Horse Care Management Ppt by nma21016

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									Overview of the Horse Industry:
        Functions & Purposes


           Lecture 1
       Horse Management
          Purpose - Role of the Horse

• Primary Purposes in the United States:
• 90 % Pleasure - leisure, trail riding,
  –   showing, lessons
  –   racing
  –   rodeo, polo, carriage, hitches
  –   police,
  –   transportation, work
History of Horse in United States
Year # horses # in      Type/
     in US    Indiana   Uses
1910 26.5 M .62 M       draft   work
1940 4.5 M    110,000 draft     wealthy
1970 2.2 M    87,000  Light     Race,
                      breeds    show
2000 7.1M     185,000 Light     pleasure
                      breeds
                     Industry Overview

•   85-90% of horses kept for recreation only
•   1.4 Million FTE employed
•   1.9 Million own horses
•   3.9 horses/owner - Herd size
•   7.1 Million involved with horse industry
•   Horse population follows human population
                                Types of Equine
• _Draft_ - “cold blooded”, heavy horses
   – 17-19 hands tall, weigh about 2000 lbs.......
   – Belgian, Percheron, Clydesdale, Suffolk, Shire
• Light Breeds - more refined and athletic
   – Race - Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds
   – Show/Pleasure - Arabian, Quarter Horse, ++
   – 14-17 hands tall, weigh 400-1300 lbs.........
• _Ponies_ - mature less than 58 inches
   – Shetland, Hackney, Welsh, P.O.A.’s
Draft Breeds
Light Breeds
Ponies
              Breed Demographics -
            Foals Registered in 2000
•   American Quarter Horse - 110,714 = =
•   American Paint - 54,400 + + + +
•   Thoroughbred - 35,400 - - -
•   Arabian - 11,594 - - -
•   Standardbred- 11,336 - - -
•   Tennessee Walker - 11,120 + +
•   Appaloosa - 11,030 = =
                   State Demographics -
                            Rank Order

•   _Texas__            •   Ohio
•   _California_        •   New York
•   Florida             •   Kentucky
•   Oklahoma            •   Michigan
•   Illinois            •   ....14….
• Colorado              •   Indiana - 24th
World Distribution of Equus - 1997
Country     Equine    Horses per Equine / sq.
            X 1,000    capita    mile

Russia      13,500       .05         1.46
Brazil      11,158      .129         2.48
China       9,800       .012         3.42
Mexico      9,013       .155         6.59
Argentina   8,786       .236         4.44
Poland      7,842       .098         23.61
USA         7,125       .012          .59
               Most Common Unsoundnesses

• Bowed Tendons - tearing flexor tendons
   – usually in front, low weak pasterns, deep surface
• Splints - pulled metacarpal ligament
   – Ca deposits on upper cannon bone - offset knees
• Navicular - erosion of distal sesamoid in heel
   – often steep pasterns, small foot, contracted heels
• Laminitis - chronic founder, damaged laminae
   – often obesity, over eating, concussion
• Spavins - hock problems, posty or sickle hocked
                    Vital Signs of Horses
• Resting Normals       • Performance
                          Maximums


• Pulse - _40_ bpm      • Pulse - _250_ bpm
• Resp. Rate - 10 bpm   • Resp. Rate -100bpm
• Temp. - 100-101oF     • Temp. 1050F
                          Housing - Fences
• protect from weather,    • - keep them in - safely
  dry place to eat,
  storage                  • boards and posts
                           • woven wire w/board or
• 3-sided shed -
                             electric
• closed cold barns -      • pipe or pipe gates
• closed warm barns -      • PVC - poly vinyl chloride
   – ventilation -         • plastic covered high
   – drainage -              tensile wire
        Routine Health Management

•   Internal Parasite Control
•   Contagious Diseases
•   Dental Care
•   EIA - Coggins
•   Hoof Care
              Internal Parasite Control

• Strongyles (large and small) - larvae damage
  arteries and cause G.I. colic
• Ascarids (round worms) - migrate from G.I.
  Tract to lungs, problem in foals
• Bots - fly lays yellow “nits”, larvae damage
  stomach lining
• Pinworms - female lays eggs around rectum in
  tail irritant, indicator of parasites
                      Deworm Regularly
• Frequency depends     • Methods
  on:
• horse density on      • Purge
  pasture                 – Naso-gastric tube
• age                     – Paste
• use                   • Continuous
                          – Daily in feed
                  Body Condition Scoring

• 1-3 Poor-Thin




•   4     Can see ribs, vertebra ridge evident
•   5     Back flat, can’t see ribs, but can feel them
•   6     Crease down back, fat deposits
•   7-9   Fleshy - Extremely fat
             Routine Health Management

• Floating Molars              • Hoof Trimming
• points on inside of
  upper and outside of         • hoof grows 1/3-
  lower                          1/2”/mo...
• interfere with chewing       • If grow>wear = trim
• check mouth for              • if grow<wear = shoe
  irritating points at least   • reset shoes every 5-8
  2x/year                        weeks
• file with guarded file
                Diseases / Vaccinations

• TETANUS - lockjaw, clostridium - ALL
• RHINO_ PNEUMONITIS - virus “flu” &
    abortions
• ENCEPHELOMYELYTIS - EE, WE, & VE
•   Strangles - distemper, strep bacteria, lymph
•   Influenza -flu, various strains
•   Potomac Horse Fever - ricketsia vector, water
•   Rabies - virus carried in wild animals
              Current “Hot” Diseases
• Mare Reproductive        • West Nile Virus
  Loss Syndrome
  – 1980/2001                – concern of human
  – late term                  population
    stillborn/abortions      – birds
  – 60-90 day abortions      – two cases in IN
  – cyanide, wild cherry     – new vaccine -
    trees, Eastern Tent        conditional approval
    Caterpillars
              Current “Hot” Diseases
• Equine Infectious        • Equine Protozoal
  Anemia (EIA)               Myelitis (EPM)
• blood borne w/ insects   • bird and raccoon
  or needles, COGGINS      • spinal cord lesions
  Test for AB’s no         • test AB’s in spinal
  vaccine, always a          fluid
  carrier
                           • can treat and live
                 Metabolic Diseases of
                   Nutritional Nature
• Colic
• Laminitis/Founder
• Physitis/Epiphysitis
• Exertional Myopathy - tying up
   – paralytic myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis
• Rickets/osteomalacia, Osteochondrosis
• Acidosis, ketosis, alkali disease
• Toxicities - micotoxins, minerals, etc.
     Digestive Categories of Horses

•   Maintenance - basic requirements of life
•   Growth - youngest has highest requirements
•   Gestation - last three months
•   Lactation - first three months
•   Work - depends on activity
    – light, moderate, intense
       Levels of Performance/Work

• Light - western and English pleasure, trail
  riding, equitation, hacking

• Moderate - dressage, ranch work, roping,
  cutting, barrel racing, jumping

• Intense - race training, polo, cutting,
            Digestive Tract - 100 feet long

• Stomach - small, frequent, meals; initiates
  digestion, like non-ruminant
• Small Intestine - site of most amino acid from
  dietary protein, most soluble CHO energy on grain
  diet, fat digested
• Cecum - site of bacteria needed to digest
  cellulose to VFA’s in forages like ruminants
• Colon - absorb water, urea, no bacteria
                    Feeding Guidelines

•   Eat 2.5 % of BW as Dry Matter Forage
•   Always more forage than grains
•   Access to water and minerals (salt)
•   Need regular exercise - be athletic
•   Most horse are overweight
            Colic - #2 cause of death

• Most horses die of old age
• Colic - abdominal pain from numerous
  causes
• Medical colics - 95 % respond to mineral
  oil, pain killers, etc...
• Surgical colics - don’t respond to medicine
  – about 50% return to initial use
                Breeding Management
• Seasonally Polyestrus - cycle regularly during
  seasons of increasing days’ length
• Estrous is 21-22 days
• Estrus lasts 5-7 days - ovulation last 24 hrs.
• Gestation is 340 days
• foals weigh 10-12% of the dam’s weight
• commonly use A.I. with cooled semen, embryo
  transfer, now more frozen semen
                Breeding Technologies

•   Day Light - long day breeders (16 hours)
•   Ultrasound - detect pregnancy
•   Embryo transfer
•   Flow cytometry - sex sorting semen
•   Artificial Insemination
•   cooled and shipped semen
                            Genetic Diseases

• CID - Combined            • HyPP - Hyper
    Immuno Deficiency           kalemic Periodic
•   mostly Arabians             Paralysis
•   autosomal _recessive_   •   Quarter Horses of
•   dd diseased                 Impressive breeding
•   Dd carrier (hidden)     •   autosomal _dominant_
•   DD normal               •   hh - normal
                            •   Hh - diseased
                            •   HH diseased
          Careers in the Horse Industry

•   Veterinarian        • Feed Sales / Research
•   Trainer/Exhibitor   • Tack and Equipment
•   Breeder               Manufacturer/Sales
•   Farrier             • Truck & Trailer Sales
•   Instructor          • Fencing & barn
•   Boarding Stable       builders
    Manager             • Health Care Product
                          Sales
             Horse Industry Summary
• Small herd size          • Little long-term
• primarily for fun          knowledge of horse
• dependant on               management
  discretionary income     • careers in education,
• density follows people     services and products
  population               • increasing science &
• high turnover in           technology
  ownership                • It’s the economy!

								
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