Developmental

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					Chapter 3

  Developmental
   Psychology
What is Developmental
    Psychology?
Cradle to the Grave.
Prenatal care.
Child Psychology.
Adolescent Psychology.
Adult Psychology.
Geriatric Psychology.
         Prenatal Care
Critical Period.
 Before birth.
 Throughout most of our childhood.

 Into early adulthood.

 Periods that are critical to the development
  of key organs and mental mechanisms.
     Heart & nervous system.
     Speech development.

     Motor coordination.
        Prenatal Care
Teratogens:
 Any  agent in the environment that can
  cause changes in the embryo or
  fetus.
 Drugs, Disease, Diet

 Most can be controlled by the woman.
              Smoking
Causes:
 Reduced   birth weight.
 Lower placental blood flow (gray).

 Premature delivery.

 Increased infant mortality rate.

 Higher rate of learning problems.

 Dosage related.
   Higher   dosage = more problems.
            Alcohol
Causes:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).
 Smaller  than normal children.
 Smaller brains than normal.

 Heart defects.

 Have distinctive facial features.

 Mild to moderate mental retardation.
              Disease
Rubella (German Measles).
 Effects   the CNS, Heart, Eyes, &
  Limbs
Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
 Effects   the CNS.
               Diet
Severe malnutrition during
pregnancy leads to:
      birth.
 Still

 Low birth weight.

 Early death (1st year).
         Attachment
The bond that forms between an
infant and its primary care giver.
Bowlby
         theorist.
 Original

 2 dimensions of attachment.
   Dimension of self.
   Dimension of other.
        Attachment
Dimension of self:
 How  much you think you are worthy
 of the caregiver’s love and affection.
Dimension of other:
 Howmuch you expect others to care
 about you.
Determined within 6 weeks after
birth.
         Attachment
Once the style is set, it is used
throughout life with significant
others.
 Template   theory.
Monotropy:
 Attachment   to one caregiver that is
  qualitatively different from all other
  relationships.
Harlow Monkey Studies.
           Attachment
Evolutionary connection.
Think about the EEA.
 For   child:
   Access  to food.
   Protection from predators.

   Protection from elements.

   Emotional comfort.

   Learn to socialize effectively.
          Attachment
Evolutionary connection.
 For   Parent:
   Increases     genetic success.
Social Referencing:
 Looking  to see how the caregiver is
  reacting.
 If mom is OK, I’m OK.
         Attachment
Transitional Objects.
 Attachment   to a soft object.
   Linus’ssecurity blanket.
   Teddy bear.
  Attachment Styles
Secure:
 Seeks   contact comfort with caregiver.
 Is easily comforted.

 Returns to play.

 Knows caregiver is available and
  responsive to needs.
  Attachment Styles
Anxious-Avoidant:
 Does not seeks contact comfort from
  caregiver.
 Appears to be well behaved.
 Focuses on inanimate objects to
  reduce anxiety.
 Knows caregiver is not available or
  responsive to needs.
 Caregiver is aversive to child.
  Attachment Styles
Anxious-Ambivalent:
 Has   approach avoidance conflict
  about getting comfort from caregiver.
 Emotionally extreme.
 Very difficult to comfort.
 Isn’t sure if caregiver is available or
  responsive to needs.
 Intermittent or inappropriate care
  given to child.
  Attachment Styles
Disorganized:
 Very  controversial.
 Some researchers use as catch-all for
  uncategorizable kids.
 Some only put truly disorganized kids
  in this category.
   PTSD   Symptoms.
 Disorganizedbehavior replaces
 attachment behavior.
  Attachment Styles
One or more than one attachment
style?
Main examined stability across
parents.
 80%  stable.
 20% had different style for dad than
  for mom.
   Does   this make sense?
  Attachment Styles
Hazan & Shaver
 Took  attachment styles into adult
  romantic relationships.
 Found that attachment functions in
  adult relationship just as it does in
  infant-caregiver relationships.
 Same distribution of styles in adults
  as infants.
  Attachment Styles
Earned Security:
 Gritch-Stevens

 Possible to move from insecure to
  secure for same figure.
 Requires very patient and loving
  partner.
     Attachment or
     Temperament?
Temperament:
 Easy   or difficult baby.
 Criticism thrown at attachment.
   Attachment   is really just temperament.
 Belsky  found that there can be secure
 difficult babies and easy insecure
 babies.
    Parenting Styles
Authoritarian:
 Parents:
   Rigid  rules.
   Strict discipline.

   Critical & harsh.
    Parenting Styles
Authoritarian:
 Kids   of such parents:
   Obedient  & self controlled.
   Emotionally stiff.

   Withdrawn.

   Lack curiosity.

   Self absorbed as adults.

   Prone to violence and drug use.
    Parenting Styles
Permissive:
 Parents:
   Provide little guidance.
   Permit too much freedom.

   Rules are not enforced.
    Parenting Styles
Permissive:
 Kids   of such parents:
   Dependent.

   Immature.

   Frequent   discipline problems.
    Parenting Styles
Authoritative:
 Parents:
   Firm  consistent guidance.
   Balance parental rights with child’s
    rights.
   Love & Affection.

   Caring & Responsive.
    Parenting Styles
Authoritative:
 Kids   of such parents:
   Competent.

   Self-controlled.

   Independent.

   Assertive.

   Inquiring.
            Piaget
Father of cognitive development.
Schemes:
 Basic elements of cognitive
  development.
 Organized patterns of functioning.

 Adapt and change as we grow older.

 How infants learn about the world.
                Piaget
Assimilation:
 Understanding  according to the
  current stage of development.
   Incorporation   into an existing category.
Accommodation:
 Changing   our existing ways of
  thinking in response to novel
  experiences.
   Creating   new categories.
   Piaget’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 1
 Sensory-motor   stage.
 Birth to 2 years.

 Motor coordination.

 Object permanence.

 Experimentation with the world.
   Piaget’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 2:
 Preoperational   stage.
 2-7years.
 Symbolic thinking.

 Language development.

 Egocentric.
   Piaget’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 3:
 Concrete     operational stage.
   7-11years.
   Conservation.

   Reversibility.
        Move logically forwards and backwards
         along an argument.
   Piaget’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 4:
 Formal   operations stage.
   11years +.
   Abstract principles.

   Hypothetical.
    Erikson’s Stages of
       Development
Based on crises to be resolved at each
stage.
Stage 1:     Trust Vs. Mistrust.
 Birth to 1 year.
 Similar to attachment.

Stage 2:            Autonomy Vs Shame.
 1-3 years.
 Toilet training.
       Failure can lead to doubt of ability.
  Erikson’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 3:       Initiative Vs. Guilt.
 3-5years.
 Preschool.

Stage 4:       Industry Vs. Inferiority..
 6-12 years.
 Starts school.
   Peopleoutside the family become
   important figures.
  Erikson’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 5:     Identity Vs. Role
             confusion.
 Adolescent  years.
 Searching for self identity.

Stage 6:     Intimacy Vs. Isolation.
 Young  adult years.
 Intimate relationships.
  Erikson’s Stages of
     Development
Stage 7:        Generativity Vs.
                Stagnation.
 Middle adult years.
 Guiding the next generation.
   Parenting   or teaching.
Stage 8:        Integrity Vs. Despair.
 Late adult years.
 Did you live a good life?
    Kohlberg’s Moral
     Development
Stage 1:     Preconventional.
 Early:
   Avoid punishment.
   Black & white.

 Late:
   Pleasure-seeking   (self interest).
    Kohlberg’s Moral
     Development
Stage 2:        Conventional.
 Early:
   Approval    orientation.
 Late:
   Following   the rules.
    Kohlberg’s Moral
     Development
Stage 3:         Post conventional.
 Early:
   Social   contract.
        Rules followed because they are there for a
         reason.
 Late:
   Moralityorientation.
   Rules do not always apply.
        Ethics can supersede laws.
        Death & Dying
Thanatology:
 The   study of death.
Kubler-Ross:
 Reactions   to death:
 The dieing do not always experience
  all of these.
 Do not always occur in this order.
      Death & Dying
Denial:
 Rejection   of the information.
   They   must be wrong.
 Refuseto believe the loved one has
 passed (Grief).
      Death & Dying
Anger:
 Envied   others health.
   Why   me?
 Angerat the deceased for leaving
 them alone (Grief).
         Death & Dying
Bargaining:
 Just   let me live a little longer and I’ll
 …
   With   self or with God.
 Bring   the loved one back (Grief).
       Death & Dying
Depression:
 Inevitability   creates great sadness.
   Realization that the dieing person will
    loose his/her relationships.
         the relationship with the
 Realizes
 deceased is gone (Grief).
     Death & Dying
Acceptance:
 Coming   to terms with death.