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12 hive Location of all virtual server sup-        announcements A type of list that lets you
   porting files, located at C:\Program              share news, project status, and other
   Files\Common Files\Microsoft                      short bits of information.
   Shared\Web server extensions\12\. The           API Acronym for application programming
   12 hive exists on each server in the farm,        interface. An API is the interface that a
   regardless of what role(s) the server is          computer system, library, or application
   assigned.                                         provides to allow requests for services to
Active Directory An LDAP-compliant direc-            be made of it by other computer pro-
   tory service that manages user accounts           grams, to allow data to be exchanged
   and resources within a Windows domain.            between them, or both.
   Office SharePoint Server 2007 connects to       AppDomain Object A new .NET Frame-
   Active Directory to import user profiles to       work 2.0 programming construct. Think
   its user profile database and uses Active         of it as a box designed to hold many of an
   Directory user accounts to secure                 application’s functional properties while
   resources in the SharePoint farm.                 the application is running. For instance,
Active Directory Schema     Attributes that          security settings affecting the entire appli-
   are used to describe different object types       cation are accessible programmatically
   in Active Directory.                              through the AppDomain Object.
Address Book A directory lookup tool for           application definition file (ADF) An XML
   finding users, groups, and distribution           file used to define the business data (meta-
   lists in Active Directory.                        data) that you want to expose on an Office
                                                     SharePoint Server 2007 Web application.
Administrative Tasks    In Central Adminis-          It's also known as a metadata package.
   tration, a method to assign a job to an
   Administrator and, if required, define a        application domain The fundamental
   time frame for starting and finishing the         scope for execution of code and owner-
   task. Tasks can be weighted for impor-            ship of resources in .NET.
   tance within the task list.                     Application Management page The
ADO.NET Provides a set of providers to               page in Central Administration for
   access data sources.                              managing Web applications and associ-
                                                     ated configurations.
alerts  (1) Counters configured in the Per-
   formance tool so that when a certain            Application Pool Runs in Internet Informa-
   threshold is reached, a message is sent to        tion Services and has its own server
   any number of users in multiple possible          resources, such as memory, allocated to it.
   formats. (2) Messages sent by Microsoft           The Application Pool is used to isolate
   Operations Manager 2005 to operators or           SharePoint sites that run on it from other
   administrators in response to events or           Application Pools by running them inside
   issues. (3) In SharePoint, the rules that are     their own memory space and giving them
   created by the user to inform the system          their own security context in which to run.
   when a notification should be generated,        archived document A document that is no
   such as a rule that would send a notifica-        longer classified as a record but is
   tion when new or modified content                 retained in a long-term storage location
   becomes available.                                for historical purposes.
                                                                                                     1
2   Glossary



    area Part of SharePoint Portal Server 2003        blog A Web space for users to journal their
       that is based on Microsoft-provided cus-          interests or areas of expertise.
       tom site definitions. It is used to organize   Business Data Catalog A SharePoint Server
       and classify content.                             2007 feature that provides connectivity to
    ASP.NET    A set of Web development tech-            backend business systems for configuring
       nologies that can be used to build Web            search and data presentation through the
       applications and XML Web services.                SharePoint interface.
    assembly     A partially compiled code library    CAB files    Also known as cabinet files. CAB
       for use in deployment, versioning, and            files contain several files compressed into
       security.                                         one file and are used to bundle installation
    associations The means to connect a Web              files that get deployed to users’ systems.
       application to a specific Shared Services      CAML Collaborative Application Markup
       Provider (SSP). A Web application can be          Language. An XML-based programming
       associated with only one SSP.                     language that is used to build and custom-
    asynchronous In SharePoint, an asynchro-             ize SharePoint sites.
       nous event occurs after the event, for         card sorting Used in designing Web site
       example, sending off an e-mail after a file       navigation, or categorization. Helps to
       has been uploaded to a document library.          better determine how users find things.
    audience compilation     The point at which       CAS See code access security.
       audiences are rebuilt. Can be scheduled
       or manually started.                           cascading style sheets  A style-sheet
                                                         language used to describe the presenta-
    audience rules    Determines the member-             tion of a document written in a markup
       ship of the audience, such as Audience A          language.
       being equal to all users who are members
       of the Active Directory IT group.              catastrophic backup Using stsadm.exe
                                                         with the -o <backup | restore> -directory
    Audiences A method of crafting the view of           option.
       a page or list of items. Audiences can be
       used to determine the visibility of content    Central Administration Administrative site
       in lists or Web Parts on a Web Part page in       for farm configuration and management
       a SharePoint site.                                including servers, Web applications,
                                                         application roles, and Shared Service
    auditing    A policy feature that logs events
                                                         Providers.
       and operations performed on documents
       and list items.                                change control The policies and methods
                                                         employed to control when and how
    authentication provider The method used
                                                         change occurs on a network or server.
       to validate an access request to the Web
       application, such as Kerberos or NTLM.         chrome A term that refers to the Web Part
                                                         frame elements.
    barcode    A unique 10-digit identifier gener-
       ated by SharePoint Server 2007 that is ren-    code access security The Microsoft solu-
       dered as an image.                                tion for preventing untrusted code from
    baselining   Determining the normal operat-          performing privileged actions.
       ing condition of a system during peak and      code group Associates a piece of evidence
       off-peak times.                                   with a named permission set.
                                                                                      Glossary    3



code-identity—based security    Allows secu-    Content Editor A free-form editor for text,
  rity settings based on code identity.           tables, images, hyperlinks, and custom-
Colleague Tracker Web Part    Displays your       formatted text.
  list of colleagues and recent changes to      content item   An individual piece of con-
  their profiles or memberships.                  tent, such as a document or Web page,
colleagues   Part of social networking within     that can be referred to as a single entity.
  My Sites. Users can add colleagues, or        content recovery Recovery of occasionally
  other users, throughout the organization        deleted or corrupted list items, such as
  to their My Sites, then track those col-        documents.
  leagues as a means of keeping in touch.       Content Repository A SQL Server database
  Users can also surface specific informa-        that contains all Content Management
  tion to colleagues added to their My Sites.     Server objects such as content, site struc-
COM Code—Based Solutions       Common             ture, and topology; resources, such as
  Object Model (COM). A standard                  images and documents; and security
  designed to allow many different pro-           objects, such as users and groups.
  grams to access and work with each other      content source The rules used to make
  by adhering to a specific compiled coding       basic configurations on how the crawler
  standard. The COM technology was the            should crawl a content source. Also used
  most prevalent standard preceding the           to refer to the target server hosting the
  .NET platform used in Microsoft Win-            content that needs to be indexed.
  dows programming for allowing pro-
  grams to interoperate with each other. All    content store The index files that hold the
  newer Microsoft programs are heavily, if        content of the index. These files are prop-
  not completely, weighted toward the             agated to the query server(s) from the
  newer .NET technologies.                        index server(s) using the Continuous
                                                  Propagation methods. Only the copy of
common language runtime (CLR)    An exe-          the index on the index server(s) can be
  cution environment for program code.            updated by a crawl action. Updated
Contact Details Displays information              indexes on the index server are copied to
  about the contact person for a page or          the query server(s). The query servers
  site.                                           never copy the index back to the index
Contacts  An object in Active Directory that      server. There is only one index per Shared
  has an external or internal e-mail address.     Services Provider.
  Used by SharePoint for a mail-enabled         content type A content item plus a speci-
  document library or list. Contacts cannot       fied set of metadata that is used to
  be used for authentication, whereas user        describe the content item.
  accounts can be used for authentication.      content-based evidence Evidence based
Content database    The Microsoft SQL             on the content of an assembly, such as the
  Server, Microsoft Desktop Engine                publisher identity.
  (MSDE), or Microsoft SQL Server 2000          counter An item exposed to the user by
  Desktop Engine (Windows) (WMSDE)                Windows that shows specific data con-
  database that contains the content for one      cerning software or hardware.
  or more SharePoint site collections.
                                                counter logs  Log files in either text, binary,
                                                  or database form collected by the Perfor-
                                                  mance tool to be examined at a later time.
4   Glossary



    crawl   The act of reading and copying a doc-        XML data retrieved from a data source. In
       ument’s content and metadata for the              Windows SharePoint Services 2.0, this
       purposes of placing the content in the            was known as the Data View Web Part.
       content store and the metadata in the
                                                      Data View Web Part Created using
       property store so that users can query the
                                                         FrontPage 2003 with the ability to provide
       index and find the documents by execut-           an XSLT transformation on XML data
       ing a query.
                                                         retrieved from a data source such as a
    crawl rules Additional rules used to imple-          SharePoint list, an SQL Server database,
       ment additional configurations on how             or a Web service. In Windows SharePoint
       the crawler should crawl a content source.        Services 3.0, the Data View Web Part is
    crawler   The code within mssearch.exe that          succeeded by the Data Form Web Part.
       goes out and extracts content from a con-      data migration upgrade An upgrade pro-
       tent source. In previous versions of Search,      cess that allows you to move content from
       this was called the Gatherer Service.             a Windows SharePoint Services 2.0 or
    crawler impact rules   Global rules used to          SharePoint Portal Server 2003 Web to a
       implement additional configurations at            new farm or new hardware, running
       the farm level on how the crawler should          either Windows SharePoint Services 3.0
       crawl a content source.                           or SharePoint Server 2007.
    custom business logic InfoPath forms may          DDF Diamond Directive File. Contains
       contain programming code that works               information to compress files into a CAB
       with the various controls present on a            (cabinet) file.
       form. For example, purchase orders and         default content access account The farm-
       invoices are common in business. As the           level account used to specify the security
       different line items are added to the form,       context in which the crawler will crawl a
       custom code on the form may automati-             content source. Individual content access
       cally total these items. Many other busi-         accounts for specific content sources can
       ness rules can be addressed using custom          be specified using a crawl rule.
       business logic in these forms.
                                                      digital signature      A cryptographically
    customized Web Part page       A Web Part            strong method of identifying an individual
       page previously known as unghosted Web            or organization by attaching additional
       Part Pages in Windows SharePoint Services         encrypted identification information to a
       2.0, where you used FrontPage 2003. There         file. In its strictest sense, it tells you only
       were significant performance implications         who signed a file but not whether the file
       in using them. These implications have            has been tampered with. An extended use
       mostly been removed in Windows Share-             of a digital signature is to add information
       Point Services 3.0 with the native use of         to the file that will allow you to detect
       ASP.NET 2.0, Master pages, and features.          actual tampering. This extended meaning
       Web Part pages are customized by using            is the sense in which InfoPath uses and
       SharePoint Designer or FrontPage 2003.            implements digital signatures.
    data connection library  A library for stor-      Directory Management Service The ser-
       ing, sharing, and managing data connec-           vice responsible for communicating from
       tion files.                                       SharePoint to a Directory, such as the
    Data Form Web Part (DFWP)      A Web Part            Active Directory. This service is most
       that provides an XSLT transformation on           commonly used to create a mail-enabled
                                                                                           Glossary   5



   contact object in Active Directory from an        entity instance A specific instance of an
   e-mail enabled library or list in SharePoint.        entity, such as a customer, employee, or
discussion board A list that allows users to            order. In database terms, you could liken
   conduct newsgroup-style discussions.                 this to a row in a table.
disk cache    The local cache on a SharePoint        European Computer Manufacturers
   Web front-end server where static content         Association ECMA International, formerly
   is persisted from the database, thus                 known as the European Computer Manu-
   reducing database calls and improving                facturers Association. ECMA is an interna-
   performance.                                         tional membership-based standards
                                                        organization for information and commu-
distribution group     A group of users who             nication systems.
   have been grouped into a common mail-
   enabled list. When an e-mail gets sent to a       event handler A program that executes in
   distribution list, all members receive the           response to an event or action. For exam-
   mail. It is not used for configuring secu-           ple, when a user clicks Delete, an event
   rity rights.                                         handler will respond and stop the file
                                                        from being deleted.
document converter        An assembly that pro-
   cesses an uploaded document and creates           Excel Calculation Service Proxy A feature
   or updates a new or existing HTML page,              responsible for coordinating requests for
   storing it in a specified site’s Pages library.      calculations from the Excel Web Access
                                                        and Excel Web Services components to the
document library        A Web Part where a col-
                                                        Excel Calculation Services component.
   lection of files is stored and where the files
   frequently use the same template.                 Excel Calculation Services   The data-pro-
                                                        cessing engine responsible for loading
Domain Account       An account that exists in
                                                        workbooks from Trusted File Locations,
   the Active Directory that can be used to
                                                        executing the calculations in the work-
   allocate permissions in SharePoint and as
                                                        sheet cells, and refreshing references to
   a SharePoint service account for connec-
                                                        external data sources.
   tivity across the domain to other servers,
   such as the SQL database server.                  Excel Services A SharePoint Server 2007
Dynamic Link Library (DLL) Shared pro-                  feature that provides server-side process-
   gram library. For example, when you cre-             ing of Excel 2007 workbooks, including
   ate a solution for SharePoint in Visual              spreadsheet calculation, rendering as
   Studio.NET 2005, which includes several              HTML in a Web browser, and Web ser-
   class or program files, and then build that          vices interfaces for integration with other
   solution, Visual Studio will generate a file-        applications.
   name with the extension .dll.                     Excel Web Access The feature set that
element    Relates to Features in SharePoint.           allows Excel 2007 workbooks to be ren-
   Includes the attributes that define the              dered as HTML in a Web browser.
   actions of a Feature, such as defining cus-       Excel Web Services The component of
   tom links on menus within SharePoint                 Excel Services that supports program-
   sites.                                               matic access to Excel 2007 workbooks
entity  A real-life object, such as customers,          stored on the server.
   employees, or orders. In database terms,          expiration A policy feature that specifies
   you could liken this to a table.                     how long a document is retained in a
                                                        Records Repository and what happens to
                                                        it at the end of its life cycle.
6   Glossary



    Expression Web Designer    A tool for design-      Forms Server Part of the Microsoft Share-
       ing dynamic, standard-based Web sites.            Point Office Servers 2007 collection that
    farm   More than one SharePoint Server shar-         is designed to allow InfoPath forms to be
       ing a common configuration database.              filled in using a browser such as Microsoft
                                                         Internet Explorer, Foxfire, or Appel’s
    farm topology    Defines a role that a Server        Safari Web browsers. The Forms Server is
       provides in the SharePoint farm such as           one of the “Enterprise Features” of
       the Search Server, Mail Server, or Excel          Microsoft SharePoint Office Servers 2007.
       Calculation Server. The topology can be
       extended and changed at any time.               Geo-deployed In Web publishing, a design
                                                         that places content in various languages
    Feature Allows you to activate/deactivate            on servers deployed around the world so
       functionality in a site, site collection, Web     that the content in a particular language is
       application or farm.                              physically located close to the largest user
    Feature scope The scope where the Feature            base for that language.
       will be made available, as in Farm, Web
                                                       ghosted The same as uncustomized, but
       Application, Site, or Web.
                                                         referred to as ghosted in SharePoint Portal
    field control    An ASP.NET 2.0 control used         Server 2003 and Windows SharePoint
       in page layouts to display data in two            Services 2.0. See also unghosted.
       modes in a SharePoint Server 2007 Pub-
                                                       ghosted Web Part page See Uncus-
       lishing site: one at rendering time and one
                                                         tomized Web Part pages.
       at edit time. Content authors use field
       controls to enter and manage content on a       Global Assembly Cache (GAC) Central
       page.                                             repository for .NET assemblies.
    file plan  A written document or set of docu-      global content type Those content types
       ments that list all of the types of informa-      created at the root site of a site collection.
       tion an organization receives or produces
                                                       Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) A
       and describes how it should be classified
                                                         unique 128-bit number generated by Win-
       and handled.
                                                         dows to identify a component, such as a
    Filter Web Parts Used to connect data                file, or an application. In the context of a
       sources with each other. They are config-         Feature, Windows generates a GUID to
       ured to display a dynamic filtered set of         uniquely identify each Feature deployed
       data.                                             to a SharePoint server.
    Finder method A method that returns one            gradual upgrade A process that installs
       or more instances of an entity.                   Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 side by
    Fixed Format Rendition     When InfoPath             side with Windows SharePoint Services
       Forms utilizing the Microsoft Forms               2.0 on the same hardware. With a gradual
       Server are saved, archived, and then re-          upgrade, you can upgrade a site collection
       displayed using a fixed, non-dynamic file         or a group of site collections one at a time.
       format, such as .jpg or .bmp format.            hash code A short string of random-look-
    form conversion    A policy feature that gen-        ing letters and numbers.
       erates an image of a completed form for         hold order A policy lock on a type of docu-
       permanent archiving.                              ment in a Records Repository that pre-
    form library  A collection of XML-based              vents the document from expiring or
       business forms.                                   being deleted.
                                                                                      Glossary    7



Host Header     Allows you to host multiple        do or not do in a given situation concern-
   Web sites to a single IP address and assign     ing a company’s information.
   a user-friendly name to a Web application.    in-place upgrade A process used to
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)                   upgrade all Windows SharePoint Services
   A markup language designed for the cre-         and SharePoint Portal Server 2003 Servers
   ation of Web pages with hypertext and           in the same set of administrative tasks.
   other information to be displayed in a          Once started, it is an irreversible process.
   Web browser.                                  Input Method Editor A program that
IDEnumerator method        A method that           allows computer users to enter complex
   returns a list of unique keys (identifiers)     characters and symbols, such as Japanese
   for each entity that should be searchable.      characters, using a standard keyboard.
   It’s used in the two-phase Business Data      IntelliSense A feature popularized by the
   Catalog search protocol. First an entity’s      Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated Devel-
   IDEnumerator is called and then, for each       opment Environment. It is a form of auto-
   instance, the SpecificFinder method is          mated autocompletion and documentation
   called to retrieve details.                     for variable names, functions, and methods
iFilter The instructions used to tell the          using metadata reflection.
   crawler what kind of content will be          Inter-Farm Shared Services (IFSS) A feature
   indexed once a connection is made to a          in SharePoint Services 2007 that allows
   content source.                                 one farm to provide its services, such as
IISRESET   A command line switch to restart        Search and Profiles, to remote farms
   the IIS Web service. This command dis-          through a single Shared Services Provider
   connects all sessions currently on the IIS      (SSP).
   server.                                       Internet Information Services (IIS) The
Index Server   The server responsible to           Web hosting service installed on the
   crawl content and place the content in the      server that hosts the SharePoint Web
   content store and metadata in the prop-         applications.
   erty store                                    iView Web Part Displays iViews from SAP
indexer performance settings     Settings that     portal servers.
   help configure how many threads the           Kerberos A computer network authentica-
   crawler will use during the crawl process.      tion protocol that allows individuals com-
Information Bridge Framework (IBF)      A set      municating over an insecure network to
   of tools and techologies that enables orga-     prove their identity to one another in a
   nizations to connect Microsoft Office Sys-      secure manner.
   tem applications to line-of-business          Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Score-
   application systems.                            card values that provide visual informa-
information management policy A set of             tion to enable users to communicate
   rules governing the automated manage-           progress toward goals or standards.
   ment of documents, such as how long a         Knowledge Network An extension to the
   file should be retained or which actions        core social networking in Office Share-
   on the file should be audited.                  Point Server 2007, offering further inte-
information security policy    One or more         gration with user information to
   explicit statements that formulate what to      disseminate user expertise through an
8   Glossary



       organization, such as searching a user’s          watchful eye of the CLR is termed “man-
       e-mail inbox for project-related keywords.        aged code” because it is managed by the
    labeling  A policy feature that generates            CLR.
       searchable text areas that are based on a       managed path Used for specifying URL
       formula that can include static text and          namespaces for Site collections. A man-
       document metadata.                                aged path is defined in RFC 1630 and is
    LCID    Locale Culture Identifier. For exam-         used to specify that portion of the URL
       ple, 1033 is the LCID for US English.             that represents the path to the Web site.
                                                         You can think of a managed path as repre-
    Line-of-Business (LOB) application A criti-          senting the hierarchy in which the Web
       cal business application that is vital to         site is found.
       running an enterprise.
                                                       management group Collective name for an
    list columns Containers for metadata on              instance of Microsoft Operations Manager
       document libraries and lists.                     2005, including components such as the
    list content type A content type that is             user interfaces and the computers being
       inherited from a parent, or site, content         managed.
       type and used in a document library or          Management Pack A collection of rules
       list.                                             and knowledge that defines how
    list definition A Schema.xml file and .aspx          Microsoft Operations Manager 2005
       pages that define the fields and views of a       should monitor a specific type of man-
       list.                                             aged computer or application.
    load-balanced URL      A URL name that users       master page A master page is a page that
       will type to access the Web application.          defines the layout and contains common
    locale The collection of usages in the user’s        controls (such as navigation and site
       environment that is defined by language,          branding) for a set of pages.
       country/region, and cultural practices.         membership condition Determines
       The locale determines the defaults such as        whether a certain assembly matches a
       sort order; keyboard layout; and date,            code group by looking at content-based
       time, number, and currency formats. A             or origin-based evidence related to a .NET
       locale usually provides more information          assembly.
       about presentation of information than
                                                       metadata Data that describes the content
       about languages.
                                                         item. Used for building search queries
    logging When enabled, creates log text               throughout SharePoint sites.
       files of SharePoint activity for the specific
                                                       MethodInstance  Used to describe a
       application that logging is enabled for,
                                                         method and the default values for any
       such as Site User Traffic or Search trends.
                                                         parameters used by the method.
    managed code—based solutions The
                                                       Microsoft Operations Manager 2005
       Microsoft .NET platform that can be any-
                                                       (MOM) A Microsoft server product that
       thing from a PDA to an Exchange server
       that .NET languages and their resultant           provides service management capabilities,
       programs can run on. .NET languages               such as health and audit monitoring for
       have a component called the Common                other products.
       Language Runtime (CLR) that directs and         Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Database Engine
       orchestrates the loading and running of         (MSDE) A data store based on Microsoft
       all .NET programs. Any and all code               SQL Server technology, but designed and
       directly run and completely under the             optimized for use on smaller computer
                                                                                        Glossary    9



  systems, such as a developer’s computer           details. Privacy controls on the page
  or a small workgroup server. The data             enable the My Site user to lock down
  store can be no bigger than 2 GB and can          views of details and target them to differ-
  support only five concurrent jobs.                ent users visiting the site.
Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine          My Site A user’s personal space within
(Windows) (WMSDE 2000) A version of                 Office SharePoint Server 2007 for storing
  Microsoft Desktop Engine (MSDE) 2000              and sharing user details, sharing docu-
  specially designed for Windows Share-             ments, social networking, and centrally
  Point Services 2.0 that is different from the     tracking documents and tasks through-
  standard MSDE database, which limited             out SharePoint sites.
  the number of possible concurrent con-          named permission set A permission set
  nections to five and the size of the data-        predefined by .NET.
  base to 2 GB. The WMSDE has neither of
  those limitations built in, but you cannot      network load balance A Windows configu-
  use it on a remote server, in a server farm       ration that allows network cards across
  scenario, or in a clustered environment.          multiple servers to share a common IP
                                                    address. When servers are joined by a
migration profile Contains information              load-balanced cluster, incoming traffic
  about the source Content Management               will be passed to the servers in equal
  Server 2002 Content Repository, the tar-          amounts. If one of the servers was to
  get SharePoint site collection to import          crash, then incoming traffic would be
  the content to, and security and notifica-        routed to the one server that is still taking
  tion information to execute a migration of        requests.
  a Content Management Server 2002 Web
  site to SharePoint Server 2007.                 NTLM New Technology LAN Manager. The
                                                    traditional way of authenticating a user
mobile device Any physical computing                using the challenge/response architecture
  device that you can carry, other than a lap-      to compare the user name/password com-
  top, in which you can host data. Most             bination the user enters into the authenti-
  mobile devices have the ability to wire-          cation dialog box with the user’s user
  lessly communicate with other mobile              name/password combination in Active
  devices and infrastructure components,            Directory.
  such as cell towers and servers.
                                                  Office Data Connection (ODC) A means of
multilingual  The capability of supporting          storing the connection information needed
  more than one language without requiring          by Excel to access back-end databases.
  individual instances for each language.
                                                  Office Web Components (OWC) A collec-
My Home     The My Site user’s private              tion of Web Parts, Web Part page solu-
  page for including personal documents,            tions, templates, and data-retrieval
  integrating with Outlook to include               services that work closely with Microsoft
  their Inbox and calendar, and tracking            Office 2003 and Microsoft Windows
  colleagues.                                       SharePoint Services 2.0.
My Profile The My Site user’s public page         origin-based evidence The .NET common
  where information about the user can be           language runtime (CLR) examines the
  viewed by other users visiting that user’s        location where the assembly is coming
  My Site. Includes user details such as            from, such as, the global assembly cache.
  Name, Title, E-mail, Department, Skills,
  and Interests and may include custom
10   Glossary



     orphan An entry in one SQL database                  throughout your sites, configure My Sites,
        table that points to a nonexistent entry in       for users, and integrate SharePoint Server
        another SQL database table. The most              2007 with directory sources, such as
        common orphan is when there is an entry           Active Directory.
        for a site in the Sites table of the configu-   personalization links Special links that can
        ration database but no corresponding site         be included by the administrator in users’
        entry in the Sites table of the content           My Sites as an additional tab in the My
        database.                                         Site navigation. Personalization links can
     page layout    A design feature that imple-          be targeted to all users or specific groups
        ments the content portion of a page and           of users. For example, a personalization
        contains field controls and Web Parts;            link to details of an up-and-coming IT
        used in conjunction with master pages to          conference may only be targeted to all
        create the layout for a Web page.                 users who are part of the IT department.
     page output cache  The in-memory store of          picture library A collection of graphics and
        compiled and rendered pages.                      images only that is similar to a document
     parent site A site within a site collection,         library.
        where there is a hierarchy of parent and        placeholder control An ASP.NET control
        child sites. Site A is the parent site, and       used in Content Management Server
        Site B is the child site of Site A.               2002 templates to display data in two
     performance tool A Windows Server tool,              modes in a Web site: one at rendering
        previously called Performance Monitor or          time and one at edit time. Content
        PerfMon, used to measure system perfor-           authors use placeholder controls to enter
        mance counters. This is a standard tool on        and manage content on a page.
        every instance of Microsoft Windows             policy feature An individual rule in an
        Server.                                           information management policy.
     permission    Allows code to perform a spe-        privacy controls Custom controls on My
        cific operation and is the most fine-             Sites that allow My Site owners to deter-
        grained element of code access security.          mine which profile details are exposed to
     permission level  A collection of granular           other users visiting their My Site.
        permissions that can be assigned to a           product key A unique alphanumeric value
        SharePoint group for purposes of authori-         that authenticates the installation of a
        zation.                                           product and, with Office SharePoint
     personal use     The use of company comput-          Server 2007, identifies the installation as
        ers by the employee for the exclusive ben-        Standard or Enterpise edition.
        efit of the employee’s own interests, ideas,    profile import The synchronization
        objectives, and/or goals. These interests,        between Office SharePoint Server 2007
        ideas, objectives, and/or goals are not job       and directory services, such as Active
        related nor are they part of the enumer-          Directory, to fetch existing user profiles,
        ated interests, ideas, objectives, and/or         or details, and import those user profiles
        goals of the company.                             into the SharePoint profile database.
     personalization   How you can effectively            Eliminates manually creating user profiles
        target information to the right users             in SharePoint.
                                                                                         Glossary   11



profile mapping     The linkage between user         write custom code that interfaces with
   profiles stored on directory services, such       Content Management Server 2002.
   as Active Directory, and user profiles within
                                                   publishing site An Office SharePoint Server
   the SharePoint profile database where user
                                                     2007 site that has the Publishing feature
   profile properties, such as Department, are
                                                     activated.
   mapped directly from Active Directory. For
   example, the user profile property in the       query One or more terms that are entered
   SharePoint profile database, Department, is       into either the Simple or Advanced search
   mapped to the user property in Active             boxes in an effort to obtain a result set of
   Directory, department.                            content items that contain the query
                                                     terms.
profile properties Details about a user,
   such as Name, E-mail, Title, and Depart-        query server The server that receives que-
   ment, or custom properties, such as skills        ries that users execute in the search Web
   and interests.                                    Parts. The query server will also build the
profile replication  A process that allows           result set, ensuring the result set is secu-
   user profile information to be copied             rity trimmed, and pass the result set back
   between multiple SharePoint servers and           to the user who executed the query.
   farms.                                          quiesce Allows an administrator to stop
profiles database    Stored in the Shared Ser-       any new sessions to the SharePoint farm
   vices Provider (SSP) database, it keeps           in a controlled manner. By stopping the
   individual user information, such as              sessions on a farm, the administrator can
   address and department, provided in               perform necessary maintenance work.
   both SharePoint and an LDAP directory.          quotas Used to limit the amount of data
   The directory is normally Active Direc-           that can be stored in a site collection.
   tory, but it can be any LDAP-compliant
                                                   record A physical or electronic document,
   directory source.
                                                     an e-mail, or some other form of digital
project tasks list Allows the graphical view-        information (such as an Instant Message
   ing of a group of work items that you or          transcript) that serves as evidence of an
   your team needs to complete.                      activity or transaction performed by the
Property Store    The Shared Services Pro-           organization.
   vider’s Search database that is held in         records management The process by
   SQL Server. There is only one content             which an organization defines what type
   store per Shared Services Provider. The           of information it needs to classify as a
   property store holds the metadata for the         record, how long it needs to retain the
   content that is in the content store.             information, and how it will manage the
Protocol handler The instructions used to            information throughout its life cycle.
   tell the crawler over which protocol a con-     recycle bin A storage container for deleted
   nection should be made to a content               documents throughout SharePoint docu-
   source.                                           ment libraries and lists. You can undo, or
public key token   Uniquely identifies               retrieve, documents sent to the recycle bin.
   assemblies in the Global Assembly Cache         registry The database local to a Windows
   (GAC).                                            operating system that contains the hard-
Publishing API (PAPI) The application pro-           ware, software, and user configurations
   gramming interface developers use to              used by the operating system.
12   Glossary



     registry key  Used to store configuration          self-service site management Allows users
        information about a program or                     that are not administrators to create new
        application.                                       site collections.
     reports library   A library designed to com-       server roles   A collection of SharePoint
        municate metrics, goals, and business              Server Services specific to the needs of a
        intelligence information mainly by using           role, such as a Web Server role or Search
        key performance indicators.                        role. Choosing a role allows an adminis-
                                                           trator to define the services that should be
     restore SSP  To re-create the Shared Services
                                                           running on that server.
        Provider (SSP) and associate it with a
        restored database and Web application.          Server Services Specifies what services a
                                                           server provides to users and other servers
     result set  The set of content items returned         in the farm. These services include Search,
        as a result of a query executed by an end          Document Conversion, Web Applica-
        user.                                              tions, and Excel Calculation services.
     root certificate authority    The root server in   service principle name The name by which
        the certificate hierarchy chain that issues        a client uniquely identifies a service.
        the root certificate for that domain name.
                                                        Shared Services Provider (SSP) A set of ser-
     root site    Top-most site of a site collection.      vices that are managed and offered from a
     RSS   Really Simple Syndication. A method             single Web application to other Web
        of receiving various types of data from            applications in the farm.
        assorted types of data sources, but all in a    SharePoint Designer 2007 A tool for creat-
        standard, easily digestible format.                ing and customizing SharePoint Web sites
     SAN    Storage Area Network. Not to be con-           and building workflow-enabled applica-
        fused with the disk storage itself (array or       tions in Microsoft Office SharePoint
        frame).                                            Server 2007.
     Sarbanes-Oxley Act     Legislation that holds      SharePoint Products and Technologies Con-
        CEOs, CIOs, CFOs and other top-level            figuration Wizard Launched to configure
        executives criminally liable/fraudulent for        the initial server farm and define server
        certain financial and accounting practices.        roles and topology. Creates the required
                                                           farm databases and can be re-run to repair
     schema    An XML definition that defines the          a failed configuration
        structure and content of a file.
                                                        Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
     SD3+C A formula that represents a set of              Used to send outgoing and incoming mail
        strategies for creating trustworthy soft-          for SharePoint user alerts, notifications,
        ware that can be summarized as “secure             and e-mails to lists and libraries on
        by design, secure by default, secure in            SharePoint sites.
        deployment and communications.”
                                                        single sign-on The method used to vali-
     search scope   A more granular way of                 date users’ credentials that exist on
        defining search patterns throughout                another system outside of SharePoint,
        SharePoint sites, such as a scope that             such as a bespoke HR system. SharePoint
        searches specifically on documents relat-          stores the users’ credentials encrypted in
        ing to content-type Project Meetings.              an SQL database and then passes them
     Secure Sockets Layer    A method to secure            on if a page on SharePoint requests access.
        the traffic between client and server. Also
        known as Transport Layer Security.
                                                                                       Glossary    13



site One or more Web pages that operate           SSP Service Account The Domain account
   under a common URL namespace.                    used to authenticate and run the Shared
Site Aggregator    Similar to a window              Services Provider (SSP) services with the
   through which to view Web sites. The tabs        database server.
   at the top of the Web Part allow fast          strong name A name uniquely identifying
   switching between sites.                         the developer of software.
site collection One or more Web sites that        stsadm.exe Often used command line tool
   operate under a common URL namespace.            located in <Install Drive>:\Program
site column      Container for metadata spe-        Files\Common Files\Microsoft
                                                    Shared\Web server extensions\12\BIN.
   cific to sites as opposed to metadata spe-
   cific to lists within sites.                   synchronous Specifically refers to events in
                                                    SharePoint. A synchronous event occurs
site content type A content type created at
                                                    before the event, such as, the ability to
   the site level that can then be inherited by
                                                    trap an item before it is deleted and stop
   document libraries and lists within that
                                                    users from deleting items in a list or docu-
   site.
                                                    ment library.
Site Content Type Gallery     The administra-
                                                  System Monitor The default view of the
   tive user interface for presenting existing
                                                    Performance tool. It is the graphical repre-
   content types and the point from which to
                                                    sentation of performance data being mon-
   create new site content types.
                                                    itored via counters in real time.
site definition  Forms the basis from which
                                                  tacit knowledge Process of knowing,
   to create SharePoint sites. For example,
                                                    know-how, or institutional knowledge.
   the default Team Site template in Share-
   Point is created from the default STS site     target audiences Audiences can be
   definition.                                      SharePoint groups, distribution lists, secu-
                                                    rity groups, or global audiences.
site template    A template that can be
   selected when provisioning a new Share-        targeting Determines which information
   Point site. Also includes custom tem-            to show users, such as whether users in
   plates, such as those templates created in       one group can view Web part A and users
   SharePoint Designer 2007.                        in another group can view Web part B,
                                                    but not Web part A.
Social Networking    The way users find
   other users and tap into user expertise        taxonomy The science of how things are
   throughout SharePoint sites, including           structured and categorized. In terms of
   My Sites.                                        Web sites, navigational style and models.
solution package     Used to package and          The Windows Presentation Foundation
   deploy Features, site definitions, Web           A component for building user interfaces.
   Parts, template files, assemblies, and Code    trace logs Low-level logging, somewhat
   Access Security (CAS) policies to Share-         like a dump file, used to monitor events
   Point Web front-end servers.                     within Windows.
SpecificFinder method    A method that            translation management library A library
   returns exactly one entity instance.             for translating documents in several
SSP rights The permissions a user has               languages.
   when accessing sites associated with a         Uncustomized Web Part page A Web Part
   Shared Services Provider (SSP).                  page that references files on the server’s
14   Glossary



        file system. In Windows SharePoint Ser-       variation A publishing feature that main-
        vices 2.0, these were known as ghosted           tains a hierarchy of Web sites where the
        Web Part Pages. From a technical stand-          publishing content of the source site is
        point, ghosted pages are rows in a docu-         pushed to target sites that vary in the pre-
        ment’s table that have null values for the       sentation of the content, sometimes vary-
        Content column and a non-null value for          ing in language / locale and other times in
        the SetupPath column, which points to a          presentation for different devices. Also
        file on the file system itself. The refer-       used to indicate one member of the varia-
        enced file essentially serves as a template      tion hierarchy.
        and content source.                           variation hierachy The organization of sites
     unghosted The same as customized, but               within a site collection that participate in
        referred to as unghosted in SharePoint           the variation feature of that site collection
        Portal Server 2003 and Windows                   and the relationship defined between the
        SharePoint Services 2.0. See also ghosted.       sites by the variation label.
     Unghosted Web Part page       See Custom-        variation label The settings that define the
        ized Web Part page.                              language / locale of a site, the relationship
     Universal Modeling Language (UML) Typi-             between source and target sites in a varia-
        cally used to design systems, including          tion hierarchy, and the content manage-
        Web sites, by way of creating scenarios          ment instructions for the variation
        and placing actors in those scenarios to         process.
        better determine how people will interact     virtual directory A pointer in an IIS Web
        with a system or Web site.                       site to a folder on a file system containing
     Usage Analysis A SharePoint Server 2007             Web files.
        tool that enables reports to be created for   Web application Previously referred to as a
        analyzing site usage and statistics.             virtual server, a Web application provides
     user profile Information contained in the           services to clients over http or https proto-
        Office SharePoint Server 2007 profile            col. The clients may be browsers or other
        database about a user. Typically imported        servers.
        from a directory service, such as Active      Web application policies Controls the
        Directory, which includes Name, E-mail,          rights of the user on the Web application
        Title, and Department, but can also be           based on which zone the user is accessing
        extended to include additional custom            the Web application from.
        properties. Used as the basis to build        Web applications Internet Information
        security and audiencing throughout               Services (IIS) Web sites extended with
        SharePoint sites.                                SharePoint features.
     User-Defined Function Assembly        A code     Web Document Authoring and Versioning
        assembly used to call scalable middle-tier    (WebDAV) A protocol that allows a Win-
        code libraries, which can contain complex        dows client to connect to a SharePoint site
        calculations and are callable by Excel 2007      and navigate its contents in the same way
        spreadsheets from within Excel Services.         that it does with local folders.
     user-identity—based security  A security
        paradigm in which authorization is based
        on the identity of a user.
                                                                                    Glossary    15



Web front-end     A server with a Web appli-      Once a Web Service is defined in a WSDL
  cation that is hosting a Web site or sites      document, this can be used to indicate
  accessible by .http clients as opposed to a     how to interact with that service.
  Web application server that is providing      Windows CardSpace    A component that
  services to other servers in the farm.          helps to manage digital identities.
Web garden   Term given to an Application       Windows Communication Foundation
  Pool with multiple worker processes.            A component for building Service-
Web Part   Re-usable code that can be added       Oriented Architecture (SOA)—based
  to a page to provide customized content         applications.
  such as a document library, contacts list,    Windows Workflow Foundation
  or a report on sales figures.                   A Microsoft technology for defining, exe-
Web Part connections Web Parts on a site          cuting, and managing workflows. This
  can be connected to each other so that,         technology is part of .NET Framework 3.0
  when an action is executed in one Web           and will be available natively in the Win-
  Part, it changes the displayed information      dows Vista operating system. The technol-
  in the Web Part that it is connected to.        ogy will also be back-ported to the
                                                  Windows XP and Windows 2003 Server
Web Part galleries Groups of Web Parts
                                                  operating systems. The .NET Framework
  that are helpful in locating a specific Web
                                                  3.0 “workflow runtime” provides com-
  Part.
                                                  mon facilities for running and managing
Web Part page  A Web page made up                 the workflows and can be hosted in any
  mainly of modular units, referred to as         common language runtime (CLR) appli-
  Web Parts.                                      cation domain.
Web Part tool pane    A tool pane that dis-     WinFX Code name for the Microsoft .NET
  plays on the right side of the screen when      Framework 3.0.
  adding or modifying Web Parts.
                                                WMSDE See Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Web Part toolbar A toolbar that can be            Desktop Engine (Windows).
  accessed by clicking the Edit button when
                                                worker process Created to add further
  a Web Part is in edit mode.
                                                  server resources and resilience to an
Web Part zone A storage unit used to              Application Pool.
  accommodate and organize Web Parts on         workflow A way of structuring tasks
  a Web Part page.                                through a work process.
Web Server   A Server role that is the con-     workflow configuration file Contains gen-
  nection point for users. Usually has fewer      eral workflow configuration information.
  services running on it in order to provide      Workflow configuration files have the
  more server resources to requests being         xoml.wfconfig.xml file extension.
  made by the users.
                                                workflow markup file Describes the activi-
Web service A remote server component             ties included in a workflow. Workflow
  that can be called using industry-standard      markup files have the .xoml file extension.
  protocols that receives a set of parameters
  in XML format and returns a result in         workflow rules file Contains workflow
  XML format.                                     logic. Workflow rule files have the
                                                  xoml.rules file extension.
Web Service Definition Language (WSDL)
  A method of describing a Web service.
16   Glossary



     WSP file A solution package that gets             SGML. XHTML documents need to be
        deployed to the SharePoint solution store.     well-formed (syntactically correct).
     WSRP Consumer      Web Services for Remote      XML Extensible Markup Language.
        Portlets. This Web Part enables integra-
                                                     XOML Object Markup Language. XOML is
        tion with other WSRP-compliant portal
                                                       a serialization format for Windows Work-
        solutions.
                                                       flow Foundation workflow objects.
     XAML Acronym for Extensible Application
                                                     XSD XML Schema Definition.
        Markup Language (pronounced “zam-
        mel”). XAML is the user interface markup     Zero Footprint Form Fill-in Refers to the
        language for the Windows Presentation          ability to not have the InfoPath rich client
        Foundation.                                    installed on your machine, but instead
     XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Lan-            use a Web browser to fill in the form. The
        guage. A markup language that has the          “Zero FootPrint” part means that there is
        same expressive possibilities as HTML but      no space regarding the presence of the
        a stricter syntax. Whereas HTML is an          rich client part of InfoPath. This is imple-
        application of SGML (Standard General-         mented by using the Microsoft Office
        ized Markup Language), a very flexible         Forms Server 2007.
        markup language, XHTML is an applica-        zone Defines the location from where the
        tion of XML, a more restrictive subset of      user has accessed the Web application
                                                       such as the intranet, Internet, or extranet.

				
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