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Unit 3A Review 1450-1750

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					Unit 3A Review 1450-1750

Big changes in this period
         Trade /ideas more from East to west prior to 1450, then West takes the lead, esp as China (so does
Japan) isolates itself
         West will develop beyond Asia and take the lead (technologically, economically…)as it goes
through a major transformation

Just Prior to this period, both China and Europe get involved in some major maritime expeditions and
explorations

All these empires taking over others are ―gunpdwr empires‖- for obvious reasons (bows and arrow no
match for cannon!)

China
 W/ the Ming overthrow of the ―foreign‖ or ―barbaric‖ Mongols, it is decided to re-furbish the Chinese
   navy and re-est Chinese Presence in the Indian Ocean trade (as it had been the Mongols, not the
   Chinese who had sailed from China in the past couple of hundred yrs)
 Zheng-He heads up 7 maj expeditions (300 junks, 28,000 men!) from 1405-1433 that were to impress
   foreigners (so gifts were taken to foreign ports)-diplomatic- and to impose dominance over the Indian
   Ocean trade-profit
 Many ports in Ind Ocean, Persian Gulf, SE Asia, India, E Africa, Arabia, visited where gifts were
   exchanged
 By 1433 Confucian officials determine that expeditions not profitable and who needs those foreigners
   and their products anyway, lg sailing vessels destroyed!
 Northern border a concern again w/ Mongols threatening a comeback
 Chinese decide to become turtles, protect their borders from foreign attack and to look inward rather
   than out
 Trade severely ltd to only a few in-coming trade visits annually coming in thru Canton and under the
   eye of an official

Europe
Early Euro explorers = Vikings, who were grt mariners, but no one in Euro anyway seemed to know about
their forays to the Americas ~ yr 1000
 Renaissance has dawned in Europe
 Folks looking outward and ready to explore( review all the reasons for this chg in viewpt)

   Although China had had the ability to engage in maj maritime expeditions for centuries, the tech to do
    so was now just making its way to Europe
   China –junk (HUGE vessel)
   E Africa, Arabia = dhow (sewn(!) hull)
   Europe=caravel (much smaller than junk, more maneuverable, sturdier than dhow)

   Europe interested in profit
   Dev of nation states occurring
   Econ phil = mercantilism= gold in treasury, self-sufficiency, favorable bal of trade (export more than
    import), so obtain raw mat’ls by colonizing ( colonies exist for benefit of mother country), turn into
    finished products if necessary, trade to others or back to colony

Trade desired w/ Asia but sea route also desired (why?)
Sp and Port grt competitors (why?)

Portugal (Trading Post Empire- Dutch will also do this, so will the Eng, but Eng will also have
territorial empire as do the Sp) )
 Portugal takes the lead (located on Atlantic), wants to cut-out Muslim middleman, avoid tolls, etc
   Exploration under direction of Prince Henry the Navigator (maritime nav. schools est)
     Has ships sail as part of Order of the Christ (similar to Knights Templar-conquer for Christ)
         putting crosses on sails
          So much gold from trade that Portugal made new coin=cruzado (crusader)
   Portugal explores W Africa coast, then round tip (Diaz, 1488), then trade (once foot in the door
    dominate by force sev city states-Malindi, Mombasa…) along E coast of Africa and on to Calicut,
    India by 1498 (Vasco da Gama) where they employ same techinques used in E Africa
   Along W Africa coast, trades for gold, ivory, slaves for use on sugar plantations on Atlantic islands off
    Africa (such as Sao Tome) and later possibly in Brazil (tho the Spanish will do much more w/ taking
    slaves to the New World)
   Portugal dominates Indian Ocean Trade (prior to Portuguese doing this, Ind Ocean not really
    dominated by one group, tho certainly some grps more prevalent than others such as the Muslims
   Sev Swahili sts, Indian ports (Calicut, Gao, etc)port of Hormuz fall to Portuguese control
   Port of Aden able to resist Portuguese control due to natural defenses
   Cosmopolitan Malaaca had been independent trade ctr w/ folks from MANY nations trading , w/ a brd
    of trade run by folks from various nations, et until the Portuguese seize control of trade there

   Portugal est trade monopoly requiring various products to be transported on Portuguese ships, forcing
    traders to do business in Portuguese-controlled, fortified trading ports, paying for the privilege to do so
   Taxed goods passing thru Ind Ocean
   Port. Ships patrolled Ind Ocean to ensure compliance
   Mughals (Muslim empire in India) ignore Port. Focusing on controlling India

   Ottoman (Turks) fight back, acquiring control of Egypt in the process (had taken over
    Constantinople 1453, taking control of last part of Mid-east that had been in Christian control
    (Byzantine Empire)
   Not able to beat Port. In the ocean, but able to hold on in Red Sea and Persian Gulf
   Izmir a cosmopolitan trade ctr, but ottoman do not administer it well

   Smaller Ind Ocean sts either cooperated w/ Portuguese, paying tolls, etc and were then able to maintain
    a good bit of their trade wealth or they tried to resist or circumvent the Port. Which usually caused
    them to get caught and to lose control their trade & wealth (as occurred w/ Calicut)

Portugal dev trade empire by taking over the trade empires of others w/out much colonization.
Dutch will gain control over Portuguese, but relatively speaking, not for very long

Spain

   1492- Sp, now unified under Ferdinand & Isabella, has finally rid Sp of Muslims. Then have the
    funding to back C Columbus, an Italian from Genoa (why did he not sail for Italy?) in his idea to sail
    west to get east
   CC sails west 4 times believing ea time that he has gotten to islands off coast of India despite growing
    suspicion of others that CC has actually gotten to some previously unknown (to Europeans-except
    maybe the Vikings) land
   1st encounters Arawak Ind who will be decimated mostly by disease

   Following CC’s feat, it is determined that a new continent has been discovered givng grter significance
    to Treaty of Tordesillas and Line of Demarcation (East =Portuguese control of new lands or lands
    under ―heathen‖ domination, Spain + West. As hump of Brazil east of Line of Demarcation, Cabral
    was able to Claim Brazil for Portugal when he arrived there after being blown off course)

   W/ most of the Americas west of Line of Dem., Sp colonizes heavily, acquiring grt wealth from the
    raw materials (incl gold and silver-so much gold led to inflation in Europe) of the Am.- Begins
    Columbia Exchange
   Columbian Exchange = exchange of tangible (potatoes of all kinds from west, horse from east) and
    intangibles (diseases, ideas) b/t the west and eastern hemispheres via the Atlantic (incl diffusion of
    plants, animals, food, humans. Spread of disease killed over 100 mil in Americas b/t yrs 1500-1800.
    Also improved world-wide diets and led to worldwide population increase

   Few expeditions actually funded by crown (which only nation-states, as opposed to city-sts, could
    afford to do)-Columbus, Magellan (to prove Am a diff continent and then to find the water route to
    Asia), them Conquistadors used and sys of encomienda implemented

   Very sm number of Euros able to conquer thousands and thousands of Amerindians—why?

   Conquistadors
   Pay own costs
   Conquer natives, give native land to crew, soldiers who enslaved the ppls to work the land, mine it, etc
    as a means to acquire wealth, 20% of which called the Royal Fifth- had to go to the Sp monarchs (
    Monarch can’t lose!)
   Hacienda-plantation sys of enslaving natives, etc
   Encomienda- sys enbling settlers to demand labor from natives (virtually enslave them) not only on
    plantations (hacienda sys), but in towns etc, labor also used in mines (silver, gold, etc) and so on
    Later replaced theoretically by Repartimento-less labor demanded and natives to be pd (in theory
    anyway)
   Mission-priests Christianize natives, usually threatening death of Christ not accepted, missions built by
    native labor

            Natives attempt to rebel, but not successful due to disease, overwork and mal-nutrition

            Sp jealous and ft among themselves, esp in Andes region where Incas had been subdued by
             Pizarro and 180 men (1832) (Cortez had defeated Aztecs in Mex. 1519)

            Lust for wealth and pwr drove Sp to continue to explore and settle Americas.


       Sp sent much of the wealth to Euro where Sp spent much rather than making many goods, leading
        to Euro inflation, Sp bankruptcy many times, and jealousy of othr Euros who soon come to the
        Americas to look for :
       NW passage to Asia
       Gold
       Control of terr and so colonize
       England –settle extensively-―ownership 9/10s of the law‖ philosophy
       FR- explore ,est trade w/ Amerindians, build forts to facilitate trade and to ft others-like Eng- who
        try to settle lands which Fr claim
       Netherlands (don’t last all that long-terr taken over by Eng) NY as port half way b/t Netherlands
        and Caribbean (Dutch E Indies Company to trade in Asia –Ind Ocean and Japan, W. Indies Co to
        trade in Caribbean)

        Now, Americas part of the Global Trade Network

Role/Impact of Silver
Silver most abundant metal in Americas, esp responsible for creation of global trade network0 desired by
China, used by Sp to trade for Ch silk and porcelain (blu/wht variety esp desireable, dev. By Ming). Pd for
Sp’s army (often at war esp after Prot Ref, ) & bureaucracy

Role/Impact of Sugar
     Planted on islands off Africa, even more prevalent in Caribbean
        Requires land, animals, tech, bldgs, labor, capital* (need lots to start sugar plantation, but vast
         wealth could be made-wealthiest colonists were the sugar planters –who also owned the most
         slaves) *[land-literally land as well as any raw materials, , labor-the ppl and the work that they do,
         and capital-money as well as bldgs and heavy equipment, considered to be the ―means of
         production‖]
        Specialized labor req’d for processing sugar from cane as well as hard labor for planting and
         harvesting
        Conditions harsh, indigenous and imported labor mostly dead from mal- nutrition, disease and
         overwork; thus extensive importation of African slaves

        Europe becomes dominant as the World Pwr here as China , the former world pwr, becomes
         internally focused (others also focus inwardly, strengthening & stablizing their empire rather than
         expanding their empires abroad)

Ind Ocean still maj maritime trade route
         Participants= Muslims. Indians, Malays, etc. Euros insert themselves into this already
strong trade economy and w/ European contact w/ the Americas, make the Ind Ocean become global
leading to an economic pwr shift from Asian centered to global

By late 1500s Portuguese pwr in Trading Post Empire declines as Dutch and Eng pwr picks up
         Portugal’s size and sm pop unable to sustain cost of sea empire

         Dutch dev new vessel (1590) for trade , a fluit or “flyboat”-lg capacity cargo ship, inexpensive to
build, manned by sm crew

Commercial Revolution

   Merchant networks of mostly fam members dev
   Many in northern Euro cities came form Florence, Venice, etc where if Jewish were sometimes
    persecuted
   More accepted in Amsterdam, Hamburg, Poland

   Dutch & Eng make use of joint-stock companies that funded expeditions
     Dutch gain control of trade port=Java after defeating Portuguese in Ind Ocean
   Shared risk and shared profit among stockholders
   Investors bought & sold stocks at financial mkts called stock exchanges which came from Italy
    (remember that they enter the Renaissance 1st)
   Mercantilism, joint-stock investing, all part of the Commercial Revolution
   Idea is that in order to raise capital ($) to expand business, more ppl need to share the cost (and risk)
    through investment
   Pays for colonization, exploration of raw materials, trading expeditions, etc

Social Developments

   Middle-class, aka, bourgeoisie=Non-titled class, often w/ money made form business and trade
   When retired often bought land, becoming gentry, often mimicking the old aristocracy (new money)
   In some countries such as Fr and Sp, could buy title and then become tax-exempt (bad idea-why?)

   Pd to have their children educated, sought ―good‖ marriages for them- more edu for males than
    females, altho more edu could be obtained in a convent (still an alternative for women who did not
    want the conventional life household of a woman
   Females expected to bring dowry into the marriage (helped w/ finding a good prospect), so if family
    not wealthy enough, girls would work as a domestic servant, etc to contribute to the dowry
   Status & work of women linked to father, later husband’s family
        Single women not usually well off or respected unless form very good fam-might then become
         head of convent, etc

            Euros married later (20s) than folks in other cultures helping to keep dwn birthrate but also
             contributed to illegitimate births (often abandoned) and increase of brothels

   Avg life of Euro peasant , standard of living , declined b/t 1500-1750 due to
   Few agrarian improvements
   Little Ice Age-shortened growing season even though temps only few degrees cooler
   Led to violent peasant rebellions thruout Euro
          Dealt w/ severely-execution or maiming
   Often those who worked to grow wheat could not afford to eat it
   Much exported
   Various livelihoods such as lumbering(mostly for fuel, but also for ship and house bldg), mining, also
    led to deforestation w/out much replanting
   Wood prices increased to protect lumber and to encourage re-planting, but also hurt poor folks
   Rural poor migrated to twns, cities hoping to find work
   Worthy poor –perm. City residents whose income too low to tax
   Un-worthy poor-migrants from impoverished rural areas, homeless, often w/ serious illnesses who
    tried to survive on charity
   Poverty led to est of gangs of criminals, pick-pockets, etc
   Huge gap b/t haves (relatively few) and have-nots (MANY)

Religious Reformation
 Papacy under fire for increasing wealth when so many poor, for being so concerned w/ secular or
    worldly matters rather than rel ones
 For instituting policies w/ seemingly no Biblical rationale – ex: sale of indulgences for past or future
    sins to reduce time in Purgatory
 Major reformer Martin Luther, a RC priest who took issue w. Ch policy he believed had no Biblical
    basis
 Fed up and nailed 95 theses to Ch door in Wittenburg , Ger Oct 31, 1517 launching the Protestant
    Reformation and the Lutheran denomination
 Believed one is saved by Faith in and the Grace of God, not by what one does, tho one should act
    according to that Grace ; that scripture and Rel Service should be in the vernacular, that no intercessor
    is needed to talk to God…
 Used printing press to spread ideas
 Led the way for others such John Calvin (predestination, the Elect, even less pwr of the clergy than
    Luther , w/ congregations choosing pastors, running Ch as a democracy, wrote ―The Institutes of the
    Chr Rel‖
 Simple dress, no statues, little music, no stained glass, use of vernacular (Pilgrims, Fr Huegonots,
    Dutch Reformed all Calvinists)
 Protestants did not expect celibate clergy-encouraged to marry

   All these reforms caused RC Ch to look at itself and make some reforms while re-iterating other
    beliefs = Catholic Reformation (Council of Trent)
   New rel order dev=Jesuits, started by RC reformer Ignatius Loyala of Sp
   Mission oriented, very bright, educated
   RC Ch kept Vulgate (Latin) Bible
   Celibacy of priests and nuns

Much animosity b/t RC and Prot
       RC went after ―heretics‖ and witches, burning them at the stake
        Protestants also had their share of witch-hunts also burning so-called witches at the stake (ex of
         how some old cultural traditions still existed- idea of spiritual causes for natural occurrences such
         as a witch causing someone to become ill or to do some mis-deed)
        Many accused were widows or other independent women….believing that women w/o a husband
         were more susceptible to evil!, other socially marginalized folks
        Rulers such as Philip II (Sp) used Inquisition and threat of burning at stake as means of control


Scientific Revolution

   Ren thinking gets ppl questioning just about everything, that there might be natural causes for things
    that had been ascribed to rel/spiritual causes
   Scientific beliefs had chged little since the Grks
   Earth as ctr of universe gave way to helio-centric universe
   Using observation and logic not enough, but using mathematical formulae to prove a hypothesis based
    on observation and logic
   Polish Copernicus-helio-ctred universe w/ mathematical formula (no telescope yet)-late 15th, early 16th
    century
   Ch believes new ideas to be heretical and if not re-canted theorists imprisoned and/or burned at the
    stake for heresy (Protestants actually may have been more upset about the changes in ideas than RC—
    depended on the Pope)
   Danish Tycho Brahe and asst Ger Johannes Kepler=improved Coperican theories, again w/ use of
    math—planets have elliptical orbits around sun
   Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)-built telescope- moon not smooth, other planets have moons, heliocentric
    universe, planets and earth, can change-gets into huge trbl w. Ch, but Pope Gregory XIII used
    Galileo’s astronomical findings to dev the Gregorian calendar (1582) which is still in use
   Galileo’s workd put on forbidden list and he went to prison, but that did not stop spread of Sci Rev
    (1992- RC Ch retracted condemnation of Galileo)
   Robt Boyle 1627-1691-in Eng -experimental methods & trial and error re: Chemistry (carbonation, I
    think)
   Isaac Newton-Eng 1642-1727- math ad physics-Law of Gravity, Calculus
   Lavosiers- husband and wife team re: Chemistry

Printing press instrumental in spreading ideas

Age of Enlightenment

   Influenced by Sci Rev, Reformation,
   If Sci beliefs accepted for centuries can be challenged, why not other beliefs, such as why does a king
    have the divine right to rule? Could life be better for everyday ppl? And much more
   W/ global relations causing folks to learn about other cultures w/ other beliefs, more and more
    accepted beliefs were challenged by the educated and the thinkers
   Descartes- I think, therefore I am
   Voltaire _Fr 1694-1178- I may not agree w/ what you say , but I will fight until the death for your
    right to say it
   Becomes a coherent movement that there must be laws of nature and that human institutions could be
    improved
   Locke (consent of the governed to be governed, got to chg if governed want that and if got won’t chg,
    governed have rt to bring about the change, even if violent) and Montesquie (3 branches of govt,
    separation of powers, checks and balances) I the 18 th century will have huge impact on Eng colonists

Nation Bldg (Political)
As many nations dev and expand due to their possession of guns, they become know as ―Gunpwdr
Empires‖
   W/ the end of feudalism, whether in Asia or in Europe, absolute monarchies developed and strong
    nation states were created
   Some city-states and principalities continued, but usually were part of a loose confederation
   Ex: Germanic principalities formed HRE

   Monarchs arbitrated conflicts of the day-rel, scientific, impacted the econ

   No unified European Empire ever developed, but each monarch centralized pwr in his/her own
    kingdom

   Each monarch wanted to be THE most pwrful and did not want the monarch of another nation to
    become more pwrful than he. Thus alliances would be formed and re-formed in an effort for ea
    monarch to make sure no other became more pwrful, thus maintaining Balance of Power. This was
    especially true in Europe. Religious or other reasons might be given for wars, but generally, it was
    about, Balance of Power.

   European Leadership passed from Sp to Netherlands, to Eng to Fr
   Possessing the cannon had a lot to do w/ this

   Ex: Spain-1519 electors of Germanic HRE ( generally ruled by Habsburgs) chose Chas V to be Holy
    Roman Emperor
   Chas V an Austrian Hapsburg who had inherited his grandparents’ Spanish empire
   Hoped to create Euro empire
   Often fought encroaching Ottoman Turks, stopping them at Venice in 1529 w/ Chr allies
   Chas V stopped from creating Euro empire by Francis I of France who had lost to Chas in HRE
    election
   To keep Chas from gaining more pwr, Francis sided w/ Muslim Turks to weaken Chas
   Prot Ref made many Germans become Lutheran. Luther supported this w/ appeals to German
    nationalism leading to 1546 German Wars of Religion
   B/t Francis and the Reformation, so much for a European empire
   1555- Peace of Augsburg= 2 accepted religions, princes chose either Catholicism or Lutheranism and
    their ppl will follow suit, seized Ch lands could be kept by the Protestants
   Chas divided his kingdom among his heirs and then retreated to a monestary. He had had enough!

Keys to being a successful monarch

        Pol unification based on pol centralization and rel unity
                   Ch pwr and pwr of the nobility limited in the country, but making them feel like they
were a part of the ruling team-not always an easy task

FR and Sp remained RC
Eng and Netherlands will become Prot
Ger Principalities=northern = Prot, southern = RC

Key Players

Spain
        Chas V HRE when Prot Ref occurred
                 Had been ftg Muslims for yrs, at Vienna, Lepanto, keeping them from further
encroachment into Euro
        Phillip II
                 Father and son want to restore all of Euro to RC
                            Phil will lose Netherlands, will try to get back Eng into RC fold ( Eng became
Prot in 1533 under Henry VIII, father of Mary Tudor, still RC, and Eliz I, a Prot) by marrying Mary Tudor
and later after Mary’s death, by trying to marry Eliz I
                  That fails, so he will send his grt Sp Armada to ft Eng and will lose in the Prot Wind- the
beginning of the end for Sp (1500s, Sp Golden Age)

France
         Henry IV starts Bourbon dynasty
                  A Fr Huegonot, he will convert for peace which will not occur
                           Issues Edit of Nantes to give FR Prot civil rts
                  Heir Louis XII – a child
                           Regent Cardinal Richelieu who will make Ch and st strong, causing nobles to
lose pwr, making monarchy very pwrful, but Ricchelieu the real pwr as Louis weak (married o Anne of
Austria)
                  Heir also a child, Louis XIV, regent Mazarin who dies when Louis is about 22
                  Louis takes full control, very pwrful- has an Estates General, like Parl, but not called (for
176 yrs!)
                           Renounces Edict of Nantes (so much for Huguenots’’ rts
                           Many wars, builds Palace of Versailles
                                     Showplace and govt headquarters w/ govt members living there so that
Louis can keep a watchful eye—all this causes MUCH debt
         Colbert becomes Louis’s minister of finance and sets Fr on course of a national economy,
developing better tax sys and implementing Mercantilism (Eng better at money mgt, tho)
                  War of Sp Succession in 1700s trying to join Fr and Sp, ruled by relative of Louis’s-into
one nation

Bal of Pwr idea important here. Other Euro’s team up so that this won’t happen and it doesn’t!

Back in England

    Prot brought to Eng by Henry VIII when Pope would not grant him annulment of marriage to
Catherine of Aragon
         Decided that he no longer needed to be RC after previously ―defending the faith‖
     Liz never marries, so no heir
     Son of RC Cousin becomes king-James I (Stuart)
     Not really anti RC
     Stops ftg Sp so son Chas I can marry Sp princess (Eng, esp Puritans who are Calvinists) really
         angry
     Chas I hated by Eng-keeps dismissing Parl when they won’t give him money
     Gives Puritans a hard time, many go settle in new world (Am)
     Trbls w/ a Puritan dominated Leads to Eng Civil War and Commonwealth period )Eng w/ NO
         king for 12 yrs ruled by Puritans, mainly Oliver Cromwell (Rump Parliament)
     After death of Cromwell, monarch restored, thus the Restoration Monarchy
     Chas II comes to throne followed by brother James II, more RC than Prot
     Eng furious, leads to Glorious Rev- (like the Civil War, king not following the rules and in Eng,
         even the king had to do that!)
     Wm and Mary (Prot daughter of James)come to the throne w/out bloodshed- Eng guaranteed Prot
         with this action
     Parl gaining strength, king a Constitutional monarch who must also obey the law
     Only Parl can tax and taxes are needed to pay for wars
     No standing army but does have perm navy as Engl an island nation
     Eng sys gave more rts to Englishmen than folks in other nations
     Engl govt respected by others (but probably not kings)
     Enlightenment thinker John Locke was English (Treatise on Civil Govt 1690)
       1618-1648-30 YRS War
         costly to all involved in terms of money and loss of life
         such wars also caused improvements in tech and how war fought
         improved org, leadership, etc
         wars financed w/ alliances w/ commercial sector

Colonization:
     As one nation dev colonies, others wanted to get in the act as well. Also a part of Bal of Pwr
     Every time war in Euro, also in their colonies, so war becomes global

       King of Colonization would appear to be Spain, altho Portugal did control some territory east of
        the Line of Dem.-Brazil
       Once conquistadors colonized, the crown zoomed inn to control the new territories (how do you
        think the king would know if he were getting his Royal Fifth?).
       King’s rep in the new world was the Viceroy(Portugal had them too and used them in the East (in
        SE Asia) in the trade empires that they controlled as well)
       Led to soc classes in the multicultural, multi-ethnic population
       Peninsulares=ppl from S
       Creoles= descendants of peninsulares
       Mestizos= Euro/Amerind. Mix
       Mulattoes= Euro/African mix
       Slaves=zambos-mixed grp of Ameirndians, Africans
       Profit from silver, farming , stock raising, craft production

       Once Eng settle Am, will also rely on African slave labor for plantations labor

       Fr don’t settle in same way, more trade thru forts to hold on to land- will lose most of their terr in
        N. Am after Fr/Ind war in 1763
       Will use African slave labor in Caribbean (Haiti esp)on sugar plantations

Maintaining Bal of Pwr led to est, perm mil which cost money
Led to national economy, which led to
Mercantilism which led to
Colonization as means to achieve self-sufficiency and pwr

				
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