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NSERC INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FELLOWSHIP

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NSERC INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FELLOWSHIP Powered By Docstoc
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     NSERC INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FELLOWSHIP
                                  Dr. Jeffery P. Dech,
    Forestry Research Partnership (Tembec Industries Inc.) and Nipissing University
               Project Title: Regeneration of Red Oak in Ontario Forests
                    Final Report - Nov. 14, 2005 to Nov. 14, 2007

Outline of Project

Research Problem

         Red Oak is a high-value timber species and an important ecological component of
Great Lakes–St. Lawrence (GLSL) forest communities. Historically, establishment of red
oak forest stands occurred in association with periodic disturbance (e.g. fire) or chronic
stress (e.g. low soil moisture and nutrients). Disturbances reduce canopy cover allowing
sufficient light to reach red oak saplings on the forest floor, while stressful growing
conditions reduce or eliminate the negative impact of competing species. However, in the
absence of major disturbances or environmental stress, stands of red oak throughout
northeastern North America are not self-replacing, and become converted to stands of
shade-tolerant species such as sugar and red maple. Current harvest practices for red oak
attempt to simulate its natural regeneration requirements by combining shelterwood
harvesting to create canopy gaps for sapling recruitment and understorey vegetation
control to eliminate competing species. These practices are largely supported by research
conducted in the eastern deciduous forest region of the United States, and their success
has not been fully explored in the GLSL forest region of central Ontario. Furthermore,
operational regeneration of red oak is difficult because of significant losses to seed
predation, and poor growth of saplings due to herbivory and competition with other
species. The objective of this research was to determine the role of major abiotic (e.g.
light, temperature, nutrients) and biotic (e.g. competition, herbivory) factors that limit red
oak regeneration in the GLSL, and to identify effective strategies to overcome these
limitations and promote the establishment of vigorous and self-sustaining red oak stands.

Approach

        In July 2004, an extensive stand of red oak was harvested using a uniform
shelterwood system in Phelps Township, near North Bay, Ontario. Within the stand,
different portions were harvested to 50 and 70% canopy closure. Some group selection
harvesting was conducted, leaving several complete canopy openings that range in
diameter from 24 to 36 m. Areas not harvested were also retained, which provided
controls to be compared against the different harvest treatments. The harvest coincided
with a mast crop of red oak acorns, and natural red oak seedlings were abundant
throughout the stand. This situation presented an ideal opportunity to establish a large,
detailed field experiment on red oak regeneration under various silvicultural treatments.
        As part of the comprehensive red oak regeneration project initiated in Phelps
Township by the Forestry Research Partnership (FRP), this two-year Industrial Research
and Development Fellowship (IRDF) supported a series of studies that investigated the
establishment and growth of red oak under the full range of environmental conditions that
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can occur after harvesting. Individual field studies focused on determining how the
establishment and growth of red oak seedlings and stump sprouts were affected by
different environmental conditions (e.g. light, temperature) produced by the harvest
treatments, and the influence of these conditions on the response of red oak seedlings and
sprouts to competition with other species (e.g. sugar maple, red maple) and herbivory.
These field studies were complemented by carefully controlled experiments conducted in
the plant growth facility at Nipissing University.

Strategic Goals

   1. Silvicultural Directives for Red Oak Management in the GLSL: The primary goal
      of this research program was to expand our knowledge of the ecology of red oak
      regeneration in the GLSL forest region, and provide forest resource managers
      with the ecosystem-specific silvicultural directives necessary to effectively
      promote the use of this important resource in a sustainable manner.

   2. Research Partnership Development: This IRDF represented the first collaboration
      between the FRP and Nipissing University. A significant secondary objective of
      the fellowship was to promote collaborative research efforts between these two
      organizations.

Major Achievements

Outline of Individual Research Projects Completed

Objective 1. Silvicultural Directives for Red Oak Management in the GLSL

(1.1)   Stump sprout production and management in partial harvest systems.

    i. Production and growth of stump sprouts of red oak and its major competitors (red
       maple and sugar maple) in partial harvest systems (2006).

        An experimental population of approximately 15-20 stumps of each species from
        each partial harvest treatment (n = 162) were randomly sampled. Sprout number,
        diameter and height were determined for each stump. Sprout attributes were
        related to canopy cover, stump size, bark thickness, and competition to identify
        the conditions that promote/inhibit the sprouting of each of these species.

   ii. Response of red oak to sprout thinning in coppice systems (2007).

        Fifty red oak stumps were randomly selected under the 50 % shelterwood. Ten
        stumps were randomly assigned to thinning treatments leaving residual sprout
        densities of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 sprouts respectively. Diameter and height growth of
        residual sprouts were followed to determine the optimal sprout density for
        production of high-quality, dominant oak stems.
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(1.2)   Plant community composition and hardwood regeneration along gradients of
        canopy cover and soil fertility.

    i. Plant community composition and diversity along canopy cover and soil fertility
       gradients in partially harvested oak stands (2006).

        A network of 2x2 m plots were established in a stratified random design under 70
        % (n=20) and 50 % (n=19) crown closure uniform shelterwood, group selection
        (n=15), and uncut upland (n=10) and lowland (n=10) areas of a red oak stand.
        Percent cover of understorey vascular plant species, and a suite of microclimatic
        and edaphic variables were measured in each plot. Multivariate (ordination)
        analyses were conducted to detect patterns in the composition and diversity of the
        understorey plant community across the plot network. Patterns in abundance of
        competing species and understorey microenvironment were explored to identify
        the main competitors of red oak seedlings and provide the information necessary
        to adjust regeneration efforts along gradients of canopy closure and soil fertility
        that develop under partial harvest systems.

   ii. Regeneration of red oak, red maple and sugar maple along canopy cover and soil
       fertility gradients in partially harvested oak stands (2006).

        Within the same network of 2x2 m sample plots described above, a total count of
        all red oak, red maple and sugar maple seedlings (< 1m height) was made in each
        plot. Additionally, the basal diameter and height of each seedling was measured.
        Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to identify the
        primary significant environmental factors influencing the density and size of
        natural seedlings of red oak and its competitors. These relationships provided
        insight into the influence of silvicultural practices (e.g. canopy reduction) and
        microenvironmental variation (e.g. soil phosphorus) on the relative success of the
        three competing species.

(1.3)   The influence of canopy closure in partial harvest systems on the production of
        herbivory defense compounds (phenols) by red oak seedlings and stump sprouts.

    i. Phenol levels in red oak seedlings and stump sprouts under different canopy
       closure treatments (2006).

        Red oak seedlings and stump sprouts were randomly selected in a stratified
        random design in plots under 70 % and 50 % crown closure uniform shelterwood,
        and group selection openings. Basal diameter and height were measured for each
        seedling. Foliage was sampled from selected seedlings and stumps at four
        different times over the growing season. Chlorophyll content of leaves was
        determined at the time of sampling. Leaves were scanned, and digital images were
        analyzed to determine leaf area, and percent herbivory. Ground leaf samples were
        then analyzed for phenol concentration. Comparisons of leaf area, chlorophyll
        content, percent herbivory and phenol concentrations were made among sampling
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        dates, partial harvest treatments and growth form (seedling or stump sprout) to
        determine how herbivory defense mechanisms in red oak are influenced by
        silviculture.

   ii. Induction of phenol production in red oak seedlings along canopy closure and
       soil nutrient gradients (2007).

        Red oak seedlings were selected for sampling in a stratified random sampling
        regime under three conditions: uncut upland area (nutrient poor soils), lowland
        uncut area (nutrient rich soils) and 50 % uniform shelterwood. Based on this
        sampling design, the induction of chemical defense against herbivory (phenol
        production) along gradients of soil fertility and canopy closure was investigated.
        Basal diameter and height of each seedling were determined. Seedlings in the
        experiment either received an artificial herbivory treatment removing 50 % of
        leave tissue, or were untreated controls. Within these two populations, harvests of
        remaining leaf tissues were made at 1, 3 and 7 days following application of the
        herbivory treatment. Leaf chlorophyll content was determined at the initiation of
        the experiment, and at the time of harvest. All leaf material will be scanned and
        leaf area and percent herbivory determined by digital image analysis. Foliar
        phenol concentration will be determined for each harvested seedling.
        Comparisons of chlorophyll content and foliar phenol concentrations between
        grazed and ungrazed treatments over time will be examined to determine if
        induction of anti-herbivore defenses in red oak was influenced by canopy cover
        and/or soil nutrient regime.

(1.4)   Competitive relations of red oak and sugar maple

  i.    Physical and chemical effects of sugar maple leaf litter on seed germination and
        seedling growth of red oak (2006).

        Two separate studies were conducted at Nipissing University’s plant growth
        facility to investigate the influence of sugar maple and red oak leaf litter on the
        germination and growth of oak seedlings. In a growth chamber, 20 replicate trays
        were established in each of three treatments, crushed sugar maple litter, crushed
        red oak litter, and kimpak (an inert packing material to serve as a control). Each
        tray consisted of 20 seeds sown directly into the treatment material. Germination
        was recorded daily in each replicate for 46 days. Percent germination and
        germination rate were analyzed for significant differences between treatments to
        determine if litter had an inhibitory effect seed germination. A second experiment
        was initiated in the Nipissing University greenhouse, exploring the physical effect
        of sugar maple and red oak leaf litter on seedling emergence and growth. A
        factorial experimental design with litter type (sugar maple, red oak, filter paper),
        litter preparation (crushed, uncrushed) and litter depth (0, 5, 10 and 15 cm) was
        established with ten replicates per cell. Each replicate consisted of three red oak
        acorns surface sown on potting soil. Seedling emergence and height were
        measured weekly for six weeks. All replicates were harvested at the end of the
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        experiment, and dry weight determined for roots and shoots. Growth and biomass
        data were analyzed for mean differences to determine if any of the litter
        treatments had significant effects on red oak seedling emergence and growth.

   ii. Intra- and Interspecific competition effects in red oak and sugar maple seedlings
       grown in oak and pine-conditioned soils (2007).

        A competition experiment was initiated in the Nipissing University greenhouse to
        investigate the hypothesis that soils conditioned under pine forests promote the
        competitive ability of red oak. Nursery stock (2-0 bareroot) of red oak and sugar
        maple were planted in an experimental design with competition (single oak, single
        maple, paired oaks, paired maples, oak-maple pair) and soil (pine forest, oak
        forest) as treatments. A total of 16 replicates in each cell of this design were
        established. Experimental soils were developed by sampling three separate forest
        stands of each site in five locations and producing a composite. Plants were
        maintained in the greenhouse for 8 weeks, then harvested for determination of
        root and shoot biomass. Growth and biomass measurements will be analyzed to
        determine if soil type influenced the outcome of competitive interactions.

Objective 2. Research Partnership Development

(2.1)   Additional Funding to Support Growth of Red Oak Research Program.

The IRDF was a contributing partner on the following successful research proposals:

(2007). Major, K.C., and Dech, J.P. Enhanced regeneration of red oak under pine stands:
application to forest management. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada, Industrial Undergraduate Research Award. Awarded $4,500 to support
candidate’s (Major) employment with the Forestry Research Partnership for one field
season .

(2007). Quint, N.I., and Dech, J.P. Regeneration of red oak in shelterwood and group
selection partial harvesting systems. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
of Canada, Industrial Undergraduate Research Award. Awarded $4,500 to support
candidate’s (Quint) employment the Forestry Research Partnership for one field season .

(2006). Quint, N.I., and Dech, J.P. The role of interspecific competition in the
regeneration of red oak. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada,
Industrial Undergraduate Research Award. Awarded $4,500 to support candidate’s
(Quint) employment at the Forestry Research Partnership for one field season .

(2006). Nosko, P., Dech, J.P. Morneault, A., Stinson, A., Pinto, F., and Deugo, D.
Enhanced Forest Management of Red Oak and White Pine. Forestry Futures Trust,
Enhanced Forest Productivity Science Fund. Awarded $120,000 ($40,000 x 3 years).
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(2006). Dech, J.P. Forestry Research Partnership (Tembec Industries Inc.) Funds for
equipment, supplies and conference travel were secured in addition to the financial
commitment of the industrial partner to the IRDF’s salary and benefits. ($ 10,000 x 2
years).

These additional sources of research funding outlined above allowed for the creation of
twelve full-time, summer positions for student research assistants from Nipissing
University spread over the 2006 and 2007 field seasons. These students provided support
to IRDF projects, but also to several new studies complementary to the strategic objective
of improving red oak management in the GLSL forest region. The Forestry Futures Trust
funding will allow for a third field season (2008) of data collection for projects that
require long-term monitoring.

(2.2)   Initiation of Long-Term Research Projects.

Effective forest management depends on decision support based on long-term data
collection and analyses. This two-year IRDF project leaves a legacy of several important
studies that have already been initiated and will provide an excellent opportunity for
long-term research. Each of these studies has been carefully set-up, initial data have been
collected, managed and analyzed, and plot/sample locations have been permanently
marked. Projects that fall under the IRDF that have the potential for follow-up in the
future are:

    i. Production and growth of stump sprouts of red oak and its major competitors (red
       maple and sugar maple) in partial harvest systems (established May 2006).

   ii. Response of red oak to sprout thinning in coppice systems (established May 2007)

   iii. Plant community composition and diversity along canopy cover and soil fertility
        gradients in partially harvested oak stands (established June 2006).

   iv. Regeneration of red oak, red maple and sugar maple along canopy cover and soil
       fertility gradients in partially harvested oak stands (established June 2006).

Additionally, several studies initiated through the collaborative Forestry Futures Trust
funding provide opportunities for long-term ecological research:

    i. Underplanting success of red oak seedlings in forest stands prior to harvest.

   ii. Microclimatic effects on growth and survival of red oak seedlings in group
       selection.

   iii. Co-management of red oak and white pine in the GLSL forest region.
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 (2.3) Training of Undergraduate Students:

 The training of promising undergraduate students is a critical deliverable of the objective
 to strengthen the relationship between the FRP and Nipissing University. Over the course
 of the IRDF, Dr. Dech served as a co-supervisor (with Dr. P. Nosko) on seven B.Sc.
 thesis projects in the Department of Biology at Nipissing University. Each project
 addressed a unique aspect of red oak regeneration ecology.

 i. Major, K.C. (In Progress) Competitive interactions of red oak and sugar maple in oak
    and pine conditioned soils. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Nipissing
    University.

 ii. Splint, S. (In Progress) Defense induction (phenols) in red oak seedlings under
     different light and nutrient regimes. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Nipissing
     University.

iii. Diebolt, T. 2006. Production of herbivory defense chemicals in the leaves of red oak
     saplings and stump sprouts under different levels of canopy closure in shelterwood
     and group selection silvicultural systems. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology,
     Nipissing University.
     Currently: M.Sc. student at Laurentian University.

iv. Langlois, C. 2006. Distance-dependent predation/parasitism of red oak seeds and
    seedlings: does the escape hypothesis apply to temperate forest management?
    B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Nipissing University.
    Currently: Stewardship coordinator, Evergreen, Toronto, ON.

 v. Quint, N.I. 2006. Determination of the physical and chemical role of sugar maple
    leaf litter in impeding the seed germination and seedling establishment of red oak.
    B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Nipissing University.
    Currently: B.Ed. student at Nipissing University.

vi. Robinson, L.M. 2006. Plant community composition and establishment of red oak
    saplings in relation to competing tree species under shelterwood and group selection
    treatments. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Nipissing University.
    Currently: M.Sc. student at Laurentian University.

vii. Roscoe, N. 2006. Stump sprouting response of red oak, sugar maple and red
     maple in shelterwood and group selection silvicultural systems. B.Sc. Thesis,
     Department of Biology, Nipissing University.
     Currently: Plant Growth Facility Intern, Nipissing University.

 In addition, Dr. Dech trained students who were employed as research assistants and
 contributed to the various projects undertaken in the FRP – NU partnership, including
 Jeff Renton (Currently: M.Sc student, University of Winnipeg), and Natasha
 Dombrowskie (Currently: B.Sc. student, Nipissing University).
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(2.4) Technology Transfer

 i. Nipissing University Red Oak Research Workshop

   The FRP is dedicated to technology transfer of scientific progress to forest managers
   and practitioners. In partnership with Nipissing University, a workshop was organized
   to disseminate initial results from IRDF projects and foster potential collaborations
   with local, provincial, national and international groups working on the oak
   regeneration problem. The Nipissing University Red Oak Research Workshop took
   place on Friday March 2, 2007. The workshop brought together scientists, managers,
   practitioners and students to see presentations delivered by Nipissing University
   student researchers, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources scientists and managers,
   Nipissing Forest Resource Management Inc. foresters, and research scientists from
   the Canadian Forest Service. The Keynote address for the workshop was given by Dr.
   Daniel C. Dey, Research Forester, United States Department of Agriculture Forest
   Service, North Central Research Station. Dr. Dey visited Nipissing University for
   three days, during which time he met with Nipissing University students and faculty,
   and other scientists and managers to discuss research directions and potential
   collaborations. The workshop was well received by 50 attendees and numerous others
   who watched a live stream on the Internet. A summary of the workshop outcomes
   written by Nipissing University students Caitlin Langlois and Nicole Quint was
   published in the Forestry Chronicle.

   Langlois, C., and Quint, N.I. 2007. Rubbing shoulders with the experts: a student’s
   perspective on Nipissing University’s red oak research workshop. Forestry Chronicle,
   83: 430-431.

   Additional funding contributions were obtained in support of this workshop from
   project partners including Nipissing University ($2000 – transportation and
   accommodation for key note speaker, web-cast technical support, supplies), The
   Forestry Research Partnership ($500 – food and beverages, supplies), Jiffy Forest
   Products ($500 food and beverages).

ii. Other Technology Transfer Activities

   Various other technology transfer efforts were undertaken with respect to the IRDF,
   including preparation and submission of articles for publication in peer-reviewed
   scientific journals, oral presentations and posters at scientific conferences and invited
   research seminars, field tours of research sites and presentations to managers and
   practitioners. A compete list of these efforts is provided in the section of this report
   detailing tangible results of the IRDF.
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Commercialization/Development of Results

Incorporation of IRDF data sets into forest modeling tools.

A number of data sets collected and analyzed during the tenure of the IRDF will be
incorporated into forest management modeling tools. Dr. Dech has consulted with
Murray Woods, Senior Analyst of Forested Landscapes, with the Ontario Ministry of
Natural Resources regarding the application of data on red oak, red maple and sugar
maple regeneration in Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) Ontario. The FVS model is an
empirical individual tree growth model currently being calibrated for the GLSL forest of
Ontario. The following data sets will provide some critical baseline data regarding
regeneration of hardwood species under different silvicultural treatments. Dr. Dech plans
to initiate this process at an FVS Ontario workshop scheduled for February, 2008.
Furthermore, repeated measurements of permanent samples in the future will increase the
temporal accuracy of the data feeding this model.

 i. Natural seedling density and growth (red oak, red maple, sugar maple) – partial
    harvest and uncut sites (ecosite 23.1/23.2)

ii. Stump sprout production and growth (red oak, red maple, sugar maple) - partial
    harvest and uncut sites (ecosite 23.1/23.2)

iii. Stump sprout growth response to silvicultural sprout thinning - red oak stumps in
     50% shelterwood treatment.

iv. Environmental data – crown closure, litter depth, soil moisture, pH, nutrients,
    temperature in partial harvest and uncut sites. These data could be used to calibrate
    seedling and stump sprout growth trajectories to specific environmental conditions,
    and incorporated into the next generation of process models for forest management.

The FRP has also been closely involved in the implementation of Patchworks (Spatial
Planning Systems) a spatial model for forest management and planning. The application
of any regeneration data collected in the IRDF projects in patchworks will be explored
further.

Refinement of Management Procedures

   Silvicultural regeneration programs are a difficult and costly aspect of management
for mid-tolerant hardwoods in the GLSL forest. Results from the studies initiated during
this IRDF project will contribute to the refinement of silvicultural guidelines and
operational practices, ultimately leading to cost-savings and increased sustainability for
red oak management in this forest region. Specific results of IRDF studies that will
provide scientific underpinnings for management decisions regarding red oak, calibrated
for the GLSL include:
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i. Plant community composition and diversity along canopy cover and soil fertility
   gradients in partially harvested oak stands.

   This study documented the change in major competitors for red oak seedlings across
   the range of conditions likely to be encountered by managers and operators following
   different partial harvest treatments. Knowledge of the abundance of specific
   competitors will inform tending operations (e.g. brush saw, herbicide application)
   with respect to the main species expected to be encountered, and perhaps support a
   more specific approach to vegetation management, considering both the intensity and
   type of vegetation control required for a given set of conditions. Based on the
   ordination analysis conducted, the dominant competitor(s) likely to emerge in the
   understorey can be predicted prior to harvest based on the soil fertility and the
   planned canopy reduction for a given oak stand in the GLSL.

ii. Regeneration of red oak, red maple and sugar maple along canopy cover and soil
    fertility gradients in partially harvested oak stands.

   Sugar maple and red maple are the strongest competitors of red oak throughout its
   range. Their patterns of abundance with respect to silvicultural treatments and
   ecological conditions documented in this study, will provide managers and operators
   with direction regarding the relative importance of these species across a range of
   conditions. Such information can be used to choose appropriate tending options,
   assess potential site suitability for red oak regeneration before planting or harvest, and
   infer site conditions using these species as indicators. For example, regression
   analyses demonstrated that high sugar maple density in the understorey is a strong
   indicator of high soil phosphorus for a particular microsite.

iii. Production and growth of stump sprouts of red oak and its major competitors (red
     maple and sugar maple) in partial harvest systems

   Stump sprouts represent both an important source of potential regeneration of red
   oak, and of competition from red maple and sugar maple. The information collected
   on sprout growth of these species in relation to canopy cover and stump attributes
   (e.g. size) provides the basis for choosing harvest options to promote red oak stump
   sprout growth, or tending options to reduce competition from maple stump sprouts.
   Preliminary analyses of the large data set of approximately 150 stumps indicate that
   stump sprouts of all species had best growth under 50 % shelterwood treatments.
   Continued monitoring of this study will improve the long-term reliability of
   conclusions based on early growth of these sprouts.

iv. Response of red oak to sprout thinning in coppice systems.

   Red oak stumps produce abundant sprouts following harvest, and the slow progress of
   self-thinning prevents sprouts from achieving maximum growth and quality. The
   information on residual sprout growth and quality originating from this study will
   point managers to the thinning regime that is most appropriate for red oak stump
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      sprouts. This study requires long-term monitoring; however, growth data for the
      critical years immediately following harvest will make a significant improvement to
      the present knowledge base.

   v. The production of herbivory defense compounds (phenols) by red oak seedlings and
      stump sprouts.

     Red oak is a preferred food source for many species, and seedlings or stump sprouts
     are exposed to intense grazing pressures. The two studies of phenol content and
     induction in red oak regeneration provide information on grazing pressure, chlorophyll
    content, and phenol content in relation to canopy treatments, growth form, and soil
    nutrients. Managers can make use of this information to predict herbivore pressure and
    susceptibility of oak regeneration to grazing under different silvicultural and site
    conditions. For example, analyses of phenol content in leaves of red oak seedlings
    indicated levels were significantly higher under 50 % shelterwood than 70 %
    shelterwood, suggesting they may be better defended against herbivores in more
    intense partial harvests.

vi. Physical and chemical effects of sugar maple leaf litter on seed germination and
    seedling growth of red oak

    Site preparation is a common silvicultural technique to promote the establishment and
    growth of seedlings, which has been used for red oak in other forest regions. Physical
    site preparation (e.g. scarification) removes or disturbs the litter layer. The results of
    this study suggested that although seed germination was slowed (not reduced) by the
    presence of some litter, subsequent seedling height growth was maximized at litter
    depths of 5 cm, and that seedling biomass was significantly higher in treatments when
    litter was present compared to no litter. Forest managers can take this experimental data
    into account when contemplating the use of site preparation to promote red oak
    regeneration.

vii. Co-managment potential for red oak and eastern white pine in the GLSL.

    The greenhouse experiment exploring intra- and interspecific competition effects in red
    oak and sugar maple seedlings grown in oak and pine-conditioned soils, addresses the
    hypothesis that these species replace one another in nature. If mature stands white pine
    provide ideal habitat for oak regeneration (and vice-versa) a new set of silvicultural
    options for maintaining both of these species on the landscape would open up.
    Silvicultural foresters in the region do not presently have the option of managing for
    pine-oak forests; however, the results of this study (currently in progress) will provide
    some insight into the validity of this approach. Furthermore, a comparative study of red
    oak and white pine planted seedling growth established through the Forestry Futures
    Trust funding in a red oak shelterwood, will provide additional information on the
    potential for reciprocal planting of red oak and white pine for regeneration purposes.
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Tangible Results

The following is a list of the tangible results of this IRDF project.

Articles submitted to Refereed Journals

Dech, J.P., Robinson, L.M., and Nosko, P. Understorey plant community characteristics
and natural hardwood regeneration under three partial harvest treatments applied in a
Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) stand in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Forest
region of Canada. Submitted to Forest Ecology and Management, Nov. 6, 2007.

Articles in Preparation for Submission to Refereed Journals

Dech, J.P., Roscoe, N., Nosko, P. Growth of Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum and Acer
saccharum stump sprouts under three different partial harvest treatments. In preparation
for submission to Trees.

Diebolt, T., Nosko, P., and Dech, J.P. Foliar phenol concentration of Quercus rubra
seedlings and stump sprouts under shelterwood and group selection management. In
preparation for submission to Canadian Journal of Forest Research.
Articles Published in Conference Proceedings

Deugo, D., Morneault, A., Othmer, D., Smith, M., Stinson, A.,Woods, M., Kovacs, I.,
Aho, I., Parker, W., Baker, R., Verwey, M., Thauvette, G.,Willis, D., Dech, J. 2006. Red
Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to
2005. In: Riley, L.E.; Dumroese, R.K.; Landis, T.D., tech. coords. 2006. National
Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2005. Proc. RMRS-P-43.
Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
Research Station. p. 127-133

Presentations and Posters at Scientific Conferences

Dech, J.P., Robinson, L.M. and Nosko, P. 2007. Understorey plant community responses
to three different partial harvesting systems applied in a central Ontario red oak forest.
Presented at the 6th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, June 18-22, University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
(http://www.nafew2007.org/presentations/dech_abstr.pdf)

Robinson, L.M., Dech J.P., and Nosko, P. 2007. Density and growth of northern red oak
and maple competitors in relation to microenvironment under different canopy cover
treatments within a central Ontario oak forest. Presented at the 6th North American Forest
Ecology Workshop, June 18-22, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC,
Canada.(http://www.nafew2007.org/posters/robinson_abstr.pdf)
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Dech, J.P. 2007. Exploring the regeneration niche of red oak in the Great Lakes – St.
Lawrence forest region. Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault St.
Marie, ON, Canada. April, 2007 (Invited Research Seminar).

Diebolt, T., Nosko, P., and Dech, J.P. 2007. Response of red oak seedlings and stump
sprouts to herbivory under three different partial harvest treatments. Presented at the
Nipissing University Red Oak Research Workshop, March 2, 2007. Nipissing University,
North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Langlois, C., Dech, J.P., and Nosko, P. 2007. Distance dependent recruitment of red oak
seeds & seedlings: does the escape hypothesis apply to temperate forest management?
Nipissing University Red Oak Research Workshop, March 2, 2007. Nipissing University,
North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Quint, N.I., Nosko, P., and Dech, J.P. 2007. The physical and chemical role of sugar
maple leaf litter in impeding the seed germination and seedling establishment of red oak.
Presented at the Nipissing University Red Oak Research Workshop, March 2, 2007.
Nipissing University, North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Robinson, L.M., Dech, J.P., and Nosko, P. 2007. Plant community composition and
establishment of red oak seedlings in relation to competing tree species under three
different partial harvest treatments. Presented at the Nipissing University Red Oak
Research Workshop, March 2, 2007. Nipissing University, North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Roscoe, N., Dech, J.P., and Nosko, P. 2007. Stump sprouting response of red oak, red
maple and sugar maple under three different partial harvest treatments. Nipissing
University Red Oak Research Workshop, March 2, 2007. Nipissing University, North
Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Presentations to Practitioners and Managers

2007. Summary of research activities at the Phelps red oak research site. Presentation to
regional director, northeast region, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Sept. 2007.

2007. Forest management and research in red oak stands. Guided field tour of Forestry
Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies, Canadian Lumbermen's
Association – Eastern Canadian Teachers' Tour, August 2007.

2006. Regeneration ecology of red oak in central Ontario, Guided field tour of Forestry
Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies International Union of Forest
Research Organizations (IUFRO), Uneven-aged Silviculture Research Group, May 17,
2006.

2006. Research Activities at Phelps Township Red Oak Site, Guided field tour of
Forestry Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies, Forestry Research
Partnership Executive Committee, June 29, 2006.
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2006. Regeneration ecology of red oak in shelterwood and group selection silviculture,
Guided field tour of Forestry Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies,
Nipissing Naturalists Club, July 4, 2006.

2006. Forest management and research in red oak stands. Guided field tour of Forestry
Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies, Canadian Lumbermen's
Association - Eastern Canadian Teachers' Tour, August 10, 2006.

2006. Regeneration ecology of red oak in shelterwood and group selection silviculture,
Guided field tour of Forestry Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies,
Sir Sandford Flemming College Forestry Field Camp September 1 and 9, 2006.

2006. Regeneration ecology of red oak in shelterwood and group selection silviculture,
Guided field tour of Forestry Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies,
Lakehead University Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment Field School,
September 7, 2006.

2006. Forest management and silviculture in red oak stands. Guided field tour of Forestry
Research Partnership Phelps Township Red Oak Studies, Canadore College
Environmental Protection Technician Field Tour, Oct. 17, 2006.

				
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