MRO SECTIONAL ANATOMY MRO

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					                            MRO: SECTIONAL ANATOMY
                           Module 2: Cranium and Facial Bones

Module Exam

1. All of the following are structures of the inner ear, except the:
       a. Auditory ossicles
       b. Cochlea
       c. Vestibule
       d. Semicircular canals
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The auditory ossicles are located in the middle ear.
Objective:    Describe the structures and functions of the ear.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 6

2. The structural features of the temporal cranial bone include the:
    (1) Styloid process
    (2) Mental foramen
    (3) Petrous ridge
       a. 1 and 2 only
       b. 1 and 3 only
       c. 2 and 3 only
       d. 1, 2, and 3
Answer:       B
Feedback:     The styloid process and petrous ridge are on the temporal bone. The mental
foramen is located on the mandible.
Objective:    Identify the bones of the cranium, including their prominent landmarks.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 4

3. Review the axial CT image of the cranium below. What structure is labeled as number
   8? [Developer: Insert image from Wicke, L. Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy, 7 th edition.
   Fig. 135, pg. 213. Add lead lines and labels as shown in scanned image, edited by
   SME.]




       a. Inner ear
       b. Petrous ridge of temporal bone
       c. Anterior clinoid of sphenoid bone
       d. Greater wing of sphenoid bone
Answer:      C
Feedback:    The anterior clinoid of the sphenoid bone is labeled as number 8 in this axial
CT image of the cranium.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the cranium on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 10

4. Refer to the image below. Identify the structure labeled as number 1. [Image edited
   from:
   http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/images
   /002022.jpg Edited image below sent to editor as “ExamQ4.jpg.]




       a. Greater wing of the sphenoid bone
       b. Petrous ridge of temporal bone
       c. Lesser wing of sphenoid bone
       d. Temporal process of frontal bone
Answer:      A
Feedback:    Number 1 is labeling the greater wing of the sphenoid bone in this coronal
CT image.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the cranium on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 10

5. The auditory ossicle that receives sound waves from the tympanic membrane is the:
        a. Malleus
        b. Incus
        c. Stapes
        d. Hyoid
Answer:        A
Feedback:      The auditory ossicle that receives sound waves from the tympanic membrane
is the malleus. The order of the auditory ossicles are malleus, incus , and stapes.
Objective:     Describe the structures and functions of the ear.
Reference:    Module 2, Section 2, Screen 6

6. The lambda is located on the:
       a. Posterior cranium at the junction of the lambdoidal and squamous sutures.
       b. Posterior cranium at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures.
       c. Anterior cranium at the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures .
       d. Anterior, lateral cranium at the junction of the squamous and coronal sutures .
Answer:      B
Feedback:    The lambda is the posterior fontanel located at the junction of the sagittal and
lambdoidal sutures.
Objective:   Cite the names, location, and purpose of the fontanels of the infant skull.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 6

7. The first fontanels of the infant skull close by age:
       a. 3 months
       b. 1 year
       c. 18 months
       d. 2 years
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The posterior fontanel (lambda) and the anteriolateral fontanels are the first
to close, between 1 to 3 months of age.
Objective:    Cite the names, location, and purpose of the fontanels of the infant skull.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 6

8. Where is the coronal suture located?
       a. On the lateral sides between the temporal and parietal bones
       b. On the superior aspect between the parietal bones
       c. On the anterior between the frontal and parietal bones
       d. On the posterior between the parietal and occipital bones
Answer:       C
Feedback:     The coronal suture is located on the anterior aspect between the frontal and
parietal bones.
Objective:    Locate and identify the sutures of the cranium.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 7

9. The structure that transmits the spinal cord into the spinal canal of the vertebral column
    is the:
        a. Foramen magnum of the occipital bone
        b. Sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
        c. Mastoid processes of the temporal bone
        d. Condyles of the occipital bone
Answer:        A
Feedback:      The foramen magnum of the occipital bone is a large opening that transmits
the spinal cord from the brain into the spinal canal of the vertebral column.
Objective:     Identify the bones of the cranium, including their prominent landmarks.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 4
10. Review the three-dimensional reconstructed CT image below. What sutures are
    indicated with the red dot and “X” ?




http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/images/00
2005.jpg Edit as shown
        a. Dot is sagittal suture; X is coronal suture
        b. Dot is lambdoidal suture; X is coronal suture
        c. Dot is coronal suture; X is frontal suture
        d. Dot is squamous suture; X is sagittal suture
Answer:       B
Feedback:     The dot is labeling the lambdoidal suture and the X indicates the coronal
suture.
Objectives: Locate and identify the sutures of the cranium. Identify all pertinent anatomy
of the cranium on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 2, Screen 7

11. The largest immoveable facial bone is the:
       a. Vomer
       b. Zygoma
       c. Lacrimal
       d. Maxilla
Answer:       D
Feedback:     The maxilla is the largest immoveable facial bone.
Objective:    Identify and locate the facial bones, including their prominent landmarks.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 4

12. The angle of the mandible is called the:
       a. Inion
       b. Mental prominence
       c. Alveolar process
       d. Gonion
Answer:      D
Feedback:    The mandibular angle is also known as the gonion.
Objective:   Identify and locate the facial bones, including their prominent landmarks.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 4

13. Review the axial CT image below. The structure labeled as number 4 is the: [Image
    edited from:
    http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/images
    /002067.jpg




       a. Palatine
       b. Ethmoid
       c. Vomer
       d. Nasal
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The palatine articulates with the palatine plate of the maxilla to form part of
the hard palate of the mouth.
Objective:    Identify all pertinent anatomy of the facial bones on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 6

14. Review the axial CT image of the facial bones below. What number labels the ramus of
    the mandible? [Image: Edited from
    http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/images
    /002076.jpg -- edited image file sent to editor as “Sec 3 Quiz Q4]
        a. 1
        b. 3
        c. 4
        d. 6
Answer:        A
Feedback:      The mandibular ramus is visible on the right side and is labeled as number 1
in this image.
Objective:     Identify all pertinent anatomy of the facial bones on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 6

15. Which facial bones are thin, scroll-shaped bones that project into the nasal cavity?
        a. Nasal bones
        b. Vomer
        c. Palatine
        d. Inferior nasal conchae
Answer:        D
Feedback:      The inferior nasal conchae are the thin, scroll-shaped facial bones located in
the inferior nasal cavity.
Objective:     Identify and locate the facial bones, including their prominent landma rks.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 4

16. Review the axial CT image of the facial bones below. Number 3 labels the: [Image:
http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/ima
ges/002076.jpg
 edited image file sent to editor as “Sec 3 Quiz Q4]
       a. Right zygoma
       b. Left zygoma
       c. Right maxilla
       d. Left maxilla
Answer:      B
Feedback:    Number 3 is labeling the left zygoma.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the facial bones on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 3, Screen 6

17. The action of the masseter muscle of mastication is:
        a. Side-to-side movement of the mandible
        b. Protrusion of the mandible
        c. Elevation of the mandible
        d. Lowers the mandible
Answer:       C
Feedback:     Elevation of the mandible is the action of the masseter muscle.
Objective:    Identify the muscles of mastication, including their origin, insertion , and
action.
Reference: Module 2, Section 4, Screen 6

18. Which structure of the temporomandibular joint functions to limit anterior movement of
    the mandibular condyle?
        a. Articular eminence of temporal bone
        b. Temporomandibular ligament
        c. Sphenomandibular ligament
        d. Stylomandibular ligament
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The articular eminence of the temporal bone serves to limit anterior
movement of the TMJ.
Objective:    Identify the bony and soft tissue anatomy of the temporomandibular joint.
Reference: Module 2, Section 4, Screen 4
19. When the mouth is closed, the normal position of the articular disk is:
       a. In the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
       b. In the temporal fossa of the mandible.
       c. Just anterior to the articular eminence.
       d. Just superior to the mandibular condyle.
Answer:        D
Feedback:      The articular disk follows the mandibular condyle and should be situated just
above it in both the open- and closed-mouth positions.
Objective:     Describe the proper position of the anatomical elements of the TMJ during
open- and closed-mouth positions.
Reference: Module 2, Section 4, Screen 4

20. Review the sagittal MR image of the temporomandibular joint below. Which number
    labels the mandibular condyle?




[Image: page 10 fig C Weir, Jamie. Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition. Mosby Ltd.,
082003. <vbk:0-7234-3211-2#B0723432112500059_f17>]
       a. 1
       b. 2
       c. 5
       d. 6
Answer:       C
Feedback:     The mandibular condyle is labeled as number 5 in this image.
Objectives: Identify all pertinent anatomy of the TMJ on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 4, Screen 8

21. Review the coronal MR image below. Which muscle of mastication is labeled as
    number 1? [Image: edited from
    http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Kelley/sectionalanatomy2e/IC/images
    /002085.jpg – file sent to editor “Sec 5 Quiz Q5.jpg”]
       a. Temporalis
       b. Masseter
       c. Lateral pterygoid
       d. Medial pterygoid
Answer:      A
Feedback:    The temporalis muscle is labeled as number 1 in this image.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the TMJ on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 4, Screens 6 and 8

22. The paranasal sinuses located in the cranial bones are the:
    (1) Ethmoid
    (2) Maxillary
    (3) Sphenoid
       a. 1 and 2
       b. 1 and 3 only
       c. 2 and 3 only
       d. 1, 2, and 3
Answer:       B
Feedback:     The ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid bones are all cranial bones that contain
paranasal sinuses. The maxilla is a facial bone.
Objective:    Identify and locate the paranasal sinuses, including their prominent features.
Reference: Module 2, Section 5, Screens 4-7

23. The paranasal sinuses that usually begin to develop first during fetal life:
       a. Frontal
       b. Ethmoid
       c. Maxillary
       d. Sphenoid
Answer:      C
Feedback:    The maxillary sinuses are usually the first the develop during fetal life.
Objective:   Describe the development of the sinuses.
Reference: Module 2, Section 5, Screens 4-7
24. Refer to the image below. Which sinuses are labeled as number 36?




Image: page 6 fig C Weir, Jamie. Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition. Mosby Ltd.,
082003.). <vbk:0-7234-3211-2#B0723432112500059_f11b>]
       a. Ethmoid air cells
       b. Frontal sinuses
       c. Maxillary sinuses
       d. Sphenoid sinuses
Answer:       C
Feedback:     This is an axial CT image demonstrating the maxillary sinuses.
Objectives: Identify all pertinent anatomy of the sinuses on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 5, Screens 6 and 10

25. Refer to the image below. The paranasal sinuses labeled as number 25 are the:




[Image: page 8 fig B Weir, Jamie. Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition. Mosby Ltd.,
082003.). <vbk:0-7234-3211-2#B0723432112500059_f13a>]
       a. Maxillary
       b. Sphenoid
       c. Frontals
       d. Ethmoids
Answer:      D
Feedback:    The ethmoid sinuses are labeled as number 25 in the axial CT image.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the sinuses on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 5, Screens 5 and 10

26. Which sinuses drain into the superior meatus of the ostiomeatal complex?
        a. Frontals, anterior ethmoids, and maxillary
        b. Posterior ethmoids and sphenoid
        c. Maxillary, posterior ethmoids, and sphenoid
        d. Middle ethmoids and frontals
Answer:       B
Feedback:     The posterior ethmoids and sphenoid sinuses drain into the superior meatus
of the ostiomeatal complex.
Objective:    Explain the structure and function of the ostiomeatal complex.
Reference: Module 2, Section 5, Screen 8

27. The sclera is the:
       a. Outermost layer of the globe of the eye.
       b. Middle layer of the globe of the eye.
       c. Protective fluid of the globe of the eye.
       d. Protective sheath of the optic nerve.
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The sclera is the outermost layer of the globe of the eye.
Objective:    Describe the soft tissue structures of the orbit and eye, including specific
functions.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 5

28. The cranial bone that is located at the lateral apex of the orbit is the:
       a. Sphenoid
       b. Ethmoid
       c. Temporal
       d. Frontal
Answer:       A
Feedback:     The sphenoid bone is located on the lateral aspect of the bony orbit.
Objective:    Identify and locate the bones of the orbit.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 4

29. The nasolacrimal duct of the lacrimal apparatus drains into the:
      a. Lacrimal canaliculi
      b. Lacrimal gland
      c. Puncta
      d. Ostiomeatal complex
Answer:      D
Feedback:    The nasolacrimal duct drains into the inferior meatus of the ostiomeatal
complex.
Objective:   Describe the soft tissue structures of the orbit and eye, including specific
functions.
Reference:   Module 2, Section 6, Screen 6

30. Review the axial MR image of the globe below. What number is labeling the optic
    nerve?




[Image: page 15 fig C Weir, Jamie. Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition. Mosby
Ltd., 082003. <vbk:0-7234-3211-2#B0723432112500059_f29>]
       a. 6
       b. 8
       c. 10
       d. 12
Answer:       C
Feedback:     Number 10 labels the optic nerve of the eye.
Objectives: Identify all pertinent anatomy of the orbit and eye on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 10

31. Refer to the image below. What structure is labeled as “D” in this coronal MR image?
[Insert image from Haaga, J. CT and MRI of the Whole Body, 5 th edition. Volume 1. Figure
11-6A, pg. 477.]

       a. Optic nerve
       b. Superior oblique muscle
       c. Superior ophthalmic vein
       d. Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
Answer:      B
Feedback:    Letter “D” labels the superior oblique muscle in this coronal MR image.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the orbit and eye on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 10
32. What is the first part of the drainage of the lacrimal apparatus?
       a. Lacrimal gland
       b. Lacrimal sac
       c. Lacrimal canaliculi
       d. Puncta
Answer:       D
Feedback:     The proper drainage flow of the lacrimal apparatus starts at the puncta.
Objective:    Explain the lacrimal apparatus.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 6

33. The sensory nerve of vision is the:
       a. Olfactory nerve
       b. Optic nerve
       c. Trochlear nerve
       d. Superior nerve
Answer:       B
Feedback:     The optic nerve is the sensory nerve of vision.
Objective:    Describe the soft tissue structures of the orbit and eye, including specific
functions.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 8

34. Refer to the image below. What structure is labeled as number 9 in this axial CT image?




Haaga, J. CT and MRI of the Whole Body, 5th edition. Volume 1. Figure 11-2B.
       a. Medial rectus muscle
       b. Lateral rectus muscle
       c. Superior rectus muscle
       d. Ophthalmic artery
Answer:      D
Feedback:    The ophthalmic artery is labeled as number 9 in this axial CT image.
Objective:   Identify all pertinent anatomy of the orbit and eye on sectional images.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 10
35. Which structure serves as the point of origin for five of the seven extraocular muscles?
       a. Superior orbital fissure
       b. Inferior orbital fissure
       c. Common tendinous ring
       d. Optic nerve
Answer:       C
Feedback:     The common tendinous ring serves as the point of origin for five of the seven
extraocular muscles of the eye.
Objective:    Describe the soft tissue structures of the orbit and eye, including specific
functions.
Reference: Module 2, Section 6, Screen 7


       ## End Module 2 Exam

				
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