Horse Lay Up Care Contract - PowerPoint

Document Sample
Horse Lay Up Care Contract - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					                       FIGHTING
• Fighting and warfare were the
  raison d’etre for feudal nobility
   – Feudalism was fundamentally a
     military system and the men
     who made it up were
     fundamentally warriors
      • Fighting was their primary
        duty and also their primary
        love
      • All their values and their
        entire concept of honor
        revolved around this central
        fact
      • It is all they really wanted to
        do
           – Everything else bored
             them
             ROVING WARRIORS
• In addition to fighting for their
  lords, many nobles wandered
  around Europe looking for
  battles to fight
   – Caused problems for great
     lords sometimes because
     vassals were not around
     when they needed them
   – Especially prevalent
     among French nobles
      • Helped to reconquer
        Spain from Moslems,
        establish Norman
        kingdom in southern
        Italy, and always made
        up majority of warriors
        in the Crusades
                    PLUNDER
• Nobles also saw fighting as
  money-making opportunity
   – Required bonuses and gifts to
     fight beyond time limit in
     feudal contract
   – Later, as armies became
     larger and vassals did not
     meet manpower needs, lords
     hired extra knights
       • Promised them share of
         plunder
• Common practice was to hold
  prisoners for ransom
• Plunder often degenerated into
  outright robbery
       DEATH AND SUFFERING




• War defined noble’s concept of honor and provided them
  with a livelihood
  – But it also often prevented others from pursuing their
     livelihoods
       • Caused hostility between nobles and non-nobles
          – Nobles were proud of their courage and skill and
            despised those people who did not fight
          – Non-nobles often saw everything they owned and
            held dear jeopardized by constantly fighting
            nobles
                      CASTLES
• Beginning in 12th century,
  castles were built of stone
  and became more
  complicated
   – Elaborate gates, turrets,
     wide battlements,
     numerous towers,
     secret passages, spiral
     staircases, etc.
   – But even though they
     were an improvement
     over wooden forts, they
     were still overcrowded
     dumps
                 INTERIOR
• Small—due to limited
  resources, limited number of
  skilled craftsmen, and
  defensive reasons
• Central tower was center of
  life
   – Top floor occupied by
      lookout
   – Lower floors occupied by
      lord and his family
       • Little privacy
   – Horribly cramped, noisy,
      dirty, and chaotic
MORE CASTLES
                      HUNTING
• Since nobles refused to work
  in agriculture, estate
  management, administration of
  local government, they spent
  their spare time playing
   – At games that reminded him
     of and prepared him for war
      • Such as hunting
          – Actually prohibited
            others from doing so
          – Set aside huge tracts
            of land as hunting
            preserves
             » Kicked peasants
                off their land to
                create these “game
                parks”
               TOURNAMENTS
• Very old practice than became
  more organized and refined as
  time went on
   – Evolved from bloody free-
     for-alls into carefully
     planned mock battles
   – Only kings and great
     barons could afford to put
     them on
   – Would attract nobles from
     hundreds of miles away
      • Both rich and poor
      • Grouped themselves
        into teams from
        particular geographic
        regions
FUN BUT DANGEROUS
      • Combat usually performed by
        teams
         – 5, 10, sometimes 100 nobles
           would fight on each side, using
           wooden swords and lances
      • Winner would get horses and
        equipment of losers
      • Easy to get seriously wounded
        and even killed
         – Great lords began to prohibit
           games as a result
         – Church also frowned on them
           because of their pagan origins
            • Refused Church funerals to
              knights killed in tournaments
      • Tournaments nonetheless
        continued throughout the Middle
        Ages
                   COURTESY
• As Middle Ages
  progressed, nobles
  devised a code of conduct
  that was unique to them
  and served to further
  separate them from the
  rest of society
   – Courtesy (“courtoisie”)
      • Born in France and
        always remained
        French in language
        and manners
          – Exported to the
            rest of Europe
       TREATMENT OF WOMEN
• Treatment of noblewomen
   – In Early Middle Ages
     women were not treated
     well
      • And women themselves
        were crude and brutal
   – With advent of courtesy,
     nobles began to treat their
     women better
      • No longer acceptable to
        abuse them
      • Now treated with
        deference and respect
      • Noblewomen also began
        to act worthy of this new
        treatment
                    DUBBING




• Widespread practice after 1100
  – Ceremonial ritual with several parts
     • Young man presents himself to older knight
     • Older knight gives boy his knightly equipment
        – All blessed by Church officials
     • Older knight then hits boy
        – To make impression
        – Boy then officially becomes a knight
     • Ceremony ends with athletic display by new knight
               OFFICIAL ENTRY
• Dubbing was a formal act which
  separated feudal class from
  common people
   – Marked person’s official entry
     into special class
   – Knight was now considered a
     special person
      • One from a noble family
      • Who behaved according to
        the code of courtesy
      • Who had been educated
        and trained in the values
        and skills of the nobility
      • Dubbing marked official
        entry into this elite world
           CHRISTIAN KNIGHTS




• “Good knight” also expected to be a good Christian
   – Required to attend mass everyday, to fast every Friday,
     to observe Church holidays, and make frequent
     pilgrimages
• Church also tried to modify old noble credo of “war for
  war’s sake” or “war for selfish personal gain” into “war for
  the Church”
   – Nobles now expected to fight for Church and protect
     those the Church classified as special
      • Widows, orphans, and the poor
                  A “NOBILITY”
• Development of code of courtesy
  and the idea of the knight as a
  soldier of God marked critical
  turning point in evolution of
  medieval civilization
   – Established model of the
     “good knight” that all were
     expected to strive for
      • Although few actually made
        it
   – Restrained the bloodthirsty
     and violent tendencies of
     medieval warriors
      • Also gave them special
        distinction
      • Defined nobles as a special
        and elevated group
           – A “nobility” in every
             sense of the term
               PEASANTS
• Medieval society almost entirely rural and
  agricultural
   – Trade and commerce limited, few real
     towns, and little money circulated
   – Men lived mostly from the land
      • And the people who worked that land
        were the peasants
         –Small scale rural cultivators who
          lived from subsistance agriculture
            »Small surplus they produced was
             expropriated to support the ruling
             class and Church
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
                    • Dispersed Settlements
                       – Where peasants lived in
                         tiny hamlets or isolated
                         family farms
                    • Clustered Villages
                       – Relatively small number of
                         peasant families lived
                         close together
                           • Easy to defend
                    • Settlement patterns
                      corresponded to fertility of
                      soil
                       – Fertile lands possessed
Clustered Village
                         clustered villages
                       – Regions with poor soil
                         favored dispersed
                         settlement
    INFIELD/OUTFIELD METHOD
• Prevalent in areas of
  dispersed settlement
• Each household had a small
  plot of land close to the
  house (infield)
   – Fertilized with human and
     animal waste
   – Used to grow vegetables
• Each household also had
  small field away from house
  (outfield)
   – For grain cultivation
   – Not fertilized
      • When it wore out,
        peasant simply cleared
        new field
• Best suited for regions with
  low population density and
  poor soil
     OPEN FIELD/NARROW STRIPS
• In region of clustered villages
• Prevalent in northern France,
  most of England and Germany
• Each village surrounded by
  large, unfenced field divided into
  two equal parts
   – One part left fallow each year
     while the other was planted
       • Would alternate each year
   – Each part also divided into
     long, narrow strips and each
     house held scattered number
     of strips in each part
    OPEN FIELD/SQUARE PLOTS
• Southern France and
  throughout Mediterranean
  Europe
• Each field surrounded by
  large field, divided into two
  equal parts
   – One part left fallow and
     the other planted
      • Rotated each year
   – But instead of being
     divided into strips, land
     was divided into square
     plots
      • Each house held
        several of these
        plots, scatttered
        throughout both
        parts of the field
          FERTIZER SHORTAGE
• Serious shortage of fertilizer
   – Didn’t know about crop
     rotation that would restore
     nitrogen to soil
   – Only fertilizer was animal
     manure
       • And there was not
         enough of it to keep land
         productive
• Only viable method at time
  was to rest land every other
  year
   – Reason was ½ of land lay
     fallow every year in open
     field systems
•
                                VS
                   GRAIN bushelHAY
    Low yields per acre and per
  of seed planted
   – By 1200, best peasant farmers
     only got ten bushels of wheat
     from two bushels of seed
   – Only solution to low yields was to
     plant every available acre of land
     in grain
       • But this caused shortage of
         acreage available for growing
         hay to feed livestock
• Grain and hay competed for the
  same land
   – Grain usually won, resulting in a
     perpetual shortage of hay
       • Which limited amount of
         livestock, thereby limiting
         amount of manure available
           – Which limited productivity
             of soil
                       MANORS
• Medieval peasants were not
  free, independent small
  farmers
   – Most peasant villages were
     subject to a lord
      • They were his tenants
         who supported him in
         return for his protection
• Agricultural estates controlled
  by a lord were called manors
   – Sometimes a manor and
     peasant village
     corresponded
   – Sometimes a manor
     contained two or more
     manors
       MANORIAL SYSTEM
• Arrangement by which a lord exploited his
  peasants was called the manorial or
  seigneurial system
   – Not the feudal system
      • Which described relationship between
        vassals and lords, not lords and
        peasants
• System gradually arose from a variety of
  causes but was firmly implanted throughout
  Western Europe by 1000
                UNEQUAL DEAL
• Peasants supported their lord by
  working for him and paying him
  “rents in kind”
   – Lord reserved 1/3 to ½ of arable
     manor land for himself (in the
     form of scattered strips)
      • Called the demesne
      • Peasants had to work this
        land for him
      • Peasants also had to care for
        lord’s livestock and do
        additional maintenance and
        construction work for him
   – Usually amounted to about
     three days a week of work
   – Also paid rent for their strips
      • Portion of harvest, cheese,
        bacon, fish, and so on
      PERSONAL JURISDICTION
• Lord also gain part of his
  income from the fact that he
  controlled the persons of his
  peasants
   – Peasants were, by year
     1000, serfs (villeins)
      • Lacked all rights we
        associate with free men
      • Subject to the lord’s
        jurisdiction
          – Gave him firm hold
            over them and
            permitted him to
            establish profitable
            monopolies
             » Over grinding grain
               and baking bread
                         LIMITS
• Practical limit to power of lord
  over his serfs
   – He had to leave them enough
     to stay alive and do their work
• “Custom of the manor” also
  tempered lord’s power
   – Loose structure of community
     regulations handed down
     among peasants from
     generation to generation
      • Always included protection
        of peasants’ hereditary right
        to hold his own land as long
        as he rendered his services
        to the lord
   – Protected peasants from the
     more brutal and arbitrary
     actions of their lord
                  LOT OF A SERF
• Lot of serf was still not
  pleasant
   – Barely had enough to eat in
     a good year
   – Only knowledge of the
     world of ideas came from
     local priest
       • Whose learning was
         often little better than his
         own
   – Lord had power to whip or
     hang him virtually at will
• Still better than a slave
   – Held his own land and
     could pass it on to his heirs
   – Daily life was regulated by
     custom of the manor
   – He was a person in the eyes
     of the Church, not a thing
          THREE-FIELD SYSTEM
• In explaining the enormous
  increase in agricultural
  production during the 10th and
  11th centuries, some historians
  have emphasized the gradual
  transition from the two-field to
  three-field system of agriculture
   – In two-field system, one field
     lay fallow each year and the
     other was planted in grain in
     the fall and harvested in the
     summer
   – In three-field system, one
     field lay fallow, on planted in
     grain in the fall, and one
     planted in another crop in
     the spring
       • Only 1/3 of arable land
         was fallow each year
                   THE HORSE
• Methods of using draft animals
  in ancient world had been
  inefficient
   – Did not use horseshoes
   – Harnessing system was
     inept
• Horse collar
   – Rests on animal’s shoulders
     so that entire body weight
     can be used to pull load
   – Either invented in Europe in
     the 9th century or introduced
     by either Magyars or Avars
   – Adopted in Europe from 10th
     century onwards
• Horseshoes and harnessing
  horses in tandem introduced
  around the same time
                 BETTER DIETS
• Before three-field system,
  only major crop had been
  grain
   – Peasant diet was
     therefore mainly
     carbohydrates with a
     little occasional meat or
     cheese
• In 9th and 10th centuries, it
  became general practice to
  plant legumes in one field
   – Added protein to
     peasant diet and made
     them healthier
        POPULATION GROWTH
• Population grew in Europe
  because increased food
  production allowed people
  to live longer and allowed
  more children to survive
  infancy
   – Growth started in 10th
     century and would
     continue for next 300
     years
   – Land under cultivation
     grew along with
     population
   – Mainly due to land
     clearance
ASSARTING
   • Beginning in 10th century,
     peasants began to clear
     forests and open up new land
      – Called “assarting”
      – Most important component
        of agricultural revolution of
        the time
   • Changes in technology played
     big role but the extension of
     arable land at the expense of
     forest, marsh, and wasteland
     was the most important of all
     factors involved in increasing
     agricultural production during
     early Middle Ages

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:8
posted:6/17/2011
language:English
pages:34
Description: Horse Lay Up Care Contract document sample