Chapter 9 User-centered approaches to interaction design by pengxiang

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									       Chapter 9
User-centered approaches to
     interaction design
             By:
       Sarah Obenhaus
         Ray Evans
         Nate Lynch
          Introduction
 Some advantages of involving users
 Main principles of user-centered approach
 Ethnographic-based methods to understand
  user’s work
 Design techniques that help users take
  active part in design
           Why involve users?
 Best way to ensure that users’ activities
  taken into account
 Expectation management
  – Process that makes sure what user expects is
    realistic
  – Users will know what to expect-no surprises
  – Users less likely to be disappointed
 Ownership
  – Users involved in design have a sense of
    “ownership” and will be more receptive
       Degrees of Involvement
 Co-opted full time
  – Consistent input
  – Could lose touch with user group
 Co-opted part time
  – Consistent input with careful management
  – Remain in touch with user group
 Newsletters, Workshops
  – Good solution for large amount of users
         What if short on time?
 Some argue that if the project is large scale
  and the time is short, users will be a waste
  of valuable time
 Braiterman conducted 2 studies that prove
  otherwise:
  – 3-week web shopping application
     • Use paper prototypes
  – 3-month gaming website
     • Observed 32 teenagers to gain insight
    “Too much of a good thing?”
    Heinbokel (1996) – Users could make project have
     less flexibility and lower team effectiveness

    Communication problems:
    1.   Users want more sophisticated designs later in
         project
    2.   Users’ fears lead to less constructive participation
    3.   Users unpredictable and unsympathetic
    4.   Higher stress levels from higher aspirations
  What is user-centered approach?

 Real users and their goals should be the
  driving force behind design

 Three principles:
  1. Early focus on user and their tasks
  2. Empirical measurements
  3. Iterative design
           Early focus on user
 Five principles that expand on this:
  1. User’s goals are driving force
  2. System designed to support users’ behavior
  3. System designed for user’s characteristics
  4. Users consulted from beginning to end, with
     their input taken seriously
  5. Design decisions taken within context of
     users, their work, and environment
      What is Ethnography?
 “writing the culture” (Hammersley and
  Atkinson, 1983)
 Used to understand work
 Observers sit in on user’s work
  environment and participate in daily
  activities
 Experience is collected and documented
     Ethnography and design
 Three ways it is associated with design:
  1. “Ethnography of”
     – Studies of developers and workplace
  2. “Ethnography for”
     – Studies of organizational work
  3. “Ethnography within”
     – Integrated into methods for development
      Ethnography continued
 Design deals with abstraction, and
  ethnography deals with detail
 Framework of ethnography for designers:
  – Distributed co-ordination
  – Plans and procedures
  – Awareness of work
 Could train developers to do studies
                 Coherence
 Intended for integration of social analysis
  and object-oriented analysis
 Present data from ethnographic studies
  through
  – “viewpoints”
  – “concerns”
             “Viewpoints”
 Focus question for each that guide observer
  through users’ workplace
  – Distributed coordination
  – Plans and procedures
  – Awareness of work
 See figure 9.1 for some questions
                 Concerns
1. Paperwork and computer work
     Plans and procedures; awareness of work
2. Skill and use of local knowledge
     “workarounds”
3. Spatial and temporal organization
     Physical layout
4. Organization memory
     Records and formal documents
          Contextual Design
 Structural approach to gathering info from
  field
 Seven parts:
  – Contextual Inquiry, Work Modeling, Consolidation,
    Work Redesign, User Environment Design, Mockup
    and Test with Customers, Putting into Practice
         Contextual Inquiry
 Approach to ethnographic study that
  follows apprenticeship model
  – designer works as apprentice to user
 Typical format includes interview,
  observation, discussion, reconstruction
 4 main principles
        4 principles of Inquiry
1. Context
   –   Importance of going to workplace
2. Partnership
   –   Developer and user should collaborate
3. Interpretation
   –   Observations must be interpreted together by
       developer and user
4. Focus
   –   What do you look for?
Contextual Inquiry v. Ethnography
 1. Contextual Inquiry shorter (2-3 hours)
 2. Inquiry interview more intense and
    focused
 3. Designer inquiring, not observing
 4. Inquiry has intention of designing a
    system, ethnography has no intent
           Working Model
 Five aspects of “work” modeled:
  – Work flow model
  – Sequence model
  – Artifact model
  – Cultural model
  – Physical model
         Interpretation Session
 Session occurs after inquiry, work models
  produced at this time as team composes
  view of users’ work
 Roles of team:
  –   Interviewer
  –   Work modelers
  –   Recorder
  –   Moderator
  –   Participants
  –   Rat-hole watcher
         Consolidate Models
 Affinity diagram-organizes notes taken
  during session into hierarchy
  – Work flow – identify key roles
  – Sequence – structure of tasks/strategies
  – Artifact – how people organize
  – Physical – physical structure commonality
  – Cultural – what matters to workers
Work Flow Model
Sequence Model
Artifact Model
Physical Model
Cultural Model
            Design Room
 Where all work models kept
 All known about customers found here
 Key element to contextual design
        Participatory Design
 Users actively involved in design as equal
  to design team
 Cultural differences has been a problem
 UTOPIA project
 PICTIVE
 CARD
               PICTIVE
 Plastic Interface for Collaborative
  Technology Initiatives through Video
  Exploration
 Uses typical office supplies to design
  screen and window layouts
 Group or one-on-one sessions of design
                CARD
 Collaborative Analysis of Requirements
  and Design
 Uses playing cards with pictures of
  computers’ screens to study work flow
  options
 Form of storyboarding
       Review of techniques
 Ethnography
 Coherence
 Contextual design
 Participatory design
                Key Points
 Pros and cons of user involvement
 User-centered approach requires much info about
  users
 Ethnography good method for studying users in
  natural surroundings
 Coherence-method that provides focus questions
 Contextual design-method that provides models
  for gathering data
 PICTIVE and CARD-participatory design
  techniques that empower user

								
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