaria, hives is a form of allergy that might last
from several hours to even a few days and is mostly allergic in its origin.
However, the other form .i.e. chronic urticaria is rarely allergic and is usually
caused by foods, food additives and medicines. This form of allergy is
commonly referred to as pseudo-allergy.

The most conspicuous sign of the appearance of hives is an outbreak of
pimples, called 'nettle rash'. It might appear anywhere in the body and is
characterised by red, swollen and itchy welts which form on the skin.

According to various research reports, hives or acute urticaria might result
due to one or more of the below:

   •    Food allergens .e.g. eggs, fish, nuts, fruit
   •    Medicine allergens .e.g. pencillin, hormones, sulphonamides
   •    Aeroallergens .e.g. pollen, mildew, animal hair
   •    Insect stings .e.g. bees, wasps
   •    Infections .e.g. glandular fever, hepatitis B and the like



Angioedema

Angioedema is a very typical form of urticaria. Its most conspicuous
symptom is the swelling on the face, more particularly on the lips, eyelids, a
few of the mucous membranes and various other parts of the body, along
with a painful and burning sensation.

Though there is no itching in this and Quincke's disease, another form of
urticaria, yet it can actually turn dangerous if it attacks the mucous
membranes of the mouth and pharynx.

Besides, a swollen tongue or swollen back of the mouth can also block the
breathing passage, which can further even cause the patient to choke or
suffocate.

Besides, bites and stings are also another major cause of skin allergy. The
most prominent symptoms of an allergy emerging out of bites or stings
include:

   •    Itching
   •    Swelling
   •    Redness




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 47
CAUSATIVE FACTORS

A series of research reports have summarized the possible causes of human
skin allergies into ten main reasons. Here's the list for your perusal:


 • Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate)
   mostly present in jewelry and clasps or buttons on clothes

 • Gold
   also found frequently in jewelry

 • Balsam of Peru
   used often in fragrances and perfumes

 • Thimerosal
   used in local antiseptics and as a preservative in some vaccines

 • Neomycin
   a very common topical antibiotic cream

 • Fragrance mix
   which is basically a group of the eight most common fragrance allergens
   found in foods, cosmetics, insecticides, antiseptics, soaps, perfumes and
   dental products

 • Formaldehyde
   a preservative found in paper products, medication, household cleaners,
   and fabric finishes etc.

 • Cobalt chloride
   found in hair dyes and antiperspirants

 • Bacitracin
   a topical antibiotic

 • Quaternium 15
   a preservative found in many cosmetics, including self-tanners, shampoo,
   nail polish and sunscreen lotions


In the last chapter, we've discussed some of the most common beauty
problems, their solutions and a host of other home remedies.




                          Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 48
                     8
            CURE, REMEDIES AND
                THERAPIES
The subject of beauty care encompasses a staggering range of topics.
However, there are a few sets of beauty problems which are faced by almost
all of us and hence call for ready solutions.

In this chapter, we've discussed the most common beauty problems, their
remedies and other related aspects.


BEAUTY PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES
The most common beauty problems emerge from our basic state of health
and lifestyle. Of course, what tops even in this list is lack of daily care and
ignoring your skin problems in the longer run.

Below, we've briefly discussed each of the common beauty problems with
special regard to your skin.



FRECKLES

Freckles are the tiny dark spots that are sprinkled on the face. These appear
more on the elevated areas of the skin including the nose, cheeks, bones and
forehead.

These spots appear due to a prolonged exposure to sun and is more common
in people with a fairer skin. Freckles occur when the pigments in the lower
layers of the skin get transferred to the upper layers, getting gradually
destroyed in the process.

The best remedy for freckles is minimising exposure to the sun and intensive
moisturization.




                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 49
WHITEHEADS

These are caused by the accumulation of the hardened sebum or oil in the
pores of the skin. Also known as milia, these spots are best cured by
maintaining a regular diet and a healthy lifestyle


DARK UNDER-EYE CIRCLES

This skin problem is typically caused by lack of sleep, fatigue, stress and
dietary deficiencies.

Dark under-eye circles respond quite well to the special under-eye creams
containing lanolin and almonds. Besides, the skin around the eyes should
also be carefully left out when applying a face mask.



ENLARGED PORES

When the sebaceous glands become overactive, it usually results in the
enlargement of the pores. Once this happens, these glands then secrete oils
which further lead to clogging of the pores. This in turn forms the base for
the development of blackheads, white heads and other related forms of acne.

The typical remedy for this kind of problem is to use a medicated cleanser to
keep the pores free of sebum. Deep pore cleansing done with specialised
cleansers also helps considerably. In addition, it is often helpful to use a skin
tonic with a rose base for keeping the pores free of the problem causing
sebum.



WARTS

Warts are basically the small, hard and raised growths, with a rough surface.
These can appear on any part of the body, but are more common on hands
and face and are believed to be caused by a particular virus.

Sclerotherpay, the treatment of warts is always carried out by a trained
professional and generally comprises of insertion of a specialised product into
the area, causing the blood flow to the wart to stop. Once done, the wart
slowly dries up and then crumbles. The same effect can also be achieved by
creams and ointments as well.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 50
UNDER-EYE BAGS

Under-eye bags look just like heavy pouches right under the eyes. Usually a
hereditary problem, the under-eye bags mostly develop during the thirties.
Sometimes, these pouches are caused by other problems such as sinus,
urinary tract infections and kidney ailments.

The most important step to take when you this type of a problem is to have a
lot of water. This will keep the kidney's functioning well and also help to
'flush' the system. One of the most effective remedies is to have a glass of
warm water with lemon juice, first thing in the morning.




STRETCH MARKS

Stretch marks are essentially caused due to overstretching of the skin, which
destroys its elasticity and resilience. The most common reason for the
development of stretch marks is gaining or losing excess weight.

Since, it is almost impossible to cure and completely remove stretch marks,
it important to follow suitable preventive measures so that these do not
develop in the first place. The most critical time to take adequate care is the
time of pregnancy and a few months after the delivery.




YOUR SELF CARE KIT
Experts across the globe and cultures have always stressed on a few basic
rules of beauty and skin care. Here we give you a specific set of the most
critical rules of self care for you tot follow.



10 GOLDEN RULES OF SKIN CARE

            Be kind to your skin and your skin will be kind to you!

Beauty therapists across the globe stress on a few basic fundamentals of skin
care, which are culled in the following set of 10 golden rules.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 51
   1. Cleanse your skin twice a day with good quality products, which suit
      your skin type

   2. Develop a habit of seeing a beauty therapist regularly after you are 25
      years of age

   3. Know your skin type and treat it accordingly

   4. Avoid the sun

   5. Avoid alcohol and smoking

   6. Drink at least eight glasses of water a day

   7. Use a face mask at least once a week

   8. Exercise regularly

   9. Always remember that regular care and routine always pay rich
      dividends

   10.Neglect worsens skin and accelerates ageing like nothing else does



ESSENTIAL OILS

Essential oils have always been an integral part of the skin care kit. These
oils offer the unique advantage of maximum therapeutic help, offered in the
most natural manner.

Experts advise using a different set of essential oils for different types of
skin. In this section, we furnish a quick list of the essential oils you can use
for various skin types. NEVER PUT ESSENTIAL OILS DIRECT ONTO THE
SKIN! THEY MUST BE MIXED (DILUTED) WITH A CARRIER OIL FIRST!


             For Oily Skin      For Dry Skin        For Normal
                                                       Skin

           Bergamot            Chamomile          Chamomile

           Cedarwood           Geranium           Fennel

           Cypress             Hyssop             Geranium

           Frankincense        Lavender           Lavender

           Geranium            Patchouli          Lemon



                        Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 52
           Juniper             Rose              Patchouli

           Lavender            Sandalwood        Rose

           Sage                Ylang-Ylang       Sandalwood


For the combination type of skin, it is advisable to use oils suggested for oily
skin on the greasy patches and the oils indicated for normal skin on the rest
of the area.




TOP 10 HOME BEAUTY AGENTS
There is no doubt to the fact that quality skin care comes at a price. The
price of course, is incurred in terms of money as well as effort and time spent
on the procedures.

However, nature has kindly bestowed on us a series of wonderful products
which carry amazing curative powers. And whats more! You do not have to
go out and look for these natural wonders and can instead; just conjure
enough of them, right from your kitchen and household.

Read on as we share some of the prizest beauty secrets which you can pick
up from your own kitchen.

   1. Cinnamon
      A common ingredient in cooking, this can be used either in its raw
      form or after being powdered. The oil extracts of cinnamon are highly
      effective for facial massage. It is also known to have a soothing effect
      on sun-damaged skin, besides being good for the teeth.

   2. Almond
      Almonds smoothen the skin and also have a skin tightening effect.
      They are also known to refine and moisturize the skin very well.
      Almonds are best known as bleaching agents and helpful for removing
      under-eye circles.

   3. Honey
      Honey is considered one of the best natural moisturizers. In fact,
      honey can be applied just as it to give the skin a soft, moist and satiny
      look. A little bit of honey added to the bath water is also known to
      induce sleep and minimize fatigue.

   4. Potato
      Potatoes are helpful in clearing the blemishes and help patients


                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 53
      suffering form eczema. They also have a significant tightening effect
      and helpful in reducing puffiness around the eyes.

   5. Cucumber
      Cucumber works as an excellent cleaning, soothing and mild astringent
      on the skin. Rubbing cucumber on oily skins can especially be
      beneficial.

   6. Carrot
      A handful of carrots boiled and then mashed into a pulp can act as a
      wonderful facemask. These are especially helpful for soothing dry and
      sensitive skin.

   7. Yoghurt
      Yoghurt is regarded as one of the best natural cleansers and is
      especially useful for oily and spotty skin.

   8. Cabbage
      Cabbage is an excellent nourishing agent. Water is which cabbage has
      been boiled has been found very soothing for the skin.

   9. Lemon
      Lemon is an extremely effective natural cleanser. It cleanses without
      disturbing the natural balance of moisture in the skin. Lemon is
      extensively used in face creams, pre-bath creams, cleansers and
      masks.

   10.Eggs
      Eggs are considered to be an excellent skin tightener. Apply a raw
      white of the egg evenly on your face to see the tightening effect it has
      on the skin.


Just remember that such natural products are extremely effective, but
mostly in the longer run. Though some of them can also show immediate
results, yet you will have to be patient to see the effects most of them have
had on your skin.




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 54
                   THE LAST WORD
It is normally said that with skin care, it is never too late and never too early
either. If you think in all the hustle of life, you have neglected this wonderful
part of your body, all is not lost yet!

Beauty care is all a matter of regimen. If you choose the right product,
discipline yourself and follow a healthy lifestyle, nothing can really come in
your way.

Also, you must remember not to fall into the trap of being allured by the
flashy commercial advertisements. The products they offer might be very
good, but you can only know if you try them on. Form networks with people
who you think are keen to follow similar beauty regimens as you do. Learn
from their experiences and share your knowledge with them.

Make your own regimen, follow your routines regularly, know what suits you
and soon you will be on the way to a beautiful, glowing and rejuvenated skin,
that even belies your age!




                       Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Skin Care 55

				
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