Document Sample
					Persuasive Speech
• Has a salesman ever tried to sell
  you anything?
  •   What was their approach?
  •   What did they say to you?
  •   Were they persuasive?
  •   What could have made it more
              Persuasive Genres
You encounter persuasion every day.

•   TV Commercials
•   Letters to the Editor
•   Junk mail
•   Magazine ads
•   College brochures

Can you think of other persuasive contexts?
   What is Persuasion?
The art of persuasion is the art
of finding the best available
means of moving a specific
audience in a specific situation
to a specific decision
                in the Real World
Presenter                                 Audience
 Your Needs &                             Their Needs &
   Interests                                Interests

                 Your Program’s Needs &
        Persuading is like
        making a candle

•Harden & Ignite!
            Melting Resistance

• To Melt Resistance           • To Raise Resistance:
   – Be honest                    – Be insincere
   – Find common ground           – Shout “You’re wrong!”
   – Use humor carefully
   – Appreciate what they         – Use weak humor
     are already doing            – Guilt trip them
   – Give realistic pros and      – Use improbable
     cons                           threats
   – Ask them to make your
     case                         – Lecture them

       Try to melt resistance before
         Molding Opinion:
        Know your Audience
•   They are concerned about local issues and
    local people
    – Make local arguments
•   They make decisions with both their
    minds and hearts
    – Appeal to both
•   They feel financially pressured
    – Show how your programs save money or
      bring new money into the community
         Molding Opinion:
       Present Professionally
• To trust you, your audience must believe
  you are a competent person, a professional
• Present information accurately
  – The data
  – The names
  – The spelling & grammar
             Molding Opinion:
             Present Personally

• Never talk down to or over the heads of
  your audience
• Tell your story simply
  – Use short simple sentences
  – Show rather than tell
  – Illustrate with short stories of success
         Molding Opinion:
      Make your argument clear

• Answer basic questions (5W’s & H)
• Show the real, positive results achieved by
  your program to meet real needs
  – Show what your program has done
  – Show what your program will do
  – Show what your program cannot do if not
    funded and what the cost will be to the
  In Closing, IGNITE!

• People may feel for you and agree
  with you, but if they do not act on
  your behalf, your presentation fails
  its purpose
          Harden & Ignite!:
         Believe in your cause

• To ignite others to support your cause, first
  YOU should be on fire
• Why should others care if you do not?
• You show your convictions by your
  – Passionate presentation
  – Confident presentation
  – Positive presentation
            Harden & Ignite!:
    Summarize & Seek a Decision
• Summarize what you already agree on
  – Smile
  – Assume the best
• Make a specific request
  – Be thorough but . . .
  – Be brief
          Principles for
       Powerful Persuasion
Melt Resistance
Mold Opinions
•   Know your audience well
•   Make your argument clear
•   Present personally & professionally
Harden & Ignite!
•   Believe in your cause
•   Summarize & make a specific request
      Does it always work?
• Of course not!
• Some people come equipped with closed
  minds (They’ve already decided)
• Some people come with busy minds (They
  aren’t really listening to you)
• Some people will not agree with you (so if you
  can’t convince them, at least help them be
  sorry they can’t agree with you)
    Steps for Effective Persuasion

•   Understand your audience
•   Support your opinion
•   Know the various sides of your issue
•   Respectfully address other points of view
•   Find common ground with your audience
•   Establish your credibility
    Understanding Your Audience

• Who is your audience?
• What beliefs do they hold about the topic?
• What disagreements might arise between you and
  your audience?
• How can you refute counterarguments with
    Understanding Your Audience
• Help your audience relate to your topic
• Appeal to their hearts as well as their minds.

  – Use anecdotes when appropriate
  – Paint your topic in with plenty of detail
  – Involve the reader’s senses in these sections
          Researching an Issue
• Become familiar with all sides of an issue.

  -find common ground
  -understand the history of the topic
  -predict the counterarguments your
     audience might make
  -find strong support for your own
          Researching an Issue
• Find common ground with your audience

For example:

Point of Opposition: You might support a war,
  whereas your audience might not.

Common ground: Both sides want to see their
  troops come home.
           Researching an Issue
• Predict counterarguments


Your Argument: Organic produce from local Farmers’
  Markets is better than store-bought produce.

The Opposition: Organic produce is too expensive.
       Support Your Perspective
• Appeal to the audience’s reason
  – Use statistics and reputable studies
• Cite experts on the topic
  – Do they back up what you say?
  – Do they refute the other side?
    Cite Sources with Some Clout
• Which source would a reader find more credible?
  – The New York Times

• Which person would a reader be more likely to
  – Joe Smith from Fort Wayne, IN
  – Dr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at Purdue
            Establish Credibility
•   Cite credible sources
•   Cite sources correctly and thoroughly
•   Use professional language (and design)
•   Edit out all errors
           Cite Sources Ethically
Don’t misrepresent a quote or leave out
 important information.

  Misquote: “Crime rates were down by 2002,”
  according to Dr. Smith.

 Actual quote: “Crime rates were down by 2002,
  but steadily began climbing again a year later,” said
  to Dr. Smith.
               Tactics to Avoid
•   Don’t lecture or talk down to your audience
•   Don’t make threats or “bully” your reader
•   Don’t employ guilt trips
•   Be careful if using the
    second person, “you”
    Persuasive Tips In Picking a Topic
              Ask Yourself
• What are my major interest
• What am I passionate about
• What are my audience’s interest
• Choose a topics you already know a lot about
• Choose words that contain feeling and emotion
• Use statistics sparingly (easy to understand and relevant)
• Use stories and anecdotes to illustrate your point
• Avoid controversial topics that are not related to your speech (your goal is
  to show your passion for a topic not to arouse the passion for others)
• Be aware of your body language
• Avoid speaking in monotone (raise & lower voice)
• Show that you care but don’t be over-emotional
         Persuasive Speech Generator

                 Persuasive Topics
• Your goal is to sway someone’s opinion
•   Are you for or against
•   Why
•   What facts do you know about topic
•   Statistics you can get to support your side
•   Personal story
•   Possible visual aid
•   Quotes
• Statistics to support your side

• Pictures

• Stories

• Quotes

• Propaganda- use what we talked about in advertising unit
  (Bandwagon, Testimonial etc)
         Organize your Research
• Read through your material and highlight the main
  points (most important facts/ best emotional appeal)

• Group material together

• Write down main headings- you will use this in your
            Organization Pattern
•   Time/chronological
•   Spatial
•   Topical
•   Process
•   Cause & effect
•   Problem-solution
                What to do?
• You will write a        • You will have two
  persuasive paper          and only two days to
  (essay) in the format     work in class.
  provided.               • The essay must be
• You must include a        typed. If there are
  visual aid. Essay can     any computer issues,
  NOT be on PPT.            it is up to you to tell
                            Mr. West ahead of
            Writing the speech
        (set up like a major paper)

• Introduction- with purpose statement (just
  like a thesis statement in English)

• Body- supporting facts/ stories/ quotes
  (repeat important things)

• Conclusion- wrap it all up… summarize what
  you just told them,,, main points
       Writing the Introduction
• Startling statement or
• Rhetorical question
• Humor
• Story
• Personal experience
• Example
• Quote
           Purpose statement
• What organizational pattern are you using

• The purpose statement guides the outline or
  organization of the speech

• Includes the topic and states the goal

• What will you talk about
    How to Use your 2 Days in Class
1. Don’t waste time making your power point
   look pretty, use your time to find
   information and pictures.
2. Copy and Paste anything you like, you can
   skim through it later.
3. Save it to your account!