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					                                            I N T E R N AC I O N A L




                                                                       D E L A PA PA
                              C E N T R O
Medium-Term Plan                                    C I P

2008–2010 and
Financing Plan for 2008

October 2007




International Potato Center
Medium-Term Plan
2008-2010 and
Financing Plan for 2008

October 2007
Medium-Term Plan
2008-2010 and
Financing Plan for 2008
October 2007




International Potato Center
viii   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Contents
Science Council comments on CIP’s MTP ................................................................................................... v
CIP’s Response to the Science Council Commentary on CIP’s MTP, 2008-2010 ......................................vii
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1
CIP Research Program Context ................................................................................................................... 1
Implementation of the EPMR Recommendations ......................................................................................... 1
Highlights of the 2008 Project Portfolio......................................................................................................... 2
   Project 1. Impact Enhancement............................................................................................................... 2
   Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization.................................................................... 3
   Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement................................................................. 4
   Project 4. Integrated Crop Management ................................................................................................. 5
   Project 5. Natural Resources Management............................................................................................. 6
   Project 6. Health and Agriculture ............................................................................................................. 7
   Project 7. CONDESAN ............................................................................................................................ 8
   Project 8. Global Mountain Program ........................................................................................................ 9
   Project 9. Urban Harvest ......................................................................................................................... 9
Changes in collaborative arrangements ..................................................................................................... 10
   Other CGIAR Collective Action Initiatives............................................................................................... 11
   Collaborators........................................................................................................................................... 11
MEDIUM TERM FINANCING PLAN ........................................................................................................... 23
   Center Financial Indicators ..................................................................................................................... 23
   Financial results of 2006 operations....................................................................................................... 23
   Regional Funding Trends ....................................................................................................................... 24
   Development of 2007 Operations ........................................................................................................... 25
   Financing Plan 2008–2010 ..................................................................................................................... 25
MEDIUM-TERM PLAN PROJECT NARRATIVES...................................................................................... 27
Project 1. Impact Enhancement................................................................................................................. 27
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 27
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 27
   Objective ................................................................................................................................................. 27
   External conditions ................................................................................................................................. 29
   Target ecoregions................................................................................................................................... 29
Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Characterization ........................................................... 30
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 30
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 30
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 31
   Alignment with CGIAR System Priorities................................................................................................ 31
   Description of impact pathways .............................................................................................................. 31
   Research approach to develop International Public Goods (IPGs)........................................................ 31
Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement ................................................................... 32
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 32
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 32
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 33
   Specific objectives .................................................................................................................................. 33
   Alignment with CGIAR System priorities ................................................................................................ 33
   Targeted ecoregions............................................................................................................................... 33
   Potato ecoregions................................................................................................................................... 33
   Sweetpotato ecoregions ......................................................................................................................... 34
   Changes from last MTP .......................................................................................................................... 34
   Impact pathways ..................................................................................................................................... 35
   Strengthening NARS .............................................................................................................................. 36
Project 4. Integrated Crop Management.................................................................................................... 37
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 37
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 37



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                                       iii
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 37
Project 5. Natural Resources Management ............................................................................................... 40
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 40
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 40
   Changes from the last MTP .................................................................................................................... 41
   Alignment with CGIAR Systems priorities .............................................................................................. 41
   Impact pathways ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Project 6. Agriculture and Human Health................................................................................................... 44
   Rationale................................................................................................................................................. 44
   Changes.................................................................................................................................................. 44
   Description of impact pathways .............................................................................................................. 46
   Research approach to develop International Public Goods (IPGs)........................................................ 47
   Elaboration of Partners’ roles ................................................................................................................. 47
Project 7. Ecoregional Program: Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion
(CONDESAN) ............................................................................................................................................. 48
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 48
   Identification of specific problems........................................................................................................... 48
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 48
   Impact pathways ..................................................................................................................................... 49
   Research approach to develop IPGs...................................................................................................... 49
   External conditions ................................................................................................................................. 49
   Target Ecoregion .................................................................................................................................... 49
   Collaborators........................................................................................................................................... 50
Project 8. Global Mountain Program.......................................................................................................... 52
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 52
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 52
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 53
   Changes from the last MTP .................................................................................................................... 53
   Impact pathways ..................................................................................................................................... 54
   External conditions ................................................................................................................................. 54
   Target eco-regions.................................................................................................................................. 54
   Beneficiaries ........................................................................................................................................... 54
   Collaborators........................................................................................................................................... 54
Project 9. Urban Harvest............................................................................................................................ 56
   Problem analysis .................................................................................................................................... 56
   Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research............................................................... 56
   Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 57
   Changes since previous MTP................................................................................................................. 57
   Alignment with CGIAR System priorities ................................................................................................ 57
   Impact pathways ..................................................................................................................................... 58
   Beneficiaries and end-users ................................................................................................................... 59
   Research approach to develop IPGs...................................................................................................... 59
   Collaborators........................................................................................................................................... 59
PROJECT LOGFRAMES............................................................................................................................ 63
Project 1. Impact Enhancement................................................................................................................. 63
Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Characterization ........................................................... 66
Division 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement.................................................................. 74
Project 4. Integrated Crop Management.................................................................................................... 87
Project 5. Natural Resources Management ............................................................................................... 97
Project 6. Health and Agriculture ............................................................................................................. 100
Project 7. Ecoregional Program: Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion
(CONDESAN) ........................................................................................................................................... 101
Project 8. Global Mountain Program........................................................................................................ 105
Project 9. Urban Harvest.......................................................................................................................... 107
Annex 1. Financial tables ......................................................................................................................... 111




iv                               International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Science Council comments on CIP’s MTP

August 2007
CIP reports 9 MTP Projects that include 3 SWEPs, as in last year’s MTP. CIP published its new Strategic
Plan for Research 2006-2016 in 2006 and, although the Plan does not mention CGIAR SPs, the Center
has made appropriate changes in the definition of outputs for consistency of alignment to SP and for size
and scope of outputs. The MTP specifies the linkage to SPs for each Project. Projects 1 – 7 are mainly
consistent with SPs, and the linkages between project outputs and SP are described in project narratives.
The MTP reports no activities in priority area 3. Compared to 2007, priority areas 1, 2 and 4 related to
CIP’s core areas of research on conservation and characterization of potato and sweetpotato genetic
resources, genetic improvement, ICM and NRM, are to take up a smaller share of CIP’s resources in
2008-2010, while priority area 5 is to increase its share from 21% to 26%. The SC would have liked to
see a rationale for this pattern of realignment of CIP’s priorities. The shifts are not explained in the MTP
and the SC notes with concern that CIP’s allocation to SP 1A is diminishing.

The SC notes that the MTP Project 6 on Agriculture and human health includes some innovative work
linking misuse of pesticides to human epidemiology, and to conduct this work CIP has hired a human
epidemiologist. In developing the SP, the SC was aware of many interfaces of food and health.
Nevertheless it sought to maintain the CGIAR’s focus on the “food” sector while encouraging linkages
with the “health” sector. The Center rightly argues that the work linking pesticide use to specific aspects of
human health will become more important to the CG, as efforts on high value crops increase.
Notwithstanding the merits of CIP’s new work, the SC maintains that the CGIAR should not expand its
research to the health sector but link the health aspects of its research closely with the agricultural
research. The SC notes that the future of CIP Agriculture and human health Division will be guided by the
CGIAR’s decision on the recommendations of the recently completed EPMR that CIP phase out the
Division and mainstream its work to that of CIP’s other Divisions, recommendation that the SC endorses.

As shown by the EPMR Panel, CIP has a sizeable non SP agenda in such activities as CONDESAN, UH,
etc. The SC also notes that CIP has new projects on seed systems to fill gaps in local capacity in
Uzbekistan and Afghanistan on the improved production of clean potato seed, and new initiatives to
develop strategies for improving farmer based sweetpotato seed systems for Bangladesh, India and Sri
Lanka further adding to the non-SP agenda. The SC looks forward to seeing how CIP rationalizes this
agenda that does not contribute to priority research. Furthermore, CIP has plans for large expansion of
programs in East and Southern Africa, with posting of 10 IRS in the region, and has opened offices in
Mozambique and Malawi. The SC would like to see how this fits with the regional alignment, shared
platforms, and other efforts of the Alliance in the region.

The MTP has a clear set of project goals, and describes and explains most changes from 2007-2009 to
2008-2010, which refer mainly to scope and magnitude. Changes in outputs are clear and a logical
consequence of achievements. One obvious change includes studies of 9 additional roots and tubers in
Project 2 (Genetic resources conservation and characterization), with characterization now concentrating
on genetic diversity of germplasm, and no longer involving breeder’s traits of interest or nutritional and
health related attributes. Although the SC agrees with this change, also suggested in the recent EPMR,
given that the discovery of useful bioactive ingredients and the additional fine work of characterization
and evaluation probably needs more resources than currently available to CIP, this change coincides with
the lower share of resources to be devoted to SP 1A mentioned above, which is a concern. On Project 3
(Genetic enhancement and crop improvement), the SC notes that the drop of 20% in the Project’s budget
from 2006 to 2008, in spite of number of outputs being the same, is not explained. Project 5 (Natural
resource management) changed its focus last year from mountains to landscape, which is appropriate.

In general, the MTP provides clear indication at the project and output level of how CIP research
contributes to IPGs, especially in Projects 1- 7. For example, increasing the Vitamin A content of sweet
potatoes is clearly an IPG from Project 6. CIP’s IPG approach on its Integrated Crop Management
research is shown in the continuation of participatory, integrated approaches at the local level as “pilots”


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                    v
for the research on synergistic/antagonistic process and for user benefits/economics, and in the
compilation into manuals to be used in capacity strengthening. IPGs are also likely to be produced by
Project 5 (NRM), which is focused on processes and modeling, linked to policy at the landscape level, but
the SC is concerned about difficulties in extrapolating models to other locations. However, in Projects 4
(ICM) and 5, this IPG approach is not always evident in the logframe metrics, where there seems to be
many opportunities for devolution to partners to gain more focus on the IPG research described in the
narratives.

While the expansion of work to regions other than LAC helps generate IPGs, the MTP leaves an
impression that many activities could be devolved to NARS or other stakeholders. For example
“adaptability of the new TPS [true potato seed] families evaluated in different environments on SSA”, and
“acceptability of new TPS families evaluated through on farm/on station trials in SWA”. Although capacity
building activities are described in the project narratives, they are largely absent in the logframes. The SC
encourages CIP to make research related capacity building more explicit in the logframes.

The outputs and output targets, if achieved, are likely to lead to accomplishing project goals and in
general appear to be sufficiently ambitious and of potentially high value. The output specification and
timelines are much improved but some outputs appear very broad. For example “Genetic loci and alleles
conferring drought tolerance from Andean potatoes identified” by 2009 seems overly ambitious. CIP still
presents a very high number of output targets (161 for 2008), which seems to reflect in many cases their
interim nature. Some output targets describe activities and routine practices and others seem to show
recurrent work (“NARS capacities and role in disease detection techniques for potato and sweetpotato
seed production assessed in at least three countries per region”; “Factors influencing potato seed
degeneration in high altitude determined in Peru”) where progress towards achieving a goal is not
apparent. The Project 6 logframe is missing output 2 and respective output targets.

With the exception of Projects 7 and 8, the impact pathways are relatively well described, but tend to be a
re-write of the project output objectives, rather than a description of plausible outcomes and impacts,
constraints to them and possible ways to influence that pathway. The MTP describes an extensive and
appropriate range of partners and strategic alliances at all levels, and partners and their roles are
identified at the output level. CIP’s collaboration with CIAT is a good example. NARS’ and others’
involvement in CIP’s partnerships are clearly identified as is the Center’s role as a primary/secondary
research provider, facilitator or advocate, notwithstanding the SC’s earlier comments about CIP’s
comparative advantage in some cases.

The Center’s contributions to CPs are clearly defined. Regarding Project 9 (Urban Harvest), Project 8
(Global Mountain Program), and CONDESAN, the three SWEPs convened by CIP, the SC notes that
CIP’s future convening role with these three programs will be guided by the CGIAR’s decision on the
recommendations of the recently completed EPMR that CIP disengage from its convening role,
recommendations that the SC endorses.

The SC will assess CIP’s MTP in detail in 2008 particularly for the response to the EPMR
recommendations.




vi                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
CIP’s Response to the Science Council Commentary on CIP’s MTP,
2008-2010

September 2007
CIP thanks the Science Council for its generally positive commentary on our MTP. The MTP continues to
be a useful planning device in the center. As the Science Council notes, our research agenda remains
largely unchanged from the previous year.

In a general observation, many of the Science Council comments express the desire for further
information. MTPs are large documents, written with the assistance of guidelines issued by the SC. One
guideline is a recommendation to limit the length. Deciding what to include or exclude inevitably results in
some themes remaining underdeveloped and leaves the reader wishing for more.

The SC requested further information on the shifts in investment levels among system priorities (SPs). In
2007-2009, based on its reading of the SP document, CIP made a decision to categorize its plant
protection research into System Priority 5D. Upon further consultation CIP reconsidered its plant
protection research as a part of crop improvement and re-categorized it in SP 2A. This explains part of
the reduction in SP 5 and the increase in SP2. In 2007-2009, CIP categorized the parts of its potato
research that are implemented in horticulture systems where potato is typically the highest value
component in SP 3A. Since then we accept the interpretation that high value only applies to those crops
that are not part of the traditional CG agenda whether the traditional agenda crops are actually high value
or not. This explains the reduction of SP 3A to zero. SP 1 and SP 4 are mostly unchanged from the first
year’s categorization. Finally, as instructed, CIP categorized portions of its research agenda as
development activities, stand alone training and new research. Several of these items had been
previously categorized in SP 5. This explains most of the remaining change in SP 5.

The SC asks for the rationale for the non-agenda investments. Most CIP investments are intended to
produce research outputs. However, many of CIP’s donors and investors are concerned with research
outcomes and impacts and believe that CIP has a comparative advantage in delivering them. Most of
what we assign to non-agenda is focused on assuring outcomes. CIP notes that the Performance
Measurement system judges CIP on its ability to produce outcomes and impact. Our focus on contributing
to the MDGs is our rationalization of this agenda.

CIP appreciates that the SC believes that our MTP expresses a clear set of project goals, provides a
clear indication of how outputs will contribute to IPGs and considers that our outputs and output targets
are structured to accomplish project goals. We thank the SC for the fine tuning advice they offer within the
context of these three commentaries.

CIP is confused about the SC comment that CIP should make capacity building more explicit in the log
frames. As per SC MTP preparation guidelines, we refer to capacity building in our description of impact
pathways. We systematically avoided such references believing that capacity building was not considered
as an output target but rather an activity that leads to outcomes. CIP asks for further interpretation and
guidance from the SC on what to include or exclude from project logframes.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                 vii
MEDIUM TERM PLAN OVERVIEW

Introduction
This Medium Term Plan is presented following the Guidelines received from the Science Council with two
significant exceptions: we report on the Urban Harvest Systemwide Program and do not report on
achievement of EPMR recommendations. In their commentary on our 2007-2009 MTP the Science
Council advised CIP that it did not recognize Urban Harvest as part of the System Priorities and to shift
the budgetary reporting to the non-agenda category. MTP preparation guidelines advise that non-agenda
items be included only as a mention in the Overview chapter. Given the interest of many investors and
stakeholders in this program, we present a project narrative and logframe. CIP will complete its new
EPMR a few days after the submission of this MTP. By the time this MTP is approved and published a
new set of EPMR recommendations will have been received by CIP and the CGIAR. We thus did not
include the table of the previous EPMR recommendations.

During 2006 we continued implementation of the research program designed to respond to the CIP Vision
of contributing to the Millennium Development Goals. In 2006 CIP published its new strategic plan based
on its global and regional priorities and aligned with the newly approved CGIAR System priorities. The
strategic plan shows that we are well positioned to contribute to the MDGs. In our 2007-2009 MTP CIP
adopted a ‘splitting’ rather than a ‘lumping’ philosophy for assigning its research to System Priorities. The
2008-2010 MTP guidelines counsel lumping so assignments in this second year are focused in a reduced
number of priorities. This MTP shows we are well aligned with the System priorities.

CIP Research Program Context
During 2006 CIP published its new Strategic Plan for Research. Presented extensively in the 2007-2009
MTP, the Plan guides the implementation of the CIP Vision. In the Strategic Plan we seek to position CIP
within the constantly changing external context to best contribute to the MDGs as a research partner for
development. To serve our mandate to the CG system and to fulfill our Vision we conclude that we must
grow considerably and in particular we must increase our presence and impact in Sub-Saharan Africa,
South Asia and East Asia.

In their comments on the research program we presented in the 2007-2009 MTP, the Science Council
noted that ‘The MTP reflects very good research planning.’ The 2008-2010 MTP continues this level of
planning, documenting implementation of our strategic plan and the continued alignment of the center’s
research agenda with system priorities. Implementation and alignment are step-wise processes. Our
research agenda is almost entirely financed by research contracts. Like plant breeders seeking to shift
the distribution of characteristics of their populations, CIP can shift the distribution of its research contract
portfolio towards its objectives only as existing contracts expire and new contracts are won.

CIP has long maintained regional offices serving different regions of the world: Latin America and the
Caribbean (LAC); Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); South, West and Central Asia (SWCA); and East and
Southeast Asia and the Pacific (ESEAP). Because the MDG targets are real people in real places with
unique needs and opportunities, we have four research-for-development plans designed to optimize our
contributions in these parts of the world. However, because we are primarily a global institution dedicated
to producing international public goods, we have a global science strategy that drives the research for
development focus maintaining and strengthening our position as a center of excellence.

Implementation of the EPMR Recommendations
As noted above, we are expecting a new set of recommendations in the forthcoming report of the 6th CIP
External Program and Management Review. Thus we do not present the implemented set of
recommendations from the 5th CIP EPMR report.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       1
Highlights of the 2008 Project Portfolio
CIP’s research program is arranged in Research Divisions and Partnership Programs. For the purpose of
the MTP these are defined as MTP projects. These include the Systemwide and Ecoregional Programs
(SWEPs) that CIP convenes on behalf of the CGIAR. We continue with the same six projects and three
SWEPs programs as reported in the 2007-2009 MTP.

The 2008 project portfolio presented in this document differs from the 2007 portfolio mainly in the
redefinition of project outputs. We have no new outputs due to new initiatives or funding. We have
continued to test the merits of lumping and splitting existing outputs to achieve greater internal coherence
and clarity.

To put the strategic plan into operation and to align our internal reporting to the external reporting
requirements of the MTP and the project management (PM) system, we redefined several project outputs,
seeking to reduce their number and reach consistency in size and scope of the effort portrayed in them.

The Science Council comments on our presentation of last year’s program noted that ‘…CIP has a strong
international public goods research program with a relatively limited set of activities on national programs
and development activities.’ We were pleased with that endorsement and interpret it to mean that our
research program is well aligned with the new System priorities (SP) and correctly balanced between SP
and non-SP activities.

Elsewhere the Science Council commented ‘…the activities in the Research Divisions have a strong
research focus. Regarding research content, Projects 1 through 4 …are particularly noteworthy and
deserve praise.’ These projects continue without major changes from last year. Our projects five and six
received less favorable comments from the Science Council. We respond to those critiques below.

Project 1. Impact Enhancement
Our Impact Enhancement project is designed to assist the center implement the research for
development cycle described in the Strategic Plan. The project provides information on targeting, needs
and opportunities assessment, including facilitation of linkages to dissemination and impact analysis.
There are output targets for baseline measurements for ex-ante impact assessment and new methods for
ex-post impact analysis.

New results or projects
A new research contract jointly implemented with CIAT seeks to consolidate institutional learning in the
agricultural innovation systems of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and has been included with new output
targets in output 3. Two other new research contracts designed to test and promote new forms of rural
organization and their effectiveness to link farmers to markets in the Andean region have also added new
output targets. These latter two research contracts contain technical assistance and participatory farmer
training activities that we define as non-agenda.




2                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 1. Impact Enhancement
Outputs 2007-2009                        Outputs 2008-2010                   Description of Change

Output 1 Improved data and               Output 1 Pro-poor R&D Cycle Output re-titled to capture role
methods for research targeting and       validated by 2010           of the project leading CIP in the
resource allocation developed (3                                     implementation of pro-poor
years)                                                               cycle, new output targets on
                                                                     improved targeting and ex-ante
                                                                     assessment methods
Output 2 Value added to CIP              Output 2 Strategies for linking Output re-titled to expand scope
commodities through linking farmers      farmers with markets and post- of work on value-chain and
to markets and post harvest              harvest innovations tested and marketing analysis
innovations (3-5 years)                  documented by 2011
Output 3 Pro-poor policies for           Output 3 Pro-poor policies for      No change
institutional learning and change        institutional learning and
identified and documented (3 years)      change identified and
                                         documented by 2012

Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization
The major change in this project is the establishment of a new output to highlight and better coordinate
our investment into research on the identification of useful variation in the germplasm for traits and
characteristics of interest. All the Outputs include a component of capacity strengthening through
collaborative research.

New results or projects
Phase 2 of the Global Public Goods project continues the contributions of CIP in genebank management
and new output targets have been added. With access to new methods and tools, CIP is increasing its
commitment to characterization of the holdings in the genebank, adding a new output that focuses on an
expanded set of traits including nutritional characteristics.

Project 2. Genetic Resource Conservation and Utilization
Outputs 2007-2009                Outputs 2008-2010                            Description of Change
Output 1 Wild and cultivated           Output 1 New wild and cultivated       Change in wording for
genetic resources of potato,           genetic resources of several           clarification
sweetpotato and other root and         crops (potato, sweetpotato and
tuber species and associated           nine other root and tuber crops)
information collected, securely        are collected with their associated
conserved through integrated ex        information, securely conserved
situ, in stiu and on-farm              and made available by 2010
approaches an disseminated to
users worldwide
Output 2 The diversity of wild and     Output 2 The genetic diversity of      Output 2 will concentrate on
cultivated genetic resources of        several crops (potato,                 genetic diversity
potato, sweetpotato and nine other     sweetpotato and nine other root        characterization of germplasm
root and tuber species is              and tuber crops) is characterized      collections and related
characterized and useful biotic and    and documented by 2010                 biodiversity. It does not involve
abiotic traits and nutritional and                                            breeder’s traits of interest or
health-related attributes are                                                 nutritional and health-related
identified and documented                                                     attributes
(2007-09)
                                       Output 3 Selected gene pools of        Output 3 will focus on
                                       root and tuber crops are               evaluation of breeder’s traits of



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      3
                                          evaluated for useful breeders          interest or nutritional and
                                          ‘traits of interest, and nutritional   health-related attributes
                                          and health-related attributes by
                                          2010

Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement
The identification and characterization of new sources and strategies for developing pest and disease
resistance, new knowledge of variability in micronutrient concentrations and insights into the responses of
CIP’s crops to abiotic stress has set the stage for new research that will blend conventional with
biotechnological approaches to sweetpotato and potato improvement.

New results or projects
New and pending projects will convene transnational expertise and new technologies in research and
training activities to help alleviate poverty through improved nutrition, crop productivity and added value
opportunities for development in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia

Major emphases will be placed on research to enhance resistance to virus infection and to increase the
nutritional content of sweetpotato for Africa, understanding the genetics of post harvest and nutritional
traits, and the development and use of genomic tools and new practices to characterize and access
genetic diversity within Solanaceae and other members of the Euastrid clade, which includes both of
CIP’s mandate crops. The consolidation of breeding networks and stakeholder groups including the
private sector is expected to help target and accelerate the delivery of improved varieties and related
technologies.

    Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement
    Outputs 2007-2009             Outputs 2008-2010                              Description of Change
    Output 1 Effective strategies for     Output 1 Effective strategies for      No change
    the identification and                the identification and
    dissemination of high-yielding,       dissemination of high-yielding,
    resistant and nutritious potato and   resistant and nutritious potato and
    sweetpotato varieties available for   sweetpotato varieties available for
    each CIP region (3-5 years)           each CIP region by 2012
    Output 2 Potato populations,          Output 2 Potato populations,           Wording changed to eliminate
    clones and true seed varieties        clones and true seed varieties         references to capacity
    with resistance, nutritional and      with resistance, nutritional and       strengthening
    market traits are developed for       market traits are developed for
    SSA, LAC, ESEAP and SWCA              SSA, LAC, ESEAP and SWCA
    and breeding methods tools,           by 2012
    information and capacities are
    enhanced (3-5 years)
    Output 3 Sweetpotato                  Output 3 Sweetpotato                   Wording changed to eliminate
    populations and clones with           populations and clones with            references to capacity
    superior agronomic, nutritional       superior agronomic, nutritional        strengthening
    and end-use quality                   and end-use quality
    characteristics are developed for     characteristics are developed for
    SSA, LAC, ESEAP and SWCA              SSA, LAC, ESEAP and SWCA
    and breeding methods tools,           by 2012
    information and capacities are
    enhanced (3-5 years)
    Output 4 Transgenic potatoes          Output 4 Transgenic potatoes           No change
    and sweetpotatoes for resource-       and sweetpotatoes for resource-
    poor producers and consumers          poor producers and consumers
    are developed and tested using        are developed and tested using



4                        International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
 Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement
 Outputs 2007-2009             Outputs 2008-2010                              Description of Change
 good practices (3-5 years)    good practices by 2012




Project 4. Integrated Crop Management
During the next several years, our Integrated Crop Management project will show shifts towards more
component focused research consistent with the objective to produce international public goods. Output 5
shows we will continue with selected testing of integrated solutions as a research question seeking to
identify synergistic or antagonistic technical and economic effects. The integrated evaluation will typically
be done with participatory approaches and thus take the appearance of pilot trials putting together local
solutions to local problems but they are not.

New results and projects
The virology team will develop quality accreditation manuals and standard operation procedures for
testing quarantine viruses in potato and sweetpotato germplasm suitable for ISO accreditation. This
internal procedure will guarantee the proper test of germplasm to be distributed internationally.

Within its Integrated Pest Management research, the team will apply and test ecological concepts and
principles to the design, the development and management of sustainable agricultural systems
(agroecology research). Research is conducted to understand ecological phenomena and food webs in
agro-ecosystems. By this, the team envisages to conclude with an inventory of insect communities in
potato and sweetpotato agro-ecosystems. The research assesses herbivore/natural enemy (predators,
parasitoids, entomopathogens) and plant interactions and interrelationships. These investigations are
related to landscape fragmentation and complexity and farmers’ practice, and their effects on functional
diversity and the exchange of species among different habitats. This research will lead to a better
understanding and designing of strategies for conservation and enhancement of natural enemies to
stabilize agro-ecosystems to counteract a wide range of potato and sweetpotato insect pests. For key
pests, biocontrol-based integrated pest management strategies will be developed and applied. A new
project for sweetpotato management in small island agroecologies in the Pacific has resulted in the
addition of new output targets in Outputs 3 and 4.

 Project 4. Integrated Crop Management
 Outputs 2007-2009                 Outputs 2008-2010                        Description of Change
 Output 1 Strategies for improving        Output 1 Strategies for           Greater precision on targeting
 formal and farmer-based seed             improving formal and farmer-      and ending date
 systems towards enhancing potato         based seed systems towards
 and sweetpotato production               enhancing potato and
 efficiency and competitiveness           sweetpotato production
 validated in LAC, SSA and Asia           efficiency and
 (3-5 years)                              competitiveness validated in
                                          at least three priority
                                          countries per region in LAC,
                                          SSA and Asia by 2012
 Output 2 Strategies for improved         Output 2 Strategies and           New emphasis on soil
 agronomy management as                   methods for technical             management as an integrating
 components for ICM for subsistence       integration of soil, seed,        medium for integrated control
 and semi-commercial potato and           disease and insect                of pests and diseases. Greater
 sweetpotato growers developed in         management components             precision on targeting and
 key countries in LAC, SSA and Asia       for subsistence and semi-         ending date
 (5 years)                                commercial potato and
                                          sweetpotato growers


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                     5
    Project 4. Integrated Crop Management
    Outputs 2007-2009                 Outputs 2008-2010                      Description of Change
                                      developed in at least three
                                      priority countries per region in
                                      LAC, SSA and Asia by 2012
    Output 3 Management components        Output 3 Components for            Greater precision on targeting
    against potato and sweetpotato        integrated disease                 and ending date
    diseases – late blight (LB), BW and   management against potato
    viruses – developed, tested and       and sweetpotato diseases –
    disseminated within ICM strategies    late blight (LB), bacterial wilt
    in LAC, SSA and Asian priority        (BW) and viruses –
    countries (3-5 years)                 developed, tested and
                                          disseminated within ICM
                                          strategies in at least three
                                          priority countries per region
                                          LAC, SSA and Asian priority
                                          countries by 2012
    Output 4 Management components        Output 4 Components and            Greater precision on targeting
    against potato and sweetpotato        strategies for the integrated      and ending date
    insect pests (APW, PTM, LMF)          management of key potato
    developed and part of ICM             and sweetpotato insect pests
    strategies in LAC, SSA and Asia       developed as part of ICM in
    priority countries (3-5 years)        at least three priority
                                          countries per region LAC,
                                          SSA and Asia priority
                                          countries by 2012
    Output 5 Strategies and methods       Output 5 Participatory             Greater precision on targeting
    for socioeconomic integration of      strategies and methods for         and ending date
    ICM components developed and          socioeconomic integration of
    made available for improving potato   potato and sweetpotato ICM
    and sweetpotato innovation systems    components developed and
    in LAC, SSA and Asia (5 years)        made available for improving
                                          potato and sweetpotato
                                          innovation systems in at least
                                          three priority countries per
                                          region LAC, SSA and Asia by
                                          2012

Project 5. Natural Resources Management
As noted in last year’s MTP, the NRM project focuses on landscape level challenges in potato and
sweetpotato agro-ecosystems where other CIP Divisions are present. This is a change from the past
when the NRM project focused on mountain systems. The logframe presented last year reflects that
change. The logframe this year is largely unchanged.

The outputs and output targets are designed to overcome the natural site-specificity dilemma of most
NRM research and produce international public goods. The NRM project focuses on selected elements of
the INRM approach expounded by CGIAR’s INRM group. The NRM program was recently reviewed in a
CCER in which the research content and quality of research results of the program were endorsed by the
reviewers. The reviewers made several recommendations especially focused on communication of results
that will be implemented during the coming period.

New results or projects
During 2006 significant advances in the use of remote sensing data for evaluating crop health and area
estimation were reached. These results have led us to focus our methods for environmental vulnerability



6                       International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
analysis. This is reflected in the new title of Output 1 and new output targets validating these new results
in different crops and different settings. A new project for implementation in the SE Asia was awarded.
Several new output targets were added to Output 3. A new project that seeks integrated solutions for
poverty reduction in marginal Altiplano agro-ecosystems includes technical assistance activities that we
classify as non-agenda.

 Project 5. Natural Resources Management
 Outputs 2007-2009                 Outputs 2008-2010                        Description of Change
 Output 1 Methods, options and            Output 1 Geospatial methods       Greater precision on the
 strategies for improved targeting        and computer assisted tools       methods to be used for EVA
 and Environmental Vulnerability          for improved research tar-        included in changed title
 Analyses, preparedness and               geting, crop assessments and
 mitigation in the Andes, SSA and         Environmental Vulnerability
 SWCA developed (5 years)                 Analyses, preparedness and
                                          mitigation in the Andes, SSA
                                          and SWCA developed by
                                          2011
 Output 2 The effect of external          Output 2 Management               Title of output changed to
 dynamics on targeted ecosystems          recommendations and policy        emphasize results orientation
 in the Andes and East Africa             options to reduce                 of research efforts
 documented (3 years)                     environmental and economic
                                          vulnerability representative
                                          priority ecosystems in LAC,
                                          East Africa, India and
                                          Bangladesh documented by
                                          2010
 Output 3 Principles and                  Output 3 Strategies for           Title changed to emphasize
 approaches to develop adaptive           increased resilience and          concept of resilience
 capacity in agricultural systems in      adaptive capacity in
 the Andes, SSA and Asia identified       agricultural systems in the
 (5 years) (with GMP)                     Andes, SSA and Asia
                                          identified and validated by
                                          2011

Project 6. Health and Agriculture
For two consecutive years, the Science Council criticized this project for an apparent focus on research
with little potential for IPGs. During the year we hired two health science professionals (a
M.D./epidemiologist as project leader and a nutritionist) and reassigned an agricultural anthropologist to
the project. The new leader has sharpened the project outputs to emphasize the IPG nature of the
research. The first output focuses on minimizing the health risks associated with modern intensive
agriculture and the second on the nutritional benefits of bio-fortification.

New results or projects
Several new results achieved during 2006 continue to shape the direction of the research program in the
project. Research demonstrated the efficacy of orange fleshed sweetpotato as an option for food based
approaches to nutrition. Published in a leading nutrition journal, this evidence on the effectiveness of food
based approaches demonstrates viable pathways for nutrition impact. A second paper showed
improvements in neurobehavioral function among farm families that adopted integrated pest management
practices that reduced their exposure to highly toxic insecticides. There had been no previous published
evidence of neurobehavioral recovery. This result adds a significant new benefit to the evaluation of
financial support for IPM research and promotion. A new project to monitor and reduce pesticide use in
horticulture systems in the Andes was funded and will add new targets to output one.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                    7
    Project 6. Health and Agriculture
    Outputs 2007-2009                     Outputs 2008-2010                  Description of Change
    Output 1 Human health risks from      Output 1 Integrated health         Output title reflects the
    exposure to dangerous                 and agriculture strategies to      broadened research agenda
    contaminates are reduced in LAC       reduce pesticide exposure          that seeks to promote
    and SSA (3 years)                     risk and promote healthy and       evidence-based policy change
                                          sustainable agriculture
                                          among farm families in
                                          Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia
                                          designed and promoted by
                                          2010
    Output 2 Importance of safe and       Output 2 The value of orange       Output title reflects a tighter
    healthy roots and tubers is           fleshed sweetpotato as a           definition of research outputs
    established (3 years)                 component of food-based            related to our collaboration
                                          approaches to improved             with the impact project of
                                          nutrition is demonstrated          HarvestPlus
                                          by 2010


Project 7. CONDESAN
CONDESAN concentrates on two major themes, sustainable water management in the Andes and
fostering the establishment and functioning of innovative institutions that promote sustainable rural
development.

New results or projects
During the year CIP, on behalf of CONDESAN, was awarded two new projects that target conservation
and sustainable development of the high altitude grasslands of the northern Andes called paramos.
These projects provide development assistance for protected area management. We report a portion of
the funds for this project as non-agenda. CONDESAN received World Bank support for the coordination
unit again in 2007.

    Project 7. CONDESAN
    Outputs 2007-2009                     Outputs 2008-2010                  Description of Change
    Output 1 Policies and local,          Output 1 Policies and local,       Greater precision on targeting
    national and regional                 national and regional              and end date
    recommendations for improved          recommendations for
    integrated water resource             improved integrated water
    management (IWRM) in Andean           resource management
    countries from Venezuela to           (IWRM) in Andean countries
    Argentina (4 years)                   from Venezuela to Argentina
                                          scaled up and out by 2010
    Output 2 New institutional            Output 2 Institutional             No change except more
    innovations, forms of organization    innovations, forms of              precision on ending date
    and mechanisms for cooperation,       organization and mechanisms
    training and dialogue are developed   for cooperation, training and
    and promoted in the Andean            dialogue are developed and
    agricultural systems to take          promoted in the Andean
    advantage of the region’s natural     agricultural systems to take
    diversity (5 years)                   advantage of the ecoregion’s
                                          natural diversity by 2011




8                       International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 8. Global Mountain Program
The GMP continued its expansion of activities with the the World Agroforestry Center, African Highlands
Initiative (AHI) and Urban Harvest for supporting the Africa node of the Mountain Forum and an Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia based project on rural-urban linkages in mountain environments.

New results or projects
The GMP has agreements with the Mountain Forum on information and has brought together an alliance
on Rural-Urban Linkages in Ethiopia where RUL now forms part of the national 5-year plan.

Project 8. Global Mountain Program
Outputs 2007-2009                  Outputs 2008-2010                        Description of Change
Output 1 The principal research            Output 1 The principal          Change in emphasis to shift
products of the CGIAR centers for          research products of the        from process to product offering
mountains are available and                CGIAR centers for mountains
accessible in the form of a                are available and accessible to
supermarket or market place of             mountain communities in the
innovations and opportunities.             form of a supermarket or
(5 years with individual CGIAR             market place of innovations
Centers and the Mountain                   and opportunities. (with CIP
Forum (MF)                                 and ILRI and the Mountain
                                           Forum (MF) (finished 2010)
Output 2 Policy and technology             Output 2 Livelihood, land use    Change to more specific
options to improve use and minimize        & natural resources flow and     products and output within the
adverse impacts of rural urban             policy analyses of Rural-        three year time frame
linkages in mountains are                  Urban-Rural in Ethiopian
documented (5 years) (with AHI and         benchmark are available.
SIUA, IFPRI, CIFOR, CIP, ICRAF,            (2008-2010) With CIFOR,
IWMI, CIAT and national partners)          IWMI, IFPRI, SWIUPA, AHI
                                           and national partners)
Output 3 Strengths and weaknesses                                           Output eliminated
of policies in the Andes for water, soil
and forest management in mountains
are documented (2 years with
CONDESAN in Andes and
Sustainable Agriculture and Rural
Development in Mountain Regions
(SARD-M) partners globally)

Project 9. Urban Harvest
New results or projects
During the year CIP on behalf of Urban Harvest was awarded several new projects that create new output
targets. These include major projects that sponsor research in Nakuru, Kenya and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
There are new output targets to reflect this in Outputs 2 and 3.


 Project 9. Urban Harvest
 Outputs 2007-2009                         Outputs 2008-2010                Description of Change
 Output 1 The contribution of UPA to                                        This output will end in 2007
 improving the livelihoods of poor city
 households and the condition of
 urban ecosystems is documented



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      9
 Project 9. Urban Harvest
 Outputs 2007-2009                       Outputs 2008-2010                 Description of Change
 and validated (until 2007)
 Output 2 Innovative technologies        Output 1 Innovative               Clarified statement of output.
 and practices developed for             technologies and practices        Tighter definition of ending date
 increasing productivity and             developed for increasing
 marketing of agricultural               productivity and marketing of
 commodities produced in UPAs and        agricultural commodities
 their contribution to human nutrition   produced in urban and peri-
 and health (3-5 years)                  urban areas (ends 2011)
 Output 3 Methods developed to           Output 2 Methods developed        Clarified statement of output.
 mitigate human health risks to urban    to enhance the safety and         Tighter definition of ending date
 producers and consumers and to          sustainability of urban and
 improve use of urban sources of         peri-urban agriculture and the
 nutrients for agriculture (5 years)     uptake of urban sources of
                                         nutrients for soils and feed
                                         (2011)
 Output 4 Policy options and             Output 3 Policy options and       Tighter definition of ending date
 institutional and planning strategies   institutional and planning
 to support safe and sustainable         strategies to support safe and
 agricultural production in urban        sustainable agricultural
 areas are developed (3-5 years)         production in urban areas are
                                         developed (2011)

Changes in collaborative arrangements
In last year’s MTP we described in detail our participation in CGIAR and non-CG collaborative
arrangements. This year in this space we only document major changes in those relationships. The
project highlights above also capture some of these changes as they result in new outputs or output
targets.

Generation Challenge Program (GCP)
      No changes in Generation CP relations.

HarvestPlus Challenge Program
       No changes in HarvestPlus CP relations.

Water and Food Challenge Program
       CONDESAN continues as benchmark basin coordinator for the Andean system of basins.

Systemwide Genetic Resources Program (SGRP)
      No changes in CIP-SGRP relations.

Systemwide Livestock Program (SLP)
      A CIP proposal on sweetpotato-pig systems in SE Asia, was selected in a SLP competition and
      has begun implementation in 2007.

Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management (SP-IPM)
      CIP has withdrawn from SP-IPM governance. We continue to participate in the third phase of the
      SP-IPM flagship project on Tropical Whitefly IPM coordinated by CIAT.

Participatory Research and Gender Analysis (PRGA)
        See the note below on CIP-CIAT alliances. CIP has assumed project leadership for the
        strengthening innovations systems project in Bolivia and with PRGA has begun implementation.



10                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi)
        No changes in CIP-CAPRi relations to report.

EcoRegional Program for Sustainable Agriculture Development in CAC
      Collaboration continues, there are no changes to report.

EcoRegional Program on AHI
      Collaboration continues, there are no changes to report.

EcoRegional Program on Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains
      CIP has had no activities funded through the consortium since 2004.

Other CGIAR Collective Action Initiatives
    CIP–CIAT Arrangements for joint safety back-ups of the sweetpotato and cassava collections
    continue
    CIP-CIAT Joint Project: Participatory Research for Development in the Uplands (PRDU) in Lao PDR,
    Vietnam and China (No changes to report in this program. Output targets are recorded in our ICM
    Project #4.)
    CIP–CIAT Joint Project: Andean Change Alliance for strengthening innovation systems. A new
    project with outputs reported in our Impact Enhancement Project #1.
    CIAT-CIP-CIMMYT Joint Project: Combating hidden hunger in Latin America: Biofortified crops with
    improved Vitamin A, essential minerals and quality protein (no changes to report in this program.
    Output targets are recorded in our Crop Improvement Project #3)
Collaborators
CIP research divisions and partnership programs share many of the same collaborations. In an effort to
reduce the length of the MTP, rather than repeat collaborations in the different project narratives, we
present CIP collaborations in a single consolidated list.

                                                         Strategic Role and                 Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                    Complementary Capability                (Output)
 Angola          Instituto Nacional de    Research on variety selection and promotion in    3 (1 & 2)
                 Investigação Agrária     target environments
 Argentina       Universidad              Contributes to the characterization of yacon        2 (3)
                 Nacional de
                 Tucuman
 Armenia         Armenian Science         Testing of elite clones with varietal potential     3 (1)
                 Center of                under target production conditions
                 Agricultural and
                 Plant Protection
 Australia       University of            Micronutrient content analysis, linking farmers   3 (2 & 3),
                 Adelaide                 with markets                                         1(2)
 Australia       Dept of Agriculture      Linking farmers with markets                         1(2)
                 and Food West
                 Australia
 Austria         Austrian Research        Functional genomics capacity                      3 (2 & 3)
                 Centers –
                 Seibersdorf
 Bangladesh      Tuber Crops              Multiplication and testing of advanced elite        3 (2)
                 Research Center,         clones with varietal potential under target
                 Joydebpur                production agro-ecologies; Testing True Potato
                                          Seed (TPS) hybrids



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                 11
                                                       Strategic Role and                       Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                  Complementary Capability                      (Output)
Belgium        Universiteit Gent       Capacity building in Biosafety issues &                    3 (4)
                                       management to African partners
Belgium        Katholieke              KUL Supervises a CIP PhD research thesis on                2 (1)
               Universiteit Leuven     potato cryopreservation
Bolivia        PROINPA                 Capacity building in linking farmers with               1 (1, 2 & 3)
                                       markets. Contributes with human, financial
                                       support and logistic facilities for evaluating
                                       participatory and market chain interventions
                                       Testing of elite clones and molecular                      3 (2)
                                       technologies. Assessment of new sources of
                                       resistance for late blight
                                       Contributes with human, financial support and          4 (1, 2, 3, 4,
                                       logistic facilities for conducting ICM-related               5)
                                       research
                                       Implement case studies Bolivia                             5 (3)
Bolivia        Kurmi                   Links with farmers’ organizations, knowledge of          1 (2 & 3)
                                       local contexts and local logistical capacity
Brazil         EMBRAPA -               Post harvest evaluation for improved utilization           3 (3)
               Empresa Brasileira      of sweetpotato; training and scientific exchange
               de Pesquisa
               Agropecuária
Burkina        Helen Keller            Assessment and promotion of orange-fleshed                 3 (1)
Faso           International           sweetpotato varieties in West Africa using
                                       integrated nutrition-agriculture approaches
Burundi        University of Burundi   Socioeconomic impact of virus and weevil of                3(4)
                                       sweetpotato production in East Africa.
                                       Contribute to develop capacity in production of
                                       sweetpotato planting material and other
                                       biotechnology applications
Burundi        ISABU                   Contributes with human resources and facilitates           4 (3)
                                       technology evaluation with farmers
Bhutan         Bhutan Potato           Human resources, for the validation and                    4 (1)
               Development             dissemination of seed production models
               Program
Cameroon       Inst of Agricultural    Research on variety selection and dissemination          3 (1 & 2)
               Research for            in target environments
               Development
                                       Contributes with human resources and facilitates           4 (3)
                                       technology evaluation with farmers
Canada         Agriculture and         Expertise and capacity building on genomics                3 (2)
               Agri- Food              and bioinformatics
Canada         Refractions.net         Contracted for consultancies on modern Java                3 (2)
               (Canadian software      development techniques in support of activities
               consultancy)            under Generation CP
Chile          Instituto de            Provides support and environments for                      3 (2)
               Investigaciones         assessment of germplasm and disease
               Agropecuarias (INIA)    reactions under long day conditions
China          Chinese Academy of      Analysis of economic and poverty impacts of                1 (1)
               Agricultural Sciences   potato in China
               (CAAS)                  Contributes to potato breeding technology                  3 (2)
                                       development and dissemination



12                   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                        Strategic Role and                      Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                     Complementary Capability                   (Output)
 China           China Center for         Analysis of economic and poverty impacts of             1(1)
                 Agricultural Policy      potato in China
 China           China Agricultural       Analysis of economic and poverty impacts of             1(1,2)
                 University               potato in China, linking farmers with markets
 China           Sichuan Academy of       Development of post-harvest innovations in               1 (2)
                 Agricultural             sweetpotato utilization
                 Sciences, Chengdu
 China           The Sichuan Animal       Implementation of field work                             5 (3)
                 Science Academy
                 (SASA)
 China           Northeast                Strategic testing of advanced breeding materials         3 (2)
                 Agricultural             in long day environments
                 University               Facilitates contacts with research and                   1 (1)
                                          development institutions in Asia for analyzing
                                          interventions and promoting spillover
                                          Facilitates technology evaluation with farmers           4 (3)
 China           Hesheng Seed             Variety introduction and quality control of seed      3 (1), 4 (1)
                 Potato Industry          potato production
 Colombia        CIAT                     Post-harvest innovations for upland agriculture        1 (2 & 3)
                                          in SE Asia, analysis of participatory interventions
                                          in Andes
                                          Provides technology and facilities in the                2 (1)
                                          genebank for conservation of CIP´s sweetpotato
                                          blackbox collection
                                          Contribute to the development of biosafety               3(4)
                                          capacities in LAC countries
 Colombia        CIAT - Santa Cruz        Developing participatory R&D methods and                 1 (1)
                                          impact assessment
 Colombia        Universidad              Testing of elite clones and molecular                    3 (2)
                 Nacional de              technologies. Assessment of new sources of
                 Colombia                 resistance for late blight
 Cuba            Instituto Nacional de    Testing True Potato Seed (TPS) hybrids and               3 (1)
                 Ciencias Agrícolas       their utilization in urban agriculture
 D.R. Congo      INERA                    Socioeconomic impact of virus and weevil of             3(4, 5)
                                          sweetpotato production in East Africa
                                          Research on variety selection and dissemination          3 (3)
                                          in target environments
 Denmark         Royal Veterinary and     Discovery of genes with antifungal properties            3 (2)
                 Agricultural             Contributes with funding for students and                4 (3)
                 University               facilitates linkages with research teams in
                                          developed countries in Europe
 Ecuador         INIAP – Instituto        Capacity building in linking farmers with markets        1 (2)
                 Nacional Autónomo        Testing of elite clones and molecular                    3 (2)
                 de Investigaciones       technologies. Assessment of new sources of
                 Agropecuarias            resistance for late blight
                                          Contributes with human resources for                   4 (3, 4)
                                          conducting research related to LB and
                                          insect control
 Ecuador         CESA                     Links with farmers’ organizations, knowledge of        1 (1 & 2)
                                          local contexts and local logistical capacity



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       13
                                                        Strategic Role and                      Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                    Complementary Capability                    (Output)
Ecuador        Marco Foundation          Links with farmers’ organizations, knowledge             1 (2)
                                         of local contexts and local logistical capacity
Ecuador        Polytechnic               Honors' thesis student capacity development              6 (1)
               University of
               Chimborazo
Ecuador        Provincial Health         Data collection, interpretation and intervention         6 (1)
               Offices                   planning on health and agriculture
Ethiopia       Ethiopian                 Research on variety selection and dissemination        3 (1 & 2)
               Agricultural              in target environments
               Research
               Organization
Finland        University of Helsinki    Facilities and expertise regarding understanding         3 (4)
                                         of and engineering virus resistance to SPVD
France         CIRAD - Centre de         Cross-species genomics of drought tolerance              3 (2)
               coopération               genes
               internationale en
               recherche
               agronomique pour le
               développement
Georgia        International             Contribute to validate farmer-based seed                 4 (1)
               Association for           technologies with the Seed Growers'
               Agricultural              Associations assisted by the NGO
               Development
Georgia        Crop Husbandry            Multiplication and testing of advanced elite             3 (2)
               Institute                 clones with LB resistance under target
                                         production agro-ecologies
Germany        Institute of Biological   Contributes with expertise on biological control,        4 (4)
               Control, BBA              particularly for baculovirus-related research
Germany        Max Planck Inst           Capacity building and research in genomics               3 (2)
Germany        University of             Contribute with students to conduct research as          4 (4)
               Hohenheim                 part of Master and PhD programs
Ghana          Crops Research            Assessment and improvement of sweetpotato              3 (1 & 3)
               Institute                 diversity for SSA; variety testing development
                                         and multiplication of the basic planting materials
India          All India Coordinated     Testing of elite clones in different agro-ecologies      3 (2)
               Potato Improvement        at AICPIP centers
               Project (AICPIP),
               Shimla
India          Central Potato            Multiplication and testing of advanced elite             3 (2)
               Research Institute        clones with varietal potential under target
               Shimla                    production agro-ecologies; Testing of TPS
                                         families with potential characteristics under
                                         target production zones
India          CTCRI - Central           Cropping systems research on sweetpotato                 3 (3)
               Tuber Crops
               Research Institute
India          Department of             Contributes with human resources for the                 4 (1)
               Agriculture Nagaland      validation and dissemination of positive and
               and University of         negative selection of clonal seed and True
               Nagaland                  Potato Seed (TPS) to improve farmer-based
                                         seed systems




14                   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                       Strategic Role and                       Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                  Complementary Capability                      (Output)
 India           Directorate of           Implement case studies in India                         5 (3)
                 Agriculture, West
                 Bengal, India
 India           ICRISAT -                Intercropping sweetpotato and legumes                   3 (3)
                 International Crops
                 Research Institute
                 for the Semi-Arid
                 Tropics
 Indonesia       IVEGRI - Indonesian      Evaluation of elite LB resistant potato clones in       3 (2)
                 Vegetable Research       West and Central Java
                 Institute
 Indonesia       ILETRI - Indonesian      Evaluation of Sweetpotato Clones in Papua-              3 (3)
                 Legume and Tuber         Indonesia
                 Crops Research
                 Institute
 Israel          Hebrew University of     Develop tools for potato functional genomics            3 (2)
                 Jerusalem
 Italy           Bioversity               Sharing bioinformatics techniques and tool              3 (2)
                 International            development under the Generation CP
 Italy           Food and Agriculture     Leadership in payment for environmental                 5 (2)
                 Organization of the      services
                 United Nations
 Italy           CGIAR System wide        Platform and coordination role for CGIAR                2 (1)
                 genetic resources        Centers on upgrading and removal of backlogs
                 program (SGRP)           for improving germplasm conservation

 Kazakhstan      Research Institute       Testing of elite clones with varietal potential         3 (1)
                 Potato and               under target production conditions
                 Vegetable Farming
 Kenya           University of Nairobi    Research on variety selection and promotion in        3 (1 & 2)
                                          target environments
                                          Facilitate access to lab facilities and technology     4 (1, 3)
                                          evaluation with farmers. It leads the ASARECA-
                                          funded project on seed and BW management.
 Kenya           Kenya Agr Res Inst       Facilitate access for technology evaluation with        1 (1)
                 (KARI)                   farmers
                                          Research on variety selection and dissemination      3 (1, 2 & 3)
                                          in target environments
                                          Implement case studies in Kenya                          5 (2)
 Kenya           International            Planning and implementations on sweet potato-        5 (1, 2 & 3)
                 Livestock Research       Livestock Research in SEAP
                 Institute (ILRI)
 Kenya           Farm Concern             Linking farmers with markets                            1(2)
 Korea           Rural Development        Provides support and environments for                   3 (2 )
                 Administration           assessment of germplasm and disease
                                          reactions under long day conditions; Provides
                                          expertise for capacity building
 Kyrgyzstan      Aga Khan                 Contribute to carry out surveys on potato               3 (2)
                 Foundation               preferences and malnutrition
 Luxembourg      Centre de                Biochemical analysis of selected potato                 3 (2)
                 Recherche Public         landraces



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                    15
                                                    Strategic Role and                         Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                 Complementary Capability                      (Output)
               Gabriel Lippmann

Madagascar     FIFAMANOR              Assessment and improvement of sweetpotato               3 (1, 2 & 3)
                                      diversity for SSA; variety testing development
                                      and multiplication of the basic planting materials;
                                      Testing Bt toxicity to Weevils, developing &
                                      testing methodology for assessing weevil
                                      incidence
Malawi         SARRNET -              Convenes agencies from 13 countries in                     3 (1)
               Southern Africa Root   Southern Africa region to extend and adapt
               Crops Research         technologies derived from potato and
               Network                sweetpotato research in the region
Malawi         Dept of Agricultural   Research on variety selection and promotion in           3 (1 & 2)
               Research Services      target environments
               of the Ministry of
               Agriculture
Mexico         CIMMYT –               Sharing bioinformatics techniques and tool                 3 (2)
               International Maize    development under the Generation CP;
               and Wheat              collaboration towards a common database for
               Improvement Center     managing field and lab data (CIPPEX/ICIS)
Mexico         Generation             Provides a platform for accessing methods and              2 (3)
               Challenge Program      techniques for assessing/screening water stress

                                      Expertise and capacity building on population            3 (2 & 3)
                                      genetics, genomics and bioinformatics
Mozambique     INIA - National        Research on variety selection and promotion in          3 (1, 2 & 3)
               Institute for          target environments
               Agronomic Research
Myanmar        Yezin Agricultural     Evaluation of advanced potato clones in target             3 (2)
               University             environments
Nepal          Potato Development     Potato research including testing of True Potato           4 (1)
               Section/Potato         Seed (TPS) hybrids
               Research Program
               of NARC
Netherlands    Plant Research         Contributes with expertise for pheromone                   4 (4)
               International,         detection and identification
               Pherobank
Netherlands    Wageningen             Socioeconomic research toward understanding              3 (1 & 2)
               Agricultural           processes of diffusion and adoption of potato
               University             varieties; Potato genomics (gene expression)
                                      facilities and expertise
                                      Tradeoff analyses - soil sciences leadership               5 (2)
Nigeria        National Root Crops    Research on variety selection and promotion in             3 ( 3)
               Research Institute     target environments
               (Umudike)
Nigeria        University of Ibadan   Research on variety selection and promotion in           3 (1 & 3)
                                      target environments
Pakistan       National Potato        Multiplication and testing of advanced elite               3(2)
               Program, Pakistan      clones with varietal potential under target
               Agricultural           production agro-ecologies
               Research Council,



16                  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                       Strategic Role and                        Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                    Complementary Capability                     (Output)
                 Islamabad, Pakistan



 Pakistan        Ayub,Agri. Res.          Testing of elite clones in different agro-ecologies       3 (2)
                 Inst., Faisalabad,       at Research Institutes and farmer fields
                 Potato and Veg
                 seed Inst., Quetta;
                 Hazara Agri.Res.
                 Inst, Peshawar;
                 Sindh
                 Horti.Research
                 Institute.
 Panama          Instituto de             Testing watershed analyses methods                        5 (2)
                 Investigación
                 Agropecuaria de
                 Panamá (NARI)
 Papua New       NARI                     Introduction and testing of Potato Clones in              3 (2)
 Guinea                                   Papua New Guinea
 Peru            CARE                     Contributes with human, financial and logistic            4 (5)
                                          support for evaluation of participatory research
                                          methods for potato ICM
 Peru            CONDESAN                 Facilitate contacts with local institutions and           1 (1)
                                          provide framework for sharing knowledge of
                                          participatory interventions
                                          Facilitate contacts with local institutions for           4 (2)
                                          conducting research related to soil fertility
                                          management and conservation agriculture in the
                                          Andean Region
                                          Links to dissemination                                    5 (3)
 Peru            Instituto Nacional de    Contributes with human resources for                  4 (1, 2, 3, 4)
                 Investigación Agraria    conducting research related to IPM, soil and
                 (INIEA)                  seed management
                                          Morphological and molecular                               2 (2)
                                          characterization of ARTCs
                                          Saline soils, SP adaptation and root crop                 5 (3)
                                          statistics
                                          Implementing innovative participatory variety             3(1)
                                          evaluation scheme
 Peru            Capac platform           Contributes to testing concepts of social                 1 (1)
                                          responsibility in market chain and capacity
                                          building in linking farmers with markets
 Peru            Mi Chacra                Links with farmers’ organizations, knowledge of           1 (2)
                                          local contexts and local logistical capacity
 Peru            Instituto de             Determination of role of potato in the diets of           3 (2)
                 Investigación            populations at risk of malnutrition; research and
                 Nutricional (IIN)        training in human nutrition
 Peru            SENASA                   For BW research, it facilitates access to                 4 (3)
                                          biocontrol agents and massive production
                                          facilities




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                     17
                                                    Strategic Role and                         Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                Complementary Capability                       (Output)
Peru           Servicio Nacional de   Leader in meteorology & hydrology                          5 (1)
               Meteorología e
               Hidrología del Perú
               (National Weather
               Service)
Peru           Universidad            Developing impact evaluation methodology                   1 (1)
               Nacional Agraria       Testing of elite clones and molecular                      3 (2)
               La Molina              technologies. Assessment of new sources of
                                      resistance for late blight
                                      Contributes with expertise for taxonomy of                 4 (4)
                                      insects and research related to disease control,
                                      soil management and participatory research
                                      Expertise in soil sciences                               5 (1 & 3)
                                      Morphological and molecular                                2 (2)
                                      characterization of ARTCs
Peru           Centro de              Coordinate research on potato landraces of                 2 (2)
               Investigaciones en     Altiplano communities
               Recursos Naturales     Implement case studies Peru                                5 (3)
               y Medio Ambiente –
               CIRNMA
               (Peru NGO)
Peru           Consejo Nacional de    Provides coordination of World Bank                        2 (2)
               Medio Ambiente         sponsored project on research on
               (CONAM)                occurrence and impact of gene flow in centers of
                                      origin as it relates to genetically engineered
                                      potato
Peru           Association for the    Provides the ethnobotanical knowledge and the              2 (1)
               sustainable            link to the communities, and coordinates local
               development of         activities
               nature (ANDES)
Peru           Universidad            Morphological and molecular characterization of            2 (2)
               Nacional San           ARTCs
               Antonio Abad del
               Cusco (UNSAAC)
Peru           Universidad            Morphological and molecular characterization of            2 (2)
               Nacional del Centro    ARTCs
               (UNC)
Peru           Universidad            Morphological and molecular characterization of            2 (2)
               Nacional de San        ARTCs
               Cristobal de
               Huamanga
               (UNSCH)
Peru           Universidad            Morphological and molecular characterization of            2 (2)
               Nacional Daniel        ARTCs
               Alcides Carrion
               (UNDAC)
Peru           Universidad            Testing and evaluation of advanced clones with             3(2)
               Nacional Jorge         varietal potential
               Basadre Grahmann
               de Tacna (UNJBG)
Philippines    Benguet State          Social and economic analysis of potato seed              1 (1 & 2)
               University             systems and impact



18                  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                          Strategic Role and                     Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                     Complementary Capability                    (Output)
 Philippines     Tarlac College of        Production of sweetpotato clean planting              4 (1,5), 1(2)
                 Agriculture              materials, linking farmers with markets
 Philippines     Philippine Rootcrops     Production of sweetpotato clean planting              4 (1,5), 1(2)
                 Research and             materials, linking farmers with markets
                 Training Center
 Philippines     University of the        Production of sweetpotato clean planting              4 (1,5), 1(2),
                 Philippines Los          materials, linking farmers with markets, in situ         2 (1,2)
                 Baños                    on-farm conservation and molecular
                                          characterization of sweetpotato genetic
                                          resources
 Philippines     DA-NOMIARC               Facilitates technology evaluation with farmers            4 (3)
 Philippines     IRRI – International     Sharing bioinformatics techniques and tool                3 (2)
                 Rice Research            development under the Generation CP;
                 Institute                collaboration towards a common database for
                                          managing field and lab data (CIPPEX/ICIS)
 Philippines     UPWARD                   Adapting participatory market chain approach to         1 (1, 2)
                                          Asia; collaboration to develop methodology for
                                          assessing livelihood impacts
                                          Facilitates contacts with research and                 4 (1, 3, 5)
                                          development institutions in Asia for conducting
                                          participatory research related to ICM
 South Africa    Agricultural             Assessment and improvement of sweetpotato                 3 (3)
                 Research Council         diversity for SSA; variety testing development
                                          and multiplication of the basic planting materials;
                                          Testing Bt toxicity to Weevils, developing &
                                          testing methodology for assessing weevil
                                          incidence
 Rwanda          ISAR                     Socioeconomic impact of virus and weevil of             3(3 & 4)
                                          sweetpotato production in East Africa.
                                          Contribute to develop capacity in production
                                          sweetpotato planting material and other
                                          biotechnology applications
 South Africa    Agricultural             Develop commercialization of GM potato in                 3 (4)
                 Research Center –        South Africa
                 Roodeplaat
 Spain           NEIKER - Instituto       Provides scientific and technological knowhow             3(2)
                 Vasco de                 for genetic and molecular analysis
                 Investigación y
                 Desarrollo Agrario
 Sri Lanka       Horticultural            Testing of CIP clones in different ago-ecologies          3(2)
                 Research and             Enhancement and testing of new sweetpotato                3(3)
                 Development              germplasm for adaptation and utilization
                 Institute (HORDI)
 Sweden          Swedish University       Facilities and expertise regarding engineering            3 (4)
                 of Agricultural          virus resistance to SPVD
                 Sciences                 Contributes with expertise for research related to        4 (3)
                                          LB epidemiology
 Switzerland     Swiss Federal            Provides scientific and technological knowhow             2 (3)
                 Institute of             on biochemical-analytical technologies and
                 Technology Zurich        support to MSc and PHD students
                 (ETH)



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       19
                                                       Strategic Role and                      Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                  Complementary Capability                     (Output)
Switzerland    University Hospital     Provides scientific knowledge to demonstrate              2 (3)
               Basel                   health attributes of yacon
Tajikistan     Horticultural Inst      Testing of elite clones and TPS families with             3 (1)
               “Bogparvar”,            varietal potential under target production
               Academy of              conditions
               Agricultural
               Sciences, Inst of
               Plant Phys and
               Genet, FAO:
               OSRO/TAJ/401/CAN
Tanzania       Dept. of Research       Assessment and improvement of sweetpotato               2 (2 & 3)
               and Training            diversity for SSA; variety testing development          3 (2 & 3)
                                       and multiplication of the basic planting materials;
                                       Testing Bt toxicity to Weevils, developing &
                                       testing methodology for assessing weevil
                                       incidence
Tanzania       Tanzania Food and       Nutrient quality analysis                                 3 (3)
               Nutrition Center
Uganda         AFRICARE                Facilitates the evaluation of technologies and            4 (5)
                                       participatory research methods with farmers
Uganda         PRAPACE -               Convenes agencies from 10 countries in East               3 (1)
               Regional Potato and     and Central Africa to extend and adapt
               Sweetpotato             technologies derived from potato and
               Improvement             sweetpotato research in the region
               Network in Eastern      Facilitates contacts with research institutions in     4 (1, 3, 5)
               and Central Africa      SSA for conducing ICM-related research
Uganda         National Agricultural   Capacity building for linking farmers to markets          1 (3)
               Research
               Organization            Research on variety selection and dissemination        3 (1, 2 & 3)
                                       in target environments
                                       Facilitates access to lab facilities and the           4 (1, 3, 5)
                                       evaluation of technology and participatory
                                       research methods with farmers
Uganda         Makerere University     Socioeconomic impact of virus and weevil of              3(4, 5)
                                       sweetpotato production in East Africa
Uganda         Namulonge               Assessment and improvement of sweetpotato               3 (3 & 4)
               Agricultural & Animal   diversity for SSA; variety testing development
               Production Research     and multiplication of the basic planting materials;
               Institute               Testing Bt toxicity to Weevils, developing &
                                       testing methodology for assessing weevil
                                       incidence
United         School of Asian and     Methods to assess household livelihood impacts            1 (2)
Kingdom        Oriental Studies        from sweetpotato processing
               (SOAS)
United         Natural Resources       Provides access to human resources for work               4 (5)
Kingdom        Institute               related to participatory research and training
                                       methods in SSA
USA            America University      Skills in economic analysis, poverty assessment       1 (1, 2, & 3)
                                       and new institutional economics
USA            HarvestPlus             Expertise and facilities for micronutrient             3 (1, 2 & 3)
               Challenge Program       determinations, human nutrition, communication



20                  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                      Strategic Role and                      Division
   Country          Major Partner
                                                   Complementary Capability                   (Output)
                                          and impact

 USA             Cornell University       Capacity building in population genetics,              3 (2)
                                          genomics and bioinformatics
                                          Contributes with top expertise on modeling work        4 (4)
                                          for LB-related research
 USA             Montana State            Leadership in Tradeoff analyses - econometric          5 (2)
                 University               Integrated assessment modeling                         5 (1)
 USA             NCGR - National          Sharing bioinformatics techniques and tool             3 (2)
                 Center for Genome        development under the Generation CP
                 Resources
 USA             University of            Contributes with expertise for taxonomy and            4 (4)
                 California               biocontrol-related work
 USA             USDA-ARS                 Access to expertise on biocontrol and PTM              4 (4)
                                          management in other environments and
                                          cropping systems
 USA             Virginia Polytechnic     Expertise and facility for analyzing molecular         3 (2)
                 Institute and State      genetics of response to abiotic stress
                 University
 USA             Louisiana State          Nutrient quality analysis and variety evaluations      3 (3)
                 University
 USA             Michigan State           Develop commercialization of GM potato in              3 (4)
                 University               South Africa
 USA             University of            Leadership in Climate change modeling                  5 (1)
                 Connecticut
 USA             University of            Leadership in Livelihood strategies research         5 (1 & 3)
                 Missouri-Columbia
 USA             University of            Provides scientific knowledge in potato modern      2 (1, 2, 3)
                 Wisconsin/USDA           taxonomy, phylogeny, wild species diversity,
                                          reproductive biology, and screening for drought
                                          and frost tolerance
                                          Provides scientific and technological knowhow          3 (2)
                                          on taxonomic and molecular analysis

 USA             Boyce Thompson           Experimentation in genetic manipulation of          3 (2), 3 (4)
                 Institute for Plant      carotenoid pathway, under the umbrella of the
                 Research                 HarvestPlus Challenge Program
 USA             USDA Plant Soil and      Provides expertise and research outputs             3 (2), 3 (3)
                 Nutrition Lab            regarding micronutrient bioavailability
 Canada          University of Toronto    Occupational safety and epidemiology                   6 (1)
 Uzbekistan      Institute of             Testing of elite clones with varietal potential        3 (1)
                 Vegetables, Melons       under target production conditions; Testing TPS
                 and Potato               families for adaptation to long day conditions
 Uzbekistan      Laboratory of            Contribute with virus detection (DAS-ELISA) for        4(1)
                 Virology of the          initiating clean seed production
                 Institute of Genetics
                 and Plant
                 Experimental
                 Biology, Tashkent
                 (Uzbekistan)



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                     21
                                                       Strategic Role and                        Division
     Country      Major Partner
                                                  Complementary Capability                       (Output)
Uzbekistan     Dept. of Entomology      Contribute to potato pest identification and aphid         4(4)
               of Tashkent State        monitoring
               Agrarian University
Uzbekistan     National University      Contribute with tissue culture facilities and other       4 (1, 4)
               of Uzbekistan            infrastructure for initiating clean seed production

Venezuela      Institituto Nacional     Evaluation of True Potato Seed hybrids and                3 (1,2)
               de Investigaciones       diffusion among low-income small-land holdings
               Agricolas (INIA)         potato farmers
Vietnam        Food Crops               Evaluation of Potato Clones resistant to Late              3 (2)
               Research Institute of    Blight and Viruses in Red River Delta
               VAAS
Vietnam        National Institute of    Sweetpotato pigfeed utilization, linking farmers           1(2)
               Animal Husbandry         with markets
               (NIAH)                   Implementation of field work                               5 (3)
Vietnam        Food Crops               Enhancement and testing of new sweetpotato                 3 (3)
               Research Institute of    germplasm for adaptation and utilization
               VAAS
Zambia         Ministry of              Research on variety selection and promotion in             3 (3)
               Agriculture-             target environments
               Research Program
Vietnam        Vietnam Agricultural     Evaluation of potato clones and True Potato               3 (1, 2)
               Science Institute        Seed hybrids
               (VASI) of VAAS
Central Asia   Collaborative            Facilitates contacts with research institutions in        4 (1, 4)
and            Research Program         Central Asia and the Caucasus for conducting
Caucasus       for Sustainable          research related to seed management and
               Agricultural             insect control
               Development in
               Central Asia and the
               Caucasus
Sub-           Harvest Plus             Commodity biofortification for reducing                    1(1)
Saharan        Challenge Program        malnutrition and assessment of impact in Africa
Africa
                                        Provides funding for the Reaching End Users                4 (1)
                                        project, which contributes to conduct seed-
                                        related research in SSA
Latin          CIAT                     Collaborate in research programs related to               4 (3, 5)
America                                 white fly control as vectors of viruses on
                                        sweetpotato in SSA and impact assessment of
                                        IPM in LAC
Latin          Papa Andina              Strategic capacity in developing market chain           1 (1, 2 & 3)
America                                 approaches and promoting spillover in the
                                        Andes




22                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
MEDIUM TERM FINANCING PLAN
Center Financial Indicators
CIP attaches a high priority to maintaining a healthy financial position. Sound financial indicators reflect
the Center’s ability to cope with reasonable external shocks, ensure that research activities will continue
in cases of unexpected minor funding shortfalls, and provide a sound base to support future growth. To
this end, CIP will strengthen further its financial indicators and continue to exercise caution in financial
planning and budget design.

Short-term solvency (liquidity). In 2006, the short-term solvency indicator increased to 96 days. CIP is
forecasting an increase in the liquidity indicator for 2007 and is estimating that the ratio will grow to 101
days by 2010 as a result of a growing surplus and an increasing research program (Table 2.1).

Long-term financial stability (adequacy of reserves). The Center’s long-term financial stability
indicator reached 89 days in 2006. CIP will continue building up its long-term reserves indicator over the
medium run.




       Table 2.1 Financial Position
                                                   2006       2007       2008      2009      2010

       Current assets and investments               16.7      16.1       16.3       16.8       17.0
       Net fixed assets                              3.7        3.5        3.4       3.4        3.3
       Total assets                                 20.4      19.6       19.7       20.2       20.3
       Liabilities                                  11.3      10.4       10.3       10.5       10.2
       Net assets                                    9.1        9.2        9.4       9.7       10.1
       Total liabilities and net assets             20.4      19.6       19.7       20.2       20.3
       Ratios / indicators
       Working capital                               5.8        6.3        6.7       7.1        7.6
       Short term solvency (days)                     96        98         99       100         101
       Adequacy of reserves (days)                    89        89         89         90         91




Financial results of 2006 operations
The International Potato Center achieved a US$0.1M surplus in 2006 (Table 2.2). The surplus was
accomplished due to conservative budgeting, careful management of expenditures in the midst of
unexpected funding shortfalls, and due to an additional contribution received from the World Bank to
partially compensate the loss of the EU funding.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                  23
          Table 2.2 CIP’s 2006-2007 budget summary (US$M)
                                                                    2006              2007
                               Income                              Actual          Estimated
          Unrestricted                                               8.9                 7.6
          Restricted                                                11.8                14.7
          Other                                                      0.6                 0.6
                 Total                                              21.3                22.9
          Challenge Programs                                         1.8                 1.5
                Grand Total                                         23.1                24.4
          Expenses
          Operations                                               21.4                23.3
          Indirect Cost Recovery                                   (1.1)               (1.4)
          Depreciation                                               0.9                 1.0
                   Total                                           21.2                22.9
          Challenge Programs                                         1.8                 1.5
                 Grand Total                                        23.0                24.4
          Surplus (Deficit)                                          0.1                 0.0


Total revenues increased by 9%, while total expenditures expanded by 10% with respect to the budget.
Unrestricted revenues jumped by US$ 0.9M, 11%, while restricted revenues increased by US$ 0.9M, 7%,
and other revenues jumped US$ 0.1M, 21%. Unrestricted revenue growth was due to higher than
expected contributions from the World Bank, while restricted revenue growth was an effect of increasing
success in obtaining new research grants during the year. Other revenues increased sharply as US Dollar
interest rates increased during the first half, improving yields on CIP’s investments. The fall of the US
Dollar and the increase of cost recovery also influenced the results.

Regional Funding Trends
CIP continues committed to poverty and hunger alleviation in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2006, CIP
expanded its involvement in Africa and the Central Asia and the Caucasus Region. These target regions,
together with other poor countries of Asia will see increased research and capacity strengthening
activities.

Increased funding was available for Africa. In 2006, CIP obtained new funding for disseminating best
practices on OFSP across East and Southern Africa and opened offices in Mozambique and Malawi, with
3 new IRS postings to the region (including one IRS position relocated from Headquarters to East Africa).
In the medium run, CIP plans to increase 10 IRS postings in the region and expand work to Ethiopia,
Angola and West Africa. This means that CIP will increase the share of its investments in Sub-Sahara
Africa from 34% in 2006 to 39% by 2010.

CIP has been expanding its involvement in Asia. The Center increased its research activities in
Uzbekistan and emphasized its work in Afghanistan in 2006. In these countries, CIP has improved the
production of clean potato seed. New proposals submitted to donors to maintain CIP’s work in the region
will help to keep the share of Central and West Asia and to expand work in East and South East Asia.
The Center expects to post new IRS in the region and maintain 25% of its portfolio in Asia.

Increased funding opportunities were available for the Latin America region. Donors such as GEF and
New Zealand allocated resources to address the conservation of the biodiversity of the Paramo in the
Northern and Central Andes, and to strengthen the capacity of innovation and poverty alleviation to




24                   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
improve livelihoods in poverty areas of the Andes, among others. These projects will keep Latin America
strong in the portfolio, but its share will drop to 36% in 2010.

Several of the LAC-based research activities are yielding knowledge and technologies that are now
directly benefiting Africa and Asia. The Natural Resources Management tools, elaborated in the LAC
“Laboratory”, have produced extremely needed methodologies for vulnerability studies, allowing CIP and
partners to refine its targeting in the African highlands. More recently, the pro-poor Participatory Market
Chain Approach (PMCA) that was developed and refined in three Andean countries has been adapted to
the needs of the market chains in Uganda. The investment in developing knowledge, analytical tools and
training tools in the Andes is now being leveraged for the improvement of livelihoods for East African
potato and sweetpotato farmers.

Other examples of LAC-based research that are benefiting Africa and Asia include: the development of
virus-free sweetpotato techniques in Peru with a subsequent application in China that has generated
hundreds of million dollars for resource-poor farmers in China, and late blight resistant varieties adopted
by poor farmers in Africa and Asia, which are accruing substantial economic benefits and reducing the
use of pesticides.

Development of 2007 Operations
The Center is forecasting a balanced budget by the end of the year. Total revenues are expected to grow
to US$ 24.4M due to growing restricted contributions, in spite of falling unrestricted revenues. Other
income, mainly interest income from investment yields, is expected to remain constant. Restricted and
earmarked donations, including Challenge Programs, are expected to account for 66% of total revenues.

Total expenses are projected to increase by US$ 1.4M, or 6% during the fiscal year. Positive fund raising
results obtained in the first quarter will allow for a moderate expansion of restricted expenditures in the
second semester with respect to the budget.

Financing Plan 2008–2010
CIP’s medium term financing plan has been constructed assuming current donors will maintain its
unrestricted contributions, new sources will be identified during the period, projects already approved by
donors will be implemented, and assuming that donors will approve the proposals that already have been
submitted and have a high probability of acceptance. This means that the data for 2008 – 2010 is based
on the current structure of submitted proposals. Thus, the data has a degree of uncertainty and will be
subject to future adjustments as new proposals are included in the pipeline and others are removed.

The financial data shows an increasing trend in the activities of integrated crop management, impact
enhancement, natural resources management, and urban harvest; germplasm enhancement and crop
improvement also shows an increasing trend after going through a temporary drop. Genetic resources
conservation and characterization and agriculture and human health remain fairly constant throughout the
planning period, while CONDESAN and Global Mountain Program show a decreasing trend.

CIP seeks to achieve a more balanced growth in integrated crop management, genetic resources
conservation and characterization, and germplasm enhancement and crop improvement. Therefore, the
Center will continue work towards that goal by stepping up the proposal preparation work for those
projects.

Increasing productivity, protecting the environment and strengthening NARs will continue to absorb an
important share of CIP’s investments. Improving policies and saving biodiversity will also receive
increasing attention.

Budgeting and Financing
Medium-term financial forecasts take into account a slight appreciation of the US Dollar, which would
have a negative impact on CIP’s revenues, and a gradual decline in interest rates. Program expansion




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                25
relies heavily on new restricted funding, which means that expenditure growth will be dependant on
success of restricted project funding.

During the years covered by this medium term plan CIP projects an 18% revenue growth. The Center is
expecting that by the end of 2010, revenues will reach US$ 28.8M (Table 2.3) and that 73% will come
from restricted sources. These figures include revenues derived from Challenge Programs. The medium-
term forecasts reflect new opportunities in a changing environment, and will demand increased donor
targeting and greater efficiency in proposal preparation.

CIP will continue to emphasize its work on its mandate crops, linking research to activities that have a
strong development impact potential and contribute to Millennium Development Targets. To that end, the
Center plans to continue raising the share of its project portfolio in Africa, but the effects of a higher
presence in that region will be more noticeable in 2009 and 2010. Increasing staff time is being allocated
to work in Africa and Asia, as well as to fund-raising for projects in those priority regions.




         Table 2.3 CIP’s 2008-2010 budget summary (US$M)


         Income                                          2008            2009             2010
         Unrestricted                                     7.3             7.4              7.3
         Restricted                                      17.9            19.1             20.9
         Other                                            0.6             0.6              0.6
                  Total                                  25.8            27.1             28.8
         Expenses
         Operations                                     26.2             27.5             29.3
         Indirect cost recovery                         (1.6)            (1.7)            (1.9)
         Depreciation                                     1.1              1.1              1.1
                  Total                                 25.7             26.9             28.5
         Surplus (deficit)                                0.1              0.2              0.3



A key element of CIP’s Medium-Term Plan and future development is maintaining sound financial
management and achieving sustainable growth. Controlling fixed costs growth and improving fund raising
are both critical elements to maintaining financial stability and achieving sustainable growth.

Controlling fixed costs, in particular those costs that are paid by unrestricted funds, is essential for
maintaining financial stability. Cost control requires reinforcing cost awareness and fiscal discipline,
pursuing efficiency gains on a consistent basis, and improving information systems. Looking for new ways
of doing business by implementing simple and effective procedures will help to reduce budgetary
pressures and release additional resources for research. In addition, increased cost recovery by charging
direct costs to projects will help to identify new ways to control costs and will reduce pressure on limited
unrestricted resources.

Improving fund raising is crucial for achieving sustainable growth. Fund raising will continue to be a top
priority and a challenge in the medium-term. Improved donor targeting, matching donor interests with
CIP’s program priorities, broadening and diversifying the donor base, and delivering high impact products
are critical for continued fund raising success.




26                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
MEDIUM-TERM PLAN PROJECT NARRATIVES
Project 1. Impact Enhancement
Problem analysis
The Project addresses the problem of where and how CIP should use its limited resources for agricultural
research to maximize impact on potential beneficiaries and contribute to meeting the MDGs. The Pro-
Poor R&D Cycle as the compass for CIP’s program requires additional research to improve geographical
targeting, research and innovation strategies and linkages for development. In addition, rapid growth of
markets has created new opportunities for farmers to improve their incomes and research on new
strategies and their outcomes is needed. Finally, the institutional environment for agricultural innovations
has grown more complex. New ways of coordinating and networking with national innovation systems and
influencing agricultural technology policies are necessary in order for CIP to achieve desired outcomes.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
This Project enhances CIP’s impact through improving strategies for research resource allocation,
promoting innovation processes and helping partners go to scale. Improved methods for needs and
opportunity assessment help CIP and R&D partners and clients make better choices about technology
design and location targeting and understand how they are likely to influence impacts of research on
multifaceted dimensions of poverty. Improved knowledge about particular research and delivery
strategies used by CIP and its partners improve the way in which resources are used. Ex post impact
assessments contribute to monitoring actual outcomes and explore reasons for divergences with
expectations. As CIP’s impact evaluation is broadened from an emphasis on productivity changes to
include effects on livelihoods, so new methodologies will be developed, validated and shared for
understanding and documenting these effects.

The Project also enhances impact through research on ways of improving access of poor producers to
markets, including post-harvest innovations, market chain analysis and marketing policy research.

In the more complex institutional context facing NARS the project conducts research on agricultural
innovation systems to improve R&D coordination and networking. The Project’s research on innovation
systems, particularly on CIP’s extensive experience with managing R&D networks and partnerships,
should improve the design, coordination and impact of these systems and increase the rate of uptake of
CIP’s physical and information outputs. The Project also develops evidence-based recommendations for
technological policy formulation to achieve pro-poor impacts in national agricultural innovation systems.
For example, changes in market structures may be working to exclude small farmers from more profitable
opportunities and corrective policy to give them equal opportunities may be necessary.

Objective
The objective of this project is to enhance the impact of CIP and its partners on the broader array of
prioritized Millennium Development Targets through improved targeting, priority setting, allocation of R&D
activity, strategies for innovation, more rapid uptake of CIP’s physical and information outputs and
enhanced value and utilization of CIP commodities.

All of the outputs presented in last year’s MTP have been changed. In each we indicate the change, the
contribution of the output to System priorities, the uptake pathway and the nature of the international
public goods produced:

Output 1. Pro-poor R&D Cycle Validated (2010)
This output has been modified to make it more clearly focused on the Pro-Poor R&D cycle, and this and
the other Outputs have been made time bound.

With the focus on identification of agricultural research and development pathways, this output is linked to
Priority 5D.



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                 27
The impact pathway envisaged is that enhanced methods for the Pro-Poor R&D Cycle will improve the
quality of CIP and its partners investments in R&D, which will lead to research that is better focused on
the needs of the poor and more likely to achieve impacts in livelihoods and substantial contributions to
MDGs.

This output will develop methods and strategies for enhancing impact of CIP research of global relevance
that could be used by other CGIAR centers, agricultural research institutes and national agricultural
research institutes. The output will also assess the effectiveness of and develop recommendations for the
improvement of a range of delivery systems, including the use of orange fleshed sweetpotato, that are of
global relevance.

Output 2. Strategies for linking farmers with markets and post-harvest innovations tested and
documented (2011)
This Output has been modified as the formulation in the previous MTP (“value added to CIP
commodities”) was an outcome. Enhanced market linkages are critical to improving incomes and
addressing MDG 1 on poverty reduction.

The market post harvest innovation for competitiveness focus is linked to System Priority 5B and both of
the specific goals to enhance the competitiveness for smallholder producers and improve the marketing
environment for smallholders.

The impact pathway which is envisaged is that a limited number of strategic partner organizations will
acquire capacity in the multiple award-winning participatory market chain approach (PMCA) in each target
country. They will work with a larger group of partners in capacity development (including training). This
will lead to a series of iterations of the PMCA approach with CIP’s target commodities and other economic
activities that are relevant to the livelihoods of potato and sweet potato farmers. PMCA will build trust
between market actors, stimulate market oriented innovations, create more profitable market
opportunities, generating higher incomes for farmers linked to market chains and help move farmers out
of poverty. Studies of the impact of PMCA are underway in Bolivia and planned for Peru, study design will
compare broadly similar market chain interventions two with PMCA and two without (counterfactual).

Strategies, methodologies and tools for linking farmers with markets are international public goods
(IPGs).

Output 3 Pro-poor policies and strategies for institutional learning and change identified and documented
“Institutions” are understood here as the rules of the game governing the interactions between actors,
“institutional learning and change” has to do with improving these rules to favor pro-poor innovation
processes.

The policy focus and improved performance of NARS institutions is linked to System Priority 5A especially
specific goals to improve incentives for technology generation, access and use and enhancing the
structure, conduct and performance of knowledge intensive institutions.

The impact pathway envisaged operates at three levels of increasing specificity.

1. The Project will seek to influence the formulation of national policy through the provision of evidence
about the effects of current policy in favoring or otherwise the livelihoods of the poor in innovation
systems. One of the principal policy obstacles is that the poor are excluded from having an effective voice
in setting R&D agendas. This type of policy change can create an enabling environment for CIP’s impact
pathways and make it more likely that outputs become outcomes and impacts.

2. At the level of NARS the Project will promote learning about alternative partnership and networking
arrangements so that CIP, its partners and clients can more effectively engage in collective action
towards common goals. Collective action is essential for resolving problems in complex systems where a
number of different constraints have to be simultaneously addressed. For example, innovation in varietal



28                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
use in a more market driven context needs to simultaneously address constraints of seed production and
input supply, on-farm agronomic and post-harvest issues and also quality criteria in final markets. This
requires collective action among actors along the market chain and with service providers including
NARS. Hence the impact pathway moves from the use of improved partnership arrangements, to social
learning, to collective action for a shared goal and innovation in a complex system.

3. At the level of individuals, teams and organizations the Project will enhance capacities to increase the
overall ability to conduct scientific research (research capacity), manage technical change (technological
capacity) and innovate in dynamic environments (innovation capacity). Based on a systems model of
performance improvement this Project will research structured approaches to needs-based training that
increase the motivation to improve performance and improve the organizational environment to facilitate
the transfer of learning. For example, an analysis of individuals who participated in capacity strengthening
in PMCA will help to understand the factors that motivate a person to improve work through learning and
to apply the knowledge or skills in PMCA to work settings. At the same time this analysis will help to
identify the capabilities needed by organizations or wider systems to understand the factors affecting
transfer and so facilitate scaling-up of PMCA. This would also permit international comparisons of
learning transfer systems in partner-organizations that operate under different cultural, political and social
conditions.

Policies to promote pro-poor innovation, strategies for partnering and managing networks and structured
systemic approaches to needs-based training are IPGs, which are potentially mutually reinforcing when
promoted together.

External conditions
The main external forces driving the Project’s research agenda are: (a) Greater emphasis of international
agricultural research on contributing to Millennium Development Goals; (b) Increasing integration and
expanding diversity of demand in regional and global markets; (c) Growing complexity of food and
agricultural innovation systems.

Achieving the Project’s objectives depends on mobilizing new research resources.

Target ecoregions
The target ecoregions of the project are defined by CIP’s Visioning exercise, i.e., countries and regions
with a high correlation between potato/sweetpotato production and poverty indices.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                   29
Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Characterization
Problem analysis
CIP’s location in the center of domestication and diversity of potato and other less-used roots and tubers,
the increasing importance of potato and sweetpotato to global food security and the potential offered by
the other Andean roots and tubers, place CIP project 2 central to center’s research program. CIP’s
mandate as custodian of these international public goods, and provider of associated knowledge related
to them makes this project our long-term commitment to their protection and worldwide availability.

Through safeguarding and distribution of well-characterized germplasm, this project contributes to CIP’s
and CIP partners’ research efforts to increase productivity, reduce farmers’ reliance on agrochemicals,
save threatened genetic resources and produce more nutritious and healthy food. The project also aims
to sustain poor farmers’ livelihood in securing food and conserving agro-biodiversity.

Wild relatives have demonstrated value as new sources of variation to improve potato and sweetpotato.
However, short and long term natural events including climate change and human interventions
increasingly threaten the biodiversity of potato, sweetpotato and other roots and tubers in their Andean
center of diversity. The CIP genebank holds 151 of the 188 recognized wild potato species. Of these, 83
species are endemic to Peru and at least 20 are facing imminent risk of loss. Despite these holdings,
recent work in CIP shows that a number of wild species are under represented, in terms of diversity, in
CIP genebank.

Increasing knowledge of the genetic and functional characteristics of the collections and promoting their
diffusion and use are two areas where we seek increased investment in order to add value to the
conservation efforts.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
CIP’s work in this project is summarized in the three ‘C’s’: collection, conservation and characterization.
The international conventions on biodiversity and Peruvian legislation have limited collection in recent
years. The GPG 1 project was a major investment in improved conservation. Activities on characterization
have grown and are further emphasized in the new 2008-10 MTP. The targets of Output 2 and the new
Output 3 signal greater efforts dedicated to diversity assessment, characterization and evaluation of
collections’ sub-sets to generate information on gene pool structure, priority traits and attributes variation.

Through research, a range of genetic resources problems can be approached using modern genetic and
information tools and precise and extensive phenotyping for characterization of morphological,
physiological, pathological and biochemical traits. To do this more efficiently, the use of high-throughput
phenotyping and genotyping capacities are in the pipeline of future capital investment to support research
activities in this project.

A high-performance computing facility is installed at CIP through our collaboration with the Generation
Challenge Program. We will continue to improve information management to support simplified tracking of
germplasm through the use of bar-codes and more reliable data capture via PDAs. The analysis of high
volume data is being addressed in the areas of statistical quality control, more formal and transparent
documentation and certification of standard operating procedures and the use of the latest tools in high
throughput reporting (data warehouses) and reproducible research (automated analysis pipelines).

These investments will allow us to: conduct accurate measurement of diversity, determine the limits and
gaps of collections, and assess geneflow and erosion risk and discover allelic variation of new sources of
traits of interest to breeders. The project will also carry out and convene research on new conservation
methods, including cryopreservation, genetic and genomic stocks and DNA banking. Targeted collecting
missions will focus on areas with high levels of endemism and risk of erosion. We will partner with local
organizations to ensure community-based conservation of cultivated potatoes, sweetpotato and other
roots and tubers. We will also invest in documentation and communication activities.




30                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
New and more useful sources of variation in resistance to priority biotic constraints such as PVY and
PLRV virus in the potato collection and nematode and virus disease resistance in the sweetpotato
collection will be explored. Drought tolerance, micronutrient content and health-enhancing attributes will
also be explored in the potato, sweetpotato and ARTC collections. CIP can contribute towards
collaborative studies involving local partners on issues of genetic resources access and mechanisms for
benefit sharing under the International Treaty.

Objectives
To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of CIP’s role in collection, conservation and characterization
of potato, sweetpotato and other root and tuber genetic resources and associated information as
International Public Goods. In addressing the understanding of the collections recommendations for best
practices and new knowledge will be generated to ensure that the value of these resources is enhanced
and made available for contributing to achieving the MDGs.

As stated in the Overview chapter, a new output (Output 3) has been established to collect in a single
reporting location the germplasm evaluation activities which were previously distributed among other
outputs. This output will add value to the collections. Output 1 continues to focus on the generation of
new methods for germplasm conservation and conservation, as well as collect and make available
genetic resources that are conserved ex situ, in situ and on-farm; Output 2 will provide essential
knowledge on the diversity of root and tuber crop genetic resources. All three Outputs include now
documentation/information and capacity building roles.

Alignment with CGIAR System Priorities
This Project is fully dedicated to sustaining biodiversity for current and future generations (SP1).
Because of CIP’s trusteeship mandate to potato, sweetpotato and other roots and tubers, major emphasis
is placed on the conservation and characterization of these staple crops (SP1A). Starting in 2010, we
assign proposed collaborative work on selected promising under-utilized crops of the Solanaceae group
to SP1B.

Description of impact pathways
Most of the project’s contributions to MDGs come indirectly through other CIP MTP projects. The limited
direct contributions are described below. The Project’s main deliverables include knowledge, material,
expertise, best practices, documentation and analysis tools, and facilities. The pathway from these
materials and knowledge outputs to Outcomes and Potential Impact will mostly proceed through linkages
with CIP research Projects Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement (Project 3) and Impact
Enhancement (Project 1). Through these projects outputs from this project will be felt through research on
key themes such as the reduction of temporal and chronic hunger in vulnerable communities, improving
access to safe and nutritious food, but especially to the sustainable use of biodiversity.

Project 2 outputs also contribute directly to the sustainable use of biodiversity through supporting efforts
to sustain local crop productivity, food availability and restoring crop diversity. Adoption of conservation
and characterization methodologies by NARS and local biodiversity organizations, farmers’ use of
disease-free local germplasm, and use of well characterized and documented germplasm by NARS and
local researchers are important Outcomes of Project 2. Potential Impact will derive from restoring crop
diversity in farming communities and contributing to increasing food security and income generation.

Research approach to develop International Public Goods (IPGs)
The genetic resources collections managed in this project constitute one of the main core assets of the
CGIAR and CIP, which are conserved, characterized and disseminated as International Public Goods.
The three Project Outputs comprise research activities with deliverables that are public goods, including
knowledge, management practices, tools and information on genetic resources, and traits with relevance
to global agricultural issues, like food security, productivity and quality improvements. Project 2 will evolve
as a provider not only of seeds and clonal material for specific traits but also quantitative trait loci, alleles
and DNA samples. This new knowledge and new products will remain IPGs, the use of which will be
governed by the mechanisms of benefit-sharing of the international treaty.


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      31
Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement
Problem analysis
Despite their outstanding potential for yield production per day and unit area, food value and income-
generating potential, potato and sweetpotato can yield poorly and often suffer low food quality in marginal
environments. Small units of available land, year round pest pressures, climatic vagrancies and slow,
prescribed processes of technology transfer, render developing country farmers dependent on external
inputs and relegate them to low returns on their investments. High production costs and seasonality,
coupled with limited access of smallholders to emerging markets, translate into frequent low crop value
and lost opportunities for progress. And, while a large part of the human population enjoys food diversity,
the dependence of poor rural and urban households on a limited palette of staple foods aggravates their
poor nutritional status, health and economic plight.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
Access to technologies and market opportunities are interrelated. A lack of resistant, nutrient-dense
varieties with adaptation for reliable yields under smallholder conditions and attributes needed for trade
and processing can exclude farmers from emerging markets. In the case of potato, reliance on pesticides
to maintain productivity in tropical and subtropical ecologies has significant negative effects on
environmental and human health. Limited water and fertility and increased pressure of abiotic factors
such as salinity, drought, acidity and extreme temperatures can further limit the potential of potato- and
sweetpotato-based cropping systems.

The long duration (lateness) of some well-established potato and sweetpotato varieties impedes their use
in potentially profitable production systems including the double-cropping areas of Asia and winter
seasons of the subtropical lowlands that are under mixed cropping systems. Susceptibility, perishability
and bulk of vegetative seed lead to chronic shortages of healthy planting material. Virus-resistant potato
and sweetpotato varieties can provide a partial solution to the lack of quality seed, in effect underwriting
farmer-based seed systems and enabling more efficient health quality where certification is not available.

Inconsistent attention to dissemination and scarce information on available germplasm and seed limits
the development and diffusion of improved varieties. This situation is aggravated by high turnover and
limited opportunities for innovation in national agricultural research systems. At the household level,
dietary uniformity and insufficient intake of micronutrients and vitamins, coupled with poor sanitation and
disease lead to malnutrition, especially acute in infants and women of child-bearing age. The need is
pressing for late blight-resistant potatoes and nutrient rich, virus- and weevil-resistant sweetpotatoes that
meet traditional and market preferences and the demands of commercial handlers and processors.
Potential solutions, including OFSP, TPS, or even transgenic varieties, are slow to be adequately
assessed due to the fragility of socio-cultural and biological environments of developing countries and
researchers’ and policy makers’ reticence.

A significant obstacle to the development of varieties that can help farmers respond to evolving
constraints and market demands is the lack of genes with consistent large effects that can be readily
manipulated as well as the efficiency of breeding methods to achieve rapid gains toward breeding
objectives. New potato and sweetpotato varieties are exceptionally cumbersome to develop. Both crops
are polyploid and yield best as highly heterozygous hybrids, their complex genetics and sensitivity to
inbreeding preclude simple trait amendment by classical means. These characteristics, combined with
strong type preferences that constrain the acceptance of new varieties, make them especially attractive
for transgenic approaches. However, transgenic technology has been essentially developed by the
private sector and best practices to manage these new crops remain to be tailored to developing country
agriculture and regulatory systems. Coupling population improvement methods with knowledge of the
structure and function of genetic and genomic diversity, and comparative mapping/association studies will
allow the exploitation of heterosis, and the strategic combination of characteristics including new,
complementary sources of resistance, nutritional and quality traits.




32                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Objectives
Project 3 aims at the efficient development, identification and dissemination of diverse new potato and
sweetpotato varieties and breeding populations with critical productivity, rich nutrient concentrations and
the resistance needed to help improve food security, nutritional status and incomes while reducing
environmental, health and economic risk. The project develops and strategically exploits uniquely broad-
based advanced potato and sweetpotato populations as international public goods, while efforts are
increased to conserve, appreciate and enhance landrace diversity, improve competitiveness and
contribute to the development of capacities and policies that enhance the adoption of appropriate new
technologies. New breeding strategies and methods for clonally propagated crops which allow higher
selection efficiencies by exploiting heterosis and fast screening methods are investigated. Molecular
methods to more efficiently access and monitor gene and trait diversity in breeding are integrated and
transgenic technologies are applied where they provide advantages. Gene networks are explored to help
improve sweetpotato and potato productivity, quality and nutritional and market value; and TPS varieties
are developed as an alternative production system suited to remote regions with poor access to
infrastructure for reliable supplies of tuber seed.

Specific objectives
These are: (a) To enhance strategies, capacities and communication for the more efficient and innovative
identification, dissemination and uptake of new cultivars and breeding materials from public breeding
programs; (b) To develop new potato cultivars with enhanced resistance, nutritional and market value that
produce reliable yields under lower-input conditions and marginal environments; (c) To develop new
sweetpotato cultivars with enhanced dry matter yield, β-carotene, Fe and Zn content, with resistance to
pests and disease and adaptable to subsistence farming systems and industrial uses; d) To develop and
disseminate more efficient breeding methods and their products by accessing and incorporating new
genetic diversity, using general combining ability and genomics, and the timely application of correlated
screens such as Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy, molecular markers and in vitro methods. (e)
To develop and transfer transgenic potatoes and sweetpotatoes to researchers and extension officers
while also improving consumer confidence in genetically engineered crops and products through utilizing
and communicating a range of best practices and convening or contributing to specific outreach activities.

Alignment with CGIAR System priorities
Project 3 Outputs 1, 2, 3 and 4 contribute to System Priorities 2A, 2B and 2C. Output 1 represents the
more downstream efforts of potato and sweetpotato working with advanced material and seeking to
design strategies for improved germplasm to move more rapidly through the national evaluation and
release processes. Output 2 builds potato populations with improved productivity, biotic and abiotic stress
tolerance and nutritional characteristics. Output 3 covers a similar range of activities for sweetpotato.
Through gene characterization targets, Outputs 2 and 3 contribute to SP 1A; and Output 4 where we
focus on utilizing biotechnology for crop improvement contributes to SP 2A by working on biotic stresses
for which limited variability is available in related germplasm.

Targeted ecoregions
The project addresses a wide range of ecoregions with its commodities, the nature of which largely
dictate the characteristics of adaptation, resistance, architecture and response to environment that must
be built into successful varieties.

Potato ecoregions
(1) The highland tropics of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia and the Andes in South America are
characterized by a short day lengths with rainfall patterns that allow 1-3 potato crops per year; late blight,
viruses and bacterial wilt are the most important biotic constraints and require resistant potato cultivars.
Early maturing cultivars are often required in Southeast Asia and Central and East Africa. Frost and
drought constitute significant abiotic limitations to optimal production in parts of the Andes and Sub-
Saharan Africa; and short dormancy is often requested in Central Africa.

(2) Subtropical lowlands of Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia where potato is mainly a short-day winter
irrigated crop, with late blight, virus diseases and post-harvest problems, require resistant potato cultivars


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                   33
with early bulking for diversified cropping systems. In the Hindu Kush region (Himalayas) potato is a
spring, rainfed long day crop; bacterial wilt and late blight are the major biotic constraints and require
resistant potato varieties.

(3) Subtropical highlands of East Asia typically with one potato season per year, rain-fed, with late blight,
viruses and bacterial wilt as important production constraints, require resistant potato cultivars with
medium maturity.

(4) Temperate region of East Asia characterized by long day length with one to two potato crops per year
(in the lowlands), often rain-fed, and where viruses, late blight and drought are main biotic and abiotic
constraints to potato production.

(5) Continental semiarid region of Central Asia characterized by long day length, where viruses, limited
water, soil salinity and high temperatures are major constraints and resistant potato cultivars with early
maturity are needed. In this ecoregion only one crop per year can be produced in the 120-130 day
growing season as in the highlands, but very early varieties are needed in areas of double cropping
where 140-160 frost-free days are shared by two crops or in rotations in which potatoes are inserted
between two cereal crops, as rice-rice or wheat-rice. Dormancy and storage ability are also important in
systems and situations where farmers save their own seed.

Sweetpotato ecoregions
(1) Tropical lowlands and mid-elevations of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Southeast Asia, Central and
South America and the Caribbean where sweetpotato is often grown year round. Viruses and weevils are
important production constraints and require resistant cultivars usually with medium to high dry matter
and mostly for fresh consumption.

(2) Subtropical lowlands of East, Southeast Asia and South Asia, where sweetpotato is a winter crop in a
rice dominated cropping system. Low temperature and viruses are production constraints. Fresh
consumption, animal alimentation (often pig feed systems) and production for food industries are of equal
importance.

(3) Subtropical lowlands and mid-elevations of SSA where sweetpotato is grown for a short period but a
major staple in processed form when it is a lean season for other staples. Drought and weevils are
production constraints.

(4) Subtropical mid-higher elevations of SSA where sweetpotato is grown as one of the staples in a
maize-dominated cropping system. Frost and fungal diseases (Alternaria) are production constraints.
Climatic conditions from rain all year round; to two marked wet seasons; one major cropping season; and
cooler, mid-altitude situations, as well as the range of cropping systems sweetpotato is grown in, dictate
the resistance and phenological characters that are needed in improved varieties.

Changes from last MTP
Advances in germplasm evaluation and molecular genetics and the availability of new tools and
approaches for genomics research, have provided significant incentive for increased efforts to identify
and utilize genes for new, needed traits, with the objective of mainstreaming them into improvement
programs. CIP and other members of the Potato Oligo-Chip Initiative consortium will analyze raw and
improved germplasm with a variety of priority traits and under specific challenges using an oligo-array of
40,000 unique genes.

A CCER of CIP’s strategies for the development and deployment of transgenic potatoes and
sweetpotatoes recommended the Center to: (a) undertake needs assessment of genetic modification (GM
technologies) on a case-by-case basis with particular attention to those in sensitive regions such as crop
centers of origin or diversity; (b) help to develop research capacity in and science-based knowledge about
GM variety development, biosafety and geneflow; and (c) to prioritize the case of Bt sweetpotato for
weevil control for its significant potential impact in Africa. While some of these recommendations depend



34                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
on externalities, others and progress in related areas of research will influence the MTP. Fortunately a
new project has come on line that will develop Bt sweetpotatoes along with virus resistance and a
geneflow prevention system of CIP’s vegetatively propagated mandate crops. New output targets set in
response to the CCER include the assessment of the occurrence and impacts of past events of gene flow
from exotic varieties in the Andean center of origin and diversity and the assessment of trait fitness of
transgenic potato in the field by simulation.

Breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in potato and sweetpotato is a neglected research area that could
bring enormous benefits to poor-resource farmers. Potato is considered to be a drought-susceptible crop
but considerable variation in productivity under water-limited conditions exists among germplasm
accessions and varieties. Particularly native Andean potatoes that evolved in stressful environments
(extremes of temperature, high solar radiation and periodic dry spells) exhibit superior drought tolerance
due to the action of specific alleles or genes.

In the case of sweetpotato the survival of planting material across dry seasons is impeded by drought.
Studies in Southern Africa reveal an extreme large genotype by environment interaction under drought
due to different adaptation patterns of genotypes – thus breeding for drought prone environments in SSA
might merit a separate drought stress sweetpotato breeding program. Project 3 will conduct research in
and complementary to the Generation Challenge Program to identify and use sources of drought
tolerance to improve potato including by marker-assisted breeding. In the case of sweetpotato markers
will be applied for genepool separation and development in order to exploit heterosis as well as in marker
resistant selection for a new and unique source of sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD).

The successful application of rapid near infrared spectrophotometric (NIRS) methods to predict laboratory
results from screening sweetpotato germplasm during 2005 for protein, total carotenoids, β-carotene,
iron, zinc and calcium has led to increased laboratory capacity and efforts will be undertaken to apply this
technique for potato. The laboratory capacity will be extended by support of the HarvestPlus Challenge
Program to maize, beans, cassava, in effort to accelerate progress toward breeding for micronutrient rich
crops in the biofortification program.

Last year’s synthesis of efforts to detect and select useful variation in advance potato populations for
adaptation to long day production conditions, including an early generation screening method,
demonstrated CIP’s ability to provide enhanced germplasm for target countries of Central Asia. Field trials
will confirm this methodological advance, but breeding decisions made on it have already led to the
identification of materials suited to challenging conditions of abiotic stress in Tajikistan. Five CA countries
and China will be engaged in coordinated evaluation trials and baselines will be determined with
HarvestPlus to assess potential impact on nutrition from biofortified potato.

Impact pathways
Interdisciplinary collaborative efforts are needed to orient crop improvement and appropriately target
investments and outputs. Project 3 contributes to an array of MDG targets through breeding for enhanced
yield stability, marketability, nutrition and resource utilization and the adaptation and dissemination of new
technologies in the regions that can impact on income, hunger, mortality and the natural resource base.
Project 3 will help build capacity in national programs for base-broadening breeding, biotechnology,
germplasm and information management, and variety selection methods. Additional stakeholders (seed
producers, extension workers, industry, consumers, and release agencies) are engaged in variety
evaluation to help assure the fit and efficient uptake of breeding products. Specific partnerships (e.g.
VITAA, Challenge Programs, and Networks) enable inter-agency cooperation to access, develop and
deliver technology and information with nutrition institutes, health clinics, schools, etc. In collaboration
with partners Project 3 will work with an innovations systems perspective to create an enabling
environment for participatory technology development, help assure equitable access to technology and
markets, and promote food safety under intensification.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                    35
Strengthening NARS
The Project’s strategy to strengthen NARS and help build synergies among research and development
programs is based on 1) networking with potato and sweetpotato breeders and researchers in allied
disciplines from genomics to economics, behavior and policy; 2) training to enhance local capacity to
solve breeding problems; 3) on scientific research, breeding and diffusion of varieties advisory roles to
NARS (backstopping) for funding bodies supporting NARS; and 4) exchange of information,
documentation and publication. The Project hosts the Vitamin A for Africa (VITAA) partnership and
collaborates with regional networks in Africa (PRAPACE; SARRNET), Latin America (Papa Andina) and
Asia (UPWARD), providing improved potato or sweetpotato materials, practices and related scientific
support. This collaboration strengthens the capacity of national breeding programs to acquire, evaluate,
develop and release varieties.

The Project also participates in new networks for capacity building, learning and institutional innovation
such as the Global Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building hosted by FAO and the recently
prioritized Latin American Potato Breeding Innovation Network. Collaboration with non-traditional (private)
partners such as seed companies and processing industry with a clear production-chain perspective and
the active involvement of national public centers provides new incentives for the exchange of regional
expertise toward specific market driven opportunities.

The VITAA partnership is a food-based initiative that attacks the consequences of vitamin A deficiency
through complementary efforts of national agricultural research institutes, health and nutrition
departments, non-government organizations, community-based organizations and private sector
agencies. It links with networks such as PRAPACE (ASARECA) and SARRNET (SACCAR) already
working in Sub-Saharan Africa. VITAA consists of a coordinated set of activities building upon the
experiences of successful pilot projects and promotes wider scale production and use of extreme
provitamin A rich orange flesh sweetpotatoes (OFSP) along with other micronutrient-rich foods. Activities
include participatory testing of varieties for adaptation and acceptability, community-based multiplication
of planting materials, nutrition education, post-harvest processing for market and for home consumption,
promotion through social marketing, monitoring of impact on nutrition and health and capacity building.
The partnership targets young children and their mothers, who are the most vulnerable to vitamin A
deficiency. Initiatives by VITAA link well with the HarvestPlus Challenge Program, which is working to
fortify major developing country staples through crop improvement. The overall objective of VITAA is to
make OFSP available on a large-scale in SSA demonstrating the potential of crop-based approaches in
alleviating micro-nutrient deficiencies, especially vitamin A deficiency.




36                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4. Integrated Crop Management
Problem analysis
Potato and sweetpotato farmers in developing countries face several biotic and abiotic constraints that
reduce crop productivity. The main constraints of global importance that affect the potato crop are the
diseases late blight, bacterial wilt and a number of viruses, and the insects potato tuber moth, leaf miner
fly and the Andean potato weevil. The main biotic constraints to sweetpotato production include viruses,
sweetpotato weevil and white fly. The lack of high quality planting material is a common problem for both
crops in developing countries where commercial seed production systems are virtually non-existent. In
addition, soil fertility is declining in many developing countries, affecting the present and future
productivity of these crops, which are planted to a large extent in marginal areas. The incidence of
different constraints depends on regions and countries; however, often several constraints affect crop
productivity, which consequently reduces farmer competitiveness, food security and income. Biotic
constraints also lead to the use of highly toxic pesticides that pose a serious risk to human health and
environment. In addition, NARS scientists in developing countries have limited access to suitable
information, principles, technologies and methods, which influence their capacity to develop and deliver
sustainable technologies in a more integrated way.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
The lack of quality planting material for potato and sweetpotato in developing countries is addressed
through research to improve formal and farmer-based (self-supply) seed systems. Soil fertility
management and conservation agriculture play an important role within a concept of development
strategies and methods for better technical integration of agronomic practices for potato and sweetpotato.
The third and fourth areas of research focus on the development of control components for diseases and
insects respectively; for this purpose basic research to understand the biophysical principles of pests is
conducted at a preliminary stage, to transform this knowledge into tools and management components in
a later stage. The agro-ecology team applies and tests ecological concepts and principles for this
purpose. The fifth area of research is directed at developing participatory methods and strategies for
integration of ICM components in response to specific needs and socioeconomic conditions of farmers.
Because of the virtually unlimited variability of agro-ecosystems and socioeconomic conditions, the
Project focuses on the development of general principles and methods for integration and scaling-up, and
gives priority to provide training to NARS scientists. Thus, the partner institutions in developing countries
will use such principles and methods to fine tune components, integrate them and scale-up specific ICM
strategies according to their priorities.

Objectives
The goal of the ICM Project is to reduce poverty and hunger and contribute to sustainable agriculture by
developing and disseminating new and adapted technologies for integrated management of potato and
sweetpotato based cropping systems. The fundamental entry point for integrated management is through
varieties, where available, with improved characteristics for addressing biotic and abiotic stresses.

The objectives of the Project are conveyed in the titles of the Outputs
Output 1. Strategies and technologies for improving formal and farmer-based seed systems towards
enhancing potato and sweetpotato production efficiency and competitiveness validated in at least three
priority countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia by 2012. The improvement of seed quality will
contribute to enhance farmer efficiency and competitiveness. The output contributes to priority 5D in
particular to improve the quality of the context where the poor use their assets and to reduce risks
(production and market) affecting livelihoods of smallholders.

Output 2. Strategies and methods for technical integration of soil, seed, disease and insect management
components for subsistence and semi-commercial potato and sweetpotato growers developed in at least
three priority countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia by 2012. This output places soils as the
integrating context for establishing principles and methods for technical integration of management
components for NARS. These principles will help them to design and deliver more appropriate potato and
sweetpotato ICM technologies, which in combination with Output 5 will make NARS technologies more


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                  37
responsible to the needs of the poor. This output contributes to priority 4D, in particular specific goal 5, to
improve soil quality to sustain increases in productivity, stability and environmental services through
greater understanding of processes that govern soil quality and trends in soil quality in intensive systems.

Output 3. Components for integrated disease management against potato and sweetpotato diseases –
late blight (LB), bacterial wilt (BW) and viruses – developed, tested and disseminated within ICM
strategies in at least three priority countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia by 2012 Developing
environmentally friendly strategies for the integrated management of diseases uses improved varieties as
their fundamental building block particularly to control diseases such as late blight and viruses, and will
contribute to improved breeding targeting through understanding host-pest interactions, pest evolution
and the initiation and development of epidemics. Reducing the impact of these yield-reducing constraints
improves the capacity of sustainable gains in productivity through genetic improvement and enhances
competitiveness of potato and sweetpotato-based systems. This output is linked to priority 2A.

Output 4. Components and strategies for the integrated management of key potato and sweetpotato
insect pests developed as part of ICM in at least three priority countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia
by 2012. Developing environmentally friendly insect-pest management alternatives is based on
understanding ecological concepts and principles, including food webs, and assessing herbivore/natural
enemy (predators, parasitoids and entomopathogens) and plant interactions and inter-relationships taking
into consideration the effects of landscape fragmentation and complexity in agro-ecosystems. This
understanding allows the design of strategies for conservation and enhancement of natural enemies to
stabilize agro-ecosystems and counteract a wide range of potato and sweetpotato insect pests. For key
pests, biocontrol-based integrated pest management strategies will be developed and applied aiming at
reducing the use of highly toxic pesticides. This output is related to priority 4D, particularly to the specific
goal 6.

Output 5. Participatory strategies and methods for socioeconomic integration of potato and sweetpotato
ICM components developed and made available for improving potato and sweetpotato innovation
systems in at least three priority countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia by 2010. Having participatory
methods to help NARS and CIP for more efficient technology generation in order to be more responsible
to the needs of the poor will be linked to priority 5C, particularly to the specific goal 1 of this priority.

Impact pathways
Output 1. Developing strategies for improving the formal and farmer-based seed systems, and providing
training to NARS and extension organizations, will have a direct impact on improving development
options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability. This will be reflected in income increase, poverty and
hunger reduction and better access to nutritious food for farmers. In regions such as Africa or Asia this is
particularly important for farmers who produce potato as a high value crop and need to improve their
competitiveness and take better advantage of market opportunities to sell their product. In the Andean
region this strategy would help subsistence farmers to achieve food security, but also to initiate
interactions with niche markets, for example, for marketing native potatoes. The relative strength of NARS
has a direct influence on the possible development of formal seed systems. CIP will play a primary role in
identifying bottlenecks that limit the improvement of seed systems and conduct research to solve some of
the constraints, but will also play a catalytic role linking institutions from the public and private sector to
address seed-related challenges. Intermediate users of the technology (NARS, including universities) will
play an important role for adjusting and scaling-up technologies and strategies according to local
conditions.

Output 2. The Project will develop principles, methods and strategies for technical integration of crop
management components, using soil management as an integration tool, and provide them to NARS
through capacity building. In combination with Output 5 below, NARS will be enabled to develop and
disseminate integrated management technologies more efficiently according to site-specific local needs.
The development of locally specific crop management strategies by other actors in the research system
will support the sustainable intensification of potato and sweetpotato-based production systems in low-
and high-potential areas. CIP will play a primary research goal for the development of research principles,



38                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
strategies and methods, and a secondary and facilitation role for enabling NARS (including NGOs and
universities) to conduct more efficient integration of components for local conditions.

Outputs 3 and 4. Extending the understanding of the evolution of diseases, the intricacies of disease-
host interactions and the initiation and growth of epidemics will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of
the development of stable, broadly adapted varieties, and the development of suitable disease control
technologies. Close collaboration among crop protection and crop improvement specialists enhances the
development and delivery of varieties as the cornerstone of integrated disease management practices. In
addition, the development of insect control technologies will allow farmers to benefit from resistant
materials for longer periods, or to manage their own varieties when no sources of resistance are
available. This has implications for improved productivity and sustainable intensification of the potato and
sweetpotato thus contributing to income generation, poverty and hunger reduction, improving access to
safe food, and to help farmer to link with the markets more competitively. In addition, integrated disease
and insect management will help reduce dependence on pesticides with the consequent positive impact
on the environment and human health. CIP will play a facilitating role for supporting access of NARS to
scientific knowledge and technologies and enabling institutions to develop, apply and make available
disease and insect management for the final users of the technology (farmers).

Output 5. The project will develop strategies and methods and will provide capacity strengthening for
NARS researchers, including NGOs, to facilitate the use of participatory methods to develop ICM
strategies for potato and sweetpotato according to local needs and socioeconomic conditions of farmers,
and extracting lessons and guidelines from several cases to be shared with research and rural
development institutions. This output is related to institutional learning and pro-poor change, aiming at
contributing to improve the efficiency of the potato and sweetpotato innovation systems. Methods change
or adjustment will depend on the existence of institutional environments, which enable innovation and
such environments vary from country to country. CIP will play a primary and secondary role for research,
according to the strength of the NARS, will take advantage of experiences developed by other research
and development organizations, and will play a catalytic and facilitation role towards capacity building for
NARS, in coordination with local or regional universities.

Research approach to develop International Public Goods (IPG)
The project has a strong focus on IPG through the development of knowledge of biophysical principles
related to the main potato and sweetpotato constraints and the development of management components
of wider application, but also through the development of principles, strategies and methods to support
the integration of management components by NARS according to local conditions. Outputs 2, 3 and 4
will involve the development of technically oriented IPG where CIP has a comparative advantage built on
its extensive knowledge about potato and sweetpotato constraints in developing countries and its long
standing expertise in linking NARS and ARIs. CIP has the global mandate to continuously monitor risks
inherent in pest and disease threats. Outputs 1 and 5 will produce methods oriented IPG, an area in
which CIP has long experience.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                  39
Project 5. Natural Resources Management
Problem analysis
Sustainable agricultural development is at the core of the CGIAR mission. Nonetheless, the research
programs of the centers have historically emphasized its contribution to this objective through increased
crop yields. This approach had a tremendous impact in increasing food supplies and a reduction in the
rate of expansion of the agricultural frontier, especially in Asia and to some extent in Latin America.
However, focusing only on increasing food supply might produce a negative impact in the long run. This is
particularly true when resources from a past era or from distant places subsidize the increment. An
important issue is then whether agricultural growth can be compatible with conservation of the natural
resource base. The biggest problem seems to be land and water degradation, which decreases crop
yields and increase food costs, pushing many into poverty. Climate change and growing societal demand
for environmental services and other public goods is changing the picture of how agricultural policies are
shaped. There is an increasing pressure for shifts in agricultural policy from subsidy and trade policies to
conservation and environmental aspects of agriculture. That is why it is not surprising that agriculture has
been incorporated into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade1. A major challenge is then to find
technologies, policies and institutions to make the three goals – agricultural growth, poverty alleviation
and sustainable natural resource use – more compatible.

All these changes in paradigm require CGIAR centers to focus on understanding how agricultural growth
interacts with the environment in a dynamic scenario of climate change and increasing vulnerability as
well as how poverty interacts with the environment. That is, the research focus should be on
understanding the complexity of the social-ecological systems where their mandate crops are
established. These paradigms have been incorporated in the new systems priorities, particularly priority 4:
poverty alleviation and sustainable management of water, land and forest resources.

The challenge faced by the project is to facilitate the conversion of potato and sweet potato based
systems into resilient agro-ecosystems; that is systems with the capacity to absorb shocks and adapt to
change while maintaining function. This requires in-depth study of the dynamics of complex systems, a
paradigm that is just evolving. Therefore, new methods and approaches must be developed and tested
without further delaying the most needed solutions for poor farmers depending on CIP’s mandate crops
for their subsistence.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
During the period covered by the present MTP the Project will tackle the following issues:

     Application of remote sensing imagery and radiometric measurements to improve the reliability of root
     and tuber crops statistics in areas with high concentration of resource-poor farmers
     Improvement of the ability to forecast potato and sweet potato yields under variable environmental
     and management conditions
     Refinement of methods to assess the environmental and economic vulnerability of potato and sweet
     potato systems
     Methods for supporting the scaling up of technology from plots to watersheds to regions
     Methods and tools to assess the potential effect of climate change on food systems productivity,
     vulnerability and resilience
     Methods and tools to support the development of resilient and productive potato and sweet potato
     productions systems with new technology, management and policy options to foster adaptive capacity




1    Antle, J. M. and R. O. Valdivia (2006). "Modeling the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Agriculture: A Minimum
     Data Approach." Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 50(1): 1-15 pp.


40                      International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
    Geospatial, modeling and growth chamber methods and tools focused on environmental and plant
    and crop physiological data to support the work on potato and sweet potato germplasm oriented to
    specific target areas
Objectives
The overall objective of this project is to improve our understanding of the behavior of complex human-
natural systems where producing potato and/or sweet potato constitute key livelihood strategies while
enhancing their sustainability directly through technology and management improvements and indirectly
through influencing policies and programs that affect sustainable development. During the period included
in the present MTP the specific objectives are:

    To develop methods for improved impact targeting and environmental vulnerability assessment. The
    methods are based on tools being used in the new interdisciplinary science called complex systems2
    Contribute to the development of technologies, practices and policies to cope with environmental and
    economic vulnerability
    Integrate principles and approaches in specific case studies where the pro-poor R&D cycle is
    implemented, aiming at enhancing adaptive capacity.
Changes from the last MTP
The names of outputs have been modified to make them more coherent with the output targets. Also,
outcomes have been more clearly defined.

Alignment with CGIAR Systems priorities
The CIP NRM project falls within the priority area 4: Promoting poverty alleviation and sustainable
management of water, land and forest resources. The table below links the outputs of the project with the
specific goals of the priority area 4.


        Outputs in Project 5                                       Specific goal in the SP4
Output 1 Geospatial methods and             Priority 4A
computer assisted tools for improved        Specific goal 1: To develop analytical methods and tools for the
research targeting, crop                    management of multiple use landscapes with a focus on
assessments and Environmental               sustainable productivity enhancement
Vulnerability Analyses, preparedness        Priority 4D
and mitigation in the Andes, SSA            Specific goal 1: To improve understanding of degradation
and SWCA developed (By 2011)                thresholds and irreversibility and the conditions necessary for
                                            success in low productivity areas
                                            Specific goal 4: Evaluate the production potential of high
                                            productivity systems and their constraints and trends
                                            Specific goal 7: To optimize productivity at high input use (e.g.
                                            labor, nutrients, pest control practices, water, seed and feed)
                                            through understanding and managing spatial and temporal
                                            variation
Output 2 Management                         Priority 4A
recommendations and policy options          Specific goal 2: To enhance the management of landscapes
to reduce environmental and                 though changing stakeholder awareness and capacity for social-
economic vulnerability in                   ecological planning at landscape and farm levels
representative priority ecosystems in       Priority 4D
LAC, East Africa, India and                 Specific goal 8: Identify social, economic, policy and institutional


2   The term complex system usually refers to a system of many parts, which are coupled in a non-linear fashion. In
    practical terms a non-linear relationship means that a small perturbation may cause a large effect, a proportional
    effect, or even no effect at all whereas in linear systems, effect is always directly proportional to cause. Complex
    systems are open, contain feedback loops and their history – change over time and prior states– may have
    influence on present states (adapted from Wikipedia).


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                             41
        Outputs in Project 5                                  Specific goal in the SP4
Bangladesh tested and documented         factors that determine decision-making about managing natural
(By 2010)                                resources in intensive production systems and target
                                         interventions accordingly
Output 3 Strategies for increased        Priority 4D
resilience and adaptive capacity in      Specific goal 3: To identify domains of potential adoption and
agricultural systems in the Andes,       improvement of technologies for improving soil productivity,
SSA and Asia identified and              preventing degradation and for rehabilitating degraded lands
validated (By 2011)                      Specific goal 5: To improve soil quality to sustain increases in
                                         productivity, stability and environmental services through greater
                                         understanding of processes that govern soil quality and trends in
                                         soil quality in intensive systems


Impact pathways
The impact pathway of the project has the following major steps:

a) Targeting: as the recent report of the CCER for Project 5 states, NRM provides a context for
germplasm or commodity research. Any potato or sweet potato variety develops best in a particular
environment with a characteristic set of environmental growing conditions in terms of water, temperature
and radiation regimes. The CCER report distinguishes two relevant aspects which Project 5 performs: (i)
a check is possible as to whether a given variety is likely to thrive in a given environment by comparing
environmental data with plant-specific data. This is relevant when new varieties are to be introduced, or
(ii) input of environmental data of a given area is provided to breeders to breed varieties that are likely to
thrive in that area. This is relevant when development of a given area is the objective and when existing
varieties appear to be unsuited. It is important to point out that the targeting performed by Project 5 goes
beyond the analysis of environmental data and includes other indicators such as poverty, land use and
vulnerability. Therefore, Project 5 adds an important element to targeting by not only considering biotic
and abiotic factors but also more broadly, environmental, economic and social conditions of the area
being considered. To this end, Project 5 has a unique set of techniques to quantify such conditions in a
landscape setting, even in data-poor areas, as noted by the CCER panel. It is relevant to notice that
many of the analytical tools and methods have been developed by Project 5, as public goods.

b) Management recommendations and policy options to reduce environmental and economic vulnerability
on targeted ecosystems: this step follows targeting in the impact pathway and is accomplished through
the analysis of land use and farming systems for the targeted ecosystems. This step integrates the
outputs of other CIP Projects into Project 5 in an iterative manner. This integration focuses on CIP’s
specific mandate for potato and sweet potato production systems. So every scenario tested centers on
our mandate commodities, while recognizing that these commodities frequently interact with other
components of the farming systems. It is this interaction that will be tested by calculating its
environmental, economic and social consequences and recommendations and policy options will follow in
the impact pathway.

c) Strategies for increased resilience and adaptive capacity in agricultural systems: this step is concerned
with the field test and validation of production systems. Again, it integrates the contribution of other CIP’s
Projects and partnership programs and brings the outputs near the ambit of the Impact Enhancement
Project. It is important to stress that the impact pathway of Project 5 is not isolated from the CIP’s impact
pathway but should be integrated into it. In other words, the NRM research contributes to the
implementation of each step of the CIP’s adopted pro-poor research and development cycle and to the
attainment of the MDG.

d) Partnerships: effective partnerships are a critical element in the impact pathway, as partners will
substantially contribute to the generation of outcomes and development efforts based on the Project
outputs.



42                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
e) Capacity building: training in the use and application of some of the outputs is a peripheral though
substantial non-research activity that contributes to outcomes and impact.

Research approach to develop IPGs
NRM research is, by definition, a site-specific activity. It is through comparative analyses in multiple sites
that methods and tools are developed and validated. Data, tools and methods will be produced in the
project. Methods to improve root crop statistics, process based models to support germplasm screening
work, yield forecast methods, early disease and stress diagnostics at field level based on geospatial and
radiometry methods and non-linear scaling models are potential IPGs produced by the project.

External conditions
The work in this project is highly interdisciplinary and participatory. It thus depends on the providing of
funding, especially for the high transaction costs of the participatory activities, the willingness of partners
to collaborate and changes in political and environmental situations in the research/validation sites.

Target ecoregions
During the next three years (2008 –2010), Project 5 will concentrate its activities in LAC, SWCA, ESEAP
and East Africa.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                    43
Project 6. Agriculture and Human Health
Rationale
Agricultural technology and related production, processing and distribution systems present opportunities
to enhance human nutrition and livelihoods through food-based agricultural interventions. At the same
time, technology and management choices can and do present risks to human health. There is an
opportunity to develop an analytical science-based approach that de-compartmentalizes the sectors of
agriculture, ecosystem health and human health. The combination of health and agricultural sciences can
generate transdisciplinary evidence for establishing health risk pathways associated with agriculture
technology and ecosystem management choices, demonstrating effective agricultural interventions for
improved human health, and influencing policy in relevant sectors with stakeholder participation.

CG centers such as CIP are ideally placed to take up this opportunity given their extensive knowledge of
agricultural technology options, their high legitimacy with agricultural and food stakeholders, and their
commitment to health-related Millennium Development Goals. The Science Council (SC) identifies eight
MDGs to which the System Priorities can contribute. Four of these are health related. As there is currently
greater global investment in the production and dissemination of health and environment global public
goods than agricultural, CG center presence with relevant research evidence is one important way of
including agricultural interventions when policy makers consider resource allocations to improve health
outcomes. Science Council Sub-priority 5C, specific goal 2, recognizes that joint processes involving
health, environment and agriculture stakeholders in a transdisciplinary way (as included in Output 1
below) provide greater opportunities for agricultural-based research to impact on poor small farmer
households.

This MTP project is designed to address both the positive and negative aspects on human health of the
CG research agenda. The project brings health science professionals into the CG system to work from an
agricultural science base to demonstrate the gains possible from a transdisciplinary approach to the
complex, intertwined challenges of demonstrating how improved agriculture productivity contributes to
improved human health as well as poverty reduction.

Changes
For this project, the international recruitment of a clinical human health nutritionist 2006 and physician-
epidemiologist division leader in 2007 whose primary skills and research programs are focused on human
health improvement and the reassignment of an agricultural anthropologist reverses the earlier budget
cuts that concerned the SC. Both outputs of this division and their corresponding narratives have been
revised substantially in response to SC comments to be more focused and to better argue CIP’s
comparative advantage (both in this section) and to more clearly exemplify the IPG nature of the
expected achievements (see IPG section below).

Output 1. Integrated health and agriculture strategies to reduce pesticide exposure risk and promote
healthy and sustainable agriculture among farm families in Andean and South East Asian countries
designed and promoted

Illness related to the agricultural use of highly hazardous (WHO category 1a and 1b) pesticides affect
substantial proportions of small farm households in the developing world, directly through acute poisoning
of young children (accidental), emotionally distraught persons (suicide) or heavily exposed applicators
(occupational) and chronic adverse health effects among a broader cross-section of farm and consumer
populations (plus those from mutagenic dithio-carbamate fungicides). Understanding of adverse health
effects among the scientific community, some civil society actors and some governments has moved from
regarding them as controllable externalities (exposure is the farmers fault due to poor handling) to
recognizing the effects as inherent consequences of current technological approaches to intensification of
agricultural production among the majority of poor small farmers.

CIP-conducted research has contributed to this shift in understanding through baseline studies that
demonstrated the scope of the problem as far in excess to that previously believed, unassailable


44                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
evidence of exposure and health impacts of exposure and sophisticated modeling of joint agricultural and
health production impacts of potato based agricultural systems in northern Ecuador – the Trade-Offs
Analysis approach. Subsequent pilot work demonstrated the potential to reduce neurotoxic impacts
through farmer field schools and community based health education in the same region. Yet other CIP
work has shown that pesticide dependence among small farmers in Andean communities continues due
to inadequate information to farm households, including that on toxicity and alternatives, heavy
domination of input markets by highly hazardous and mutagenic pesticides rather than alternative crop
management technologies, and weak policy environments that could restrict use and support alternatives.

In dealing with adverse health impacts of agricultural pesticide use, CG centers have a comparative
advantage compared to health institutions that practice research for development in that they can bring
together the disciplinary mix to understand production-health relationships (methods), know or can
discover ways to reduce pesticide use (knowledge), and have legitimacy among agricultural stakeholders
who must be involved in improvements (social capital). Other CG centers have conducted pesticide and
human health research but have left important gaps in either pursuing measurement of the health effects
or the agriculture impacts. Only CIP has linked their ICM, participatory training and agricultural platform
research with testing of approaches to reducing pesticide use and human exposure.

This line of research will become progressively more important for the CG as the work in high value fruits
and vegetables develops. The systems where these crops are produced are characterized by their
intensive use of protectant agrichemicals. CG work with these systems will inevitably be challenged on
issues of occupational exposure and food safety.

Current and planned work in this project seeks to

    identify additional opportunities for IPM to reduce dependency on highly hazardous and mutagenic
    pesticides, thereby increasing productivity and human health (relevant to SC sub-priority 4D, specific
    goal 6);
    improve the characterization of the poor and their agroecosystems and identify and evaluate means
    ex ante to simultaneously improve agricultural production and human health risk management
    through improved tools and information systems (relevant to SC sub-priority 5D);
and with new funding from CIDA-IDRC extend its reach to

    enhance production of selected vegetables through improvement of farming systems, particularly IPM
    for intensive horticulture, with improved occupational safety for producers and food safety for
    consumers (relevant to SC sub-priority 3A, specific goal 2).
Output 2. The value of orange fleshed sweet potato as a component of food-based approaches to
improved nutrition is demonstrated.

Promotion of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) as one of a few foods that can provide very high
amounts of highly bio-available beta-carotene was identified during CIP’s strategic planning process as a
potential major contribution to confronting widespread Vitamin A deficiency and its associated child and
maternal mortality, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent CIP-sponsored studies in South Africa have
shown that OFSP is efficacious in improving vitamin A status and can be a complementary strategy to
existing nutrition intervention programs in areas where it can be grown productively. The advantage of
agricultural, food based approaches are multiple:

    greater coverage of the at-risk population compared to low coverage rates of public health service
    based Vitamin A supplementation in very poor countries such as Mozambique;
    co-development of improved livelihoods for vulnerable populations with associated improvements in
    resources, access to Vitamin A rich foods and self-esteem compared to continuing dependency upon
    food handouts through Human Immunosuppressive Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    treatment centers; and



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                45
     sustainability of such coverage through ongoing agricultural production and marketing independent of
     health service cutbacks due to fiscal crises.
The main current challenges related to OFSP achieving such impacts lie in limited adoption by poor small
farmers and limited dietary modification by vulnerable households to include beta carotene rich OFSP.
The current Harvest Plus Reaching End User (REU) project focuses on identifying cost-effective and
sustainable strategies to disseminate OFSP and to create demand for OFSP in Mozambique and
Uganda. Demonstrated success will be translated into best practices that can be applied to future work in
this area and other biofortification programs. We plan to examine the potential of OFSP to improve
livelihoods and to increase pro-vitamin A intake of HIV/AIDS affected households. Hence our work will
also respond to SC sub-priority 2C, specific goal 2 by testing of the best means to enhance the diets of
nutritionally disadvantage populations, including those with HIV/AIDS, an area of growing recognition
among health researchers, with limited sets of human health service options at present. As indicated by
the SC, demonstrating impacts on human malnutrition requires medium to longer term research, in which
we plan to engage.

Description of impact pathways
Output 1. Drawing on the growing literature on knowledge exchange and the involvement of beneficiaries
and research users in the production of research, our action research processes follow a series of
deliberate steps, currently in provinces of Ecuador and in the near future with metropolitan regions of
Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and Indonesia. These steps seek to link the Pro-Poor Research and
Development Cycle and Impact Pathway analysis approaches in ways consistent with the growing health
promotion literature on shifting human health risk distributions through multiple channels.

We meet with organizations of the principal beneficiaries of the project –the poor small farming
households– and the principal local end-users of the project results –NGO and government agricultural
extensionist professionals, human health NGO and government personnel and other interested
stakeholders– to share our understanding of the likely burden associated with agricultural use of highly
hazardous pesticides and the opportunities for change in existing agricultural and human health practices.
We jointly develop and implement methods to characterize current practices and associated burdens. CIP
researchers then analyze the qualitative and quantitative data to share with partners for joint
interpretation. We jointly decide upon potential interventions to change current practices with available
resources from CIP and partner organizations, and proceed to jointly implement the interventions. Finally,
we jointly set up information systems that can monitor changes that may be attributed to the interventions
and in evaluation of platform work, those practices that remain unchanged and require different
responses. In this way, capacity building in transdisciplinary action research occurs for agricultural and
health personnel and students who participate in the processes as part of thesis research or internships.

End-users of the science produced by these research processes include national and international
researchers and development experts in agricultural, health and environment fields, extension agents,
civil society organizations and policy-makers. Conditioning factors include Free Trade Agreements in the
Americas which may change the market and policy context for production input costs and outputs.
Further, the weak and often adverse policy environment, which includes influential actors with strongly
held positions that may be threatened by the research outputs, means that counter moves will likely occur
to protect market share. CIP commits to continuing as an actor, speaking to the science generated by the
research, and sharing the science internationally, with adaptation to other contexts as appropriate.

Output 2. Current CIP-implemented HarvestPlus REU research includes identifying key bottlenecks in
the production-marketing-consumer continuum and developing low-cost interventions to relieve these
bottlenecks, including the commercial villages approach in East and Southern Africa. Using nutritional
assessment methods (currently in Project 1 output targets), the role of these strategies in changing pro-
vitamin A intake and vitamin A status of vulnerable groups will be assessed in conjunction with partner
organizations (NGOs, NARS and universities) and the beneficiaries (small farm households and their
organizations). As intervention research, change among those involved with different interventions will
occur, with impacts measured among participating households. Conditioning factors include the potential




46                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
of rapid climactic changes or droughts in the output areas and reductions in partner capacity through
health problems including HIV/AIDS.

Research approach to develop International Public Goods (IPGs)
Output 1. As noted in the Rationale section, CIP’s research on agriculture-pesticide health impact
linkages has a history of producing IPGs in the demonstration of ongoing neurotoxicity with regular highly
hazardous pesticide use led by the new division head and pioneering TOA modeling lead by agricultural
economist colleagues. Demonstration of reductions in highly hazardous pesticide use and concurrent
increases in net productivity in Farmer Field School (FFS) potato production plots was also an IPG.
Likely future IPGs include the effects of introduction of human health concerns into agricultural production
multi-stakeholder platforms, including greater emphasis on ICM and consideration of consumer food
safety concerns into marketing activities and the adaptation of multi-level modeling approaches that
incorporate provincial and sub-provincal agricultural input supply and ecosystem variables into more
sophisticated assessment of agroecosystem-human health relationships.

Output 2. As noted in the Rationale section, CIP’s research on OFSP efficacy in improving Vitamin A
status is already an IPG. Methods development for large scale assessment of change in OFSP intake
and Vitamin A status as part of agricultural intervention projects, currently in Project 1, will also produce
an IPG. Exemplifying the difficult process of attribution of agricultural intervention effectiveness in
improving nutritional status of a target population is the experience documented a recent publication by
the regional SSA CIP office and university partners. The team chose a suitable location to achieve an
adequate effect size, mounted sufficient resources, implemented the research in a rigorous manner and
analyzed it using sophisticated biostatistical techniques to demonstrate the important potential role of
agricultural food-based interventions with OFSP in improving Vitamin A status. We expect similar IPGs to
be forthcoming with the proposed output targets for 2008 & 2009.

Elaboration of Partners’ roles
Output 1. The capacity of NARS scientists is strengthened through joint participation in analysis of
benchmark characterization data, formulation of intervention responses, preparation of training materials,
and policy advocacy through participation in multi-stakeholder platforms that guide the project process.
Additional partners in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia are in the process of being identified as part of scaling
out.

Output 2. NARS participation is occurs in current REU research in Mozambique and Uganda but is still
under development for their involvement in newer projects.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                  47
Project 7. Ecoregional Program: Consortium for the Sustainable
Development of the Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN)
Problem analysis
The Andean Ecoregion is home to an extraordinary ecological and cultural diversity where some 40
million people live. The north-south orientation of the Andes further enriches the environmental diversity
with changes associated with latitude as well as altitude. The Andean Ecoregion is central to the
production of the water resources used in a large part of South America. Governments and civil society
are increasingly concerned with water scarcity and unequal access to it. Limited and poor quality
information limit informed discussion and debate on issues of sustainable use of water within Andean
basins. Andean geographic and cultural diversity has been traditionally seen as a barrier to the
development of the region and its population. However, there are successful examples of innovative
agricultural systems that value diversity and contribute to the welfare of Andean families. Both integrated
water management practices and innovation in agricultural systems need to be up-scaled to reduce
poverty and stop the deterioration of natural resources in the Andes.

Identification of specific problems
The paramos, jalcas and punas (high Andean grassland areas) are unique and diverse ecosystems
closely related to the supply of water in the Andes but are also under threat due to human activity. Due to
the degradation of Andean ecosystems, water flows are reduced, affecting those whose livelihoods
depend largely on water availability, including indigenous communities, subsistence producers as well as
larger producers and urban water consumers. Thus, lives of the Andean inhabitants are closely
connected to the health of the Andes ecosystem, in particular in relation to water and food issues. There
is a substantial challenge in determining the way in which society should organize the highly complex
elements involved in the integrated water resource management (IWRM) in order to make water
management a source of opportunities, social inclusion and welfare improvements for the rural
communities of the Andes, particularly for the poorest ones. CONDESAN itself is already contributing with
the design of mechanisms that simultaneously promote environment conservation and increased farming
income for families located in the upper watersheds3.

The Andean agricultural systems are being transformed by globalization, climate change, migration,
urbanization, etc., which significantly alter the context and pose new challenges for agricultural activity
which impact society and the producers. A significant challenge is to identify, share, replicate and expand
the innovative processes that are taking place based on the Andean diversity, mostly localized and
relatively isolated, into a scale that allows for a substantial difference in the opportunities of welfare and
social inclusion for the Andean poor. Agricultural innovation and rural development are social, political
and institutional processes as much as technological ones influencing sustainable livelihoods4. Innovation
in agricultural systems is a thematic area in which CONDESAN is starting to work and expects significant
growth during the next few years due to its potential to synthesize and disseminate ongoing experiences
that could improve the livelihoods of major portions of the Andean rural population.

Objectives
In 2005, CONDESAN produced a Road Map to define thematic areas of work to 2010. The consortium’s
medium term objective is to learn and promote opportunities for increasing the welfare and social
inclusion of Andean poor population based primarily in their management of the Andean diversity. Two
areas of concentration were selected: (a) the integrated management of water resources and (b) the
development of innovations in agricultural systems that value the Andean diversity.




3
    E.g.     Implementation of compensation for environmental services mechanisms, up scaling of conservation
    agriculture, among others.
4
    ”Impact Assessment and Evaluation in Agricultural Research for Development” / Task Force on Impact
    Assessment and Evaluation, European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD)


48                      International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Based mainly on its links with its partners and other local, national and international institutions,
CONDESAN aims to become a regional reference and a multi-stakeholder dialogue platform for issues
related to the sustainable development of the Andean Ecoregion. CONDESAN seeks to contribute to
creating the enabling conditions that promote the institutional learning and changes required to help
improving the livelihoods of the Andean rural poor.

Impact pathways
CONDESAN works to improve the welfare of poor farmer groups living mostly within the Andean
highlands. Farming (mainly tubers and grains) and livestock-raising are the main occupations, although
income generation comprises additional activities for this population. CONDESAN’s research and policy
reaches these beneficiaries through universities, NGOs, research centers, rural municipalities, private
sector and government agencies in the Andes. These groups form part of CONDESAN’s network of
partners and work directly with the communities. The outputs produced at the regional level are
developed directly by the partners and the outcomes are achieved through them. Coordination provided
by CONDESAN influences users at the national and regional levels. The changes in behavior in the main
users will produce the desired impact since their actions or decisions directly affect both the health of the
natural resources and the livelihoods of the poor population in the Andean rural areas.

Output 1. The first Output will produce policies and management recommendations for improved IWRM
at local, national and regional levels in Andean countries based on ongoing experiences and learning
processes. It is linked in general to priority 4A and within this, closer but not exclusively to specific goal 4
(optimize long-term productive use of water resources in river basins).

Output 2. The second Output focuses on promoting innovations in agricultural systems to take advantage
of the diversity that exist in the Andean region to improve the livelihoods of the Andean rural poor. It is
closely linked to the CIP’s themes of sustainable use of biodiversity and institutional learning for pro-poor
change and SP 5A (specific goal 5: enhancing the structure, conduct and performance of knowledge-
intensive institutions) that includes moving ahead to new agricultural paradigms and needs-based
training.

Research approach to develop IPGs
CONDESAN, through the work of its partners, produces new knowledge, methodologies, and policies that
are constantly being integrated into other projects, as a result of continuous information exchanges and
activities promoted and supported by its partners. The IPG produced by CONDESAN are largely of a
regional nature and generated by comparing and synthesizing information, methodologies and results at
an ecoregional level. Researchers and development partners’ work together permanently testing
hypothesis about the best way to address specific problems. The knowledge produced is integrated into
other partners work via regular exchanges, particularly those at the regional level, including
CONDESAN´s workshops5. InfoAndina, CONDESAN´s arm of communications and information and
regional node of the Mountain Forum, plays a strategic dissemination role of new knowledge produced by
the different CONDESAN Initiatives.

External conditions
The main assumption is that in the Andean region there will be interested partners working in the major
themes CONDESAN is involved.

Target Ecoregion
The Andean Ecoregion is the focus of CONDESAN’s work. However, there are tools and methods being
developed in the Andes that have the potential to be applied to other regions. CONDESAN’s solid links


5
    Some workshops in 2006: Workshop “Payment for Environmental Services” in Quito, Ecuador, April 2006. “First
    Andean Sub-regional Meeting of the Andes Initiative of the Mountain Partnership” in Lima, Peru, June 2006.
    Workshop “Innovation on Agricultural Systems” in Lima, Peru, July 2006. “First Regional Meeting of the CPWF
    projects in the Andean and Sao Francisco Basins” in Cali, Colombia. October 2006.


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                     49
with the Challenge Program on Water and Food, the Global Mountain Program, the Mountain Forum, the
Mountain Partnership, The Mountain Research Initiative, and CIP Research Divisions, facilitate this
interaction.

Collaborators
CONDESAN is a consortium of regional partners that develops a variety of research and development
activities. CONDESAN Coordination contributes to strengthen these relationship between partners and
also to extend the links to other stakeholders within and outside the region by concentrating its efforts on
second level activities (synthesis, comparative analyses, support to multi stakeholder platforms, etc.).
InfoAndina supports partners’ cohesion within the consortium and disseminates their work to a wider
audience.

CONDESAN links scientists and rural development partners, public and private, located in national and
international universities, research institutes, non-governmental organizations, local and central
government institutions and enterprises. Additional thematic and regional linkage groups are fostered and
connected through InfoAndina. Depending on the specific thematic area, partners participate in achieving
the output targets.

The Outputs and Output Targets listed in the log frame apply to those CONDESAN Initiatives where the
funding is channeled through CIP as the hosting center. Those initiatives are:

     Andean Paramo Project (GEF) and complementary Trans-boundary Paramo Project (Moore
     Foundation)
     Coordination of the Andean System of Basins of the Challenge Program on Water and Food
     (convened by IWMI)
     InfoAndina, Information and Communications for the Sustainable Development in the Andes (SDC +
     own budget)
     Lemelson Recognition and Mentoring Program LRAMP – Peru (Lemelson Foundation)
Other CONDESAN partners contribute to these outputs. However, these are not part of the MTP, since
resources are not channeled through the CONDESAN Coordination and are of direct responsibility of the
partners.

Complementing the above, CONDESAN has ongoing strong and healthy links with other CGIAR centers
(apart from CIP) and their programs, namely:

     With IWMI: CONDESAN is the Basin Coordinator for the Andean System of Basins (ANDES) of the
     Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF), convened by IWMI. This long-term program also
     connects research in the Andes with that of other parts of the world through other participating CGIAR
     centers (CIAT, IRRI, WFC and IFPRI).
     With CIAT: CIAT leads a number of CPWF projects in the Andes that are coordinated through
     CONDESAN.
     With Global Mountain Program: GMP collaborates with CONDESAN in case studies on how better
     policies can be designed and applied for issues that are of relevance and of potential application to
     other mountain regions in the world. CONDESAN-InfoAndina is contributing to the GMP initiative on
     the Innovation Market Place.
     With ILAC (Institutional Learning and Change): a pilot CGIAR study on CONDESAN as a consortium
     and CIP as a convener center is underway with the technical assistance of ILAC.
Table 1. Some CONDESAN partners

The following are only a few examples of the type of partners and their involvement with CONDESAN for
the MTP outputs.



50                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                 Strategic role and complementary advantage to the
                                                                                          Contribution to
          Partners              Coordination Unit and CONDESAN Initiative in which
                                                                                             Outputs
                                                       participates
Instituto de Ciencias          Applied field research, development actions, up-scaling in    1 and 2
Ambientales y Ecología         sites of Venezuela (Paramo Initiative )
(ICAE) of the University of
Los Andes, Merida,
Venezuela
Andean Program of The          Implementation of multiple components for the                    1
Mountain Institute, NGO,       conservation of environmental services provided by
Peru                           paramo areas of Peru (Paramo Initiative)
Mountain Forum,                Communications and information strategies for the             1 and 2
international program          consortium in general and individual projects and
                               partners, analysis and dissemination of materials.
                               InfoAndina is the regional node of the Mountain Forum for
                               LAC
CGIAR Global Mountain          Applied research on policy and institutional analysis.           2
Program                        Innovation Market Place Initiative
Grupo Randi-Randi, NGO,        Applied research and development actions, with emphasis          1
Ecuador                        in IWRM and gender
Centro Ecumenico de            Wide range of development actions and applied research        1 and 2
Promocion y Accion Social      in conservation agriculture, co-investment schemes
(CEDEPAS), NGO                 (Paramo, ANDES- CPWF and RAMP Initiatives)
Cajamarca, Peru
CIAT, CGIAR center,            Applied research in IMWR and innovation systems,              1 and 2
regional and international     technical assistance on watershed management (ANDES
                               – CPW&F Initiative)
University of Amsterdam,       Applied research (Paramo Initiative)                             1
Holland
Universidad de Caldas,         Cooperation agreement for research, development,              1 and 2
Colombia (UCALDAS)             capacity building and dissemination as well as exchange
                               of information and publications. Collaborative project on
                               capacity building MSc Students: “Farming Production
                               System Masters Fee Financing fund”
UNU-Merit-LINK Program, Cooperation for research and dissemination on issues                    2
Holland                        related with innovation systems (see:
                               http://www.innovationstudies.org/index.html)
Pontifical Catholic University Research and technical assistance for the Lemelson –             2
of Peru – GRUPO, Peru          Recognition and Mentoring Program (RAMP initiative)
Andean Community,              Implementation of the Andean Environmental Agenda and            1
regional (CAN)                 support CONDESAN advocacy work in the subject of
                               IWRM
Latin American Network for Capacity building and dissemination as well as knowledge             1
capacity building in IWRM      sharing on the subject of IWRM
(LA-WETnet)
ASOCAM                         Knowledge sharing on mountain agriculture practices,          1 and 2
                               innovation systems and policy influence in Andean
                               ecoregion




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008               51
Project 8. Global Mountain Program
Problem analysis
Mountains embody fragile, topographically highly variable, often difficult environments that amount for
24% of the earth’s landmass. They are the source of 80% of the world’s fresh water, 50% of the
biodiversity and 35% of the world’s forests and home for 720 million people, often indigenous, who are
usually knowledge rich and culturally diverse, but are counted amongst the world’s poorest and
marginalized. For example, in the IAC report on Africa, five of the eight poverty hotspots are in the
mountains. In the past, the mountain populations did not profit from science-based opportunities in
comparison to those living in the favored environments of the lowlands. The people and environment in
mountains are particularly vulnerable to processes of globalization, urbanization and climate change due
to their added disadvantage of poor infrastructure, education, support and remoteness to markets and
political power. On the other hand, mountain resources are being increasing exploited by international
markets, national urban centers and local mountain inhabitants. At the same time lack of opportunity is
driving out-migration and affecting the maintenance of agricultural, rural and family infrastructure. Serious
deterioration has taken place of these fragile environments. Reversing the trends requires mountain
specific research on key issues to provide more enabling policies and support to mountain people.

Reflecting on the role of the CGIAR in mountains, and the need to inter-connect the system priorities, it is
apparent that individual centers have over the years invested substantial research for mountainous
regions. Much capacity and experience is available in areas of agricultural technology, forestry, natural
resource management, management of genetic diversity and policy. The problems in mountains are
complex and often are institution and process based, rather than purely technological. However, few of
these issues have been dealt with in an integrated CGIAR-wide manner, nor has there been a center
level synthesis of products for mountain environment, or dialogue on development of coherent research
strategies by the system to have broad impact in these complex fragile systems. The GMP is designed to
facilitate linkages and develop platforms to bring the system together to create added value in mountains.

The GMP intends to serve a connector in mountains among the 20 system priorities. Output 2 is
connected to the theme Strengthening Rural Urban Linkages. It covers many of the system priorities and
is designed also to link to development through facilitation of a stakeholder platform on Rural Urban
Linkages (RUL) that brings together all important stakeholders to tackle issues collectively within a
benchmark site. Using the RUL design enables the CG and partners to move away from a mosaic
approach to development support to a coordinated focused research for development approach. The
expected end result is a value added product with far greater impact than what each center could produce
alone.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
Opportunity 1. Improving information pathways and research content for sustainable agriculture and
development for mountain people through: a) development of a methodology with indigenous
communities to study information/communication bottlenecks b) collecting, analyzing and packaging the
CGIAR products for mountains.

a) After 35 years work by CGIAR and national partners, access for mountain people to locally relevant
information and technological options for solutions to their problems and access markets is still a major
bottleneck. A solution requires collaboration between research and development institutions, and
integration of these activities into a larger socio-political framework such as national decentralization
processes. To move forward requires clarification of information bottlenecks, especially of the most
marginalized, who are often indigenous groups. To overcome the bottlenecks new opportunities from IT
and communication technologies must be integrated into a strategy designed to reach remote areas and
marginalized peoples; b) On the content side, although the CGIAR has over thirty years experience in
working in mountain regions, to date there has been no attempt to bring together the CGIAR ‘offer’ for
mountain regions. Surprisingly, many of the products of CGIAR Centers are not easily accessible..
Access to CGIAR products of the last 30 years can provide opportunities and choices for mountain
people to better manage their specific needs. As a first step the products of the CG system for mountain



52                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
regions should be collected, analyzed, packaged and targeted improve access by mountain people and
development stakeolders. The GMP has partnered for this task with the Mountain Forum, the international
body set up to support mountain people with information. The opportunity translates to Output 1 and
contributes especially to SP 5D.

Opportunity 2. Strengthening Rural Urban Linkages and livelihood options in mountains (RULs)

Urban centers are increasingly affecting rural mountain areas. They act as strong sinks for agricultural
and forest products, water, nutrients, minerals and people. Unmanaged extraction is depleting the
resource base necessary for future livelihoods people and function of mountain ecosystems, including
agriculture. Deforestation, mining, water contamination and overuse, broken nutrient cycles and poverty-
driven emigration from rural areas are causing serious degradation of the natural resource base and a
decline in well-being and health of rural mountain populations. Similarly, urban areas are affected by a
deterioration of rural mountain resources though reduced water quality and availability, lack of fuel,
availability of agricultural products and reduced scenic quality for recreation. On the other hand urban
centers are often engines for rural development. Strengthened linkages and better RUL planning offer
benefits to both rural and urban livelihoods and sustainable mountain development.

Many rural problems of poverty, food security, NRM and the environment cannot be solved without
including the urban link in the management of rural resources. There are numerous key knowledge gaps
in understanding and improving the effectiveness of planning and policies that affect urban and rural
livelihood and agro-environmental issues. The issues need a focused, integrated research approach and
territorial rather than sector-based planning, policies and support strategies. The GMP has made RULs a
thematic area that enables CGIAR centers to use their strengths to add value to present efforts. Addis
Ababa will be the first benchmark site. The GMP is launching this initiative in close collaboration with the
African Highland Initiative and the System Wide Urban Harvest Program. The GMP has been joined in
the venture by urban and rural Ethiopian institutions research and civil institutions.

The GMP with these partners will define key areas for research intervention through a planning process
that includes collection of baseline data on livelihood and land-use issues and options of rural to urban
mountain populations. The inflows and outflows of goods from rural to urban areas and the strengths and
weaknesses of existing policies to optimize the benefits of RULs to attain national goals will be analyzed.
Research will quantify problems such as water availability and quality, forest degradation for fuel,
migration and health and contribute to better targeting of support to mountain people. The Rural Urban
linkage approach would provide the basis for actions using cities as engines for rural development
through better incentives for environmental stewardship, such as Payment for Environmental Services
(PES). In addition, the approach contains will promote platforms for stakeholder action. This model
provides a context for research for development in a defined benchmark sites where MDG impact can be
measured. Establishment of benchmark sites in different continents should provide an opportunity for
cross-site learning by stakeholder groups and the CGIAR. The opportunity translates to output 2 and
contributes particularly to SPs 4A.

Objectives
The objectives of the GMP in the next three years are to improve the contribution of the CGIAR to the
Millennium Development Goals through: a) bringing together a plan with the Mountain forum to better
support information for mountain groups, an analysis of the CGIAR ‘offer’ in mountains and development
better mechanisms to harness the CGIAR research strengths to support sustainable mountain
development; b) better understanding and connection of processes that affect sustainable mountain
development, especially the role urban-rural linkages through collection and analysis of baseline
information on peoples livelihood issues and options.

Changes from the last MTP
Changes in the MTP 2008-2010 outputs were made to adjust operational and financial realities and to
tighten the project output products. The changes have been substantial considering the large
readjustment of the GMP program in 2005.



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                 53
Output 1. The collection of CG Center products for mountains has been a slower and more difficult
process than envisaged. Adjustments are made in the speed of collection. Funding still is very
constrained. There will be a reevaluation in 2007 of the strategic use of resources for Theme 1, which
contains output 1. On the other hand work is progressing to develop the umbrella framework and strategy
to improve information access for mountain people. A planning workshop with partners and
representatives of mountain communities in 2007 should for the basis for a clear strategy that should lead
to an ‘innovation marketplace’ for mountain people in the future’.

Output 2. The output has been corrected and clarified in the 2008-2010 MTP. Specific output targets
have been more clearly defined and readjusted as they have been defined by the planning process that
included a national planning workshop in 2006. Adjustments have been made to the livelihood research
output targets due to operational delays that were out of the programs control and part of the extensive
effort with the government and donors in Ethiopia to establish the national priorities and the national
operational framework.

Output 3 has been removed. It will be completed in 2007. A planning workshop will determine if there is a
need for future research work. An African study of the strengths and weaknesses of mountain policies is
now integrated in output 2.

Impact pathways
Output 1. Collecting, analyzing and using the CGIAR products for mountains. Access to information
and to content is a problem for many mountain communities. Improving access through better knowledge
management and utilizing advances in IT and communications technologies can make mountain peoples
aware of technology and knowledge options for development. Better access to the resources will enable
rural people to empower themselves to improve their livelihoods and to better manage the natural
resource base. In addition, Output 1 contributes to the tools for Output 2.

Output 2. Strengthening Rural-Urban Linkages and livelihood options in mountains. Research
linked with use of benchmark sites and a stakeholder platforms to strengthen RULs enables the CGIAR to
work as a system and with partners more effectively understand RULs, collect and analyze baseline
information on livelihood options, land use and product flows. This knowledge can be used to develop
decision support tools to provide options to stakeholders. Baseline studies provide data for future
evaluation on changes on livelihoods and MDGs. The methodology developed for Addis Ababa will be
adapted and used in other benchmark sites. Better inter-sectoral coordination and information for
planning that incorporates understanding of RULs results in positive effects on livelihood options and
management in rural and urban areas that in turn leads to increased food security, well being and income
of mountain people and better stewardship natural resources in mountains.

External conditions
The assumptions are that sufficient funding available, that partners complete their part of the agreements,
that the program has sufficient institutional support to enable it to effectively function as a system wide
program and that target regions will be socially and politically stable.

Target eco-regions
The GMP works globally. Presently, due to funding limitations, activities are concentrated in Sub Saharan
Africa and Latin America. In the future activities in Asia will be included. The program also intends to
increase its activities in Africa.

Beneficiaries
Rural and urban communities in mountains, local and national planners and policy makers, research
scientists and institute directors, NGOs and international development organizations.

Collaborators



54                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                                                             Outputs to
 Major Partner                   Strategic and complementary advantage                       which partner
                                                                                             contributes
 The Mountain Forum              Global service for communication and information            Output 1
                                 for mountains regions. Its role is firstly as focal point   (2008 & 10)
                                 for the innovations and as partner in developing a
                                 supermarket or marketplace for innovations and
                                 options
 The African Highlands           Principal partner in Africa. Houses the GMP                 Output 1 & 2
 Initiative                      financed mountain forum resource person. Has links          (2008)
                                 to important CGIAR centers in East African
                                 highlands and national groups. The future of AHI is
                                 uncertain as it is absorbed in to the NRM theme of
                                 ASARECA in 2008. It may be that we are going to
                                 lose the value focus on highlands the AHI provided.
                                 Member of the advisory group that manages the
                                 GMP RUL Research Fellow
 The International Center for    Principal GMP partner in the Hindu Kush                     Output 1 (2008)
 Integrated Mountain             Himalayas. It houses an information and Knowledge
 Development (ICIMOD)            management program. The program would provide
                                 technical expertise on development of an innovation
                                 marketplace
 The System Wide Initiative      Concentrates on Urban parts of the research.                Output 2 (2008)
 on Urban Agriculture.           Member of the advisory group that manages the
 (Urban Harvest Program)         GMP RUL Research Fellow
 CG Secretariat                  Communication group will support CGIAR wide                 Output 1 (2008)
                                 information and communication strategy for
                                 mountains
 Ethiopian Institute for         Part of the RUL research support group                      Output 2
 Agricultural Research                                                                       (2008-10)
 (EIAR)
 University of Addis Ababa       Support Livelihood survey and migration research            Output 2 (2009)
 Addis Municipal Planning        Help test the models                                        Output 2 (2010)
 offices
 IFPRI, CIFOR, CIAT, CIP,        Members of the RUL-M research working group.                Output 2 (2010)
 IWMI, ICRAF, ILRI               IFPRI supports work on migration and product flow.
                                 CIFOR supports research on policies, deforestation
                                 and urban demand for wood-products, IWMI
                                 supports activities in upstream and downstream
                                 water management
 Sustainable Agriculture and     Coordinator of the global collection and analysis of        Output 2 (2008)
 Rural Livelihoods in            Mountain Policies for SARD-M and partial funding
 Mountains (SARD-M)              body for policy study in Africa
 Project of the Adelboden
 Group at FAO




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       55
Project 9. Urban Harvest
Problem analysis
The developing world is increasingly urban. Forty percent of Africans and Asians now live in cities; in
Latin America it is 80%. Some of the fastest rates of urban growth are in Africa, where an estimated 225
million more people will be living in cities by 2020. By that time, eight of the nine largest megacities in the
world will be in developing countries. Urbanization in the developing world is also a migration of poverty
and child malnutrition to towns and cities. In Latin America about 62% of the poor now live in urban areas.
In Asia and Africa, the figure is about 40%. Poor families living in cities find themselves in a specifically
urban poverty trap. While work is limited, food is expensive and takes up a major part of earnings.
Services like education are more costly than in rural areas and insecurity is endemic. Lacking the support
networks common in rural communities, poor urban households are vulnerable to economic and political
shocks. With these pressures on household financial resources, the family’s nutritional well-being and
health are at risk. Poor urban families in the South suffer a “double health burden”, facing typically rural
nutritional, respiratory and contagious diseases as well as the new “lifestyle diseases” such as obesity,
heart disease, cancers and diabetes. Urban ecosystems are also at risk from the rapid growth of
population and poverty. City services become overstretched, local natural resources deteriorate and it is
usually the poorest people whose health and safety is most compromised by these environmental
problems.

Increasing numbers of poor households living in and around cities are seeking direct ways to alleviate
food insecurity and secure other aspects of their livelihood through cultivating areas of land and raising
livestock. As many as 800 million are estimated to be involved in this strategy world-wide with some
cities, such as Dar es Salaam and Kampala having more than a third of their households pursuing urban
and peri-urban agriculture. Crop and livestock production thus offer potential solutions to food and income
insecurity and can provide productive ways to conserve urban natural resources. At the same time, there
is need to ensure that these benefits are not compromised by potential problems created by the
agricultural activity itself. This concerns primarily the risk to densely settled urban producers and
consumers from exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants that are concentrated in the urban
environment. There are multiple, agriculture-related pathways – air, soil, water, plants, animals and their
products – through which these contaminants can impact on human health.

Identification of specific problems to be tackled with research
Though urban areas in the developing world face socio-economic and environmental problems, they also
present new concentrations of wealth which bring increased demand for livestock products, high-value
crops and processed products as well as cut flowers and ornamental plants. Urban producers can
increase their own income and food and nutrition security through easy access to diverse markets, the
ability to quickly market high quality, perishable products and the advantage of establishing direct
producer-consumer relations or short marketing chains. Research is needed into the actual and potential
value chains and enterprise clusters linking producers to markets.

These different product markets have the potential to contribute to the economic and social development
of households located along the entire urban-rural transect. Despite the stereotype of rural agriculture and
urban manufacturing, in practice the agricultural sector cross-cuts rural-urban boundaries and
manufacturing and services are commonly found in rural areas. This overlap of sectors is underscored by
the agriculture-related two-way flow of people, produce, inputs, financing and knowledge along the rural-
urban transect. This suggests their inter-dependence is of greater importance than their separation.
Analysis of rural-urban linkages can help us to understand where improvements in rural-to-urban food
flows can best contribute to better food security among the urban poor and where opportunities exist for
urban food production to make a complementary contribution – either directly or via income opportunities
– to household food and nutrition security. Two important aspects of research on the nutritional
contribution of urban agriculture will be first to develop strategies for novel ways of delivering planting
material of nutritious crops to a wide range of urban producers and second, to find ways to increase the
consumption of important types of foods, notably animal source foods (ASF) to combat both protein and
micro-nutrient deficiencies.



56                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Cities are concentrations of demand for a diversity of agricultural products. They are also nutrient sinks
and repositories of other untapped natural resources. Nutrients are found in the vast quantities of
wastewater and organic residues generated in urban and peri-urban areas. Cities also contain under-
utilized land and water surfaces that can be put to productive use. The use of these urban resources also
carries health risks, as do the use of agro-chemicals and animal raising in densely populated areas.
Research is needed to identify where human health risks occur, how to mitigate them and how to support
local producers to safely benefit form available urban resources.

The dense network of administrative jurisdictions, legal obligations, competing rights and policy
prescriptions that reach into the lives of urban households is another key characteristic of cities.
Agricultural activities are usually circumscribed and sometimes proscribed by ordinances and other
regulations and frequently encounter competing rights for the resources deployed. Research on policies
and institutions is needed to understand this situation and to develop strategies for stakeholder dialogue
and platform building to better integrate urban agriculture in urban governance.

Objectives
The goal of Urban Harvest is to stimulate the contribution of agriculture within and around cities to
increasing urban food and nutrition security, alleviate poverty whilst contributing to the sustainability of
urban livelihoods and the urban environment.

The objectives of Urban Harvest are to:

    (a) Establish the conditions for the institutional and policy recognition of urban and peri-urban
    agriculture as a productive and essential component of sustainable cities.
    (b) Reduce poverty and increase food and nutrition security of urban and peri-urban populations
    through local agricultural production and processing.
    (c) Reduce the negative environmental and health impacts of urban agriculture whilst enhancing its
    positive potential for urban ecosystem maintenance.
To address these objectives, a research framework has been developed which draws on earlier insights
into sustainable livelihoods and urban ecosystems health and consists of three elements: Stakeholder
and policy analysis and dialogue seeks understanding of the actors, policies and institutions concerned
in urban agricultural activities and develops methods for communication and consensus among actors
and legitimacy for urban agriculture in policy and regulatory schemes. The element of Livelihoods and
markets targets production, processing, marketing and consumption systems along the rural-urban
transect and identifies technology interventions to enhance incomes and increase food and nutrition
security. Urban ecosystem health focuses research attention on the feedback mechanisms between
agricultural activities and population, community and environmental health.

Changes since previous MTP
As indicated in the previous MTP, Output 1, which primarily involves characterization and comparison of
the role and contributions of peri-urban and urban agricultural systems in different developing regions, will
be closed at the end of 2007. This will bring the number of Outputs for this Project to three.

Alignment with CGIAR System priorities
CIP acknowledges the Science Council view, expressed in its commentary on CIP’s 2007 – 2009 MTP
that Urban Harvest does not at present fall within the current SPs. The financial reporting of this project
has been moved to the appropriate non-agenda columns in Financial Table 1. However, CIP continues to
believe that urban and peri-urban agriculture is an important livelihood strategy for millions of households
in the developing world and is highly relevant to the CGIAR mandate. For this reason, and in expectation
of a future change in thinking about Urban Harvest by the Science Council, which was intimated in the
commentary, we discuss alignments with System Priorities below.




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                  57
Output 1, consists of innovative technologies and practices that increase productivity and/or marketing of
high value urban and peri-urban (UPA) crops and livestock products for the benefit of families directly or
indirectly dependent on peri-urban horticulture and livestock-based farming systems and is directly
related to Priorities 3A goal 2 and 3B goal 1 which target improved livelihoods of poor farmers and
laborers through increasing income from fresh marketing of fruits, vegetables and livestock products or
through adding value via agro-processing activities. Some of the crops in these systems are also
candidates for biofortification (sweetpotatoes, beans, potatoes) and provide opportunities for enhancing
the nutritional status of beneficiaries, especially young children.

Output 2, which develops methods to mitigate human health risks from UPA and to enhance the
sustainable use of urban natural resources for agriculture, is aligned with Priority 4D, the sustainable
agro-ecological intensification in low and high potential environments, through the pursuit of research
opportunities for water management, nutrient recycling and the need for innovative means of safely
managing pests and diseases in areas with high population densities.

Output 3, policy options and institutional and planning strategies to support safe and sustainable
agricultural production in urban areas, is primarily aligned with Priority 4A, integrated land, water and
forest management at landscape level. Peri-urban landscapes are mosaics of multiple land uses, often
with conflicting demands on resources. Farm level and landscape (or municipal) level planning capacity
can contribute to a more rational management of the different uses to maximize poverty alleviation and
sustainability of the environment.

Impact pathways
Urban Harvest’s impact pathway is closely linked to the por-poor R&D cycle which forms the basis of
CIP’s MDG-orented strategy. It uses the following criteria to carefully target urban settlements where
impact can be expected:

     Large urban centers in distinct eco-regions with concentrations of poor people (megacity focus)
     Urban centers with high proportion of food and nutrition insecure Countries with high urbanization
     rates
     Mother-child food security systems
     Small city systems with close links to rural hinterland
     Urban/peri-urban systems widely distributed (eg, peri-urban small-holder commercial vegetable
     production)
     Locations with CG logistical support
Based on these targeting criteria, the pro-poor research cycle of diagnostic and needs assessments,
research interventions and going to scale for dissemination have been undertaken through regional
networks of “anchor cities” - urban and peri-urban sites where pilot research interventions are scaling out
initiatives are located. Other cities in each of the regions are linked to Urban Harvest activities through
information-sharing and capacity-building networks. These are referred to as “contact cities”. Principal
operational sites by country and ecology are: Manila capital region, Philippines (humid tropical lowlands);
Hanoi, Vietnam (sub-tropical lowlands): Yaoundé, Cameroon (humid tropical lowlands); Kampala,
Uganda (sub-humid tropics); and Nairobi, Kenya (sub-humid tropics); Lima, Peru (desert).

Thus impact pathways start locally, through piloting outputs and evaluating outcomes and impacts within
particular cities. This process is strongly supported by one of the major research components of the
project, “Stakeholder and policy analysis and dialogue”, through which dialogue platforms are established
among local stakeholders to facilitate outcomes. This platform, as well as other local outputs are also
IPGs which are then validated within and across developing regions.




58                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Beneficiaries and end-users
Urban producers’, processors’ and consumer associations and groups; municipal authorities; national
agricultural research and development systems; national planning and environmental authorities;
international multilateral agencies.

Research approach to develop IPGs
Urban Harvest has two major approaches to developing IPGs. The first is to emphasize the testing and
validation of strategies, frameworks and methods, which are the major types of outputs, in multiple sites,
after they have been developed initially in a single or sometimes in two sites. This allows for adjustment
and leads to greater robustness. The second is to carry out comparative, “meta” evaluations of similar
output targets from sites in different regions.

Collaborators
Networking knowledge exchange at the national and regional level occurs through networks centered on
the anchor cities and contact cities described above and also through linking to existing regional networks
of national organizations concerned with urban agriculture, management and development, such as Red
Aguilar in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Municipal Development Program in Eastern and
Southern Africa and the Urban Agriculture National Research, Development and Extension Network in
the Philippines. This type of networking brings together researchers, city officials and decision-makers
and CSOs. Globally, Urban Harvest is a member of the Steering Committee of the Support Group on
Urban Agriculture and Forestry (SGUA), a global coalition of donor and development organizations
established in 1996. Under the coordination of the International Development Research Centre, SGUA
promotes networking and co-operation in urban agriculture in developing countries, fosters North-South
learning and helps link agriculture with other urban development challenges.

                                                                                           Output to
 Partner                Strategic role/complementary advantage                             which partner
                                                                                           contributes
 AVRDC                  Urban horticultural systems, indigenous African vegetables                1
 CIAT                   Agro-enterprise innovation                                                1
 CIP                    Sweetpotato varieties, seed technology. Farmer field school            1, 2, 3
                        skills, GIS and modeling, agriculture and health
 ICRAF                  Use of tree legumes for fodder, tree nurseries, urban/peri-              1
                        urban agro-forestry systems
 ILRI                   Diagnostic and action livestock research, utilization of                1, 2,
                        manures, modeling
 IWMI                   Wastewater use for vegetables, flooding control                          2
 GMP                    Rural-urban linkages in mountain environments                           1,2
 PRGA                   Gender mainstreaming                                                    1,3
 UPWARD                 Rural-urban agro-enterprises, livelihoods and marketing                 1,2
                        studies
 University of the      Horticultural research, urban planning, GIS                             1,3
 Philippines, Los
 Baños
 University of the      GIS, Multi-agent systems (MAS)                                           3
 Philippines, Diliman
 Kenya Agricultural     IPM, policy analysis, technology transfer                               1,3
 Research Institute
 University of          Soil studies, health risks                                               2
 Nairobi
 Jomo Kenyatta          Waste water studies                                                      2
 University
 Ministry of            Livestock development, water and irrigation
 Agriculture and



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                   59
                                                                                           Output to
 Partner                Strategic role/complementary advantage                             which partner
                                                                                           contributes
 Fisheries, Kenya
 Farm Concern           Market chain analyses, product development                                 1
 International (CSO)
 Greentowns, Kenya      Community mobilization, participatory technology testing,                1,2,3
 (CSO)                  local govt. facilitation
 Mazengira              Building a model for organization of urban farmers                         1
 Institute/NEFSALF
 (CSO/CO)
 Nakuru City            Urban environmental management, regulatory framework for                   3
 Council, Kenya         urban agriculture
 Makerere               Urban planning, public health issues, human nutrition                    1, 2, 3
 University, Uganda
 Kampala City           Land use policies, urban planning, regulatory frameworks,                  3
 Council, Uganda        public consultations, convener role
 Environmental          Community organizing, advocacy                                            1,3
 Alert, Uganda
 (CSO)
 KUFSALCC (CSO)         Dialogue platform, facilitation                                            3
 Ministry of            Agricultural and food policy analysis                                      3
 Agriculture, Animal
 Industries and
 Fisheries (MAAIF),
 Uganda
 National               Horticultural crops, livestock research                                    1
 Agricultural
 Research
 Organization
 (NARO), Uganda
 Instituto de           Child nutrition research                                                   1
 Investigación
 Nutricional (IIN),
 Perú
 National               Vegetable and livestock production modules, environmental                 1,2
 Agricultural           health
 University, Peru
 Pan-American           Solid waste management                                                     2
 Health
 Organization,
 Center for
 Sanitation and
 Environmental
 Sciences (CEPIS)
 Promoción de           Municipal policy analysis, urban planning                                  3
 Desarrollo
 Sostenible (IPES)
 (CSO)
 Municipalidad          Urban management policies, land use planning, convener                     3
 Lurigancho-            role
 Chosica, Lima,
 Peru
 Rímac River Water      Irrigation water management, farmer representative                        2,3
 Users’ Association



60                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                                                                           Output to
 Partner                Strategic role/complementary advantage                             which partner
                                                                                           contributes
 (JUR), Peru
 University of          Health risk assessment in urban agriculture, health related             2,3
 Toronto, Dept. of      policies
 Public Health
 Ryerson University,    Food and nutrition security analysis in urban context                    1
 Toronto
 CIRAD                  Urban horticulture                                                       1
 Universidad            Territorial planning and policy for urban areas                          3
 Politecnica de
 Madrid




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                   61
62   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
PROJECT LOGFRAMES
Project 1. Impact Enhancement
Output         Output target                                          Intended user               Outcome                   Impact
Output 1       Pro-poor R&D Cycle Validated (2010)                    CIP Divisions and           Research is carried out   Improved livelihoods for
                                                                      Partnership Programs,       for geographical areas    farm households in target
                                                                      CGIAR Centers, Donors,      and in ways that are      regions contributing to
                                                                      ARI, Partners and clients   more likely to achieve    prioritized MDGs
                                                                      in NARS and regional        impacts on the poor
                                                                      networks
2008           Global trends in potato and options for poverty
               impacts analyzed and documented
2008           Method for geographical targeting to increase
               probability of poverty impacts through mandate
               crops validated
2008           Sweet potato growers preferences for OFSP
               planting material and willingness to pay for OFSP
               vines in Mozambique & Uganda determined
2008           Opportunity cost of growing OFSP among small
               farmers in Mozambique determined
2009           Methods for evaluating the needs of the poor
               available to guide research activities with
               stakeholders in NARS
2009           Global trends in sweetpotato and options for poverty
               impacts analyzed and documented
2009           Methodology for assessing livelihood impacts of
               innovation processes in ex-post impact studies
               available (with UPWARD and Papa Andina)
2009           Methodologies for comparing cost-effectiveness of
               scaling-up different models for promoting pro-
               vitamin A sweetpotato in Uganda and Mozambique
               documented
2010           Knowledge about contribution of Pro-Poor R&D
               Cycle to improving farmer livelihoods available




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                           63
Output     Output target                                            Intended user             Outcome                     Impact
Output 2   Strategies for linking farmers with markets and          Government officials,     Stakeholders appreciate     Farm households and
           post-harvest innovations tested and                      development               the value of organized      other poor market chain
           documented (2011)                                        professionals,            market chains and new       actors improve their
                                                                    researchers, farmers      market opportunities and    incomes through access
                                                                    and other market          make better informed        to new market
                                                                    chain actors              policy and investment       opportunities and better
                                                                                              decisions                   organized market chains
2008       Approach for developing social responsibility in
           potato market chain in the Andes validated (with
           Papa Andina)
2008       Strategy for using Participatory Market Chain
           Approach to enhance small farmers livelihoods in
           the Andes available to NARS (with Papa Andina)
2009       Ex-ante potential for small farmers to establish a
           viable market chain to supply orange fleshed sweet
           potato to bakers of “golden bread” in Mozambique
           determined
2009       Status and new opportunities for SP utilization and
           marketing assessed in ESEAP and SWCA
2009       Participatory Market Chain Approach to enhance
           small farmers livelihoods in East Africa adapted and
           available to NARS
2010       Participatory Market Chain Approach to enhance
           small farmers livelihoods in Indonesia (potato),
           Philippines (sweetpotato) and Vietnam
           (sweetpotato) adapted and available to NARS
2010       The effectiveness of the process of the Commercial
           villages approach in Kenya in improving incomes,
           increasing micronutrient intake and other indicators
           of well-being of the players and theirs families along
           the value chain evaluated
2010       Guidelines for Participatory Market Chain Crop
           Improvement available




64                                                            International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output         Output target                                          Intended user             Outcome                     Impact
Output 3       Pro-poor policies and strategies for institutional     Policy makers in          Users designing policy      Improvements in
               learning and change identified and documented          government, donors,       and institutional           livelihoods of small
               (2012)                                                 CGIAR Centers and         arrangements to support     farmers because of
                                                                      decision makers in NARS   agricultural research for   availability of more
                                                                                                development that            appropriate technology
                                                                                                improves the                and an enabling
                                                                                                effectiveness of rural      environment for uptake
                                                                                                development and
                                                                                                enhances poverty
                                                                                                alleviation
2008           Training method for sharing knowledge between
               the Andes and Africa analyzed and documented
               (Papa Andina)
2008           Learning materials for science education on OFSP
               in Uganda developed
2008           Ex-ante study of potential role of institutional
               changes and participatory research in agricultural
               innovation system in China
2009           Methodology for assessing capacity development
               and institutional strengthening and their
               contributions to pro-poor research and development
               available (with UPWARD)
2009           Strategies for increasing diet diversification among
               poor rural households in Uganda and Mozambique
               analyzed and documented
2009           Policy recommendations to enhance welfare of
               farmers and reduce biodiversity loss in the context
               of the new agricultural economy in Bolivia and
               Ecuador developed (with FAO, American University
               and Papa Andina)
2010           Strategy for formulating evidence-based technology
               innovation policy to achieve pro-poor impacts in
               potato growing areas of the Andes developed
               (with Papa Andina)




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                             65
Project 2. Genetic Resources Conservation and Characterization
Output     Output target                                        Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
Output 1   New wild and cultivated genetic resources of         Center projects’ 2, 3      NARS, ARIs, and             Conservation methods
           several crops (potato, sweetpotato and nine          and 4, NARS’ and ARIs      genebank researchers        and information
           other root and tuber crops) are collected with       researchers, and           use information and         promote the
           their associated information, securely               farmers’ organizations     knowledge for               sustainable use of
           conserved and made available by 2010                                            improving root and          biodiversity, and
                                                                                           tuber crop                  improve farmers
                                                                                           conservation; farmers       livelihoods through
                                                                                           adopt healthy seed for      securing food
                                                                                           increasing yield /          availability
                                                                                           stability of local
                                                                                           cultivars
2008       Ten wild potato species populations collected in
           Southern Peru, 10 wild or cultivated maca, 20
           yacon and mashua accessions acquired
2008       Duplicate set of 100 sweetpotato landraces from
           the Philippines transferred to CIP genebank for
           back up storage for the UPWARD network
2008       Eighty potato and 50 sweetpotato accessions
           cryopreserved in CIP genebank, 100 oca, ulluco
           and mashua accessions conserved under low
           temperature and slow growth storage
2008       Three hundred wild potato and 200 sweetpotato
           accessions from the in vitro and botanical seeds
           respectively from CIP genebank regenerated
2008       Virus-free stocks of 300 potato, 200 sweetpotato
           and 50 other roots and tubers accessions
           produced
2008       Virus-free stocks distributed worldwide, including
           distribution to farmer communities in Peruvian
           Highlands, Potato Park and East and SE Asia
           countries
2008       An illustrated atlas of wild potato Solanum
           Section Petota published
2008       Practices and guidelines to improve
           technological, institutional and policy support to
           ex situ and in situ on-farm sweetpotato
           conservation in the Philippines are identified and



66                                                          International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output         Output target                                          Intended user        Outcome   Impact
               field-validated
2008           Central germplasm database updated and made
               available to external users (access via latest
               SINGER information exchange protocols and
               search and reporting facilities according to the
               SMTA)
2008           Geo-referenced information, evaluation and
               molecular data are linked to CIP central
               germplasm database updated and made
               available to external users
2008           Identification of sweetpotato duplicate accessions
               using morphological descriptors and molecular
               markers completed
2008           500 common names and geographic positions of
               native potato are verified and central germplasm
               database updated and made available to external
               users
2008           Duplicate accessions (100 potato and 80
               sweetpotato landraces) converted into seeds for
               long-term conservation
2008           Geo-referenced information on potato,
               sweetpotato and ARTC collections placed on line
2008           Safety backup of in trust potato, sweetpotato and
               ARTC landrace collections renewed and
               procedures refined
2008           Upgraded version of bar-code system developed
               at CIP available and in place in CGIAR sister
               genebank institutions
2008           Best practices for germplasm documentation
               management (including statistical quality control
               of processes and reproducibility of analytical
               protocols) published
2008           300 oca, ulluco and mashua specimens
               documented in the herbarium collection
2009           Ten wild potato species populations collected in
               Southern Peru and Bolivia, 20 maca (Lepidium),
               achira (Canna) and mashua (Tropaeolum)
               species collected in Peru
2009           Duplicate set of 100 sweetpotato landraces from


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      67
Output   Output target                                        Intended user             Outcome                     Impact
         Africa (Uganda, Tanzania) transferred to CIP
         genebank for back up storage
2009     Fifty sweetpotato landrace materials collected in
         Northern Peru as potential new sources of virus
         resistance
2009     500 potato specimens generated through
         research, documented in the genebank
         herbarium collection
2009     Five hundred wild potato, 200 sweetpotato and
         200 cultivated potato accessions from botanical
         seed and tubers respectively, from CIP genebank
         regenerated
2009     Eighty potato and 50 sweetpotato accessions
         cryopreserved in CIP genebank, 100 oca (Oxalis)
         and mashua (Tropaeolum) accessions
         established at low temperature and slow growth
         storage
2009     A collection of DNA samples of potato and oca
         is established for long-term conservation and
         documented
2009     Virus free stocks as of 300 potato, 200
         sweetpotato and 50 other roots and tubers
         produced
2009     Eco-bio-geographic identification of wild potato,
         sweetpotato and ARTC endemism under erosion
         threat documented.
2009     Procedures for quality control of health status of
         in vitro germplasm designed and implemented
2009     Valuation analysis of potato ex-situ collection
         conducted
2009     Safety back up principle and procedures for wild
         and cultivated in trust collections (potato,
         sweetpotato and ARTCs) documented
2009     A study comparing farmer-managed diversity and
         conservation of potato with the ex-situ practices
         (CIP genebank) documented and published
2009     Guidelines for clonal and seed conservation of
         cultivated and wild potato, sweetpotato and
         ARTC collections published


68                                                       International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output         Output target                                          Intended user            Outcome                  Impact
2009           Sweetpotato wild species catalogue including 200
               accessions available on line
2009           500 sweetpotato specimens documented in the
               herbarium collection
2009           Spatial and environmental patterns of
               sweetpotato pests & disease resistances
               variables to determine any predictive variables or
               rules for presence of resistances based on spatial
               or environmental variables
2009           Crop registry for potato based on the APIC
               (Association for Potato Intergenebank
               Collections) catalog upgraded and standardized
2010           A global strategy developed for re-collecting
               potato and sweetpotato germplasm under erosion
               threat established and made available
2010           Methods for monitoring and evaluating
               interventions on in situ/on-farm conservation
               developed
2010           Procedures for best practices of DNA collection
               defined and implemented
Output 2       The genetic diversity of potato, sweetpotato           Center Projects’,        CIP, NARS and ARIs       Genetic resources
               and nine other root and tuber crops is                 NARS’ and ARIs           researchers use          knowledge and material
               characterized and documented by 2010                   researchers, Altiplano   information and          contribute to alleviate
                                                                      farmer communities       selected germplasm for   poverty, reduce
                                                                                               genetic enhancement      temporal and chronic
                                                                                               and improvement of       hunger, and improve
                                                                                               potato and sweetpotato   access to nutritious
                                                                                               crop diversity           food by supporting
                                                                                                                        CIP’s and CIP partners’
                                                                                                                        research on root and
                                                                                                                        tuber crop improvement
2008           Other one hundred fifty potato landraces from
               Altiplano communities are characterized
               morphologically
2008           Molecular fingerprints with at least 24
               microsatellite markers of 500 potato landraces
               from CIP genebank made available through
               internet
2008           The identity of 500 cultivated potato accessions


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                          69
Output   Output target                                         Intended user             Outcome                     Impact
         verified using morphological descriptors; and one
         set of 50 accessions analyzed using molecular
         markers
2008     Assessment of the genetic diversity and
         relatedness between S. bukasovii populations
         and primitive potato cultivars documented
2008     Molecular characterization database integrated to
         the central germplasm database
2008     Homologation of yacon and arracacha collections
         of 7 genebanks from Peru and Bolivia is
         assessed using molecular markers and
         documented
2008     Ploidy level of 200 wild and 500 cultivated potato
         accessions determined
2008     Homologation of 300 oca accessions from INIA-
         Peru and CIP genebank is assessed and
         documented
2008     The identity of 80 oca and 30 ulluco accessions
         verified using standard descriptor lists; and one
         set of 30 accessions analyzed using molecular
         markers
2008     DIVA-GIS upgraded through better integration
         with CIP corporate database and through
         inclusion of new analytical and visualization tools
         to support analysis of new data
2008     An interactive training manual of geostatistical
         methods for analysis of plant genetic resources
         completed
2009     The identity of 500 cultivated potato accessions
         verified using morphological descriptors; and one
         set of 50 accessions analyzed using molecular
         markers
2009     49 accessions of ARTC collection (achira, ahipa,
         and mauka) characterized by AFLP and
         morphological descriptors are documented and
         this information made available in passport and
         attributes database
2009     Genetic identity of 50 potato landraces of
         herbarium and in vitro culture samples verified


70                                                        International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output         Output target                                          Intended user        Outcome   Impact
               using SSR markers
2009           Molecular fingerprints with at least 24
               microsatellite markers of 500 potato landraces
               from CIP genebank made available through
               internet
2009           Homologation of yacon and arracacha collections
               of 7 genebanks from Peru and Bolivia is
               assessed using morphological descriptors and
               documented
2009           Ploidy level of 300 wild and 500 cultivated potato
               accessions determined
2009           Molecular characterization of cultivated and wild
               sweetpotato species compared
2009           Two sweetpotato collections from the Philippines
               characterized using morphological and molecular
               markers
2009           Identification of introgression of exotic genes into
               500 accessions from the potato ex-situ
               germplasm documented
2010           The identity of 500 cultivated potato accessions
               verified using morphological descriptors; and one
               set of 50 accessions analyzed using molecular
               markers
2010           Ploidy level of 300 wild and 500 cultivated potato
               accessions determined
2010           Homologation of yacon and arracacha collections
               of 7 genebanks from Peru and Bolivia is
               assessed using morphological descriptors and
               molecular markers and documented
2010           Genetic base of morphological characters used
               as descriptors for potato determined
2010           400 accessions of the ulluco collection
               characterized using AFLP and morphological
               descriptors are documented and this information
               made available in passport and attributes
               database
2010           Homologation of sweetpotato collections from
               CIP and ESEAP is assessed using morphological
               descriptors and molecular markers and


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      71
Output     Output target                                          Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
           documented
2010       Identification of introgression of exotic genes into
           30 most important potato landraces and 100
           samples of 2 sexually-compatible wild species
           documented
2010       Molecular fingerprints with at least 24
           microsatellite markers of 500 potato landraces
           from CIP genebank made available through
           internet
2010       Assessment of the fitness of modern varieties,
           landraces, hybrids between them and wild
           species of potatoes for specific traits in Andean
           agro-ecologies documented
Output 3   Selected gene pools of root and tuber crops                                       CIP, NARS and ARIs          Genetic resources
           are evaluated for breeders ‘traits of interest,                                   researchers use             knowledge and material
           nutritional and health-related attributes by                                      information and             contribute to alleviate
           2010                                                                              selected germplasm for      poverty, reduce
                                                                                             genetic enhancement         temporal and chronic
                                                                                             and improvement of          hunger, and improve
                                                                                             potato and sweetpotato      access to nutritious
                                                                                             germplasm                   food by supporting
                                                                                                                         CIP’s and CIP partners’
                                                                                                                         research on root and
                                                                                                                         tuber crop improvement
2008       Resistance to virus diseases evaluated for 30
           Solanum accessions from the Piurana group
           (for PVY) and 80 Ipomoea landrace accessions
           (for SPVD) and documented
2008       Environmental effect on yield and primary
           (proteins, carbohydrates, fat, ash) metabolites
           and glucosinolates content of 4 maca ecotypes
           documented
2008       The use of yacon as food supplement (assessed
           for gastrointestinal motility in humans) is
           documented
2008       Assessment of pesticide impact on the
           reproductive ability of 15 accessions belonging
           to 8 wild potato species documented
2008       Inheritance of resistance to PRLV of 4 wild potato


72                                                            International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output         Output target                                          Intended user        Outcome   Impact
               species from Solanum Section Petota determined
               and documented
2008           Protein content of 50 mashua accessions, and
               essential amino acids of promising cultivars
               determined
2008           Relationships between spatial and environmental
               data of potato and its pests and diseases
               resistances investigated and documented
2008           Internet accessible germplasm database
               complemented with trait evaluation data
2009           At least 30 genotypes of wild potato accessions
               and 10 potato landraces evaluated for drought
               tolerance and documented
2009           Resistance to virus evaluated for 30 Solanum
               accessions from the Conibaccata group (for
               PLRV) and 80 Ipomoea landrace accessions (for
               SPVD) and documented
2009           Environmental effect on yield, antioxidant activity,
               and carotenoids, phenolic and anthocyanin
               content of 4 purple and 4 orange fleshed
               sweetpotato accessions documented
2009           Sesquiterpenic lactones content of 15 yacon
               accessions determined
2009           Maca ecotypes with new feed uses (positive
               effect on animal fertility) identified
2009           Accessions of the potato wild species, S.
               bulbocastanum, evaluated for late blight
               resistance
2010           Antioxidant compounds and capacity of 100
               sweetpotato, 100 potato, 20 mashua, 20 maca
               and 20 yacon accessions determined
2010           Use of yacon as food supplement (in normal and
               hyperlipidemic humans) determined
2010           One set of clones and seed produced of 20 wild
               potato species evaluated for resistance to PVY,
               PLRV and bacterial wilt
2010           Drought tolerance of genotypes of wild and
               cultivated potato selected from previous years of
               trials reconfirmed


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      73
  Project 3. Germplasm Enhancement and Crop Improvement
Output     Output target                                             Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
Output 1   Effective strategies for the identification and           NARS and Center            Researchers, extension      Farmers access and
           dissemination of high-yielding, resistant and             researchers, extension     agents, seed growers        adopt diverse new
           nutritious potato and sweetpotato varieties               and development            and the private sector      varieties in shorter
           available for each CIP region (3-5 years)                 agents, Private sector,    use new schemes and         timeframes; Livelihoods
                                                                     Seed producers,            strategies to evaluate      of poor farmers, seed
                                                                     release agencies           and assess elite clones     growers and rural and
                                                                                                with variety potential      urban consumers are
                                                                                                                            enhanced due to
                                                                                                                            increased productivity
                                                                                                                            and nutritional and
                                                                                                                            market value of farm
                                                                                                                            produce with less
                                                                                                                            dependence on external
                                                                                                                            inputs
2008       New collaborative schemes for clonal testing and
           variety development are available and documented
           in SWCA
2008       5-10 elite late blight resistant clones available and
           established in validation trials for variety release in
           ESEAP and SSA
2008       Method for participatory trials for sweetpotato
           variety release available and initiated in SWCA
2008       Strategy for promotion and diffusion of varieties
           completed for two additional countries in SSA
2008       DNA fingerprint datasets available with elite clones
           distributed from CIP
2008       Database of resistance, yield, post-harvest and
           nutritional attributes from Standard Evaluation
           Trials of 250 advanced clones developed in the
           last 15 years of CIP breeding
2008       Variety uptake pathways documented in 2 LAC
           countries
2008       End-user acceptability criteria for potato varieties
           in Mozambique and Malawi documented
2008       An online database (catalogue) for publishing and
           communicating descriptions of CIP-derived elite
           clones and varieties available



  74                                                             International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output        Output target                                           Intended user          Outcome   Impact
2008          Adaptability of new TPS families evaluated in
              different environments in two SWA countries
2009          Acceptability of new TPS families evaluated
              through on-farm/on-station trials in SWA
2009          Models for potato variety development integrating
              international, national, farmer and commercial
              interests documented in SWA
2009          Network of potato breeders in LAC, for the
              exchange, selection & promotion of new potato
              varieties with market and sustainability traits, is
              established
2009          Utility of farmer participatory trials in variety
              release procedures demonstrated in Peru
2009          Document on successful and replicable potato
              variety promotion schemes, links with informal
              seed systems and private sector in LAC
              systematized and key lessons is published
2009          Potential new potato varieties are identified from
              Late Blight resistant clones introduced to Papua
              New Guinea
2009          Late blight resistant clones adapted to conditions
              of Vietnam, Myanmar and Indonesia are identified
              in multilocation trials
2009          Adaptation of ten advanced virus resistant potato
              clones to low altitude hillsides in Indonesia is
              documented
2009          New early potato varieties identified in China
              introduced and tested for release in DPRK
2009          New database that integrates data of participatory
              trials and environment (via GIS databases and
              methods) in LAC, for routine analysis of trends and
              recommendations available for variety deployment
2009          Outstanding potato clones resistant to LB/viruses
              available and included in testing in different agro-
              climates in SWA
2010          New medium maturing TPS families with other
              desired tuber traits identified for SWA countries




  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      75
Output     Output target                                             Intended user                Outcome                     Impact
2010       Elite sweet potato clones identified in multi-location
           trials for variety release in SWCA
2010       New potato clones are made available for
           provincial testing and release in North China
2010       Potato clones having specific organoleptic
           characteristics identified for local use in North
           China
2010       A strategy for promotion and diffusion of new
           potato varieties implemented in at least two CAC
           countries
2010       Promising abiotic stress tolerant potato clones
           identified as potential varieties in SWA countries
2010       New early maturing, disease resistant potato
           clones/ identified and tested in SWA countries
Output 2   Potato populations, progenitors, clones and               Resource poor farmers;       Researchers use new         Higher productivity, less
           true seed varieties with superior resistance,             NARS, ARI and CIP            germplasm, tools,           use of pesticides,
           nutritional and end-use quality characteristics           Researchers                  practices and               increase farmer’s net
           are developed for SSA, LAC, ESEAP and SWCA                                             information to enhance      income, improved food
                                                                                                  breeding progress, and      security. Farmers
                                                                                                  communicate benefits        harvest reliable yields
                                                                                                  of available materials.     with reduced use of
                                                                                                  NARS, farmers and           external inputs, and
                                                                                                  consumers select adopt      increase their incomes
                                                                                                  and consume elite           from value-added
                                                                                                  clones and TPS as           markets. Rural and
                                                                                                  improved varieties          urban families consume
                                                                                                                              more nutritious diets.
                                                                                                                              Breeding progress is
                                                                                                                              enhanced and the
                                                                                                                              genetic base of
                                                                                                                              breeding populations
                                                                                                                              and farming systems is
                                                                                                                              increased
2008       An in vitro screening method for early identification
           of families and clones that tuberize well under
           warm conditions is available




  76                                                               International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output        Output target                                           Intended user          Outcome   Impact
2008          A greenhouse screening method for early
              identification of families and clones that tuberize
              well under long day and warm conditions is
              validated and available
2008          Ten new elite clones combining LB and virus
              resistances are available for multilocation trials
              for variety selection in 3 countries in SSA
2008          A multi-trait selection scheme is proposed for
              combining production, protection and utilization
              traits in CIP’ advanced germplasm
2008          Molecular markers closely linked to PLRV
              resistance in S. tuberosum subsp. andigena
              and able to be converted for MAS are identified
2008          Four TPS families with late blight resistance
              and high dry matter are identified for subtropical
              highland agro-ecologies
2008          Molecular markers available to assist and expedite
              selection of Ry for extreme resistance to PVY
2008          Diploid progenitors of late blight resistance from
              Solanum piurana are characterized for use in
              interploid crosses
2008          Potato populations segregating for nutritional
              quality from native Andean potatoes documented
              (with HarvestPlus)
2008          Mutant genetic stocks of potato are screened for at
              least one trait value
2008          Features of selected potato mutants are
              characterized at the molecular level
2008          Loci and alleles conferring LB resistance from wild
              species and improved germplasm are identified
              and characterized by genetic mapping and
              expression analysis
2008          Micronutrient concentrations of 30 potato varieties
              of world importance, samples of advanced
              breeding populations, and popular Andean native
              varieties are documented (with HarvestPlus)
2008          Correlations among vitamin C, phenolics and Fe
              bioavailability in potato estimated by in vitro
              methods (with HarvestPlus)


  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      77
ii   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output   Output target                                              Intended user                Outcome                     Impact
2008     Bioavailability of Fe in potato and potato based
         diets is estimated using in vitro methods (with
         HarvestPlus)
2008     Adaptation of advanced clones with mid-high Fe
         and Zn contents to Central Asia environments
         assessed (with HarvestPlus)
2008     Information on complementary nutritional traits of
         sets of potato clones available for Andean systems
         and crop improvement (with HarvestPlus)
2009     A tool for targeting varieties based on statistical,
         GIS and modeling techniques is tested with
         breeders
2009     Ten elite late blight resistant clones with heat
         tolerance and good table quality are available
2009     Potential of CIP’s advanced resistant populations
         for adaptation to long day conditions is
         documented
2009     Four elite clones combining virus resistance and
         high micronutrient content adapted to long days
         are identified in CAC for evaluation under farmers’
         conditions (with HarvestPlus)
2009     Ten TPS families with adaptation to long days and
         resistance to late blight are available for testing in
         ESEAAP and SWCA regions
2009     Variability of CIP’s advanced virus resistant, potato
         population for heat tolerance documented
2009     Late blight resistant clones with adaptability to long
         day conditions selected in Georgia
2009     New high throughput assays for Ry marker
         detection are developed
2009     A new modeling tool that integrates genetic,
         genomic and environmental data is available for
         use in breeding
2009     Six 4x families with late blight resistance from
         Solanum Piurana produced
2009     Segregation of resistance to bacterial wilt in
         hybrids with S. acaule described



  78                                                              International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output        Output target                                           Intended user          Outcome   Impact
2009          Genetic loci and alleles conferring drought
              tolerance from Andean potatoes identified
2009          Four elite clones combining virus resistance and
              high micronutrient content adapted to long days
              are identified in CAC for evaluation under farmers’
              conditions (with HarvestPlus)
2009          Potential for genetic advance in micronutrient
              content determined (with HarvestPlus)
2010          Environmental or management factors that
              influence the micronutrient concentration of
              potato identified (with HarvestPlus)
2010          New early TPS families adapted to long day
              conditions and with short stolon length identified
              in CAC
2010          Three CIP-derived potato varieties appropriate
              for Uzbekistan and Tajikistan identified
2010          Adaptation of a set of ten TPS families to long day
              conditions of CAC highlands documented
2010          Ten clones combining virus and late blight
              resistance, with probable adaptation to long days
              identified, cleaned up and distributed for
              adaptation trials in ESEAP and SWCA
2010          Five elite clones combining earliness, resistance
              and high micronutrient content are identified in the
              CAC region (with HarvestPlus)
2010          Potential of CIP’s improved virus resistant
              germplasm for adaptation to drought is
              documented
2010          5 elite clones combining earliness, resistance, high
              micronutrient content and drought tolerance are
              identified in the CAC region (with HarvestPlus)
2010          Five early maturing, LB resistant clones adapted
              to potato agro-ecologies of central and south
              China are identified
2010          Ry genes in neo-tuberosum and S. stoloniferum
              germplasm are characterized and compared




  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      79
Output     Output target                                         Intended user                Outcome                     Impact
2010       10 new elite clones for processing combining
           resistance to viruses and LB are available for
           distribution
2010       4x clones carrying late blight resistance from
           Solanum Piurana with favorable agronomic
           features identified
2010       Quantitative Trade Locy for micronutrient content
           in potato identified (with HarvestPlus)
Output 3   Sweetpotato populations and clones with               Resource poor farmers        NARS and farmers use        Farmers adopt varieties
           superior agronomic, nutritional and end-use           NARS, ARI and CIP            selected sweetpotato        with agronomic and
           quality characteristics are developed for SSA,        Researchers                  clones to release           clearly improved
           LAC, ESEAP and SWCA and breeding methods                                           varieties; Researchers      nutritional value
           tools, information and capacities are enhanced                                     use more efficient          Increased rates of
           (3 – 5 years)                                                                      methods for                 breeding progress for
                                                                                              enhancement of              sweetpotato yield &
                                                                                              sweetpotato diversity;      stability and new tools
                                                                                              National programs           for development of
                                                                                              enjoy reduced costs         varieties with improved
                                                                                              and / or increased          nutritional value
                                                                                              capacity in sweetpotato
                                                                                              breeding
2008       Adaptation of introduced (84 OFSP clones with >
           150 ppm pro-vitamin A) and local Southern African
           OFSP breeding clones is documented (with
           HarvestPlus, VITAA)
2008       4000 clones (majority OFSP) screened at IIAM for
           drought tolerance
2008       Adaptation of introduced (84 OFSP clones with >
           150 ppm pro-vitamin A) and local East African
           OFSP breeding clones is documented (with
           HarvestPlus, and VITAA)
2008       Adaptation of introduced (84 OFSP clones with >
           150 ppm pro-vitamin A) and local SWCA an OFSP
           breeding clones is documented (with HarvestPlus)
2008       Adaptation of introduced (84 OFSP clones with >
           150 ppm pro-vitamin A) and local ESEAP and
           OFSP breeding clones is documented (with
           HarvestPlus)




  80                                                           International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output        Output target                                           Intended user          Outcome   Impact
2008          OFSP varieties identified for pig and small animal                             .
              feed systems in ESEAP countries
2008          Adaptation of introduced (84 OFSP clones with >
              150 ppm pro-vitamin A) and local LAC OFSP
              breeding clones is documented
2008          25 elite demonstration clones including new OFSP
              elite clones available for all 115 sweetpotato
              producing countries (with HarvestPlus, VITAA)
2008          “VA-2” generation comprising 300 seed families
              with improved high beta-carotene, medium iron &
              zinc and high dry matter available and tested for
              SSA and LAC (with HarvestPlus)
2008          200 promising drought tolerant clones with medium
              to high dry matter, beta carotene, Fe and Zn
              content identified in VA-1x breeding population for
              LAC and SSA (with HarvestPlus)
2008          “VA-E1x” generation comprising 8 x 1000 elite
              seed crossings with high dry, high beta-carotene,
              medium iron and zinc populations developed and
              available for all CIP regions (with HarvestPlus)
2008          4 OFSP pre-breeding populations carrying a
              new source of \ resistance to SPVD \are available
              (with GCP)
2008          Rapid NIRS screening network for HP crops
              (sweetpotato: β-carotene, Fe and Zn, potato: Fe
              and Zn, beans: iron and zinc; cassava: β-carotene;
              maize: β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin) established in
              LAC, and selected SSA countries (with
              HarvestPlus)
2008          Rapid NIRS screening network for sweetpotato
              quality (storage roots and tops) – protein, starch,
              sugars, beta-carotene, Fe and Zn established in
              East Africa, Southern Africa and India (with
              HarvestPlus)
2008          Rapid NIRS screening methods for water use
              efficiency (WUE) in sweetpotato tested




  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      81
Output   Output target                                            Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
2009     4-6 new drought tolerant higher beta-carotene,
         high dry matter, medium iron and zinc elite “VA-1x”
         clones available and disseminated by inter-
         regional elite demonstration & GxE trials in all CIP
         regions (with HarvestPlus, VITAA)
2009     25 elite demonstration clones including new OFSP
         elite “VA-1x” clones and pathogen free S1 and S2
         clone established and under multiplication in 20
         countries (with HarvestPlus, VITAA)
2009     (“VA-2x” x “VA-2”) hybrid generation comprising
         300 seed families with improved high beta-
         carotene, medium iron and zinc and high dry
         matter available and tested for SSA and LAC
         (with HarvestPlus)
2009     200 promising drought tolerant clones with medium
         to high dry matter, beta carotene, Fe and Zn
         content identified in VA-2 breeding population for
         LAC and SSA
2009     “VA-E2” generation comprising 8 x 2000 elite seed
         crossings with drought tolerance and high dry
         matter, high beta-carotene, medium iron and zinc
         populations available for all CIP regions (with
         HarvestPlus)
2009     “VA-2x” generation comprising 80 seed families
         segregating for resistance to chlorotic stunt virus
         (SPCSV) with improved high beta-carotene,
         medium iron & zinc and high dry matter available
         and tested for SSA and LAC (with HarvestPlus)
2009     Rapid NIRS screening methods for protein quality
         (amino acid composition) in sweetpotato tested
         and established (with HarvestPlus)
2009     Heritability estimates for iron and zinc in East
         African germplasm is determined
2009     Elite sweetpotato clones with high yields, improved
         nutritional quality and high dry matter are identified
         in Timor Leste, Solomon Islands and Papua-
         Indonesia
2009     Selected sweetpotato clones available for
         Adaptability Tests in SWCA


  82                                                          International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Output        Output target                                           Intended user          Outcome   Impact
2010          Genetic parameters for 5000 ZapSPK VA-3 clones
              available and observed population improvement
              under nutrient stress from 2006-2010 determined
              (with HarvestPlus)
2010          60 promising and nutrient efficient ZapSPK VA-3
              clones with health status 2 are ready for
              distribution to LAC, ESEAP, SWCA and SSA
              (with HarvestPlus)
2010          Genetic parameters for 3000 Jonathan VA-1
              clones available and population improvement
              under drought stress between 2008–2010
              determined (with HarvestPlus)
2010          60 promising and nutrient efficient Jonathan VA-1
              clones with health status 2 are available in SSA
              (with HarvestPlus)
2010          60 Jewel VAx-2 clones multiplied and available in
              LAC ESEAP, SWCA and SSA (with HarvestPlus)
2010          Genetic performance of 40 ZapSPK VA-2 clones
              and Elite Demonstration Clones determined on
              station and on farm in SWCA, ESEAP and LAC
2010          Genetic performance of 40 Jonathan VA-0 clones
              and Elite Demonstration Clones determined on
              station and on farm in SSA
2010          4 x 3000 hybrid seeds developed from controlled
              elite crossings available to support NARS breeding
              programs
2010          Efficiency of selecting in early stages of a
              sweetpotato breeding program under nutrient
              stress determined
2010          Association of the experimental design (e.g. plot
              size) and the experimental error determined for
              sweetpotato
2010          Determination of the genetic variation of anti-
              nutritional and poison factors (e.g. rotenone) in
              Ahipa/Yam Bean




  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                      83
Output 4   Transgenic potatoes and sweetpotatoes for              Farmers in Africa and        Farmers in developing       Increased food security
           resource-poor producers and consumers are              Asia; Researchers at         countries use resistant     and new income
           developed and tested using good practices              CIP and NARS,                and industrial varieties;   generation by reducing
           (3-5 years)                                            regulators and decision-     Regulatory agencies,        production costs and
                                                                  makers                       policy-makers and           offering new products to
                                                                                               researchers use             the processing industry
                                                                                               available technologies
                                                                                               and more accurate
                                                                                               knowledge of
                                                                                               environmental impact of
                                                                                               transgenic variety
                                                                                               deployment
2008       Heat shock parameters for excision of antibiotic
           selectable marker with the Cre-loxP system
           determined for sweetpotato
2008       Plant transformation vector with freedom to
           operate in specific African countries is available
2008       Evidence for the naturalization of cultivated
           potatoes in the Andean highlands is described
2008       31 and 48 events of the varieties Revolucion and
           Parda Pastusa respectively are identified with
           known copy number of the cry1Ab5 gene
2008       Stability of RNA silencing mediated PLRV
           resistance under infection of alternative viruses
           is determined
2008       Reaction to LB of transgenic potato with the
           Rp-blb1 gene under In vitro or greenhouse
           conditions is described
2008       At least ten events of the second transformation
           of transgenic lines with construct
           CYP79/F2A/CYP83/T2A (new construct) are
           obtained
2008       Molecular variability of SPFMV in Peru
           characterized and documented
2008       Sweetpotato events transformed with new
           constructs for SPCSV resistance (with phloem
           specific promoter) are available for testing




  84                                                            International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
2008          Proceedings of the regional workshop on
              Sweetpotato Biotechnology for Africa published
2008          Natural siRNA defense targeting of sweetpotato to
              SPFMV and SPCSV determined
2008          Novel gene constructs based on si RNA targeting
              profile developed
2009          Sweetpotato transformation intragenic vector is
              available with freedom to operate in specific
              African countries
2009          LB resistant breeding lines engineered for
              resistance to PLRV by RNA silencing are available
2009          Field resistance of transgenic potato with
              programmed hypersensitive resistance to LB is
              assessed in the US
2009          Transformed events of cv. Wagabolige with Bt
              genes are available for testing weevil resistance in
              the greenhouse
2009          Proof-of-concept of gene flow prevention systems
              is obtained for sweetpotato
2009          Spectrum of resistance to LB in selected events of
              transgenic potato with the Rpi-blb1 gene is tested in
              biosafety greenhouse in Peru
2009          Potato events with Bt genes for resistance against
              tuber moth and weevils are available
2009          Impact of glucosinolate content of transgenic
              potato against pests and pathogens is assessed
2009          Resistance of one sweetpotato variety transformed
              by RNA silencing of SPVD is assessed under field
              conditions in Peru
2009          Sweetpotato events with new SPCSV resistance
              constructs tested for virus resistance in
              greenhouse
2009          Construct combining Bt genes, SPVD resistance,
              marker gene excision and gene-flow prevention
              available
2009          Transgenic events with novel SPFMV and SPCSV
              resistance constructs available for testing in
              greenhouse/field




  International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008   85
2010   Level of resistance to LB in selected events of
       transgenic potato with the Rpi-blb1 gene is tested in
       confined field trials in Peru
2010   Response to PLRV of LB resistant breeding lines
       engineered for resistance to this virus described
2010   Effectiveness of Bt sweetpotato events are
       demonstrated in field trials in one SSA country
2010   Regulatory file for one Bt sweetpotato event in one
       SSA country is produced
2010   Resistance of transgenic events to SPFMV,
       SPCSV and SPVD is determined in
       greenhouse/field




  86                                                           International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4. Integrated Crop Management
Project 4      Output target                                               Intended user              Outcomes                      Impact
Output 1       Strategies and technologies for improving              NARS, NGOs, potato       Quality seed available      Enhanced livelihoods of
               formal and farmer-based seed systems                   and sweetpotato          for farmers, contributing   poor potato and
               towards enhancing potato and sweetpotato               growers, certification   to improving                sweetpotato farmers
               production efficiency and competitiveness              agencies, seed           productivity and            due to increased potato
               validated in at least three priority countries per     growers’ associations    competitiveness, to         and sweetpotato
               region in LAC, SSA and Asia by 2012                    and cooperatives, CIP    disseminating new           productivity
                                                                      scientists; resource-    breeding materials, and
                                                                      poor farmers.            reducing the spread of
                                                                      Government agencies,     potato and sweetpotato
                                                                      policy makers            diseases
2008:          Procedures for installation and operation of simple
               aeroponic units suitable for rapid multiplication of
               potato seed minitubers developed
2008           Seed systems for native potatoes characterized in
               Peru
2008           NARS capacities and role of disease detection                                   New knowledge will
               techniques for potato and sweetpotato seed                                      allow the design of
               production assessed in at least three countries                                 suitable strategies for
               per region                                                                      making detection
                                                                                               technologies available
                                                                                               to NARS in a
                                                                                               sustainable way
2008           Potato seed policies and certification legislation
               in relation to formal and informal seed systems
               analyzed in at least two countries per region
2009           Factors influencing potato seed degeneration in
               high altitudes determined in Peru
2009           Role of positive and negative selection combined
               with disease-detection techniques evaluated and
               documented for its contribution to improve formal
               and farmer-based potato seed systems in Peru,
               Mozambique, Malawi, Bhutan, India, DPRK and
               Georgia
2009           True potato seed (TPS), as an alternative seed
               potato production technology, tested and
               documented in Northeast India, Nepal, Uzbekistan
               and Tajikistan



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                         87
Project 4   Output target                                             Intended user                 Outcomes                      Impact
2009        Strategy for improving farmer-based seed potato
            systems developed and validated for Peru (for
            native cultivars), Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
2009        Model for estimating and predicting potato seed
            degeneration developed in Peru
2009        Strategies for scaling out seed-related
            interventions for improving formal and farmer-
            based sectors assessed and documented in
            Kenya, Uganda Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and
            Mozambique and potential for replication in other
            SSA countries analyzed
2009        Improved vine multiplication and conservation
            techniques for sweetpotato drawing on indigenous
            knowledge evaluated and documented in Uganda
            and Mozambique
2009        Strategies for improving farmer-based
            sweetpotato seed systems developed for
            Solomon Islands with application for other areas
            of the Pacific region
2009        Comparative analysis of potato seed systems in
            subtropical highlands, lowlands and temperate
            regions of China and South East Asia carried out
2010        Strategies for improving farmer-based
            sweetpotato seed systems developed for
            subtropical lowland systems in Bangladesh, India
            and Sri Lanka
2010        Seed-system model, linking biological and socio-
            economic aspects, developed for the potato crop
            in highland agriculture in Peru
2010        One country-specific network of public and private
            institutions established and assessed for
            multiplication and dissemination of good-quality
            potato seed in Peru, Ecuador, Uganda,
            Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan
2010        Strategies for improving formal and farmer-based
            seed systems developed and documented in
            three countries of in South West and Central Asia
2010        Role of National potato seed policies and
            regulations on the sustainability and effectiveness


88                                                           International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4      Output target                                                Intended user               Outcomes                    Impact
               of seed systems in SSA (Eastern and Central
               Africa) and Peru evaluated
Output 2       Strategies and methods for technical                     NARS, NGOs,                NARS and other           Improve efficiency of
               integration of soil, seed, disease and insect            resource-poor farmers,     CGIAR scientist adopt    research to deliver
               management components for subsistence and                particularly in marginal   strategies for           technologies for
               semi-commercial potato and sweetpotato                   areas                      integrative research     enhanced livelihoods of
               growers developed in at least three priority                                        and contribute to        poor farmers due to
               countries per region in LAC, SSA and Asia by                                        develop suitable         sustainable potato and
               2012                                                                                integrated crop          sweetpotato production
                                                                                                   management strategies    in marginal areas of the
                                                                                                   for subsistence and      Andes and SSA and
                                                                                                   semi-commercial potato   Asia
                                                                                                   and sweetpotato
                                                                                                   farmers
2008:          Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)
               assessed for their ability and usefulness to
               increase productivity and plant health of potato in
               Peru (with Papa Andina)
2008           Strategies for conservationist agriculture and soil
               fertility management developed to reduce effects
               of erratic rainfall and other climatic risks in potato
               based systems in Peru (with Papa Andina), and
               sweetpotato-based systems in Uganda and Kenya
2009           Cross-country analysis of constraints related to
               ICM in potato-based systems, focusing on input
               use, understood and documented in Uganda,
               Kenya and India
2009           Technical and Economic feasibility of organic
               potato production established in Peru
               (with Papa Andina)
2009           Appropriate integrated crop management
               technologies for potato-seed production in stress
               environments identified and documented Malawi
               and Mozambique with potential application to
               other SSA regions
2010           Technologies developed for use of plant growth
               promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in intensive
               cropping systems (potato seed production and
               urban agriculture) in Peru (with Papa Andina and


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                               89
Project 4   Output target                                               Intended user                 Outcomes                      Impact
            Urban Harvest)
2010        Effects of soil fertility management on plant and
            soil health evaluated in potato based cropping
            systems in at least two priority countries in Africa
            and Asia
2010        Integrated soil and disease management
            strategies to control potato BW and other major
            soil-borne diseases while enhancing plant
            nutrition and soil health developed with farmers
            in Kenya, Uganda and Burundi by combining
            host resistance, soil fertility, and rotational
            management practices
2010        Integrated management for the potato crop
            for main improved potato varieties validated for
            subsistence and market-oriented systems in
            China
Output 3    Components for integrated disease                      NARS, NGOs,                 Potato and sweetpotato      Enhanced livelihoods of
            management against potato and sweetpotato              resource-poor farmers.      farmers adopt improved      poor potato and
            diseases – late blight (LB), bacterial wilt (BW)       Plant breeders in NARS      disease management          sweetpotato farmers
            and viruses – developed, tested and                    and IARCs. Farmer           components, contribu-       due to increase in
            disseminated within ICM strategies in at least         trainers                    ting to reduce crop         potato and sweetpotato
            three priority countries per region LAC, SSA                                       losses and use of           productivity, and
            and Asian priority countries by 2012                                               fungicides                  reduced negative
                                                                                                                           impact of fungicides in
                                                                                                                           the environment
2008        GIS-based Late Blight severity maps developed
2008        Potential for gene flow among different
            populations of P. infestans in Andes determined
2008        Cultivar-specific simulation of potato LB achieved
            and validated via experiments in Peru and
            Ecuador with specific resistance parameters of 3
            local cultivars
2008        Efficacy of environmentally friendly LB
            management using phosphites and seed
            treatment in Ecuador
2008        Strategies for integrated management of LB
            validated with NARS in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia,
            Rwanda, Burundi and DR Congo
2008        Real time PCR for sweetpotato chlorotic stunt and


90                                                             International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4      Output target                                               Intended user   Outcomes   Impact
               feathery mottle virus diagnosis developed and
               validated
2008           One strategy to control SPVD in sweetpotatoes
               validated in Uganda and Tanzania
2008           Quality accreditation manuals and standard
               operation procedures for testing quarantine
               viruses in potato and sweetpotato germplasm
               suitable for ISO accreditation developed
2009           One scale for quantifying LB resistance developed
               and available globally
2009           Risk assessment tool for LB pathogen population
               change due to migration available
2009           Effective management for potato LB resistance
               clones developed using phosphonate based
               fungicides and validated in Papua New Guinea
2009           The efficacy of biological formulations to control
               BW determined in field experiments in Peru and
               mechanisms of biocontrol characterized
2009           Spore dispersal dynamics of Phytophthora
               infestans (LB) quantified by field trials in highland
               tropical conditions in Ecuador
2009           Biophysical conditions of soil that suppress tuber
               infection by Phytophthora infestans (LB)
               understood in Ecuador
2009           Importance of BW in potato production
               determined in Malawi and Mozambique
2009           Potato virus distribution in different agro-
               ecological conditions of Uzbekistan determined
2009           The importance and incidence of major viruses
               affecting sweetpotato determined in Kenya,
               Rwanda, Ethiopia, China, Vietnam and Indonesia
2010           Durability of resistance gene to LB from
               S. bulbocastanum tested in Ecuador, Peru and
               Kenya
2010           Ability to predict LB severity in target areas with
               different scenarios, using simulation with new
               pathogen dispersion model, developed
2010           Risk assessment of increased LB severity due to



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       91
Project 4       Output target                                                       Intended user                    Outcomes                         Impact
                climate change completed
2010            Usefulness of BW-tolerant potato clones in inte-
                grated management of BW tested with farmers
                and the two best clones with stable resistance
                selected by NARS in Kenya and Uganda
2010            One generic laboratory diagnostic method for all
                quarantine viruses and other pathogens of potato
                and sweetpotato developed and validated
2010            Feasibility of regional capacity for the production
                of diagnostic antisera, laboratory and field
                diagnostic kits for plant viruses and bacteria of
                potato and sweetpotato assessed in at least two
                key countries in SSA, and in China
2010            Global risk management tool to map emerging
                disease threats to potato and sweetpotato
                developed and implemented
Output 4        Components and strategies for the integrated                  NARS, NGOs,                     Potato and sweetpotato         Enhanced livelihoods of
                management of key potato and sweetpotato                      resource-poor farmers,          farmers adopt improved         poor potato and
                insect pests developed as part of ICM in at                   Universities, advanced          components for the             sweetpotato farmers
                least three priority countries per region LAC,                labs, and private sector        integrated management          due to increased crop
                SSA and Asia priority countries by 20121                                                      of potato and                  productivity and
                                                                                                              sweetpotato insect             reduced negative
                                                                                                              pests, which contribute        impacts of insecticides
                                                                                                              to reduce crop losses          on human health and
                                                                                                              and the use of                 the environment
                                                                                                              insecticides
2008            The potential of entomopathogens (nematode,
                PoGV) assessed for T. solanivora control in
                Ecuador
2008            The efficacy of attracticides based on oil
                formulations of PTM sex pheromones, UV
                protectors and contact insecticides for the control
                of the PTM complex (P. operculella, S. tangolias,
                T. solanivora) evaluated in Ecuador and Peru


1
  Includes APWs, Andean Potato Weevils (Premnotrypes spp.), PTMs include, common Potato Tuber Moth (Phthorimaea operculella), Andean Potato Tuber Moth (Symmetrischema
operculella), and the Guatemaltecan Tuber Moth (Tecia solanivora); LMF, Leaf Miner Fly (Lyriomyza huidobrensis), WF (Bemisia tabaci and B. afer), SPW, Sweetpotato weevils
(Cylas spp.), and CPB, Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) as well as other regional important insect pests.*



92                                                                       International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4      Output target                                               Intended user   Outcomes   Impact
2008           Biology and ecology of potential parasitoids for
               classical biocontrol of LMF assessed and
               specimens introduced to Kenya
2008           The ecological and economical impacts of
               physical barriers for APW control assessed in
               Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador
2008           Impact of insecticides on natural enemies of
               potato pests in the highlands and coastal regions
               of Peru investigated and documented
2008           Potato pest problems and post harvest practices
               of potato farmers in Nepal, Bhutan and
               Bangladesh understood and biological control
               options appropriate for resource-poor farmers
               identified; action plan for research and IPM
               technology interventions developed
2008           Distribution and importance of potato pests (esp.
               CPB) and natural enemies assessed and
               documented in the main potato production areas
               of Uzbekistan
2008           The leafminer fly-parasitoid complex and diversity
               on weeds in potato agroecosystems at the
               Peruvian coast investigated and documented and
               used for developing LMF IPM strategies
2009           T. solanivora parasitoids in Guatemala identified
               and their use for classical control of this pest in
               Ecuador evaluated
2009           Potential strategies for natural enemy
               conservation to support self-regulation of potato
               pests in potato cropping systems of Peru (Andean
               highlands, coast) developed
2009           The potential integration of entomopathogenic
               fungi in pest management strategies for LMF
               assessed in Peru
2009           The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes
               for APW control assessed in the Andean Region
               (Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia)
2009           Promotion and institutionalization of new potato
               IPM technologies (through national programs)
               assessed in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       93
Project 4   Output target                                           Intended user                 Outcomes                      Impact
2009        Distribution and importance of sweetpotato pests
            in the main sweetpotato production areas of India
            assessed and documented
2009        Biological control options (biopesticides and/or
            parasitoids) appropriate for resource-poor potato
            farmers in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh verified
            and the agents locally produced and distributed

2009        The potential use of biocontrol agents
            (entomopathogens, parasitoids) for potato pest
            management assessed and documented in
            Uzbekistan
2009        Economic feasibility of entomoparasite production
            for the control of main potato pests in the
            biological control laboratories existing in
            Uzbekistan assessed

2010        Potato IPM technologies promoted and
            institutionalized (through national programs) in
            Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh
2010        One strategy for CPB control in potato cropping
            systems in Uzbekistan assessed.
2010        Strategies for the integrated management of the
            sweetpotato weevil assessed in at least three
            priority countries in Africa and Asia
2010        Potential strategies for natural enemy
            augmentation and conservation to support self-
            regulation of potato and sweetpotato pests in
            potato and sweetpotato based cropping systems
            determined in key countries in Africa and Asia
2010        Potato and sweetpotato pest problems and post
            harvest practices of potato and sweetpotato
            farmers in China understood and biological control
            options appropriate for resource-poor farmers
            identified; action plan for research and IPM
            technology interventions developed with
            application in other Asian countries
2010        Strategies, lessons learned and impact of potato
            IPM evaluated and documented for the Andes in


94                                                         International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 4      Output target                                               Intended user          Outcomes                     Impact
               LAC
Output 5       Participatory strategies and methods for               NARS researchers,     Research and               Improved capacities of
               socioeconomic integration of potato and                extension workers,    development-oriented       NARS to design
               sweetpotato ICM components developed and               research and devel-   institutions use           evaluate and implement
               made available for improving potato and                opment institutions   participatory strategies   more efficient ICM-
               sweetpotato innovation systems in at least                                   and methods for            related interventions to
               three priority countries per region LAC, SSA                                 socioeconomic              contribute to improved
               and Asia by 2010                                                             integration of potato      farmer livelihoods
                                                                                            and sweetpotato ICM to
                                                                                            adapt, adjust and fine
                                                                                            tuning technologies
                                                                                            according to local or
                                                                                            regional conditions
2008           Guidelines to support decision-making by
               research and extension institutions regarding the
               use of participatory methods for potato and sweet-
               potato ICM available (extracted from experiences
               in Peru, Bolivia, Uganda, Ethiopia, Vietnam,
               Philippines, Indonesia, Lao PDR)
2008           Manual on methodologies for participatory
               learning and research on LB adapted for farmer
               training in Uganda, China, DPRK, Mongolia and
               Indonesia
2008           Manual for evaluating impact of IPM interventions
               validated in cases of technologies to control white
               fly in Bolivia, Ecuador and El Salvador
               (collaboration with CIAT and System Wide
               Program on IPM)
2008           Cases of scaling-up of participatory research and
               training methods for potato ICM assessed and
               documented in Peru
2008           Simple model to support decision-making by
               research and extension institutions regarding
               choices of potato ICM technologies validated in
               Peru
2009           Comparative analysis of effectiveness of
               participatory methods to enable farmers to
               improve their response to market demand,
               through appropriate potato ICM technologies,


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                      95
Project 4   Output target                                            Intended user                 Outcomes                      Impact
            evaluated in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Uganda
2009        Technologies and culturally appropriate messages
            for behavioral change contributing to the reduction
            of highly toxic pesticides on potato production
            assessed in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia (with
            Altagro in Peru and Bolivia)
2009        The case of PRAPACE network analyzed for
            lessons on effectiveness for contributing the
            development of knowledge-intensive technologies
            (potato ICM) compared to input-based
            technologies (new varieties) in SSA
2009        Manual on methodologies for participatory
            learning and research on BW adapted for farmer
            training in Kenya, Uganda, Philippines and China
2009        Appropriate ICM technologies for improving
            sweetpotato production in small Island agro-
            ecologies evaluated in technical and
            socioeconomic terms through participatory
            methods in Solomon Islands
2010        Role of social and human capital for the formation
            and effectiveness of inter-organizational platforms
            to respond to farmer needs for potato ICM
            assessed in case studies in Peru, Uganda, India
            and Georgia
2010        Socioeconomic model for analyzing effects of
            ICM-related interventions at household level
            validated for at least one technology in Peru
2010        Innovation system related to participatory
            research for potato ICM, characterized in
            Mozambique Malawi, Indonesia, India, Uzbekistan
            and Georgia and China, and a user-friendly
            method for this purpose developed




96                                                          International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 5. Natural Resources Management
 Output                          Output target                              Intended user              Outcome                      Impact
 Output 1       Geospatial methods and computer assisted               CGIAR & NARS           Use of the outputs by       Increased research
                tools for improved research targeting, crop            scientists             intended users will lead    capacity of NARS.
                assessments and Environmental Vulnerability            Development agencies   to significant changes      Vulnerability of poor
                Analyses, preparedness and mitigation in the           Policy makers          in research capabilities,   farmers living in target
                Andes, SSA and SWCA developed (By 2011)                                       research targeting, crop    areas reduced.
                                                                                              assessments and             Governments improve
                                                                                              statistics, yield           their capacity to
                                                                                              prediction and land         regulate land utilization,
                                                                                              utilization                 analyze environmental
                                                                                                                          risks, predict yields and
                                                                                                                          negotiate surpluses or
                                                                                                                          deficit in timely manner.
                                                                                                                          Improved development
                                                                                                                          priorities. Improved
                                                                                                                          development
                                                                                                                          investment
 2008           Effectiveness of partial root drying (PRD)
                irrigation method for potato and sweetpotato
                in Peru established
 2008           Protocol for geospatial temperature interpolation
                based on RS data and biophysical–mathematical
                tools developed
 2008           Methods and tools for potato yield forecasting
                combining RS and modeling finalized and
                validated in the Andes
 2009           Modeling-based ex ante impact of the of the
                adoption of drought tolerant sweetpotato varieties
                for Uganda completed
 2009           Early diagnostic method for potato pests and
                diseases using RS data developed in Peru
 2009           High resolution environmental vulnerability as-
                sessment (EVA) completed for potato systems
                in Uganda
 2009           Potato and sweetpotato statistics for Mozambique
                analyzed through re-processing of historical
                remotely sensed data




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                           97
 Output                         Output target                       Intended user                  Outcome                      Impact
 2009       High resolution EVA for rice-potato systems
            in West Bengal, India completed
 2010       Sweet potato crop growth model suitable for
            replicating the response of the crop to different
            salinity levels developed
 2010       Early diagnostic method for sweetpotato pests
            and diseases using RS data developed in Uganda
 2010       The feasibility of incorporating genomics
            information into the CIP Solanum potato
            physiology model to better assess GxE
            interactions tested
 Output 2   Management recommendations and policy               CGIAR & NARS               Improved management         Reduced environmental
            options to reduce environmental and                 scientists, Development    and policies for sustain-   and economic
            economic vulnerability in representative            agencies,                  able production in          vulnerability of target
            priority ecosystems in LAC, East Africa, India      Policy makers              target areas in SSA,        regions and populations
            and Bangladesh tested and documented                                           LAC and SWCA
            (By 2010)                                                                      implemented by users
 2008       Minimum Data-Tradeoff Analysis application in
            potato systems in the Andes and environmental
            services in watersheds in Mesoamerica
            conducted (with Montana State and Wageningen
            universities)
 2008       MD-TOA application in rice-potato systems in
            India and Bangladesh conducted (with Montana
            State and Wageningen universities)
 2009       Methodology to downscale results from climate
            change models to local conditions developed and
            tested in the Andes
 2010       EVA for drought and climate change scenarios
            for potato and sweet potato systems in selected
            countries in LAC and SWCA completed
 Output 3   Strategies for increased resilience and             Farmers, NARS              Adoption of the strate-     Increased land
            adaptive capacity in agricultural systems in        researchers, Extension     gies by the intended us-    productivity and
            the Andes, SSA and Asia identified and              workers, Policy makers     ers leads to an             household income
            validated (By 2011)                                 Development agencies       increased resilience        in targeted regions
                                                                                           and reduced
                                                                                           vulnerability of targeted
                                                                                           farming systems



98                                                        International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
 Output                            Output target                            Intended user   Outcome   Impact
 2009           Strategies for production and utilization of sweet -
                potato to improve livestock feed supply and
                quality tested and validated in Vietnam and China
                (with ILRI & Upward)
 2009           Key agronomic and environmental management
                technologies for enhancing the adaptive capacity
                of potato-based systems in the high plateau of the
                Andes identified, tested and validated
 2010           Forage legume intercropping for improving the
                role of sweet potato as animal feed developed in
                crop livestock systems in Peru, Kenya, Uganda,
                Laos, Vietnam, China and The Philippines (with
                ILRI & UPWARD)
 2010           Potato and double transplanted rice rotation
                validated as a profitable land use strategy in
                Bangladesh
 2010           Livelihood strategies that withstand climatic
                extremes identified and tested in the high plateau
                of the Andes




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                       99
Project 6. Health and Agriculture
Project 6   Outputs                                                Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
Output 1    Integrated health and agriculture strategies           Farmer organizations,      Users use framework,        Small farmers and their
            to reduce pesticide exposure risk and promote          community leaders,         tools and knowledge to      families experience
            healthy and sustainable agriculture among              development                change practices and        greater productivity,
            farm families in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia             organizations,             inform policy               reduced risk and better
            designed and promoted                                  municipal and regional                                 health
                                                                   government officials
                                                                   and other action
                                                                   researchers
2008        Relative effectiveness of different intervention
            components in reducing toxic pesticide health
            effects in potato production systems documented
            for Ecuador communities
2008        Stakeholders’ perceptions of agro-ecosystem
            function, factors affecting net productivity and
            sustainability including hazardous pesticide use
            determined for intensive horticultural systems in
            metropolitan areas of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru
2009        Environmental Impact Quotient adapted to small
            farmer, developing country conditions found useful
            for profiling across different horticultural systems
2009        Sustainability criteria and agro-ecosystem
            indicators relevant to pesticide use in cool weather
            horticultural systems including potatoes are
            identified with stakeholders in Bolivia, Ecuador
            and Peru
2010        Differential uptake of alternative management
            approaches by distance from the metropolitan
            core and by input availability demonstrated
2010        Tools for supporting decision-making around
            interventions linking horticultural practices and
            human health developed




100                                                          International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 7. Ecoregional Program: Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean
Ecoregion (CONDESAN)
 Project 7     Outputs                                                Main Users                Outcomes                     Impacts
 Output 1      Policies and local, national and regional              CONDESAN partners,        Users adopt strategies to    Sustainable use of
               recommendations for improved integrated                researchers and key       improve integrated water     natural resources and
               water resource management (IWRM) in Andean             IMWR policy and           resources management         improved livelihoods of
               countries from Venezuela to Argentina scaled           decision makers, at the   in the Andes.                the rural Andean
               up and out by 2010                                     local, national and       CONDESAN partners            population
                                                                      regional levels in the    use and share
                                                                      Andes                     information, analysis,
                                                                                                methodologies and
                                                                                                strategies so that
                                                                                                improved integrated
                                                                                                management of water
                                                                                                resources generate
                                                                                                opportunities of welfare
                                                                                                and inclusion for the poor
 2008          Conceptual-analytical framework developed to
               systematize and carry out comparative analysis of
               IWRM successful case studies (with CIP Project 1;
               Paramo and ANDES-CPWF)
 2008          Scaling up and out mechanisms for better practices
               for IWRM designed (with CIP Project 1)
 2008          Results of the implementation of methodologies for
               improved IWRM such as Watershed analysis for
               territorial planning or Compensation for ecosystem
               hydrological services schemes documented for 4
               basins (with CIP Project 5 and ANDES-CPWF)
 2008          Water-related causes of poverty documented for
               two basins in the Andes (with ANDES-CPWF)
 2008          Water yield and water regulation in Paramo and
               upper mountain forest and its relation to land use
               changes documented (with Paramo Initiative)
 2008          Distance education offer related to watershed
               management documented (with Andean
               Community)
 2008          Decision support tools and information
               disseminated through relevant users
               (with ANDES-CPWF)



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                          101
 Project 7   Outputs                                               Main Users               Outcomes                     Impacts
 2008        Comments about suitable biophysical models in the
             Andes as a decision support tool for IWRM (with
             ANDES-CPWF and CIP Project 5)
 2009        High quality databases related to IWRM in Andean
             region identified and made available (with Project 5)
 2009        Technologies, organizational arrangements and
             policies for improved IWRM for local and regional
             organizations based on comparative analysis of
             case studies in four countries documented (with
             ASOCAM)
 2009        Legal frameworks, institutional arrangements
             and governance processes that affect water
             management in at least two basins in the
             Andes proposed (with GMP)
 2009        Adult education IWRM and environmental
             management training modules developed
             (with CAN and LA-WETnet)
 2009        Policy instruments (economical, legislative,
             regulative) that assure the implementation of
             water and biodiversity conservation plans for
             Paramo developed, disseminated and promoted
             (with Paramo Initiative)
 2009        Synthesis of information collected from impacts on
             poverty from experiments of PES in the Andean
             Ecoregion (with ANDES-CPWF)
 2009        Guidelines for multiple use of water supply systems
             collected and disseminated in the Andean region
             (with ANDES-CPWF)
 2010        Mechanism to keep updated and available the high
             quality data base on water resources in Andean
             region designed and validated (with CIP Project 5)
 2010        Best practices for improved IWRM scaled out in
             Andean Ecoregion (with CAN and ASOCAM)
 2010        Multi-level evidence-based policy advocacy strategy
             for improved water management designed and
             tested (with CAN)
 2010        Ex ante impact of bio fuels on water governance
             systems at watershed level documented for
             Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile (with ANDES-


102                                                         International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
 Project 7     Outputs                                                Main Users              Outcomes                     Impacts
               CPWF).
 2010          Adequate water conservation friendly practices for
               productive activities, zoning and conservation
               strategies documented at nine paramo sites (with
               Paramo Initiative)
 Output 2      Institutional innovations, forms of organization and   CONDESAN partners,      Users adopt strategic        Improve livelihoods and
               mechanisms for cooperation, training and dialogue      researchers, policy     innovations on               reduce deterioration of
               are developed and promoted in the Andean               makers at the local,    agricultural systems to      natural resources in the
               agricultural systems to take advantage of the          national and regional   improve welfare of the       Andean Ecoregion
               ecoregion’s natural diversity by 2011                  levels in the Andes     rural Andean population.
                                                                                              CONDESAN partners
                                                                                              use and share
                                                                                              information, analysis,
                                                                                              methodologies that
                                                                                              support the development
                                                                                              and expansion of
                                                                                              innovation in agricultural
                                                                                              systems in the Andes
                                                                                              with a special emphasis
                                                                                              on youth participation.
                                                                                              Regional stakeholders
                                                                                              strengthen their links and
                                                                                              synergies and improve
                                                                                              their decision making and
                                                                                              negotiation processes as
                                                                                              well as their proposals
                                                                                              with respect to
                                                                                              development and
                                                                                              expansion of innovative
                                                                                              agricultural systems.
                                                                                              Users utilize multi-
                                                                                              stakeholder platforms to
                                                                                              renovate conceptual
                                                                                              approaches, strategies
                                                                                              and public policies;
                                                                                              cohesion and synergies
                                                                                              between partners and
                                                                                              other stakeholders
 2008          Structure and performance of current agricultural



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                         103
 Project 7   Outputs                                              Main Users               Outcomes                     Impacts
             Innovation in the Andean Ecoregion documented
             with special emphasis on Peru and Colombia
             (with CIP Project 1 and RAMP initiative)
 2008        Policy environment related to innovation processes
             in agriculture and IWRM in the Andes documented
             for 3 countries (with GMP and RAMP initiative)
 2008        Innovative learning mechanisms (instruments and
             processes) on innovation systems documented
             and tested in 3 Andean Countries (with UNU-
             MERIT-LINK and RAMP initiative)
 2008        Role of women and youth in the innovation on
             agricultural systems analyzed in at least one
             country of the Andean Ecoregion (with RAMP
             initiative)
 2009        Policies supporting and hindering innovation
             processes (including the institutional arrangements
             and the cooperative structures) in the Andes
             documented (with CIP Project 1 and RAMP
             initiative)
 2009        The structure and effectiveness of innovation
             capacity in technical projects implemented by
             CONDESAN partners documented (with CIP
             Project 1)
 2009        Exchange and learning mechanisms to strengthen
             participation of rural women and youth in the
             innovation of agricultural systems in the Andean
             Ecoregion designed and validated.
             (with UCALDAS)
 2009        Mechanism for scale out learning instruments and
             processes on innovation in agricultural systems in
             the Andean Ecoregion designed
             (with UNU-MERIT-LINK)
 2010        Innovation Learning Projects with strategic partners
             designed in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (with CIP
             Project 1 and UNU-MERIT-LINK)
 2010        Innovative regional multi-institutional training
             program for young professionals on innovations in
             agricultural system designed (with UNU-MERIT-
             LINK and UCALDAS)


104                                                        International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 8. Global Mountain Program
Ouput          Output target                                          Intended user           Outcome                   Impact
Output 1       Output 1: The principal research products of           Professionals working   A rational framework is   Mountain people with
               the CGIAR centers for mountains are available          on mountain issues,     available that better     access to information
               and accessible to mountain communities in              Mountain communities    links information needs   tools and options,
               the from of a supermarket or market place of                                   of mountain               including those of the
               innovations and opportunities. (5 years with                                   communities to content    CGIAR adapt to new
               individual CGIAR Centers and the Mountain                                      and opportunities of      global changes and
               Forum (MF) (finished 2017)                                                     Information               take opportunities to
                                                                                              technologies              break poverty cycles
2008           2008: An integrated research and development
               strategy for developing an “Information and
               innovation marketplace” for rural mountain people
               is available
2009           The ‘offer’ of ILRI for mountain people has been
               collected analyzed
2010           Studies with indigenous mountain communities on
               information sources and support, bottlenecks and
               solutions in three continents are available
Output 2       Livelihood, land use & natural resources flow          The national Rural      National and municipal    Well coordinated Rural
               and a policy analyses of Rural-Urban-Rural in          Urban Linkage RUL       authorities and civil     and urban planning and
               Ethiopian benchmark are available. (2008-              platform members        groups collectively use   policies result in
               2010) With CIFOR, IWMI, IFPRI, SWIUPA, AHI                                     the information, to       increased food security,
               and national partners)                                                         better plan cross         wellbeing and income
                                                                                              sectoral actions          of mountain people and
                                                                                              (including additional     better stewardship
                                                                                              research needs) and       natural resources in
                                                                                              later use as baseline     mountains. MDGs,
                                                                                              information of changes    especially those on
                                                                                                                        poverty reduction and
                                                                                                                        environment reached
2008           A study on the strengths and weaknesses of
               mountain policies for Agriculture and Rural
               Development is available. GMP
2009           Livelihood and land-use study information is
               available. GMP
2010           Water flow and availability and quality for human,
               livestock, energy, irrigation using the water shed
               approach is quantified. IWMI



International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                         105
2010   Sediment flow from upstream areas to
       downstream urban areas quantified (related to
       upland management deforestation, steep slope
       cultivation, overgrazing etc)
2010   Flows of forest product flows to urban areas (fuel
       & timber) quantified. CIFOR
2010   Flows of organic and inorganic pollutants and
       nutrients in and out of urban areas are located,
       quantified and mapped and assessed for impact
       on urban agriculture, health and downstream
       community wellbeing. – SWIUPA, IWMI
2010   Major products and goods flows from rural to
       urban and urban to rural are identified and value
       changes along the chain, (including market and
       other infrastructure) IFPRI




106                                                     International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 9. Urban Harvest
Outputs         Output targets                                              Intended user                 Outcome                        Impact
Output 1        Innovative technologies and practices developed             Researchers, extension        Innovations spread             Producers increase
                for increasing productivity and marketing of                agents and CSOs at            among producers in             incomes through higher
                agricultural commodities produced in urban and              international and target      target cities and in           productivity and access
                peri-urban areas                                            country level, city           “contact cities”6              to alternative markets
                                                                            agricultural officials,
                                                                            producer and processor
                                                                            organizations in target
                                                                            cities
2008            ICM urban field schools and modules for animal
                nutrition and management validated in Kampala
                (in partnership with CIAT)
2008            Rural-urban agro-enterprise models tested and
                validated in Kampala and other Latin American
                cities (in partnership with CIAT)
2008            Model for participatory testing of high value crop
                production established in Lima
2008            Strategy of adding value to horticultural crops
                through organic production and marketing
                evaluated in Lima
2008            Approach and methods for the agricultural
                contribution to mitigating HIV/AIDS in urban
                areas developed in Nakuru
2009            Contribution of horticulture to livelihoods
                determined in metropolitan regions in Peru,
                Bolivia and Ecuador
2009            Livestock production framework for enhanced
                use of animal source foods (ASFs) validated in
                two further cities
2009            Customized potato technologies tested and
                validated in potato-based urban horticulture
                systems in two cities in SWCA
2009            Mitigation strategy for HIV/AIDS affected urban
                communities, involving enhanced production and


6
 Contact cities include urban areas which participate in workshops, capacity-building activities and learning visits to target cities, but where no direct research
activities are undertaken by this Project


International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                                              107
Outputs    Output targets                                         Intended user             Outcome                     Impact
           consumption of ASFs and horticultural crops,
           validated in two African cities (In partnership with
           ILRI, IFPRI)
2009       Application of a rural-urban linkages approach to
           vegetable value chains and livelihood
           interdependencies in the Addis Ababa
           metropolitan region, Ethiopia
2009       Model of “commercial villages” approach to agro-
           enterprise development tested for African leafy
           vegetables and sweetpotato in Nairobi (with FCI,
           CIP, AVRDC)
2009       Conversion model of high risk urban food
           production into seedling enterprises tested
           in Kenya and India
2010       Relative opportunities and constraints of
           horticulture-based agro-enterprises along rural-
           urban transects in Peru and Bolivia assessed
Output 2   Methods developed to enhance the safety and            Policy makers, city       Users integrate the         Reduced human health
           sustainability of urban and peri-urban                 officials, researchers,   methods into urban          risks from UPA and
           agriculture and the uptake of urban sources            urban health              policies and planning       enhanced productive
           of nutrients for soils and feed (2011)                 professionals, CSOs                                   use of urban natural
                                                                                                                        resources in agriculture
2008       Strategies for reduced environmental and public
           health risks affecting men and women in
           communities involved in wastewater re-use in
           Nairobi developed
2008       Comparative assessment of the benefits and
           risks of recycling urban organic residues for pig
           production based on case studies in Hanoi, Lima
           and Kampala
2008       Relations between urban flooding, waste
           generation and agriculture determined based
           on data from Kampala (with IWMI)
2008       Urban ecosystem indicators developed with
           stakeholders for pesticide use in peri-urban
           horticulture systems in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia
           (with CIP-Project 6)




108                                                          International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Outputs        Output targets                                         Intended user            Outcome                  Impact
2008           Nutrient recycling strategy for horticulture
               and livestock systems in Nakuru established
               (in partnership with ILRI)
2009           Conservation agriculture strategy adapted to
               nutrient recycling opportunities in potato-based
               urban horticultural systems in two cities in SWCA
2009           Candidate technologies for agricultural recycling
               of organic wastes evaluated in Kampala
               (with IWMI)
2009           Sustainable use of wastewater in urban
               horticultural systems in Addis established
2009           Adaptation of rustic reservoir model for simple
               water treatment of irrigation water applied in
               two new horticultural systems
2009           Characteristics of pesticide exposure pathways
               in relation to distance from metropolitan core
               determined in horticultural systems in Ecuador,
               Peru and Bolivia (with CIP-Project 6)
2010           Management system for agricultural recycling of
               organic wastes developed, based on Kampala
               studies (with IWMI)
2010           Enhanced agricultural recycling of domestic
               and agricultural wastes through use of micro-
               organisms validated in two sites in Latin America
               (with CIP)
Output 3       Policy options and institutional and planning          Municipal authorities,   Stakeholders involved    Improved policies,
               strategies to support safe and sustainable             producers, national      in consultative          reduced risks and
               agricultural production in urban areas are             governments,             planning processes in    better use of urban
               developed (2011)                                       multilateral agencies    local government         resources lead to
                                                                                               resulting in urban and   increased food security
                                                                                               peri-urban agriculture   and income
                                                                                               and NRM being            contribution from UPA
                                                                                               incorporated into
                                                                                               policies and
                                                                                               development targeting
2008           Local and regional stakeholder platforms
               established for horticulture systems in Peru,
               Bolivia and Ecuador




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                                                          109
Outputs   Output targets                                       Intended user              Outcome                     Impact
2008      Integrated, territorial planning mechanisms for
          sustainable urban NRM, validated in two
          additional locations
2008      Urban poverty reduction strategies, including the
          roles of agriculture and NRM are integrated into
          national development plans in Kampala
2009      Strategies for inserting urban NRM and
          agriculture into land, waste and health policies
          developed in Nairobi
2009      Policy framework for food quality standards
          (FQS) and certification of urban and peri-urban
          agricultural commodities available in Lima and
          Kampala (with CIAT and Polytechnic University
          of Madrid, IFPRI)
2009      Application of multi-stakeholder dialogue
          approach to empower communities to engage
          with city authorities in Kampala
2009      A participatory M&E plan implemented among
          stakeholders in metropolitan regions in Peru,
          Bolivia and Ecuador, involving platforms for
          healthy and sustainable horticulture
          (with CIP-Div 6 and 1)
2009      Rural –urban consultation forum established in
          Addis to monitor and support agro-enterprise and
          natural resource linkages and flows affecting the
          city and surrounding areas
2010      Criteria and implementation strategy for food
          quality standards (FQS) and certification of urban
          and peri-urban agricultural commodities are
          established in other Latin American sites




110                                                        International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Annex 1. Financial tables

Cost Allocation
Table 1. Cost Allocation: Allocation of Projects Cost to CGIAR System Priorities, 2006-2010
Table 2. Undertaking, Activities and Sectors, 2006-2010
Table 3. Cost Allocation: Allocation of Projects Cost to CGIAR Regions, 2006-2010


Expenditure
Table 4. Expenditures, 2006-2010


Financing
Table 5. CIP-Center Incomes, 2006-2010
Table 6. CIP-Financing: Members/ Non Members Unrestricted Grants, 2006-2010
Table 7. CIP-Financing: Allocation of Members/Non Members Grants to Projects, 2006-2010


Staff Composition
Table 8. CIP Staff Composition: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2006-2010


Financial Position
Table 9. CIP-Financial Position: Currency Structure of Expenditures, 2006-2008
Table 10. Statements of Activities
Table 11. Statements of Financial Position




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008      111
      Table 1. Cost Allocation: Allocation of Projects Cost to CGIAR System Priorities, 2006-2010
                                               (in $ million)


                                                           2006         2007          2008       2009       2010
Project                              System Priorities
                                                          (actual)   (estimated)   (proposal)   (plan 1)   (plan 2)

Project 1: Impact Enhancement
                                   Stand-alone Training     0.506         0.532        0.376      0.414      0.455
                                   5A                       1.430         1.578        1.834      1.846      1.677
                                   Development
                                                            0.201         0.355        0.547      0.601      0.661
                                   Activities
                                   5D                       0.469         0.404        0.630      0.692      0.758
                                   5B                       1.032         0.974        1.240      1.286      1.261
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         3.638         3.843        4.627      4.839      4.812
Project 2: Genetic Resources
Conservation and
Characterization
                                   1A                       1.259         1.733        1.694      1.621      1.659
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         1.259         1.733        1.694      1.621      1.659
Project 3: Germplasm
Enhancement and Crop
Improvement
                                   2A                       4.219         3.908        3.755      4.121      4.109
                                   2B                       1.225         0.982        0.985      1.220      1.285
                                   2C                       1.332         0.772        0.749      0.927      0.975
                                   1A                       0.695         0.285        0.279      0.317      0.322
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         7.471         5.947        5.768      6.585      6.691
Project 4: Integrated Crop
Management
                                   5C                       0.597         0.448        0.552      0.595      0.651
                                   4D                       0.578         0.768        1.207      1.329      1.547
                                   2A                       2.365         2.574        2.772      2.952      3.060
                                   5D                       1.249         1.206        1.834      2.007      2.303
                                   Development
                                                            0.000         0.078        0.087      0.088      0.092
                                   Activities
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         4.789         5.074        6.452      6.971      7.653
Project 5: Natural Resources
Management
                                   4A                       0.904         0.780        0.775      0.789      0.831
                                   Development
                                                            0.568         0.763        0.778      0.839      0.917
                                   Activities
                                   4D                       0.907         1.048        1.056      1.105      1.186
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         2.379         2.591        2.609      2.733      2.934
Project 6: Agriculture and
Human Health
                                   2C                       0.138         0.365        0.502      0.401      0.368
                                   5C                       0.201         0.279        0.380      0.336      0.441
                                   TOTAL BY PROJECT         0.339         0.644        0.882      0.737      0.809




112                      International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 7: Consortium for the
Sustainable Development of the
Andean Ecoregion -
CONDESAN
                                 Development
                                                            0.477            1.255        0.862       0.749       0.868
                                 Activities
                                 4A                         0.837            1.594        1.170       1.039       1.253
                                 5A                         0.439            0.228        0.167       0.148       0.179
                                 TOTAL BY PROJECT           1.753            3.077        2.199       1.936       2.300
Project 8: Global Mountain
Program
                                 5D                         0.120            0.072        0.052       0.052       0.057
                                 4A                         0.236            0.288        0.207       0.206       0.227
                                 Stand-alone Training       0.076            0.050        0.035       0.032       0.029
                                 TOTAL BY PROJECT           0.432            0.410        0.294       0.290       0.313
Project 9: Urban Harvest
                                 New Research Areas         0.982            1.098        1.151       1.185       1.292
                                 TOTAL BY PROJECT           0.982            1.098        1.151       1.185       1.292
                                  TOTAL BY CENTER          23.042        24.417          25.676      26.897      28.463




                    Table 2. Undertaking, Activities and Sectors, 2006-2010
                                                (in $ million)

                                                  2006             2007             2008         2009         2010
   Undertaking, Activities and Sectors
                                                (actual)     (estimated)       (proposal)     (plan 1)     (plan 2)
   Increasing Productivity                        7.526            7.126           7.995        8.670        9.165
    Germplasm Enhancement
                                                   4.042             3.691            4.129        4.551       4.861
    & Breeding
    Production Systems Development
                                                   3.484             3.435            3.866        4.119       4.304
    & Management
      Cropping systems                             3.484             3.435            3.866        4.119       4.304
      Livestock systems                            0.000             0.000            0.000        0.000       0.000
      Tree systems                                 0.000             0.000            0.000        0.000       0.000
      Fish systems                                 0.000             0.000            0.000        0.000       0.000
   Protecting the Environment                      4.070             4.873            4.612        4.649       5.037
   Saving Biodiversity                             2.528             2.925            2.927        2.982       3.163
   Improving Policies                              2.750             3.280            3.549        3.562       3.601
   Strengthening NARS                              6.168             6.213            6.593        7.034       7.497
    Training and Professional
                                                   2.038             1.997            2.203        2.372       2.511
    Development
    Documentation, Publications,
                                                   2.291             2.349            2.527        2.683       2.830
    Info. Dissemination
    Organization & Management
                                                   0.042             0.040            0.029        0.029       0.031
    Counseling
    Networks                                      1.797              1.827            1.834        1.950       2.125
   TOTAL BY CENTER                               23.042             24.417           25.676       26.897      28.463




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                           113
          Table 3. Cost Allocation: Allocation of Projects Cost to CGIAR Regions, 2006-2010
                                                           (in $ million)


                                                                   2006         2007          2008       2009       2010
Project                                  Regions
                                                                 (actual)       (est.)   (proposal)   (plan 1)   (plan 2)
Project 1: Impact Enhancement
                                         SSA                       0.646        0.829        0.992      1.091      1.009
                                         Asia                      0.807        0.508        0.522      0.511      0.530
                                         LAC                       2.116        2.415        3.035      3.167      3.208
                                         CWANA                     0.069        0.091        0.078      0.070      0.065
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          3.638        3.843        4.627      4.839      4.812
Project 2: Genetic Resources
Conservation and Characterization
                                         SSA                       0.150        0.403        0.353      0.320      0.321
                                         Asia                      0.353        0.583        0.655      0.676      0.725
                                         LAC                       0.701        0.675        0.623      0.572      0.564
                                         CWANA                     0.055        0.072        0.063      0.053      0.049
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          1.259        1.733        1.694      1.621      1.659
Project 3: Germplasm Enhancement
and Crop Improvement
                                         SSA                       3.117        2.105        2.352      3.065      3.226
                                         Asia                      1.723        1.083        1.426      1.620      1.423
                                         LAC                       2.130        2.186        1.532      1.458      1.596
                                         CWANA                     0.501        0.573        0.458      0.442      0.446
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          7.471        5.947        5.768      6.585      6.691
Project 4: Integrated Crop
Management
                                         SSA                       2.260        2.055        3.133      3.688      4.348
                                         Asia                      1.109        1.923        2.535      2.771      2.937
                                         LAC                       1.123        0.722        0.492      0.280      0.166
                                         CWANA                     0.297        0.374        0.292      0.232      0.202
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          4.789        5.074        6.452      6.971      7.653
Project 5: Natural Resources
Management
                                         SSA                       0.222        0.249        0.330      0.366      0.425
                                         Asia                      0.162        0.205        0.227      0.251      0.294
                                         LAC                       1.878        1.914        1.845      1.918      2.014
                                         CWANA                     0.117        0.223        0.207      0.198      0.201
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          2.379        2.591        2.609      2.733      2.934
Project 6: Agriculture and Human
Health
                                         SSA                       0.166        0.384        0.587      0.549      0.735
                                         Asia                      0.011        0.027        0.034      0.024      0.009
                                         LAC                       0.152        0.216        0.240      0.152      0.062
                                         CWANA                     0.010        0.017        0.021      0.012      0.003
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          0.339        0.644        0.882      0.737      0.809
Project 7: Consortium for the
Sustainable Development of the
Andean Ecoregion - CONDESAN
                                         LAC                       1.753        3.077        2.199      1.936      2.300
                                         TOTAL BY PROJECT          1.753        3.077        2.199      1.936      2.300



   114                       International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
Project 8: Global Mountain Program
                                        SSA                         0.292           0.347            0.294    0.290    0.313
                                        Asia                        0.032           0.021            0.000    0.000    0.000
                                        LAC                         0.076           0.021            0.000    0.000    0.000
                                        CWANA                       0.032           0.021            0.000    0.000    0.000
                                        TOTAL BY PROJECT            0.432           0.410            0.294    0.290    0.313
Project 9: Urban Harvest
                                        SSA                         0.481           0.821            0.857    0.875    0.966
                                        Asia                        0.121           0.035            0.056    0.065    0.075
                                        LAC                         0.310           0.239            0.234    0.241    0.247
                                        CWANA                       0.070           0.003            0.004    0.004    0.004
                                        TOTAL BY PROJECT            0.982           1.098            1.151    1.185    1.292
                                        TOTAL BY CENTER            23.042          24.417        25.676      26.897   28.463




                                         Table 4. Expenditures, 2006-2010
                                          Object of Expenditure (in $million)


                                              2006            2007           2008          2009           2010
                Object of Expenditures
                                            (actual)    (estimated)     (proposal)      (plan 1)       (plan 2)

                Personnel                    10.589          10.958         11.697          12.342      12.891
                Supplies and services         6.078           6.304          6.743           6.835       7.323
                Collaboration/
                                              3.680            4.002          3.969          4.244       4.686
                Partnerships
                Operational Travel            1.808           2.103          2.217           2.426       2.463
                Depreciation                  0.887           1.050          1.050           1.050       1.100
                   TOTAL BY CENTER           23.042          24.417         25.676          26.897      28.463




                                     Table 5. CIP-Center Incomes, 2006-2010
                                                       (in $ million)


                              2006          2007            2008         2009          2010
                             (actual)    (estimated)     (proposal)     (plan 1)      (plan 2)

                               0.639           0.630          0.600         0.600       0.600




   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                           115
      Table 6. CIP-Financing: Members/Non Members Unrestricted Grants, 2006-2008
                                           (in $ million)


                                                 2006             2007              2008
             Members/Non Members
                                                (actual)       (estimated)       (proposal)

         MEMBERS
         Australia                                     0.189         0.189               0.199
         Belgium                                       0.245         0.261               0.250
         Canada                                        0.693         0.713               0.659
         China                                         0.130         0.130               0.130
         Denmark                                       0.343         0.000               0.000
         Germany                                       0.267         0.279               0.261
         India                                         0.038         0.000               0.000
         Ireland                                       0.000         0.269               0.258
         Korea, Republic of                            0.050         0.050               0.050
         Netherlands                                   0.868         0.000               0.000
         Norway                                        0.400         0.414               0.405
         Philippines                                   0.000         0.007               0.000
         Sweden                                        0.850         0.965               0.931
         Switzerland                                   0.823         0.813               0.800
         United Kingdom                                1.249         1.323               1.288
         United States                                 0.963         0.672               0.472
         World Bank                                    1.799         1.550               1.550
             TOTAL MEMBERS                             8.907         7.635               7.253
         NON MEMBERS
         Others                                        0.000         0.000               0.080
             TOTAL NON MEMBERS                         0.000         0.000               0.080
         TOTAL BY CENTER                               8.907         7.635               7.333




116               International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
  Table 7. CIP-Financing: Allocation of Members/Non Members Grants to Projects, 2006-
                                          2008
                                                  (in $ million)


                                                                            2006       2007          2008
 Project                        Members/Non Members
                                                                            (actual)   (estimated)   (proposal)
 Project 1:
                                MEMBERS
 Impact Enhancement
                                Australia                                   0.048      0.000         0.000
                                Austria                                     0.000      0.000         0.126
                                CGIAR                                       0.000      0.000         0.120
                                FAO                                         0.019      0.006         0.000
                                IDRC                                        0.034      0.048         0.099
                                IFAD                                        0.035      0.000         0.000
                                Korea, Republic of                          0.018      0.030         0.000
                                New Zealand                                 0.124      0.575         0.481
                                Spain                                       0.210      0.000         0.000
                                Switzerland                                 0.845      0.681         1.428
                                United Kingdom                              0.168      0.058         0.000
                                United States                               0.088      0.000         0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           1.589      1.398         2.254
                                NON MEMBERS
                                CIAT                                        0.059      0.603         0.805
                                HarvestPlus/CP                              0.147      0.250         0.000
                                IFPRI                                       0.121      0.000         0.000
                                Natural Resources Institute                 0.056      0.000         0.000
                                Others                                      0.004      0.258         0.278
                                US Dept of Agriculture                      0.020      0.000         0.000
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                       0.407      1.111         1.083
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS             1.996      2.509         3.337
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income            1.642      1.334         1.290
                                TOTAL BY PROJECT                            3.638      3.843         4.627
 Project 2: Genetic Resources
 Conservation and               MEMBERS
 Characterization
                                Brazil                                      0.006      0.014         0.000
                                European Commission                         0.000      0.378         0.362
                                Germany                                     0.020      0.000         0.000
                                IDRC                                        0.025      0.035         0.071
                                IFAD                                        0.025      0.000         0.000
                                Luxembourg                                  0.060      0.067         0.065
                                World Bank                                  0.119      0.216         0.324
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           0.255      0.710         0.822
                                NON MEMBERS
                                Bioversity International                    0.009      0.007         0.000
                                CIAT                                        0.000      0.050         0.000
                                Global Crop Diversity Trust                 0.009      0.000         0.000
                                Others                                      0.006      0.019         0.079

International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                     117
                                US Dept of Agriculture                      0.012     0.003        0.000
                                   TOTAL NON MEMBERS                        0.036     0.079        0.079
                                   TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS              0.291     0.789        0.901
                                   Unrestricted + Center Income             0.968     0.944        0.793
                                TOTAL BY PROJECT                            1.259     1.733        1.694
 Project 3: Germplasm
 Enhancement and Crop           MEMBERS
 Improvement
                                Austria                                     0.320     0.145        0.000
                                Belgium                                     0.167     0.571        0.463
                                Canada                                      1.418     0.160        0.000
                                CGIAR                                       0.000     0.000        0.093
                                Denmark                                     0.025     0.011        0.029
                                Germany                                     0.411     0.241        0.380
                                Korea, Republic of                          0.068     0.118        0.000
                                India                                       0.000     0.200        0.200
                                Luxembourg                                  0.178     0.192        0.179
                                Netherlands                                 0.022     0.005        0.000
                                Peru                                        0.061     0.259        0.150
                                Rockefeller Foundation                      0.063     0.200        0.715
                                Spain                                       0.201     0.000        0.000
                                Sweden                                      0.064     0.000        0.000
                                United States                               1.400     0.210        0.000
                                   TOTAL MEMBERS                            4.398     2.312        2.209
                                NON MEMBERS
                                ASARECA                                     0.097     0.078        0.030
                                CIAT                                        0.856     0.867        0.495
                                CIMMYT                                      0.000     0.074        0.000
                                FONTAGRO                                    0.000     0.000        0.167
                                Generation/CP                               0.398     0.000        0.192
                                IFPRI                                       0.003     0.070        0.000
                                IRRI                                        0.008     0.000        0.000
                                McKnight Foundation                         0.006     0.000        0.000
                                Michigan State University                   0.020     0.000        0.000
                                Others                                      0.015     0.065        0.296
                                US Dept of Agriculture                      0.000     0.000        0.055
                                   TOTAL NON MEMBERS                        1.403     1.154        1.235
                                   TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS              5.801     3.466        3.444
                                   Unrestricted + Center Income             1.670     2.481        2.324
                                TOTAL BY PROJECT                            7.471     5.947        5.768
 Project 4: Integrated Crop
                                MEMBERS
 Management
                                Australia                                   0.004     0.248        0.144
                                Belgium                                     0.000     0.000        0.353
                                Canada                                      0.000     0.065        0.000
                                CGIAR                                       0.000     0.000        0.125
                                Denmark                                     0.048     0.000        0.000
                                European Commission                         0.000     0.792        0.758



118                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                Germany                                       0.419   0.048   0.000
                                IDRC                                          0.029   0.041   0.085
                                IFAD                                          0.273   0.088   0.483
                                Italy                                         0.192   0.202   0.194
                                Luxembourg                                    0.120   0.135   0.129
                                Korea, Republic of                            0.020   0.000   0.000
                                Netherlands                                   0.095   0.000   0.000
                                OPEC Fund                                     0.067   0.000   0.000
                                Switzerland                                   0.023   0.047   0.000
                                World Bank                                    0.033   0.140   0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                             1.323   1.806   2.271
                                NON MEMBERS
                                ASARECA                                       0.105   0.091   0.006
                                CIAT                                          0.084   0.095   0.086
                                Common Fund for Commodities                   0.337   0.259   0.705
                                FONTAGRO                                      0.000   0.143   0.173
                                HarvestPlus/CP                                0.315   0.205   0.000
                                ICARDA                                        0.063   0.000   0.000
                                IITA                                          0.101   0.000   0.000
                                Int'n Center for Insect Physiology and
                                                                              0.038   0.125   0.123
                                Ecology (ICIPE)
                                Kansas State University                       0.001   0.005   0.000
                                Natural Resources Institute                   0.030   0.003   0.000
                                Others                                        0.081   0.084   0.796
                                Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences   0.015   0.000   0.000
                                US Dept of Agriculture                        0.000   0.000   0.050
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                         1.170   1.010   1.939
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS               2.493   2.816   4.210
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income              2.296   2.258   2.242
                                TOTAL BY PROJECT                              4.789   5.074   6.452
 Project 5: Natural Resources
                                MEMBERS
 Management
                                Canada                                        0.000   1.908   1.819
                                Germany                                       0.000   0.000   0.026
                                Netherlands                                   0.073   0.000   0.000
                                Peru                                          0.073   0.062   0.090
                                United States                                 0.211   0.110   0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                             0.357   2.080   1.935
                                NON MEMBERS
                                Others                                        0.000   0.000   0.187
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                         0.000   0.000   0.187
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS               0.357   2.080   2.122
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income              2.022   0.511   0.487
                                TOTAL BY PROJECT                              2.379   2.591   2.609
 Project 6: Agriculture and
                                MEMBERS
 Human Health
                                Canada                                        0.000   0.000   0.397
                                IDRC                                          0.128   0.129   0.000

International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008              119
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           0.128     0.129        0.397
                                 NON MEMBERS
                                 IFPRI                                      0.066     0.214        0.080
                                 Others                                     0.000     0.000        0.015
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                       0.066     0.214        0.095
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS             0.194     0.343        0.492
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income            0.145     0.301        0.390
                                                      TOTAL BY PROJECT      0.339     0.644        0.882
 Project 7: Consortium for the
 Sustainable Development of
                                 MEMBERS
 the Andean Ecoregion -
 CONDESAN
                                 European Commission                        0.000     0.000        0.030
                                 FAO                                        0.007     0.000        0.000
                                 Switzerland                                0.087     0.056        0.052
                                 World Bank                                 0.235     0.045        0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           0.329     0.101        0.082
                                 NON MEMBERS
                                 Global Environment Facility (GEF)          0.822     2.277        1.755
                                 IWMI                                       0.144     0.149        0.000
                                 Others                                     0.232     0.364        0.284
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                       1.198     2.790        2.039
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS             1.527     2.891        2.121
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income            0.226     0.186        0.078
                                                      TOTAL BY PROJECT      1.753     3.077        2.199
 Project 8: Global Mountain
                                 MEMBERS
 Program
                                 Canada                                     0.300     0.356        0.250
                                 FAO                                        0.043     0.000        0.000
                                 Spain                                      0.013     0.004        0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           0.356     0.360        0.250
                                 NON MEMBERS
                                 Others                                     0.000     0.000        0.009
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                       0.000     0.000        0.009
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS             0.356     0.360        0.259
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income            0.076     0.050        0.035
                                                      TOTAL BY PROJECT      0.432     0.410        0.294
 Project 9: Urban Harvest        MEMBERS
                                 Canada                                     0.034     0.092        0.000
                                 IDRC                                       0.161     0.541        0.492
                                 IFAD                                       0.010     0.000        0.000
                                 Norway                                     0.000     0.000        0.296
                                 World Bank                                 0.185     0.015        0.000
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS                           0.390     0.648        0.788
                                 NON MEMBERS
                                 CIAT                                       0.011     0.003        0.000
                                 Natural Resources Institute                0.024     0.010        0.000
                                 Others                                     0.123     0.239        0.210



120                    International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                    TOTAL NON MEMBERS                       0.158     0.252    0.210
                                    TOTAL MEMBERS + NON MEMBERS             0.548     0.900    0.998
                                    Unrestricted + Center Income            0.434     0.198    0.153
                                                     TOTAL BY PROJECT       0.982     1.098    1.151
                                                      TOTAL BY CENTER       23.042    24.417   25.676




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                121
Table 8. CIP Staff Composition: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2006-2010

                                              2006            2007             2008         2009           2010
  Staff Type
                                             (actual)      (estimated)      (proposal)     (plan 1)       (plan 2)
  Internationally-Recruited Staff (IRS)            60                60             67           73             77
  National-Recruited Staff (NRS)                  493               498            500          504            510
  TOTAL BY CENTER                                 553               558            567          577            587




      Table 9. CIP-Financial Position: Currency Structure of Expenditures, 2006-2008
                                                    (in $ million)

                           2006 (actual)                    2007 (estimated)                 2008 (proposal)
Currency         Amount        US$         %Share    Amount       US$      %Share      Amount     US$        %Share
                              Value                              Value                           Value
Indonesian       1573.74                             1590.09                           1673.2
                              0.175         0.76%                0.175         0.72%              0.170        0.66%
Rupiah (IDR)           2                                   6                               28
Indian Rupee
                  16.236      0.368         1.60%     17.361     0.400         1.64%   18.259     0.404        1.57%
(INR)
Kenyan
                  42.458      0.607         2.63%     54.325     0.780         3.19%   61.880     0.850        3.31%
Shilling (KES)
Others
                   4.151      0.531         2.30%       5.639    0.727         2.98%     6.459    0.800        3.12%
(Others)
Nuevo Sol
                  19.464      6.090        26.43%     19.276     6.100     24.98%      20.770     6.200      24.15%
(PEN)
Philippine
                   5.996      0.122         0.53%       7.260    0.150         0.61%     7.433    0.140        0.55%
Peso (PHP)
Uganda                                               1068.24                           1456.8
                 742.976      0.416         1.81%                0.600         2.46%              0.800        3.12%
Shilling (UGX)                                             9                               00
US Dollar
                  14.733     14.733        63.94%     15.485    15.485    63.419%      16.312    16.312     63.530%
(USD)
TOTAL BY
                             23.042    100.000%                 24.417    100.000%               25.676    100.000%
CENTER




122                   International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
                                  Table 10. Statements of Activities
                                    For the Year Ended December 31, 2006
                                                  (in $million)


                                       Unrestricted    Restricted                  Total    Total    Total
                                                      Temporary      Challenge     2006     2007     2008
                                                                     Programs


Revenue and Gains
 Grant Revenue                               8.907         11.749        1.814     22.470   23.788   25.217
 Other revenue and gains                     0.639          0.000        0.000      0.639    0.630    0.600
 Total revenue and gains                     9.546         11.749        1.814     23.109   24.418   25.817

Expenses and Losses
 Program related expenses                    6.241         11.749        1.814     19.804   21.161   22.503
 Management and general expenses             4.380          0.000        0.000      4.380    4.613    4.791
 Other losses expenses                       0.000          0.000        0.000      0.000    0.000    0.000
   Sub Total expenses and losses            10.621         11.749        1.814     24.184   25.774   27.294
 Indirect cost recovery                      -1.142         0.000        0.000     -1.142   -1.357   -1.618
   Total expenses and losses                  9.479        11.749        1.814     23.042   24.417   25.676
   Net Surplus / (Deficit) from               0.067         0.000        0.000      0.067    0.001    0.141
   ordinary activities
 Extraordinary Items                         0.000          0.000        0.000      0.000    0.000    0.000

NET SURPLUS / (DEFICIT)                      0.067          0.000        0.000      0.067    0.001    0.141



Object of Expenditure
 Personnel                                   6.286          3.668        0.635     10.589   10.958   11.697
 Supplies and services                       2.056          3.527        0.495      6.078    6.304    6.743
 Collaboration/ Partnerships                 0.000          3.224        0.456      3.680    4.002    3.969

 Operational Travel                          0.765          0.918        0.125      1.808    2.103    2.217
 Depreciation                                0.372          0.412        0.103      0.887    1.050    1.050

TOTAL BY CENTER                              9.479         11.749        1.814     23.042   24.417   25.676




International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008                123
                         Table 11. Statements of Financial Position
                                   December 31, 2006 (in $million)

      ASSETS                                            2006          2007          2008
      Current Assets
        Cash and cash equivalents                         13.990        11.639       11.977
        Investments                                        0.000         0.500        0.500
        Accounts receivable
            Donor                                          1.310         2.204        1.957
            Employees                                      0.067         0.069        0.071
            Other CGIAR Centers                            0.000         0.000        0.000
            Others                                         0.271         0.282        0.291
        Inventories                                        0.396         0.401        0.411
        Prepaid expenses                                   0.292         0.379        0.446
            Total current assets                          16.326        15.474       15.653

      Non-Current Assets
      Property, Plant and Equipment                        3.711         3.541        3.431
      Investments                                          0.337         0.628        0.650
      Other Assets                                         0.000         0.000        0.000
              Total Non-Current Assets                     4.048         4.169        4.081
      TOTAL ASSETS                                        20.374        19.643       19.734

      LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS
      Current Liabilities
        Overdraft/Short term Borrowings                    0.000         0.000        0.000
        Accounts payable
            Donor                                          6.118         5.575        5.402
            Employees                                      0.000         0.000        0.000
            Other CGIAR Centers                            0.000         0.000        0.000
            Others                                         4.670         4.172        4.183
        Accruals                                           0.047         0.051        0.053
           Total current liabilities                      10.835         9.798        9.638
      Non-Current Liabilities
        Accounts payable
            Employees                                      0.298         0.600        0.660
            Deferred Grant Revenue                         0.000         0.000        0.000
            Others                                         0.150         0.000        0.000
            Total non-current liabilities                  0.448         0.600        0.660
           Total liabilities                              11.283        10.398       10.298
      Net Assets
          Unrestricted
            Designated                                     3.297         3.450        3.500
            Undesignated                                   5.794         5.795        5.936
             Total Unrestricted Net Assets                 9.091         9.245        9.436
          Restricted                                       0.000         0.000        0.000
            Total net assets                               9.091         9.245        9.436
            TOTAL LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS              20.374        19.643       19.734




124              International Potato Center (CIP) Medium Term Plan 2008-2010 and Financing Plan for 2008
              I N T E R N AC I O N A L
                                                         The International Potato Center (CIP) seeks to reduce poverty and
                                         D E L A PA PA
C E N T R O




                                                         achieve food security on a sustained basis in developing countries
                                                         through scientific research and related activities on potato,
                      C I P
                                                         sweetpotato, and other root and tuber crops, and on the improved
                                                         management of natural resources in potato and sweetpotato-based
                                                         systems.

                                                         The CIPVision
                                                         The International Potato Center (CIP) will contribute to reducing
                                                         poverty and hunger; improving human health; developing resilient,
                                                         sustainable rural and urban livelihood systems; and improving access
                                                         to the benefits of new and appropriate knowledge and technologies.
                                                         CIP will address these challenges by convening and conducting
                                                         research and supporting partnerships on root and tuber crops and on
                                                         natural resources management in mountain systems and other less-
                                                         favored areas where CIP can contribute to the achievement of healthy
                                                         and sustainable human development.
                                                         www.cipotato.org

                                                         CIP is supported by a group of governments, private foundations, and
                                                         international and regional organizations known as the Consultative
                                                         Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
                                                         www.cgiar.org

				
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