The ECTS_ Competences_ and the Validation of Acquired Experience by wuxiangyu

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									  The ECTS, Competences,
and the Validation of Acquired
         Experience

 Paul Rousset and Atken Armenian
   French University in Armenia

                                   1
                    Key Terms
•   Knowledge
•   Competence
•   Diploma
•   Certification




                                2
                                          Competences

• Competences represent a dynamic combination of
  attributes, abilities, and attitudes. Fostering these
  competencies is the object of educational programmes.
  Competences are formed in various course units and
  assessed at different stages. They may be divided in
  subject-area related competences (specific to a field of
  study) and generic competences (common to any
  degree course).

Source: ECTS Users’ Guide, Directorate General for Education and Culture, Brussels, 2005 02 14 p.45

EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT

http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 45




                                                                                                      3
In this presentation, it will be argued that
  competences are acquired in four ways:
1. Classic approach (formal academic
  education)
2. Professional Training
3. Blend of Practical Professional and
  Academic education (e.g. sandwich
  courses that alternate academic training
  and professional experience)
4. Acquired experiences in a life-long
  process.

                                               4
            Competence

The possession of
        required skill(s),
        knowledge,
        professional capacity




                                5
  Attribute
   The Quality
or Characteristic
   of a person




                    6
                  Ability

The power or capacity to do or act.
It is a competence based on
natural skill,
training,
experience,
or any other qualification.


                                      7
                 Attitude
Manner
Disposition
Feeling
Orientation
Tendency
Position, etc.
with regard to an educational outcome (skill
  or knowledge).
                                               8
Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after
successful completion of the (academic or
professional) work required and
appropriate assessment of the learning
outcomes and competences achieved.



                                         9
Learning outcomes are sets of competences
       expressing what the student will
                   know
                understand
                     or
               be able to do
 after completion of a process of learning,
                long or short.
EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA
   SUPPLEMENT
   http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 4



                                                                                    10
• An example of a subject specific
  competence in the field of History:

At the end of the course unit/module the
  learner is expected to demonstrate his/her
  ability to comment and annotate texts and
  documents correctly according to the
  critical canons of the discipline.
•   EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA
    SUPPLEMENT
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13




                                                                                      11
• An example of a subject specific
  competence in the field of Physics:
At the end of the course unit/module the
  learner is expected to be able to describe
  and explain the function of the basic
  devices of optoelectronics; optical fibres;
  liquid crystal displays; bi-polar and surface
  field effect transistors and MOS light
  emitting diodes.
•   EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA
    SUPPLEMENT
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13



                                                                                      12
    An example of a generic competence:

At the end of the course unit/module the
  learner is expected to be able to
  demonstrate the use of information-
  retrieval skills effectively, in relation to
  primary and secondary information
  sources, including information retrieval
  through on-line computer searches.

•    EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA
     SUPPLEMENT
     http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13



                                                                                       13
                    LANGUAGE COMPETENCES

LEVEL C2

• Can exploit a comprehensive and reliable mastery of a very wide
  range of language to formulate thoughts precisely, give emphasis,
  differentiate and eliminate ambiguity . . .
• No signs of having to restrict what he/she wants to say.

LEVEL C1

• Can select an appropriate formulation from a broad range of
  language to express him/herself clearly, without having to restrict
  what he/she wants to say.



Source: The Common European Framework in its political and
  educational context p 110

                                                                        14
                         LANGUAGE COMPETENCES

LEVEL B2

•   Can express him/herself clearly and without much sign of having to restrict
    what he/she wants to say.
•   Has a sufficient range of language to be able to give clear descriptions,
    express viewpoints and develop arguments without much conspicuous
    searching for words, using some complex sentence forms to do so.

LEVEL B1

•   Has a sufficient range of language to describe unpredictable situations,
    explain the main points in an idea or problem with reasonable precision and
    express thoughts on abstract or cultural topics such as music and films.
•   Has enough language to get by, with sufficient vocabulary to express
    him/herself with some hesitation and circumlocutions on topics such as
    family, hobbies and interests, work, travel, and current events, but lexical
    limitations cause repetition and even difficulty with formulation at times.

Source: The Common European Framework in its political and educational
   context. p 110


                                                                              15
                            LANGUAGE COMPETENCES



LEVEL A2

•   Has a repertoire of basic language which enables him/her to deal with everyday situations with
    predictable content, though he/she will generally have to compromise the message and search for
    words.
•   Can produce brief everyday expressions in order to satisfy simple needs of a concrete type:
    personal details, daily routines, wants and needs, requests for information.
•   Can use basic sentence patterns and communicate with memorised phrases, groups of a few
    words and formulae about themselves and other people, what they do, places, possessions etc.
•   Has a limited repertoire of short memorised phrases covering predictable survival situations;
    frequent breakdowns and misunderstandings occur in non-routine situations.

LEVEL A1

•   Has a very basic range of simple expressions about personal details and needs of a concrete
    type.



Source: The Common European Framework in its political and educational context. p 110



                                                                                                  16
• Not all learners are full time students
  enrolled in regular degree programmes. A
  growing number of adult learners follow
  ‘stand-alone’ courses or modules, which
  may or may not be linked to formal
  qualifications, such as courses for
  Continuous Professional Development.


                                         17
• Masses of people possess valuable skills and
  competences acquired outside higher education
  institutions, through self study, work or life
  experience.
• There is no reason why non-traditional learners
  should not benefit from the transparency and
  recognition provided by ECTS.
• How can such diverse learning be expressed in
  credits and be considered towards a formal
  qualification (if so wished)?

•   EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/socrates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 17



                                                                                      18
• Validation in formal education and training
  settings
• Validation in the labor market (enterprises,
  eceonomc sectors, public organizations)
• Validation of voluntary and civil society
  activities (youth organizations, community
  learning)
Aim may be to re-integrate individuals into
  education and training settings, the labor
  market and society at large.
Source: Common European Principles for Validation of Non-formal and Informal learning EAEA News 2004 04 02




                                                                                                             19
Certification
The process of formally validating
 knowledge, know-how and/or
 competences acquired by an individual
 following a standard assessment
 procedure. Certificates or diplomas are
 issues by accredited awarding bodies.
 Certification validates the outcome(s) of
 either formal learning (training actions) or
 informal/non-formal learning.


                                                20
Formal Learning



Learning that occurs in an organised and
  structured context. It is intentional from the
  learner’s point of view.




                                               21
Informal Learning



Learning from work-related, family, or leisure
  activities. It is neither organized nor
  structured and is unintentional from the
  learner’s point of view.




                                            22
Non-formal Learning

• Learning which is embedded in planned
  activities not explicitly designated as
  learning (in terms of learning objectives,
  learning time or learning support) but with
  an important learning element.
• Learning is intentional from the learner’s
  point of view.


                                                23
• Principles of Validation 1

Purpose of Validation

Make visible and give value to qualifications
 and competences - irrespective of where
 these have been acquired.

May be formative or summative.


                                            24
• Principles of Validation 2
Individual Entitlements
• Must serve the needs of individual
  citizens.
• Transparent
• Fair
• Private
• Based on social dialogue
• With right of appeal
• It is the property of the individual
                                         25
• Principles of Validation 3

Responsibilities of Institutions and
 Stakeholders

• Must provide guidance and support
• Provision of information, guidance and
  counselling
• Provide legal and practical basis
• Should recognise non-formal acquisitions
  of competences
                                             26
• Principles of Validation 4
Confidence and Trust

• Transparency of Procedures and Criteria
• Well-defined standards and procedures
• Clear and Accessible information on
  conditions and methodologies used
• Clearly articulated requirements to ensure
  high reliability
• Accessible information regarding
  standards
                                           27
Principles of Validation 5
Impartiality

• Confidence and trust
• Code of conduct and professional
  competence of assessors – their roles and
  responsibilities.

                                          28
Principles of Validation 6

Credibility and Legitimacy

• All inclusive process of all stakeholders
• No single predominating influence
• Safeguard impartiality and full participation
  of all parties.



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THANK YOU




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