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                            Report from Sessions: HOT TOPIC 1:

                              Innovating to Link Production and
                             Conservation: How to feed the world
                             population and protect the plant the
                                         same time?


                                                                                          R. Buruchara & J-M. Meynard



Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                           Questions to address:
                           What new production systems need to be promoted to ensure
                           sustainable agriculture in different contexts?

                           Can agro ecological and natural resource management
                           system reconcile production and conservation?

                           What can be contributed by new techniques, biotechnologies
                           tools, varietal selection?

                           What policy and integrative actions between social and
                           economic organizations can favor link between conservation
                           and production?

                           Do we need new paradigms to orient our agricultural
                           systems?



Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                  - 7 Sessions:
                      o Assessment of new techniques and or processes
                      o Assessment methods of innovation at different scales
                      o Agro-ecology and ecological intensification: from
                      paradigm to local experimentations
                      o Towards quality production: condition for success
                      o Towards environmental services: change in practices and
                      policies
                      o Conciliating production and conservation at the
                      landscape level
                      o Innovation to enable cohabitation between various
                      usages in peri-urban areas.

                  - About 65 presentation

                  - Short and Long Session

Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                          How to strike a balance between :
                            Increase production and conserve the environment?                                   1
                            -              A great diversity of agro-ecological, economic, social
                                           contexts: no universal solution

                            -              Short time benefits / long term impacts on
                                           environment

                                       -            Need for a better understanding of the intricate
                                                    interactions
                                       -            Optimize and not maximize
                                       -            Involving stakeholders/actors to appreciate and accept
                                                    trade-off: Interactions between researchers and users;
                                                    participatory design of farming systems; co-
                                                    construction for collective intervention

                                       -            Systemic approach; modeling agro-ecological
                                                    processes.

                                       -            Multi-scale approaches: field, farm, landscape


Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                 Designing new (agro-ecological) farming systems


                            -              Identify the best practices and systems in the real
                                           world (farms)
                            -              Use multi-criteria /approaches:
                            -              Which system better combines production and
                                           conservation?

                                       -           Co-design of innovative farming systems;
                                       -           Participatory approaches
                                       -           Combining local and scientific knowledge

                            -              Transition: How can farmers be aided to progressively
                                           design the new farming system for their own
                                           conditions? Enhancing adaptive capacity


Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                 Reconcile production and conservation at landscape level?

                            -              The heterogeneity of landscape mosaic is more
                                           favorable to the environment than to production

                                       -           Need for management at landscape level to provide
                                                   solutions:
                                                 -     Economic drivers
                                                 -     Socio-economic benefits
                                                 -     Networks of stakeholders
                                                 -      Ecosystem services

                                       - The role of public sector to formulate supportive
                                           policies: extension, facilitation, provider of
                                           strategic information,…

                                       -            The specificity of peri-urban agriculture


Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                 New paradigms for R&D

                            -             Multi-disciplinarity

                            -             Participatory approaches

                            -             Multi-scale Systemic approaches

                            -             Integrated multi-dimensional approaches (economic,
                                          productivity, food supply, environment, policy
                                          considerations, etc…)

                            -             Need of theoretical or conceptual frameworks to
                                          analyze innovation




Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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     1 Questioning social equity: how                                                                          1
                            can innovation reduce the
                           fragility or poor populations
                          and make them members of a
                               sustainaible society
                                                      Karim Hussein
                                                 Denis Requier-Desjardins

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Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                      Main points                                1
     •   Which targets of innovations
     •   Which innovation processes
     •   What impact of innovations on social equity
     •   Which policies




                                    Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                                                                     Hot topic

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              Which targets of innovation
     • Smallholder or family agriculture but also rural
       households, women or youth, marginalized areas,
       etc...
     • One important point: the diversification of activities
       and the risk-reducing strategies of households (non-
       farm employment, migration, etc...)
     • New actors (agri-business) which can have an impact
       on social equity
     • Innovation is not only about agriculture and food but
       also about rural areas and rural households

                                        Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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              Which processes of innovation
     • Innovation systems must be participatory and include all stakeholders in
       the concerned communities. Which innovation networks for poverty
       reduction
     • But technical references are often exogenous and projects do not take
       into consideration the actors' logic and community leaders may adopt
       these external references
     • Peasant organisations are not always effective in their action but some
       actors mays play a deteminant role in innovation (migrants transferring
       new models for example or consumers for innovations in distribution)
     • Household strategies and individual strategies within the household play
       a determinant role in diffusion of innovations and not only agricultural
       ones
     • Innovation processes and collective action learning processes can be
       excluding for some actors.

                                                   Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 2
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         What impact of innovation processes
                                     1
                on poverty and equity
     • Problems of definition
              – Poverty : incidence, depht and intensity
              – Equity : equality among actors in agricultural and rural development,
                (gender), participation at all levels, equal access to innovation
                opportunities, fundamental rights and level of capacities
     • Participatory innovation processes needs the respect of fundamental
       rights (democracy, voice, etc.) for all
     • They are pre-conditions for the impact of innovation on poverty
       (infrastructure, roads, health structure)
     • Innovation processes entail selection effects among the poor. Do
       they reach the poorest of the poor?


                                                           Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                   Policy implications1
     • Appropriate policy frameworks to foster innovation are
       needed
     • Policies need to adapt to actors, context, culture and
       transformations
     • Key challenges for developing relevant policies
     • Building capacities
     • Reshaping research and development systems
     • Ensuring policy frameworks adaptable and flexible




                                          Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                               Learning & being creative:
                 how can different types of knowledge
                   be combined to be innovative?
                                                                                                   Maria Fonte, Conny
                                                                                                   Almekinders, Pascale Maizi




Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                          Local knowledge 1
      • Local Networks are a combination of knowledge,
        social organization and culture of local actors
              – are important spaces of innovation
              – they need legal, political and public recognition
              – and linked to recognition of rights of marginalized people


      • Emerging role of formal and local brokers for
        interaction


                                                  Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 3
                 Approaches and Methods
      • Many new interactive approaches
              – reflecting the re-positioning the researcher
              – resulting hybrid knowledge
              – need wider application & institutionalization for
                development




                                              Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                            Conclusions
      • Challenge to institutionalize approaches
        that stimulate innovation
      • Re-viewing the role of researchers
              – clever partnerships for relevant research
              – renovate relations in the scientific knowledge
                networks




                                             Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                                   Feed back from sessions
                                        on Hot Topic 4

                                                                                              Johann Kirsten, Estelle Biènabe,
                                                                                              Patrick Caron, Guy Faure




Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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                                       Sessions
      A.      Innovations and territorial governance (5 long; 8 short)
      B.      New forms of governance of agricultural peri-urban spaces (3 long; 5 short)
      C.      Territorial impact of innovations in food systems (4 long; 3 short)
      D.      Local/Global tensions in innovation processes of agro-food systems (3 long; 4
              short)
      E.      Social construction of standards and chains (4 long ; 4 short)
      F.      Certification: an institutional innovation to foster sustainability? (4 long ; 4
              short)
      G.      Agricultural advisory services: towards an innovation system approach (3
              long; 9 short)
      H.      Analysis of multi-actor processes (4 long; 3 short)
      I.      Financing innovation for sustainability (4 long)
      J.      Understanding the organisational and strategic determinants of the adoption
              of innovations (3 long ; 6 short)
      K.      Implementing innovation systems in practice: Advances and challenges (4
              long; 7 short)


                                                             Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
       Geographic distribution of papers
      Session   Country of Authors
      4A        France (6) Ecuador Brazil Greece Denmark USA Malaysia Morocco
      4B        France (7) Portugal
      4C        France (4) Italy Spain Columbia
      4D        France (2) Brazil (2) Japan Kenya USA
      4E        Argentina Mexico USA Holland Japan France Italy Albania
      4F        France (3) Brazil Indonesia Japan Mexico
      4G        France (4) Brazil (2) India Morocco Bangladesh Switzerland Canada
                Burkina Faso
      4H        France (3) Thailand USA Ghana Philippines
      4I        France (1) South Africa
      4J        France (5) Cambodia Tunisia Madagascar Cameroun
      4K        France (4) Brazil (2) Ethiopia UK (2) Switzerland (2)

                                                       Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
                         Main themes
      •       Governance
      •       Food systems/value chains
      •       Agricultural advisory services
      •       Multi-actor process
      •       Financing innovation
      •       Understanding determinants of innovation
      •       Innovation systems in practice

                                       Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
              Innovations and territorial
                    governance
      • Institutional innovations, conditions and process of
        appropriation at local level (in particular learning
        processes)
      • New thinking on how to define governance
        accounting for the characterization of sustainable
        development objectives
      • Insights for regional development policy of the link
        between territorial dynamics and agriculture
      • Contribution of research to the understanding of
        regional development processes et the production of
        tools for public action
                                        Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
         Governance of agricultural peri-
                urban spaces
      • Can we talk about governance for agricultural peri-urban
        areas?
              – Rather governance of peri-urban territory
      • Peri-urban agriculture focusing on specific products (high
        value) but how to promote conventional agriculture to include
        smallholders
      • How to involve policy makers at urban level into promoting
        peri-urban agriculture?
      • How to manage conflicts between different stakeholders?
      • Major issue: regulate both public and private areas



                                                            Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
        Territorial impact of innovation in
                   food systems
      • Analysis of local agri-food systems and agri-food
        production systems
      • Three specific angles:
              – Externalities and advantages produced by food systems
              – Impact in terms of sustainable development (especially
                environment)
              – Substitutions between food and non food production
                (biofuel)
      • Heritage dimension of territorial development:
              – Can we reinvent heritage?

                                                 Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
                Food systems / Value chains
      •       Issues:
                – Environmental and social sustainability
                – Power relationships and structure
                – Food safety and quality
                – GMOs
                – Consumer protection
                – Differentiation based on distinctive characteristics to extract more value for
                   producers and local communities
      •       Instruments:
                – Collective action
                – Legislation
                – Certification
                – Contracts
                – Public-private partnerships


                                                                  Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
        Food systems / Value chains (2)
      • Emerging issues highlighted by papers and discussions
         – Impact of multinational companies and chains on local
           dynamics
         – Costs of certification and behaviour of certifiers (debate
           on the need for 3rd party certification)
         – Environmental and social standards (certification) acted
           more as a disruption than promoting sustainable
           development
         – Social construct of quality was confirmed as an important
           asset for innovation in value chains



                                              Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
              Agricultural Advisory Services
      • Issues
              – New role
              – Evolution and institutional change
              – Privatisation
              – New challenges (e.g. climate change) still
                require services for small farmers
              – New technologies to provide advisory services



                                           Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
                            Multi-actor processes
      •       Coordination amongst stakeholders – how does it happen?
      •       Documentation of this process
      •       Huge diversity in the processes based on context, subject, purpose and
              nature...
      •       Recommendations are therefore context specific
      •       This question on coordination of multi-actor process is central for
               –   understanding and addressing social changes
               –   Addressing of sustainability – thus addressing public goals
      •       Multi-actor processes are interesting to study:
               –   The process of innovation on the basis multi-actor activities
               –   How it open the opportunity for other actors within the context of sustainable objectives
                   (activists and policy makers)
      •       Challenges:
               –   Design appropriate conceptual and methodological frameworks to better understand
                   coordination process amongst stakeholders
               –   Better assess impact on sustainability and regulation of these coordination processes

                                                                            Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
                Financing innovation
      • Papers mainly on financing innovation platforms and
        adoption
      • Increased responsibility of farmers through adapted
        financing instruments
      • Necessity to include environmental constraints to
        understand microfinance dynamics
      • Risk management and financial profitability of
        microfinance operations
      • A critical and transversal question: can we
        distinguish the financing of innovations from
        innovations in finance
                                       Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
         Understanding the determinants
          of innovation in rural society
      • Three key dimensions of institutional frameworks
        that underline the strategic organizational processes
        between actors:
              – driven by public bodies via voluntary or mandatory
                instruments or structural programs of institutions
              – collective coordination from communities but also through
                hybridization with migrants
              – synergies from sharing knowledge between actors on techno-
                economic process leading to sectoral innovation systems




                                                  Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
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              Innovation systems in practice
      • Common question: When and in what form do multi-
        stakeholder platforms emerge?
      • Other questions touched upon:
              – Pace and time needed for the successful emergence and consolidation of
                innovations
              – The scale of at which innovation is taking place
                (local/national/international)
              – Role of policy and different stakeholders
              – Role of different actors, eg. Private sector, commodity organizations, etc.
              – Role of the state and established R&D agencies




                                                             Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 4
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                                            How can research further
                                             agricultural innovation in
                                            collaboration with society?
                                                                                              Oliver Coomes, Shuji Hisano,
                                                                                              Bernard Chevassus-au-Louis,
                                                                                              Pierre-Benoit Joly, Christophe
                                                                                              Soulard




Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
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          Hot Topic # 5 : Session Themes
      • Greening of agricultural research
      • Partnerships for participatory plant breeding
      • Participatory research for innovation
      • Cross-disciplinary approaches for knowledge
        integration
      • Research on resilient socio-ecological systems
      • Open source knowledge for agricultural
        development

                                     Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 5
      Hot Topic #5 : Key Points
      1. Revolution in seed systems: new
          research opportunities.
      2. Social importance of knowledge
          production.
      3. The challenge(s) of working together.
      4. A need to take stock of lessons learned.



                                  Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and food – June 28 / July 1, 2010
Hot topic 5

				
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