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					CHAPTER     Section A How the Internet Works

8

    The Internet




      Computer Concepts 4th Edition            Page 344
      Parsons/Oja
  Chapter       Section A How the Internet Works
     8
                           Section PREVIEW
  Section D
SectionA
      You will be able to:
             Describe how you can use a dial-up connection
              to access the Internet
             Explain how an IP address, a domain name, a
              URL, and an e-mail address differ




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 344
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter           LAB             Cyberspace
   8
Section A


            The term Cyberspace, a computer-generated world
            that exists in a hazy realm between reality and
            imagination, was coined in 1984 by science fiction
            writer William Gibson.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition               Page 345
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Section A How the Internet Works
   8
Section A


            The Internet, which has been evolving for over the
            past 30 years, is a collection of local, regional,
            national, and international computer networks linked
            together to exchange data and distribute processing
            tasks.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 346
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            The Internet Then and Now
   8               How did the Internet get started?
Section A


             The United States created ARPA (Advanced
              Research Projects Agency).
               – to help scientists communicate and share
                 valuable computer resources
               – in response to the Soviet Union’s launch of
                 Sputnik in 1957, the first artificial satellite
             The ARPANET, created in 1969, connected
              computers at four universities.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 346
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            The Internet Then and Now
   8               How did the Internet get started?
Section A


             Connecting two or more networks creates an
              “internetwork” or “internet.”




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition              Page 346
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Growth
   8               How big is the Internet
Section A


             The Internet is huge and continues to grow.
               – size can only be estimated
             Internet host - a computer on the Internet that
              provides services
               – data routing
               – e-mail
               – Web pages




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 347
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Chapter            Internet Growth
   8               How big is the Internet
Section A


             Internet traffic - the number of bytes transmitted
              from one Internet host computer to another
               – exceed 100 terabytes per week in 1997
             Michael Dertouzos, director of the MIT Laboratory
              of Computer Science, estimates that the world
              has 1 exabyte to store data.
             Exabyte - 1 quintillion bytes.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 347
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Chapter            Internet Technology
   8               How does data travel over the Internet?
Section A


             A network service provider (NSP) maintains
              a series of communications links for Internet
              data.
               – links connect at network access points
                 (NAPs)
               – major Internet links are called the Internet
                 backbone
             TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet
              Protocol) - computer rules used by every
              computer that connects to the Internet


            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 348
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Service Providers
   8               Do I connect my computer to the Internet
                   backbone?
Section A


             You connect to the Internet by connecting to
              an Internet Service Provider (ISP) which
              connects to the Internet backbone.
             ISP - company that maintains an Internet host
              computer
               – provides Internet access to businesses and
                 individuals
               – charges monthly fee
               – offered over telephone lines, cable TV, or
                 satellite dish

            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 349
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Service Providers
   8               Do I connect my computer to the Internet
                   backbone?
Section A


             Dial-up connection - a connection that uses a
              phone line to establish a temporary Internet
              connection




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 349
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Addresses and Domains
   8               How does the Internet know where to send
                   data?
Section A


             Every computer that connects to the Internet
              has a unique number called an IP address.
               – set of four numbers between 0 and 255
               – separated by periods
             A router examines the IP address and then
              forwards the data to its destination.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                Page 350
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Addresses and Domains
   8               How does the Internet know where to send
                   data?
Section A


             Many host computers have an easy-to-
              remember name which is officially called a
              fully qualified domain name.
               – most people call it a domain name
             Domain name
               – typed in lowercase
               – ends with three letter extension which is its
                  top-level domain




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 350
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Addresses and Domains
   8               How does the Internet know where to send
                   data?
Section A


             A computer with a domain name is referred to
              as a site.
             Web site - location in a computer somewhere
              on the Internet.
                                            Internet Top-level domains




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                        Page 350
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            URLs
   8               What is the difference between a domain name
                   and a URL?
Section A


             Web sites are composed of a series of Web
              pages.
               – each page stored as a file
               – referred to by a unique URL
             URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - an Internet
              address of a document on a computer
               – begin with http://
             HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol -
              the protocol that allows Web browsers to
              communicate with Web servers.

            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                Page 351
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Chapter            URLs
   8               What is the difference between a domain name
                   and a URL?
Section A


             Web server - computer with special software for
              transmitting Web pages over the Internet
               – domain names prefixed with www
             Home page - identifies the site and contains links
              to other pages at the site




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 351
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Chapter            Other Types of Internet Servers
   8               Is the Internet the same as the Web?
Section A


             The Web is only one of the Internet’s many
              services.
             The Internet also provides
               – e-mail
               – file transfers
               – discussion groups
               – real-time chat




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 352
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Other Types of Internet Servers
   8               Is the Internet the same as the Web?
Section A


             The Internet also includes FTP servers which
              maintain files that you can transfer to your own
              computer.
             Usenet servers and IRC servers handle
              exchange of comments among members in chat
              groups.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 352
            Parsons/Oja
CHAPTER     Section B The Versatile Web Browser

8

    The Internet




      Computer Concepts 4th Edition         Page 353
      Parsons/Oja
  Chapter        Section B The Versatile Web Browser
     8
                           Section PREVIEW
  Section D
SectionB
      You will be able to:
             List Internet services that you can access using a
              Web browser
             Explain the differences between downloading a
              file, viewing a Web page, and playing multimedia
              elements on a Web page
             Explain how synchronous and asynchronous
              interactions apply to chat groups, discussion
              groups, and interactive gaming



         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 353
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Section B The Versatile Web Browser
   8
Section B


            Web browsers provide Internet users with all-
            purpose client software for accessing many types of
            servers.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                Page 353
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            The Web
   8               How does a Web browser display a Web page?
Section B


             The World Wide Web, or “the Web” was created
              in 1990 at the European Laboratory for Particle
              Physics.
             The Web
               – Internet service that stores and provides
                 information
               – easy to use source of graphical information
               – consists of documents (Web pages) that
                 contain information on a particular topic



            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                Page 353
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            The Web
   8               How does a Web browser display a Web page?
Section B


             A Web page may contain links that point to other
              Web pages.
               – makes it easy to follow a thread of related
                 information
             You request a Web page from a Web browser by
              typing in a URL or clicking a Web page link.
             The page that displays when your browser first
              starts is called the home page




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition               Page 353
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Portals
   8               How do I get on the Web?
Section B


             Most computers come with a browser, such as
              Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape
              Navigator, which is preconfigured to take you to a
              Web portal.
             A Web portal is a Web site that provides a group
              of popular Web services.
               – search engines
               – e-mail accounts
               – chat rooms
               – links to shopping, weather, news, and sports

            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 356
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Portals
   8               How do I get on the Web?
Section B


             Popular Web portals include America Online, GO
              Network, Lycos, and Yahoo
             Some portals are maintained by commercial
              information services.
               – also serve as ISPs
               – charge monthly membership fee




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition              Page 356
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Multimedia
   8               Can I listen to music and play videos on the
                   Web?
Section B


             Web pages now include multimedia elements
              such as sound, animation, and video.
               – stored in a file
             Streaming media - computer plays a media file
              while receiving it
             In-place multimedia technology - plays a media
              element as a seamless part of a Web page




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 357
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Multimedia
   8               Can I listen to music and play videos on the
                   Web?
Section B




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 357
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Multimedia
   8               Can I listen to music and play videos on the
                   Web?
Section B


             Multimedia overlay technology adds a
              separate window to your screen for multimedia
              elements.




                                               Multimedia overlay
                                               technology



            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                      Page 358
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Multimedia
   8               Can I listen to music and play videos on the
                   Web?
Section B


             A software module that provides your computer
              with the capability to view or play a specific type
              of file is called a player, plug-in, or viewer.
             The Web browser maintains list of media players
              installed on your computer.
               – most browsers provide a link to a site where
                  you can download a necessary player




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 358
            Parsons/Oja
   Chapter            File Transfers
      8               Can I get a copy of a picture, sound, or video
                      that I find on the Web?
   Section B


                Downloading is the process of transferring a file
                 from a remote computer to your computer.


1. Right-click the
picture you
want to copy.



                                                         2. Choose
                                                         Save Picture as




               Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 359
               Parsons/Oja
Chapter            File Transfers
   8               Can I get a copy of a picture, sound, or video
                   that I find on the Web?
Section B


             Uploading - the process of sending a copy of a
              file from your computer to a remote computer
             You can upload files using FTP client software,
              such as WinFTP.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 359
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Installs
   8               How do I install software that I download from
                   the Internet?
Section B


             The Internet is a good source of free software.
             Most downloadable software is stored as a self-
              extracting file, a single file that holds all of the
              modules for the software.
               – download sites include instructions for
                 downloading software




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 360
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Installs
   8               How do I install software that I download from
                   the Internet?
Section B




                                                        You can take
                                                        advantage of
                                                        thousands of
                                                        shareware,
                                                        freeware, and
                                                        trial versions of
                                                        software.

            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 360
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Interactions
   8               Can I interact directly with other people who are
                   online?
Section B


             In addition to e-mail, people can interact on the
              Internet by joining a discussion group.
               – takes place asynchronously, meaning
                 discussion participants are not online at the
                 same time
             A chat group is a discussion group which takes
              place synchronously (participants are online at
              the same time).




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 361
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Internet Interactions
   8               Can I interact directly with other people who are
                   online?
Section B


             Multi-player gaming - gives you an opportunity
              to play with or against, other players all over the
              Internet




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 362
            Parsons/Oja
CHAPTER
                           Authoring and
            Section C WebManagement
                      Site

8

    The Internet




      Computer Concepts 4th Edition        Page 363
      Parsons/Oja
  Chapter
                               Authoring and
                Section C WebManagement
                          Site
     8
                           Section PREVIEW
  Section D
SectionC
      You will be able to:
             Explain the purpose of HTML tags and evaluate
              the effectiveness of a Web page design
             Describe how Web sites handle e-commerce




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 363
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter
                                 Authoring and
                  Section C WebManagement
                            Site
   8
Section C


            In addition to using the Web for information and
            interaction, you can also publish your own Web
            pages.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 363
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Publishing
   8               What can I publish?
Section C


             Using a few tools, you can create a single Web
              page to an entire Web site.
             A full Web site with its own domain name,
              provides a solid point of presence on the Internet.
               – ex. http://www.hilfiger.com




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 363
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            HTML
   8               What is an HTML tag?
Section C


             HTML tags are instructions that tell a Web browser
              how to display the text and graphics of a Web page.
               – set off in angle brackets
                  • (<B> = begin boldface type)
                  • (</B> = end boldface type)
             A basic HTML document has two parts:
               – head - specifies the title bar information
               – body - contains information, text, graphics, links



            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 364
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            HTML
   8               What is an HTML tag?
Section C


                                            Basic HTML tags




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition          Page 365
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            HTML
   8               What is an HTML tag?
Section C


             DHTML (Dynamic HTML) is an additional Web page
              development tool that allows elements of a Web
              page to be changed while the page is being viewed.
             XML (Extensible Markup Language) allows the Web
              developer to define customized tags.
             Java - a programming language developed
              specifically for Web applications
             ActiveX controls allow Web pages to perform
              software-like tasks.



            Computer Concepts 4th Edition               Page 365
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            HTML Authoring Tools
   8               Do I have to use HTML?
Section C


             In addition to using HTML, Web authoring tools
              make it much easier to create Web pages.
               – use word processor-style interfaces
               – wizards
               – predesigned templates
             Popular Web authoring software includes Microsoft
              FrontPage and Claris Home Page.
               – contain tools for managing Web sites




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition               Page 366
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Page Design Tips
   8               How do I make a really great Web page?
Section C


             Plan your Web page so that it fulfills its purpose.
             Design a template to unify your pages.
             Follow basic rules for good Web page design:
               – narrow line widths
               – proofread
               – use contrasting colors; do not use drab colors
               – do not use graphic files that exceed 30 KB
               – use graphics with .jpg or .gif filename extensions
               – use thumbnails to link to larger version of large
                 graphics


            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 367
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Web Page Design Tips
   8               How do I make a really great Web page?
Section C


               Identify your pages.
               Include dates.
               Include navigational elements.
               Respect the copyright and intellectual property
                rights of other Web sites.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 367
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Publishing Your Pages
   8               How do I get my pages on the Internet?
Section C


             Test your pages locally.
             Transfer pages to a Web server.
               – look for a site that will host your page
             Test all links.
             Update your site to keep it current.




            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 369
            Parsons/Oja
Chapter            Building an E-commerce Site
   8               Can I create my own online shopping site?
Section C


             E-commerce refers to buying products and services
              by means of the Internet.
               – online shopping
               – online auction sites
             Like big businesses, individuals can also set up their
              own e-commerce site.
             Many Web hosting services and portal sites offer an
              e-commerce enabled Web site, which simplifies
              the process of constructing an online storefront.



            Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 369
            Parsons/Oja
CHAPTER      User Focus Connecting to the Internet

8

    The Internet




      Computer Concepts 4th Edition           Page 371
      Parsons/Oja
  Chapter        User Focus Connecting to the Internet
    8
Section D

            To access the Internet from your home computer,
            you must use an Internet service provider.




        Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 371
        Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Locate an Internet Service Provider
   8              Who will provide me with an Internet connection,
                  and how much will it cost?
User Focus


              An Internet Service Provider (ISP) connects you
               to the Internet by providing you with a user
               account on a host computer that has access to
               the Internet.
              Internet connections are also available through
               commercial information services, such as AT&T
               WorldNet and America Online, and some cable
               TV companies.
                – charge $10 - $40 per month



         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                    Page 371
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Set Up Equipment
   8              What special equipment do I need to access the
                  Internet?
User Focus


              Most people use a telephone line to access the
               Internet.
                 – can also use cable, cellular phone, or personal
                   satellite dish
              You need a computer, modem, and telephone
               line.




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                      Page 372
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Set Up Equipment
   8              What special equipment do I need to access the
                  Internet?
User Focus


              Connection speed is the maximum speed that
               your modem can communicate with the ISP’s
               modem.
              Transfer rate is the speed at which you can send
               or receive data.




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                   Page 372
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter           Install Software
   8              Where do I get the software I need?
User Focus


              Internet communications software allows your
               computer to transmit and receive data using
               TCP/IP communications protocol.
                – two versions of TCP/IP are:
                   • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
                   • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                  Page 373
         Parsons/Oja
Chapter         Dial In
   8            After my hardware is set up and my software is
                installed, how do I dial in to the Internet?
User Focus


     Most Internet
      communications
      software is
      represented
      by an icon.




         Computer Concepts 4th Edition                 Page 374
         Parsons/Oja

				
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