Persuasive Speech Scenario • Has a salesman ever tried to sell you anything? • What was their approach? • What did they say to you? • Were they persuasive? • What could have made it more convincing? Persuasive Genres You encounter persuasion every day. • TV Commercials • Letters to the Editor • Junk mail • Magazine ads • College brochures Can you think of other persuasive contexts? What is Persuasion? The art of persuasion is the art of finding the best available means of moving a specific audience in a specific situation to a specific decision Persuasion in the Real World Presenter Audience Your Needs & Their Needs & Interests Interests Subject Your Program’s Needs & Accomplishments Persuading is like making a candle •Melt •Mold •Harden & Ignite! Melting Resistance • To Melt Resistance • To Raise Resistance: – Be honest – Be insincere – Find common ground – Shout “You’re wrong!” – Use humor carefully – Appreciate what they – Use weak humor are already doing – Guilt trip them – Give realistic pros and – Use improbable cons threats – Ask them to make your case – Lecture them Try to melt resistance before meetings Molding Opinion: Know your Audience • They are concerned about local issues and local people – Make local arguments • They make decisions with both their minds and hearts – Appeal to both • They feel financially pressured – Show how your programs save money or bring new money into the community Molding Opinion: Present Professionally • To trust you, your audience must believe you are a competent person, a professional • Present information accurately – The data – The names – The spelling & grammar Molding Opinion: Present Personally • Never talk down to or over the heads of your audience • Tell your story simply – Use short simple sentences – Show rather than tell – Illustrate with short stories of success Molding Opinion: Make your argument clear • Answer basic questions (5W’s & H) • Show the real, positive results achieved by your program to meet real needs – Show what your program has done – Show what your program will do – Show what your program cannot do if not funded and what the cost will be to the community In Closing, IGNITE! • People may feel for you and agree with you, but if they do not act on your behalf, your presentation fails its purpose Harden & Ignite!: Believe in your cause • To ignite others to support your cause, first YOU should be on fire • Why should others care if you do not? • You show your convictions by your – Passionate presentation – Confident presentation – Positive presentation Harden & Ignite!: Summarize & Seek a Decision • Summarize what you already agree on – Smile – Assume the best • Make a specific request – Be thorough but . . . – Be brief Principles for Powerful Persuasion Melt Resistance Mold Opinions • Know your audience well • Make your argument clear • Present personally & professionally Harden & Ignite! • Believe in your cause • Summarize & make a specific request Does it always work? • Of course not! • Some people come equipped with closed minds (They’ve already decided) • Some people come with busy minds (They aren’t really listening to you) • Some people will not agree with you (so if you can’t convince them, at least help them be sorry they can’t agree with you) Questions? Steps for Effective Persuasion • Understand your audience • Support your opinion • Know the various sides of your issue • Respectfully address other points of view • Find common ground with your audience • Establish your credibility Understanding Your Audience • Who is your audience? • What beliefs do they hold about the topic? • What disagreements might arise between you and your audience? • How can you refute counterarguments with respect? Understanding Your Audience • Help your audience relate to your topic • Appeal to their hearts as well as their minds. – Use anecdotes when appropriate – Paint your topic in with plenty of detail – Involve the reader’s senses in these sections Researching an Issue • Become familiar with all sides of an issue. -find common ground -understand the history of the topic -predict the counterarguments your audience might make -find strong support for your own perspective Researching an Issue • Find common ground with your audience For example: Point of Opposition: You might support a war, whereas your audience might not. Common ground: Both sides want to see their troops come home. Researching an Issue • Predict counterarguments Example: Your Argument: Organic produce from local Farmers’ Markets is better than store-bought produce. The Opposition: Organic produce is too expensive. Support Your Perspective • Appeal to the audience’s reason – Use statistics and reputable studies • Cite experts on the topic – Do they back up what you say? – Do they refute the other side? Cite Sources with Some Clout • Which source would a reader find more credible? – The New York Times – http://www.myopinion.com • Which person would a reader be more likely to believe? – Joe Smith from Fort Wayne, IN – Dr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at Purdue University Establish Credibility • Cite credible sources • Cite sources correctly and thoroughly • Use professional language (and design) • Edit out all errors Cite Sources Ethically Don’t misrepresent a quote or leave out important information. Misquote: “Crime rates were down by 2002,” according to Dr. Smith. Actual quote: “Crime rates were down by 2002, but steadily began climbing again a year later,” said to Dr. Smith. Tactics to Avoid • Don’t lecture or talk down to your audience • Don’t make threats or “bully” your reader • Don’t employ guilt trips • Be careful if using the second person, “you” Persuasive Tips In Picking a Topic Ask Yourself • What are my major interest • What am I passionate about • What are my audience’s interest • Choose a topics you already know a lot about • Choose words that contain feeling and emotion • Use statistics sparingly (easy to understand and relevant) • Use stories and anecdotes to illustrate your point • Avoid controversial topics that are not related to your speech (your goal is to show your passion for a topic not to arouse the passion for others) • Be aware of your body language • Avoid speaking in monotone (raise & lower voice) • Show that you care but don’t be over-emotional Persuasive Speech Generator http://www.speech-topics-help.com/persuasive-speech-topic.html Persuasive Topics http://collegeuniversity.suite101.com/article.cfm/great_persuasive_speech_topics Remember • Your goal is to sway someone’s opinion Topic • Are you for or against • Why • What facts do you know about topic • Statistics you can get to support your side • Personal story • Possible visual aid • Quotes Research • Statistics to support your side • Pictures • Stories • Quotes • Propaganda- use what we talked about in advertising unit (Bandwagon, Testimonial etc) Organize your Research • Read through your material and highlight the main points (most important facts/ best emotional appeal) • Group material together • Write down main headings- you will use this in your introduction Organization Pattern • Time/chronological • Spatial • Topical • Process • Cause & effect • Problem-solution What to do? • You will write a • You will have two persuasive paper and only two days to (essay) in the format work in class. provided. • The essay must be • You must include a typed. If there are visual aid. Essay can any computer issues, NOT be on PPT. it is up to you to tell Mr. West ahead of time. Writing the speech (set up like a major paper) • Introduction- with purpose statement (just like a thesis statement in English) • Body- supporting facts/ stories/ quotes (repeat important things) • Conclusion- wrap it all up… summarize what you just told them,,, main points Writing the Introduction • Startling statement or statistic • Rhetorical question • Humor • Story • Personal experience • Example • Quote Purpose statement • What organizational pattern are you using • The purpose statement guides the outline or organization of the speech • Includes the topic and states the goal • What will you talk about How to Use your 2 Days in Class 1. Don’t waste time making your power point look pretty, use your time to find information and pictures. 2. Copy and Paste anything you like, you can skim through it later. 3. Save it to your account!