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					   CITY OF COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA

                  Request for Proposals
                        #004-07-08
City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008

                   Application Deadline
                   November 30, 2007
                        3:00 p.m.




                   For additional information:
                          Gail Nettles
                1136 Washington Street, 4th Floor
                     Columbia, SC 29201
                        (803) 545-3469
       City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


1.0 OVERVIEW/GEOGRAPHIC AREA .......................................................................... 5
  1.1 Intent ........................................................................................................................ 5
  1.2 Horizontal Reference .............................................................................................. 5
  1.3 Vertical Reference ................................................................................................... 5
2.0 PROJECT PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS ................................................. 5
  2.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 5
  2.2 Control ..................................................................................................................... 6
  2.3 Tiling ........................................................................................................................ 6
  2.4 Initial, Interim and Final Deliverables – QA/QC ................................................ 7
  2.5 Collection Parameter .............................................................................................. 7
  2.6 Digital Aerial Orthoimagery .................................................................................. 7
     2.6.1 True Color Orthoimagery and Color Infrared Orthoimagery (0.5 foot
     spatial resolution) ...................................................................................................... 7
     2.6.2 Color Infrared Orthoimagery (0.5 foot spatial resolution) .......................... 8
     2.6.3 Accuracy ........................................................................................................... 8
     2.6.4 Scale of Digital Aerial Imagery ....................................................................... 8
     2.6.5 Camera/Sensor System .................................................................................... 8
     2.6.6 Rectification ...................................................................................................... 8
     2.6.7 Image Quality/Radiometry ............................................................................. 9
     2.6.8 Format ............................................................................................................... 9
     2.6.9 Aerial Orthoimagery Additional Specifications .......................................... 10
  2.7 Elevation Data ....................................................................................................... 10
     2.7.1 LiDAR Technology ........................................................................................ 10
     2.7.2 Accuracy ......................................................................................................... 10
     2.7.3 Airborne and Raw LiDAR Data ................................................................... 12
     2.7.4 Compilation of Breaklines ............................................................................. 12
     2.7.5 DTM ................................................................................................................ 13
     2.7.6 TIN .................................................................................................................. 13
     2.7.7 DEM Datasets ................................................................................................. 13
     2.7.8 Contours.......................................................................................................... 13
     2.7.9 Building Footprint Development .................................................................. 13
3.0 DELIVERABLES ....................................................................................................... 13
  3.1 Color Orthoimagery (0.5 foot) ............................................................................. 13
     3.1.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 13
     3.1.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 13
  3.2 CIR Orthoimagery (0.5 foot) ............................................................................... 14
     3.2.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 14
     3.2.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 14
  3.3 Processed LiDAR & LAS/ASCII Format Deliverables ..................................... 14
     3.3.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 14
     3.3.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 14
  3.4 Breakline Compilation ......................................................................................... 14
     3.4.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 14
     3.4.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 15
  3.5 DTM ....................................................................................................................... 15
     3.5.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 15


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     3.5.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 15
  3.6 TIN ......................................................................................................................... 15
     3.6.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 15
     3.6.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 15
  3.7 DEM ....................................................................................................................... 15
     3.7.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 15
     3.7.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 15
  3.8 Contours (2-foot) ................................................................................................... 16
     3.8.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 16
     3.8.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 16
  3.9 Building Footprints ............................................................................................... 16
     3.9.1 Materials ......................................................................................................... 16
     3.9.2 Method of Delivery ........................................................................................ 16
  3.10 Metadata .............................................................................................................. 16
  3.11 Project Reports.................................................................................................... 16
4.0 PROJECT SCHEDULE .............................................................................................. 17
5.0 OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS ............................................................................... 18
6.0 RFP SUBMITTAL INFORMATION ........................................................................ 18
  6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 18
     6.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 18
     6.1.2 Experience ...................................................................................................... 18
     6.1.3 References ....................................................................................................... 18
     6.1.4 Proposed Fees and Costs ............................................................................... 18
     6.1.5 Response to Scope .......................................................................................... 18
     6.1.6 Copies .............................................................................................................. 18
     6.1.7 Deadline for Submittals ................................................................................. 19
  6.2 Evaluation Criteria ............................................................................................... 19
  6.3 Selection Process ................................................................................................... 19
  6.4 RFP Procedural Instructions ............................................................................... 19
     6.4.1 Procurement Process ..................................................................................... 19
     6.4.2 Questions......................................................................................................... 20
     6.4.3 Pre-Submittal Meeting .................................................................................. 20
     6.4.4 Discussions for Clarification/Presentation .................................................. 20
     6.4.5 Rejection of Proposals ................................................................................... 20
     6.4.6 Confidentiality ................................................................................................ 20
     6.4.7 Duty to Inspect, Declare and Advise all Costs ............................................. 20
  6.5 Terms and Conditions .......................................................................................... 21
     6.5.1 Commencement of Services .......................................................................... 21
     6.5.2 Term of Contract ........................................................................................... 21
     6.5.3 Non-Discrimination........................................................................................ 21
     6.5.4 Indemnification .............................................................................................. 21
     6.5.5 Licenses, Permits and Taxes ......................................................................... 21
     6.5.6 Termination .................................................................................................... 21
     6.5.7 Whole Agreement........................................................................................... 22
     6.5.8 Applicable State Law ..................................................................................... 22
     6.5.9 Breach/Waiver................................................................................................ 22


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     6.5.10 Severability ................................................................................................... 22
     6.5.11 Successorship ................................................................................................ 22
     6.5.12 Interpretation ............................................................................................... 23
7.0 ATTACHMENTS ....................................................................................................... 23
  Attachment A .............................................................................................................. 24
  Attachment B ............................................................................................................... 25
  Attachment C .............................................................................................................. 27
  Attachment D .............................................................................................................. 28




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1.0 OVERVIEW/GEOGRAPHIC AREA

1.1 Intent
This Request for Proposal (RFP# 004-07-08) is for the City of Columbia’s collection of
digital orthoimagery and LiDAR data acquisitions in accordance with the following and
attached specifications. Total project area is approximately 1,024 square miles (1,142
State Plane 5,000’ x 5,000’ tiles). The project area includes all of Richland County as
well as a buffer of the county. Included within the project area are all of the City of
Columbia’s utility coverage areas, river corridors and parts of all adjoining counties
(Lexington, Calhoun, Newberry, Fairfield, Sumter, Kershaw). All proposals should
include total project costs of all deliverables for the entire project area. See Attachment
A for defined geographic extent of the project area and tile boundaries.

1.2 Horizontal Reference
Horizontal reference for the project will be NAD 1983/NSRS 2007, S.C. Single Zone
State Plane Coordinate System, with the International Foot (1 foot = 0.3048 meters
“exactly”) being used in all conversions.

1.3 Vertical Reference
Vertical reference shall be NAVD 1988.

2.0 PROJECT PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS

2.1 General
For the purpose of this project the following terms are defined:

       2.1.1 Digital Orthoimagery - a digital image, which has the properties of an
       orthographic projection. It is developed from a perspective aerial image by
       differential rectification so that the image displacements caused by camera tilt and
       terrain relief are removed.

       2.1.2 Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) - an optical remote sensing
       technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and/or other
       information of a distant target. The prevalent method to determine distance to an
       object or surface is to use laser pulses. The range to an object is determined by
       measuring the time delay between transmission of a pulse and detection of the
       reflected signal.

       2.1.3 Digital Terrain Model (DTM) - a rigorous data model which incorporates
       mass elevation points, spot elevations and breaklines collected at significant
       terrain breaks and at a density level sufficient to support generation of 2-foot
       contours and a DEM grid that meet the accuracy requirement.




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       2.1.4 Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) - a vector based representation of
       the physical land surface made up of irregularly distributed nodes and lines with
       three dimensional coordinates (x, y, and z) that are arranged in a network of
       nonoverlapping triangles. For this project requirement TINs will be derived
       directly from the DTM.

       2.1.5 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) – a grid of evenly spaced points extracted
       directly from the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN).

2.2 Control
 It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to establish new horizontal and vertical
    control to ensure that final deliverables meet or exceed the accuracy standards defined
    in this RFP.
 New control will be established utilizing semi-permanent monumentation such as pin
    and cap or per agreed upon recommendation from contractor.
 All proposals shall include a copy of a map and metadata indicating where new
    control will be established.
 It shall be desirable to establish any new control using the SC Virtual Reference
    Station (VRS) network.
 A final control report will be delivered which will include a map of control, metadata,
    coordinates, a detailed explanation of procedures used for establishing new control,
    calculations, notes, applicable recovery protocols, etc.
 It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to ensure that all panels are in place
    (with company name/phone number on panel) and identifiable on the orthoimagery;
    and that all panel materials are removed within 10 days of acceptable orthoimagery
    collection. There will be a cost retained until proof of panel material is removed and
    confirmed by the City of Columbia GIS Division (or designee).
 Airborne GPS (ABGPS) will be used for horizontal and vertical control densification
    in support of the planimetric/topographic mapping and orthoimagery production. A
    minimum of two base stations (one for redundancy) will be established. The
    maximum baseline between the base station and the aircraft position will not exceed
    25 miles. Existing stations may be suitable for use if they meet the baseline
    requirements.

2.3 Tiling
 The SC State Plane Statewide Standard 5,000’x 5,000’ (1” = 200’) grid will be used
    for all deliverables unless otherwise noted.
 Final deliverables will be delivered in the same grid format (Attachment A),
    hereinafter referred to as the “tiling scheme” or “tiles.”
 The grid defined tiles will cover the entire project boundary and beyond as needed to
    achieve full tile coverage.
 All tiled deliverables will be edge matched with adjacent tiles.




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2.4 Initial, Interim and Final Deliverables – QA/QC
 The contractor should provide examples of past work for all deliverables specified in
    this RFP at the time of the proposal.
 It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to provide interim deliverables as soon
    as practicable upon completion of data collection. Interim deliverables shall be
    defined as sample tiles (2.3) or sample ESRI ArcGIS compatible formats where
    applicable for all deliverables.
 Upon acceptance of interim deliverable, all subsequent deliverables shall adhere to
    this approved standard.
 Appropriate FGDC compliant metadata shall also be provided for all interim
    deliverables.
 In addition to all requirement of the contractor to perform QA/QC, the City of
    Columbia GIS Division (or designee) will perform QA/QC to ensure compliance with
    standards outlined in this RFP throughout the process to final deliverable acceptance.
 The City of Columbia GIS Division reserves the right to reject any deliverable for
    noncompliance with the specifications of this RFP.
 If a deliverable is rejected, it shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure
    subsequent deliverables meet the specifications of this RFP.
 All deliverables shall be provided in the specified format and where appropriate be
    compatible with ArcGIS SDE 9.2 (SQL) or current equivalent.

2.5 Collection Parameter
Digital orthoimagery and LiDAR data shall be collected at the same time. In the event
that this is not practicable, and the City of Columbia GIS Division approves disparate
collection dates, then coarse resolution imagery or airborne video (to be specified) will be
collected for verification of ground elements at the time of the flight.

2.6 Digital Aerial Orthoimagery
Digital orthoimagery will be developed for leaf-off true color orthoimagery at 0.5-foot
pixel resolution and for leaf-on and leaf-off Color Infrared (CIR) orthoimagery at 0.5-
foot pixel resolution.

       2.6.1 True Color Orthoimagery and Color Infrared Orthoimagery (0.5 foot
       spatial resolution)
        It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to obtain snow-free and leaf-free
           true color and Color Infrared (CIR) digital aerial orthoimagery between
           January 1, 2008 and March 15, 2008 or other date approved by the City of
           Columbia GIS Division.
        All orthoimagery will be collected in the same season. Orthoimagery shall be
           undertaken when skies are clear, free from excessive smoke or haze, and well-
           defined images can be resolved.
        The ground shall be free from standing water and snow.
        Orthoimagery shall be flown only during that portion of the day when the sun
           is 30 degrees or more above the horizon.



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      2.6.2 Color Infrared Orthoimagery (0.5 foot spatial resolution)
       It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to obtain leaf-on CIR digital
          aerial orthoimagery between May 15, 2008 and July 15, 2008 or other date
          approved by the City of Columbia GIS Division.
       All orthoimagery will be collected in the same season. Orthoimagery shall be
          undertaken when skies are clear, free from excessive smoke or haze, and well-
          defined images can be resolved.
       The ground shall be free from standing water.
       Orthoimagery shall be flown only during that portion of the day when the sun
          is 30 degrees or more above the horizon.

      2.6.3 Accuracy
       Orthoimagery shall meet or exceed ASPRS Accuracy Standards for Class 2
          Large-Scale maps, at a scale of 1:24,000. Responders may optionally specify
          that final products will meet the more stringent ASPRS Accuracy Standards
          for Class 1 Large-Scale Maps, which represent a planimetric accuracy limiting
          RMSE to half that of the ASPRS Accuracy Standards for Class 2 Large-Scale
          maps.
       All systematic and random errors must be removed to the extent required to
          meet map accuracy and resolution requirements as defined within this RFP.
       Source: National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy, FGDC-STD-007.3-
          1998

      2.6.4 Scale of Digital Aerial Imagery
       The nominal image scale shall be sufficient to meet or exceed ASPRS
          Accuracy Standards for Class 2 Large-Scale maps and produce a final
          orthoimage resolution of 6 inches on the ground.

            Respondents must provide flying height, ground sample distance (GSD) and
            the nominal image scale in the proposal.

      2.6.5 Camera/Sensor System
       All imagery will be acquired using a tested and calibrated precision digital
          sensor. The sensor system shall be geometrically stable and capable of
          meeting minimum criteria for photogrammetric mapping. Sensor systems
          must be compatible with precision stereoscopic mapping instruments and with
          mensuration procedures used in preparing accurate orthoimagery.
       A complete description of the sensor system will be included in all proposals
          and The Orthoimage & LiDAR Final Report.
       Detailed camera calibration data will be included in The Orthoimage &
          LiDAR Final Report.

      2.6.6 Rectification
       The rectification process shall involve the solution of the appropriate
          photogrammetric equations for each pixel in the output image. It will not be


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            permissible to solve photogrammetric equations at anchor points and then
            warp the content of the original image between the anchor points.
           The interpolation (or resampling) of intensity values from the input image to
            the output image shall be accomplished using the cubic convolution algorithm
            or bilinear algorithm as specified by the City of Columbia GIS Division (or
            designee) - use of nearest neighbor will not be acceptable.

      2.6.7 Image Quality/Radiometry
       Two hundred and fifty-six (256) tonal levels ranging from 0 (black) to 255
          (white) of image brightness shall be represented. All intermediate values shall
          represent continuous color varying uniformly from black to white. There shall
          be no areas of an orthoimage where the process was incomplete due to image
          gaps or lack of data.
       One set of all digital orthoimagery deliverables shall be provided before color
          balancing.
       An additional set of all digital orthoimages shall be radiometrically adjusted
          as necessary so that adjacent digital orthoimages can be displayed
          simultaneously without an obvious visual edge seam between them.
          o Localized adjustments of the brightness values shall be performed to
              minimize tonal differences between the join areas.
          o For this adjustment, the orthoimages judged by visual inspection to have
              the better contrast should be used as the reference orthoimage.
          o Localized brightness values of the adjacent orthoimages shall be adjusted
              to that of the reference orthoimage.
          o When possible and feasible, the area adjusted should be bounded by a
              tonal break ground feature such as a road, field line, shadow line, etc.
          o The radiometric adjustment should not compromise the accuracy, clarity
              or resolution of the orthoimagery.
       Bridges, overpasses, and other surface features will be rectified to the extent
          possible and will not show visible warps or other undesirable image artifacts.
       Prior to undertaking full digital orthoimage production, the contractor shall
          furnish the City of Columbia GIS Division (or designee) with sample digital
          images at all scales to evaluate and accept as examples of overall image
          quality. The City of Columbia will select one image each that will become
          the standard to which all subsequent digital orthoimagery will be compared
          for acceptance/rejection relative to image quality (2.4).
       Source: National Spatial Data Infrastructure Content Standards for Digital
          Orthoimagery, FGDC-STD-008-1999

      2.6.8 Format
      All digital orthoimages are to be delivered in ArcSDE 9.2 readable format:
       TIFF format (.tif) with accompanying world file (.tfw) header using the
          designated tiling scheme. Additional header information will be included in
          accordance with provided standards (see Attachment A, B, C).
       Mr. SID/JPEG 2000 (or other designated) format for entire project area.


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           Digital orthoimagery shall contain only the neat image area of the
            corresponding map unit and there shall be no image overlap between digital
            orthoimagery tiles.

      2.6.9 Aerial Orthoimagery Additional Specifications
       Flight lines shall contain sufficient overlap to ensure that each digital
          orthoimage is (as much as practical) extracted from the centermost portion of
          a digital image strip. Using a mosaic of portions of multiple image strips to
          create a single digital orthoimage will be permitted, particularly if building
          lean can be significantly reduced.
       Proposed flight lines shall be provided in an ESRI ArcGIS compatible format
          as layers, to include proposed flight line numbers and other relevant attributes.
       All re-flights will be at the expense of the contractor.
       Digital orthoimages will be delivered to the City of Columbia GIS Division
          (or designee) for quality control inspections.
       Two final sets of digital orthoimage deliverables will be provided.
       Tiles will be labeled in accordance with state standards (see Attachment A, B,
          C).
       In addition to the image (.tif) and world (.tfw) files, each orthoimage delivery
          shall include the appropriate DEM/DTM file labeled with the same file
          name/number as the corresponding orthoimage and delivered in ESRI ArcGIS
          compatible formats.
       Dense urban areas shall be flown in a manner to reduce building lean.

2.7 Elevation Data

      2.7.1 LiDAR Technology
       LiDAR Technology will be used as the basis for DTM, TIN, DEM, and
          Contours development and the rectification of the digital orthoimagery. The
          LiDAR point cloud shall be sufficient to obtain the required vertical and
          horizontal accuracies that will meet or exceed FEMA compliance standards
          and specifications in this RFP.
       Prior to undertaking full production of LiDAR data and derived deliverables,
          the contractor shall furnish the City of Columbia GIS Division (or designee)
          with sample data, per appropriate delivery method, at all scales to evaluate
          and accept as examples of overall quality. The City of Columbia will select
          one representative dataset for each deliverable that will become the standard
          to which all subsequent LiDAR derived deliverables will be compared for
          acceptance/rejection relative to quality (2.4).

      2.7.2 Accuracy
       LiDAR data collected should be considered high density and meet the
          following standards:
              o 0.7 meter or better average point spacing.
              o Data collection within specified baseline.


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              o Field verification.
              o Scan frequency and angles based on project specifications.
              o Vertical Accuracy:
                       All vertical accuracies will meet or exceed FEMA specification
                          for each land cover category.
                       The contractor shall recommend the significant land cover
                          categories to be applied to the project as well as the associated
                          number of checkpoints.
                       Examples of FEMA categories include: bare earth and low
                          grass; high grass, weeds and crops; brush lands and low trees;
                          forested, fully covered by trees; urban areas; sawgrass; and
                          mangrove.
                       Examples of FEMA accuracy standards include: 18.5 cm
                          RMSE for all categories in “flat terrain” and 37-cm RMSE for
                          all categories in “rolling or hilly terrain.”
                       All proposals shall specify methodology consistent with
                          FEMA’s guidance to obtain required vertical accuracy in each
                          land cover category.
                       Categories and checkpoints will be utilized to determine the
                          distribution of error in the LiDAR data per specification in this
                          RFP.
              o Horizontal Accuracy: 0.5 meter RMSE
       All LiDAR and subsequent deliverables derived from LiDAR data shall have
      a vertical and horizontal accuracy that falls within a 95 percent confidence
      interval as outlined by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP) Guidelines
      for Digital Elevation Data.
       All LiDAR data shall have a vertical accuracy that falls within a 95 percent
      confidence interval as outlined by ASPRS Guidelines for Vertical Accuracy
      Reporting for LiDAR Data, assuming all systematic errors have been eliminated
      to the greatest extent possible.
       All proposals shall include a methodology for QA/QC testing, computing
      error and verifying that accuracy standards meet or exceed those as outlined
      within this RFP for each deliverable.
       All data and deliverables shall be QA/QC tested, by the contractor, for
      accuracy per methodology referenced within specifications and sources below,
      even when the source data of deliverables meets required accuracy standards. The
      accuracy of any derived product can be degraded by interpolation, generalization,
      or smoothing, and as such, must be tested individually.
       The City of Columbia GIS Division (or designee) will perform QA/QC
      measures on all data and deliverables to ensure compliance with standards
      outlined within this RFP.
       The most stringent standards must be met and applied to all deliverables in
      regards to specifications provided in this RFP and the sources below.
       Sources:



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                o National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP) Guidelines for Digital
                  Elevation Data, ver. 1 (2004)
                o American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Guidelines for
                  Vertical Accuracy Reporting for LiDAR Data, ver. 1 (2004)
                o Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners
                  Appendix A: Guidance for Aerial Mapping and Surveying, FEMA (April
                  2003)

           2.7.3 Airborne and Raw LiDAR Data
            The contractor will provide all ancillary data associated with the aircraft
               position during imagery and LiDAR acquisitions. Examples include: time, x,
               y, orthometric height, ellipsoid height, latitude, longitude, roll, pitch, heading,
               east velocity, north velocity, and upward velocity for each fraction of a second
               (e.g. 1/200th).
            The contractor will provide all metadata available for each LiDAR return.
               Examples include: class*, x, y, z, time, intensity, flight line number, echo
               number, etc.
            All proposals will indicate how the contractor will deal with LiDAR point
               data in overlapping flight lines.
            All proposals will indicate how the contractor will densify LiDAR point data
               where applicable.

           2.7.4 Compilation of Breaklines
           For purposes of hydro-reinforcement and better definition of the bare earth
           surface, breaklines will be derived and used in combination with the LiDAR data
           to create the required DTM. Breaklines will be compiled at significant terrain
           breaks as appropriate to produce DTM, TIN, DEM and Contour products that fall
           within the required accuracy and resolution specifications as outlined within this
           RFP. It is understood that density of points and the distribution and extent of
           breaklines is very dependent upon local terrain variations; however, it is requested
           that each proposal include a basic recommended methodology (minimum grid
           spacing and standard breakline features) upon which the breakline delineation will
           be determined.

           Breaklines should be compiled at:
               Building Footprints
               Retaining Walls
               Top of Riverbanks
               Cliffs
               Main Ridge Lines
               Bridges
               Streams/Banks/Ponds/Lakes
               Small Topographic Changes

*
    All proposals shall include methodology for defining class.


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           Edge of Pavement
           Others as Necessary for Specifications

       2.7.5 DTM
       A DTM will be generated by combining the processed bare-earth LiDAR and the
       breaklines compiled from the 3D stereo imagery.

       2.7.6 TIN
       A triangulated irregular network will be generated directly from the DTM.

       2.7.7 DEM Datasets
       Two separate DEM datasets will be generated directly from the TIN. The first
       DEM dataset will be generated with a point grid spacing of 3-feet and a second
       DEM will be generated with a point grid spacing of 15-feet.

       2.7.8 Contours
       Contours at two-foot intervals will be generated directly from the TIN. Contours
       must be delivered with an elevation field and index contour identifier as attributes
       (two foot index).

       2.7.9 Building Footprint Development
        All buildings with a size greater than 100 square feet will be compiled and
           delivered in a building footprint layer.
        New stereo imagery will be utilized to create building footprints.
        The contractor shall include in the proposal methodology for attributing
           building types and the appropriate accuracy standards to be applied.


3.0 DELIVERABLES
The Method of Delivery shall be applied to each Material unless otherwise specified.

3.1 Color Orthoimagery (0.5 foot)

       3.1.1 Materials
        Leaf-off, true color, 24-bit, orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (before
           specified adjustments).
        Leaf-off, true color, 24-bit, orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (after specified
           adjustments).

       3.1.2 Method of Delivery
        TIFF format (.tif) with accompanying world file (.tfw) using the designated
           tiling scheme (Attachment A, B, C).
        Mr. SID format with seamless coverage of entire project area.
        JPEG 2000 format with seamless coverage of entire project area.



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3.2 CIR Orthoimagery (0.5 foot)

           3.2.1 Materials
            Leaf-on, color infrared, 24-bit, orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (before
               specified adjustments).
            Leaf-on, color infrared, 24-bit, orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (after
               specified adjustments).
            Leaf-off, color infrared, 24-bit orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (before
               specified adjustments).
            Leaf-off, color infrared, 24-bit orthoimagery at 0.5-foot resolution (after
               specified adjustments).

           3.2.2 Method of Delivery
            TIFF format (.tif) with accompanying world file (.tfw) using the designated
               tiling scheme (Attachment A, B, C).
            Mr. SID format with seamless coverage of entire project area.
            JPEG 2000 format with seamless coverage of entire project area.

3.3 Processed LiDAR & LAS*/ASCII Format Deliverables

           3.3.1 Materials
            All LiDAR Returns
               o Full attribution to include: class, x, y, z, time, intensity, flight line number,
                  echo number, etc.
               o Classified, intensity, and all returns.

           3.3.2 Method of Delivery
            Processed LiDAR will be in LAS format using the designated tiling scheme
               (Attachment A).
            Processed LiDAR will be in ASCII format using the designated tiling scheme
               (Attachment A).

3.4 Breakline Compilation

           3.4.1 Materials
           Establish breaklines at the following locations:
            Building Footprints
            Retaining Walls

*
  The LAS file format is a public file format for the interchange of LiDAR data between vendors and customers. This binary file
format is an alternative to proprietary systems or a generic ASCII file interchange system used by many companies. The problem with
proprietary systems is obvious in that data cannot be easily taken from one system to another. There are two major problems with the
ASCII file interchange. The first problem is performance because the reading and interpretation of ASCII elevation data can be very
slow and the file size can be extremely large, even for small amounts of data. The second problem is that all information specific to
the LiDAR data is lost. The LAS file format is a binary file format that maintains information specific to the LiDAR nature of the data
while not being overly complex.



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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


           Top of Riverbanks
           Cliffs
           Main Ridge Lines
           Bridges
           Streams/Banks/Ponds/Lakes
           Small Topographic Changes
           Edge of Pavement
           Others as Necessary for Specifications

      3.4.2 Method of Delivery
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project
          area.

3.5 DTM

      3.5.1 Materials
       Bare-Earth DTM Classified
       Reflective Surface (First Returns) DTM Classified

      3.5.2 Method of Delivery
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format per tiling scheme.
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project
          area.

3.6 TIN

      3.6.1 Materials
       TIN created directly from the DTM.

      3.6.2 Method of Delivery
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format per tiling scheme.
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project
          area.

3.7 DEM

      3.7.1 Materials
       Bare-earth DEM, hydro-reinforced and generated from TIN, with grid spacing
          of 3-feet.
       Bare-earth DEM, hydro-reinforced and Generated from TIN, with grid
          spacing of 15-feet.

      3.7.2 Method of Delivery
       ESRI ArcGIS compatible format per tiling scheme.


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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


           ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project area
            for 15-feet DEM only.

3.8 Contours (2-foot)

       3.8.1 Materials
        Contours (2-foot interval).

       3.8.2 Method of Delivery
        ESRI ArcGIS compatible format per tiling scheme.
        ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project
           area.

3.9 Building Footprints

       3.9.1 Materials
        Boundaries of all buildings (polygon) greater than 100 square feet and
           appropriate attributes.

       3.9.2 Method of Delivery
        ESRI ArcGIS compatible format with seamless coverage of entire project
           area.

3.10 Metadata
    Metadata will be FGDC-compliant for all deliverables.
    Metadata will be attached to all individual tiles as well as seamless coverages.
    Source: National Spatial Data Infrastructure Content Standards for Digital
      Orthoimagery, FGDC-STD-008-1999

3.11 Project Reports
This task requires the preparation of several reports due at different stages of the project
cycle. These reports will be submitted in both digital and hardcopy format.

The Ground Control Report will be generated per section (2.2).

The Triangulation Report shall be generated for orthoimagery.

The Orthoimage & LiDAR Final Report will document all mission parameters, mission
dates, times, flight altitude, airspeed, flight lines, proposed and flown directions, scan
angle, scan rate, laser pulse rates, weather conditions, quality factors and PDOP. This
report shall:
     Provide ESRI ArcGIS compatible format layers of proposed flight lines, to
        include flight line numbers and attributes as well as actual flight lines.
     Provide ESRI ArcGIS compatible format layers of "as flown" flight lines
        including re-flight lines.


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       City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


       Flight direction or heading.
       Start and end time of flight lines including dates flown.
       GPS quality (i.e. PDOP, quality factors, number of satellites etc.) in either
        graphical or tabular format.
       IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) quality factors in either graphical or tabular
        format.
       Weather and atmospheric conditions.
       Ancillary information of any adjustments to the computed trajectory or LiDAR
        point data whether modeled or a systematic mathematical process (i.e. least
        squares adjustment, Airborne GPS bias, etc.).
       Detailed information pertaining to how the geoid was applied to the data (i.e.
        every point, area, aircraft trajectory, etc.).
       Provide evidence that the total LiDAR system was routinely calibrated for the
        purpose of identifying and correcting systematic errors without delay.
       Explain how horizontal and vertical calibration was checked during the duration
        of the data acquisition phase by using the test course and cross-flights.
       Explain procedures used for any processing and generation of breaklines, DTMs,
        TINs, DEMs, Contours, Building Footprints, etc.
       Identify difficulties encountered and steps taken to resolve discrepancies in
        collection and processing of orthoimagery, LiDAR data and final deliverables
        derived from LiDAR data.
       All other relevant information pertaining to quality of data.
       Other data.

4.0 PROJECT SCHEDULE

For all the above-mentioned Project Procedures and Requirements, Deliverables, and
Schedule, e-mailed reports will be issued to the City of Columbia GIS Division.

Vendors will provide a schedule with interim milestones and delivery dates as a part of
its technical proposal. All data collections will be completed in one flying season. It is
the intent of the City of Columbia to receive all final deliverables no later than January
2009. In the event the vendor cannot meet the above-mentioned deadline, for every
calendar date the vendor is late with the delivery of data, a penalty will be assessed of at
least $250 per day with liquidated damages. The City of Columbia GIS Division will
retain the right to waive above-mentioned penalty. An approximate payment plan must
be provided and include a provision for 20% of total project costs being reserved until
acceptance of final deliverables by the City of Columbia GIS Division. If the flight does
not meet all quality expectations, all data collected will be provided as an interim solution
and a re-flight will be conducted in the following flying season (2008-2009).

Licensed workers shall perform all work in the United States. Sub-contracting will not
be authorized.



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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


5.0 OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS

All materials produced as a result of this project including, but not limited to, digital
datasets, aero triangulation data, terrain and elevation models, and control points shall
become the property of the City of Columbia. The City may request that the contractor
store these materials at the contractor's facility at no charge; however, any and all
materials shall be returned to the City upon written request.

6.0 RFP SUBMITTAL INFORMATION
Submitted RFPs shall comply with the following specifications.

6.1 General

       6.1.1 Introduction
       Respondent shall provide a brief letter of introduction on company letterhead
       along with a current annual financial statement.

       6.1.2 Experience
       Respondent shall provide a profile of experiences with similar projects.
       Respondent shall list all personnel that would be assigned to this proposal, their
       title, qualifications and years of experience.

       6.1.3 References
       Respondent shall provide three (3) references of similar work in addition to
       examples (2.4).

       6.1.4 Proposed Fees and Costs
       Respondent shall provide a list of fees for members that would be involved with
       this project, including support personnel, and flat fee schedules. See Attachment
       D for structured format. Respondents shall submit a digital Attachment D.

       6.1.5 Response to Scope
       Respondent shall provide a chronological response to all specifications outlined in
       this RFP (and as required) starting at section 2.2 and continuing through 5.0.

       6.1.6 Copies
       Submit one (1) original and (8) copies to:
       City of Columbia, Purchasing Department, 1136 Washington Street,
       Columbia, S.C., 29201 and clearly mark on the outside of the sealed
       envelope/box: RFP for City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-
       2008. Proposals may be delivered by U.S. Mail, in person, or by overnight
       delivery. Fax and e-mail submittals will not be accepted. All proposals will be
       held and not opened until after the deadline.



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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


       6.1.7 Deadline for Submittals
       All proposals must be received no later than 3:00pm on November 30, 2007. All
       late proposals will be rejected. The City is not responsible for late proposals
       caused by mail or any other method of delivery.

6.2 Evaluation Criteria
The following shall be used in determining the ranking of respondents, and are listed in
order of relative importance as follows:
     Expected quality of the final product (40%)
     Schedule (20%)
     Qualifications of the Respondent (20%)
     Cost to the City (20%)

6.3 Selection Process
The City of Columbia shall conduct a formal selection process to determine the best-
qualified respondent, which meets the City’s needs. A selection committee shall be
formed and each member of the selection committee shall rate each respondent on the
Evaluation Criteria as specified in Section 6.2. The selection committee will select the
best-qualified respondent to be invited for interviews. The highest rated respondent will
enter into contract negotiations with the City of Columbia.

When services and fees are agreed upon, should the fee exceed $10,000.00, the selected
respondent will be recommended to the City Council for approval. If negotiations are not
successful, the City will enter into negotiations with the next rated respondent or
respondents until an agreement for services and fees acceptable to the City and
respondent are reached.

This RFP does not commit the City of Columbia to pay for direct or indirect costs
incurred in the preparation and/or presentation of a response. All finalists will pay their
own costs incurred in preparing for, traveling to and attending interviews. The City of
Columbia reserves the right to accept or reject this proposal in part or in its entirety.

6.4 RFP Procedural Instructions

       6.4.1 Procurement Process
       The RFP is not a bid. The City is not obligated to enter into a contract on the
       basis of any proposal submitted in response to this request. The City reserves the
       right, in its sole discretion to reject all submissions, reissue a subsequent RFP,
       terminate, restructure or amend this procurement process at anytime. The City
       may contact any or all respondents after the receiving deadline for proposals in
       order to seek clarification or to schedule presentations by the respondent. The
       final selection and contract negotiation rests solely with the City. No contact
       with the Mayor of the City of Columbia or City of Columbia Council
       Members will be allowed. If such contact is made, the City reserves the right
       to reject the proposal.


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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


      6.4.2 Questions
      Questions are allowed and encouraged to clear up any misconceptions or to offer
      any proposed changes. All questions shall be submitted in writing and addressed
      to the City of Columbia, Purchasing Department, 1136 Washington Street, 4th
      Floor, Columbia, S.C., 29201 – RE: RFP for City of Columbia Orthoimagery-
      LiDAR Collection 2007-2008 or by e-mail at gcnettles@columbiasc.net. Any
      and all questions shall be submitted no later than 3:00pm on November 16, 2007.
      The City will not accept telephone calls or visits regarding this RFP. No
      interpretation shall be binding unless in writing from the City of Columbia.

      6.4.3 Pre-Submittal Meeting
      The City, at its discretion, may hold a pre-submittal meeting at a site and time to
      be determined.

      6.4.4 Discussions for Clarification/Presentation
      Respondents may be required to make an oral or written clarification of their
      proposal to the City of Columbia to ensure thorough mutual understanding and
      respondent’s responsiveness to the solicitation requirements. The City of
      Columbia will initiate requests for clarification.

      6.4.5 Rejection of Proposals
      Any proposals that do not conform to the essential requirements of the RFP shall
      be rejected. The City reserves the right to waive informalities and minor
      irregularities in submittals and reserves the sole right to determine what
      constitutes informalities and minor irregularities.

      6.4.6 Confidentiality
      All information, materials, or other documents submitted by a respondent shall
      not be released or made other wise available to any person or entity except City
      representatives assisting in this RFP process. Unless required by law, proprietary
      or financial information, which is clearly marked “Proprietary Information”, will
      not be disclosed by the City. Likewise, all information, materials or other
      documents submitted by the City to any respondent shall be confidential and shall
      not be released or made otherwise available to any person or entity except
      respondent’s representatives. Prior to the Public Opening of proposals,
      respondents and persons acting on respondent’s behalf, shall not discuss any
      information about this proposal, or anything pertaining to the proposal process to
      anyone.

      6.4.7 Duty to Inspect, Declare and Advise all Costs
      Each respondent shall become fully acquainted with the City’s requirements and
      the scope of the work/services to be provided. Respondents shall have a duty to
      request any information from the City, as it deems necessary to prepare the RFP.
      No change order(s) will be granted or additional compensation permitted if based
      upon information the respondent knew or should have known as part of the



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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


      respondent’s duty to become acquainted with the City’s circumstances and
      requirements.

6.5 Terms and Conditions

      6.5.1 Commencement of Services
      Commencement of services of the successful respondent shall begin on the date to
      be specified in the contract.

      6.5.2 Term of Contract
      The contract shall be for a term of two years, unless extended or terminated early
      as provided for in the contract.

      6.5.3 Non-Discrimination
      Respondent will take affirmative action in complying with all Federal, State, and
      local requirements concerning fair employment and employment of the
      handicapped, and concerning the treatment of all employees, without regard or
      discrimination by reason of race, color, religion, sex, national origin or physical
      handicap.

      6.5.4 Indemnification
      Respondent shall agree to indemnify, defend, hold harmless and reimburse the
      City, its agents and employees from and against any and all losses. Liabilities,
      expenses, and all claims for damage of any nature whatsoever relating to or
      arising out of any action or failure to act by respondent, its subcontractors, officer,
      agents, and employees of any of the obligations under the contract. Losses,
      liabilities, expenses and claims for damages shall include, but not be limited to
      civil and criminal fines and penalties, loss of use and/or services, bodily injury,
      death, personal injury, or injure to real or personal property, defense costs, legal
      fees and costs and attorney’s fees for any appeal.

      Respondent will agree to promptly notify the City of any civil/criminal actions
      filed against respondent or of any notice of violation from any Federal or State
      Agency, or of any claim as soon as practical as relates to the services provided.
      The City, upon receipt of such notice shall have the right, at its election, to defend
      any and all actions or suits or join in defense.

      6.5.5 Licenses, Permits and Taxes
      All costs for required permits, licenses and taxes shall be borne by the respondent.

      6.5.6 Termination
      The City can terminate this agreement at any time upon any of the following
      grounds:
       Failure by the City to appropriate funds in its budget to pay the respondent for
          the requested services.



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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


           The respondent fails to perform any of the services required in the agreement
           For the convenience of the City, in the City’s discretion for any reason
            whatsoever. In the event that the contract is wrongfully terminated under any
            of the other grounds enumerated herein, termination shall be treated as a
            termination for convenience. If the contract is terminated for convenience, or
            wrongfully terminated upon any of the other grounds enumerated herein, the
            respondent’s sole and exclusive remedy is to be compensated for services
            rendered up to the date of termination calculated on a per diem basis using a
            365-day calendar year.
           Force Majeure.
           Upon expiration of the two year term of the contract, unless extended in
            accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract.

      6.5.7 Whole Agreement
      The contract shall contain the entire agreement between the City and respondent.
      In order to be binding, any modification thereof shall be in writing and signed by
      the City and respondent.

      6.5.8 Applicable State Law
      The contract shall be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of South
      Carolina. Respondent agrees to subject itself to the jurisdiction and venue of the
      Circuit Courts in Richland County, State of South Carolina as to all matters and
      disputes arising or to arise under the contract and the performance thereof. The
      City may seek attorney’s fees and respondent agrees to pay such fees as awarded
      by the Court or other body. No attorney’s fees may be sought by, nor will be paid
      to the respondent.

      6.5.9 Breach/Waiver
      The failure of either respondent or the City to insist upon the strict performance of
      any provision of the contract shall not be deemed to be a waiver of the right to
      insist upon strict performance of any provision of the contract or of any other
      provision of the contract at any time. Waiver of any breach of the contract by
      respondent or City shall not constitute waiver of a subsequent breach.

      6.5.10 Severability
      In the event any provision of the contract is determined to be void or
      unenforceable, all provisions shall remain in full force and effect.

      6.5.11 Successorship
      The contract shall be binding upon respondent and upon its successors and
      assignees. The contract shall be binding upon the City in accordance with its
      terms and provisions.




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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


      6.5.12 Interpretation
      In the event there are any disagreements between the City and any respondent
      with regard to the requirements or specifications of the RFP, the contract or
      otherwise, respondent agrees to defer to the reasonable interpretations of the City.
      Ambiguities in this RFP, the contract, or otherwise shall not be construed against
      the City.

                            7.0 ATTACHMENTS




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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


Attachment A
Please see Attachment A (separate digital file.)




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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


Attachment B

City of Columbia Ortho-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008
Header Record Format

The digital image shall be archived on a suitable storage media with
informational records appended to the TFW file. The informational records shall
be written in ASCII nomenclature and shall be recorded as records one through
four. Each ITEM of information shall occupy a separate line(s). The four
informational records shall contain descriptive information about the image data
as follows:

RECORD ONE:
     ITEM                              ABBREVIATION                 EXAMPLE

A. County Name & State                  LOCATION =                  KERSHAW
B. Name of firm producing the data      PROD BY =                   Amblypia
C. Coordinate system                    COORD SYS =                 S.C.STATE
D. Datum                                DATUM =                     NADXX
E. Unit of measure                      UNITS =                International Foot
Ground coordinates (Easting/Northing) of the digital image:
   1. SW corner                  LLCOORD =             E2,360,000 N420,000
   2. NW corner                  ULCOORD =             E2,360,000 N430,000
   3. NE corner                  URCOORD =             E2,370,000 N430,000
   4. SE corner                  LRCOORD =             E2,370,000 N420,000
F. Coordinate based map-sub map number (determined from coordinate value
   of the SW corner of the 1"=200' map)
                                        COORD MAP# =                3462-06
H. Sequential map-sub map number (to be provided to contractor by the City, if
applicable)                             SEQU MAP#=                  187-06

RECORD TWO:
     ITEM                            ABBREVIATION                   EXAMPLE

A. Date of aerial imagery                IMGDATE =                03/06/08
B. Aerial camera type                    CAMERA =                 ADS 40
C. Aerial Camera AWAR                    AWAR =                   101
D. Aerial Camera focal length (mm)       FL =                     152.66
E. Negative scale of aerial imagery (RF)
                                         NEG SCALE =              1:12,000
F. Film manufacturer & type              FILM =                   NA
G. Identification of source photo from which the digital image was derived (roll-
   flight line-exposure number)          ROLL/FL/EXP# =           02-12-46




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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


RECORD THREE:
     ITEM                               ABBREVIATION                         EXAMPLE

A. Final output pixel resolution       PXL RES =               0.5 foot
B. Horizontal accuracy (i.e. meets National Standards of Map Accuracy at this
HZ scale)                              HZ ACCURACY =           1:2,400
C. Source and Vertical accuracy of DEM
                                                               1
                                       DEM =



RECORD FOUR:
    ITEM                                  ABBREVIATION                       EXAMPLE

A. Identification of areas missing image data ( this will be identified by providing
the coordinates which bound the perimeter of the missing area;or by “none” if no
missing areas exist)                     NO IMAGE =                     NONE
B. Identification of suspect and void areas in elevation data used to make the
   ortho (same as above)                 NO ELEVATION =                 NONE




1
 This portion of the Header is intended as a precautionary statement to the user
concerning the potential for misinterpreting the reliability of the elevation model. The
contractor shall provide a concise statement for insertion at this point in the header record
#3, which will be pre-approved by the County. For example- “The DEM for this project
was developed using an analytical stereo plotter and is intended to support orthoimagery
production only – it is not suitable for creation of accurate contour mapping.”


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    City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


Attachment C

City of Columbia Ortho-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008
File Naming Convention

The 10,000’ x 10,000’ (1" = 400') digital orthos shall be named using the most
significant digits of the southwest corner coordinates arranged in XyXy order.
The millions digit of the X value is not used. For example:

X = 1234567
y = 890123

XyXy = 2839

Ortho Name = 2839.tif and 2839.tfw

The 5,000’ x 5,000’ (1" = 200') digital orthos shall be named the same as the
10,000’ x 10,000’ (1" = 400') ortho which is falls within followed by a dash and a
suffix indicating it’s location within the 10,000’ x 10,000’ image. For example:

5,000’ x 5,000’ name for southwest image = 2839-03.tif and 2839-03.tfw


                          5,000’ x 5,000’ Grid File Suffix




                            01             02




                            03             04




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     City of Columbia Orthoimagery-LiDAR Collection 2007-2008


Attachment D
Please see Attachment D (separate digital file.)




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