Chapter 7 section 2 Indian Religion and Culture

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Chapter 7 section 2 Indian Religion and Culture Powered By Docstoc
					Indian Religion and Culture

      Chapter 7 Section 2
    Main Idea and Key Terms
• Indian religions,       •   Mahayana
  culture, and science    •   Theravada
  evolved and spread to   •   Stupa
  other regions through
  trade                   •   Brahma
                          •   Vishnu
                          •   Shiva
                          •   Kalidasa
                          •   Silk Roads
 Buddhism and Hinduism Change
• By 250 b.c.e., Hinduism and Buddhism
  were India’s two main faiths
• Over the centuries, both had become
  increasingly removed from the people:
  – Hinduism became dominated by priests
  – Buddhist ideal of self-denial proved difficult to
    follow
              Buddhism
• Buddha had stressed reaching Nirvana
• Nirvana was achieved by rejecting the
  sensory world, and embracing spiritual
  discipline
• Some began to teach that Buddha was a
  God
• Others began to believe that many people
  could become Buddhas
• These potential Buddhas, called
  Bodhisattvas, could give up nirvana to
  save humanity
• Changed the nature of the religion from a
  self discipline to a mass religion that
  offered salvation to all
• Those who bought into the new doctrines
  belonged to the Mahayana
• Those who held the original teachers were
  called the Theravada
• These new trends inspired art
  – Huge statues of Buddha were built
  – Merchants paid for the construction of Stupas
    – mounded stone structures over holy relics
              Hinduism
• By the time of the Mauryan Empire,
  Hinduism had developed a complex set of
  sacrifices
• These could only be done by priests
• Everyone else had less and less
  connection
• Hindus began believing, due to influence
  from other cultures, in one divine force in
  the universe
• The various Gods were parts of that force
  – Brahma: creator of the world
  – Vishnu: preserver of the world
  – Shiva: destroyer of the world
     Achievements in Culture
• One of India’s greatest writers was
  Kalidasa
• Kalidasa’s most famous work is the play,
  Shakuntala
  – Tells the story of a woman who marries a
    middle-aged king
  – They are cursed and separated
  – He cannot recognize her when they meet
    again
• Drama also became important
• In southern India, there were traveling
  troupes of actors
• They put on plays in various cities
• Men and women preformed
Astronomy, Mathematics, Medicine
• The expansion of trade spurred the
  advance of science
• Astronomy increased due to sailors using
  stars to navigate
• Indians adapted methods of keeping time
  from the Greeks
  – 7 day week
  – Dividing day into hours
• 1,000 years before Columbus, the Indian
  people figured out the earth was round by
  viewing a solar eclipse
• Modern numerals, the zero, and decimals
  were invented in India
• Aryabhata calculated the value of pi to four
  decimal places and the length of a solar
  year (365.3586805 days)
• Important medical guides were compiled
• Described more than 1,000 diseases and
  over 500 medicinal plants
• Physicians performed surgery, even
  plastic surgery, and possible gave
  injections
               Homework
• Read Chapter 7, Section 2
• Focus on trade in India
• Answer questions 1, 2, 4, 5, 8

				
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