Globalization and Unemployement

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					    IAUP XIV Triennial Conference
The Challenge of Globalization and the
      Role of Higher Education

           10-15 July 2005, Bangkok




Enhancing Access of Women in Higher
            Education

       Prof. Dr. Gülsün Sağlamer
Content
Introduction

World-Wide Aquisition of Women’s Rights

Women Access to Higher Education

From “Women as a problem” to
“ Academia as problematic” and some Methaphors

Women Access to Science Engineering and Technology

Women Academics in Turkey

A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

Discussion
Gender Equality
Gender equality has always been on the agenda of women in
different forms and at different levels throughout centuries.
Women have always tried to understand

 ” Why ” and “How” these assymetric unfortunate
    circumstances emerged

 “ What ”are the reasons for these inequal rights and
    opportunities between women and men?

 “ Who ” are responsible?

 “ Which “ actions do we need to take towards improving
    conditions for women

 “ From Where” we should start?
Gender Equality
Gender problems that the society have been facing are
complex, multi-faceted problems
 many constraints still exist

 many patterns dominate the environment
 many works have been done
 many legal steps have been realized towards achieving
 better future for women contributing to every segment of life

 but still the assymetry in gender equality in terms of rights
 and opportunities make us to focus on the issue
Gender Equality
 There are differences between human beings depending on :


  gender,
  culture,
  education,
  economy,
  environment,
  ethnicity, etc.
Gender Equality
 Provision of equal rigths and opportunities to all
human beings for education has a vital role on the
development of high quality human resources all over
the world.
 Gender related discrimination is a violation of the
human rights of women.
 The distribution of economic resources, political
power and social privileges and opportunities should
not be tied to gender in a democratic society.
Human Resources
EU
 The efficient development and use of human
resources has been identified by the European
Commission(EC) as crucial to the economic
competitiveness and growth of the European Union
(EU) and to the achievements of a key policy priority,
the creation of jobs to combat high level of
unemployement (CEC,1994).

 In addition to these economic concerns, there is a
commitment at EU level to promoting gender equality
on social justice grounds and mainstreaming gender
equity into all policies (EC,1996).
UNESCO
On the other hand at a larger scale, UNESCO’s “Millennium
Development Goals” are targeting to improve the living
conditions all over the world and it addresses to 7 areas;
 eradicate extreme poverty and hunger,
 achieve universal primary education,
 promote gender equality and empower women,
 reduce child mortality,
 improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
  other diseases
 ensure environmental sustainability
UNESCO


Asymmetry between rights and opportunities of
different gender groups make UNESCO to focus on
women issues, education and health for the next
millennium.
World-Wide Acquisition of Women’s
Rights
The term Women’s Rights encompasses all those rights that
women achieve if they are to have equal opportunities with men in
all segments of society.
This concept also includes those special statutes passed to protect
the woman within the family, as a mother, and in the work place.
Concepts of gender equality and universal human rights have been
defined by such fundamental documents as
 the United Nations Agreement of 1945,
 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948,
 the European Human Rights Agreement of 1950,
 the European Social Rights Agreement of 1961
World-Wide Acquisition of Women’s
Rights

The right of women to vote in general elections was
won by the women of

Australia         1902
Finland           1906
Norway            1913
Soviet Union      1917
Great Britain     1918
United States     1920
Turkey            1934
World-Wide Acquisition of Women’s
Rights

 France joined these countries in 1944, and followed by Italy,
Romania, Yugoslavia and China.

 Women of Switzerland gained the right to vote in federal and
most canton elections in 1971.

 Women of Syria were granted the right to vote in 1973, while
women living in the Gulf States and some Arab nations still have
not been able to win this right.
Women Access to Higher Education

Access to education was one of the most important
issues for the women’s movement during the 19th and
early 20th century.
Women first began to enter colleges and universities
as both students and faculty around one hundred and
fifty years ago. (The Association for Women Faculty,
2005)
Women Access to Higher Education

 The increase in women’s enrolment in higher
education in the 20th century has been characterized
as a “dramatic progress” (Stolte-Heiskanen, 1991).
 On higher levels however, women are still heavily
under represented and many obstacles remain for
female students and researchers pursuing an
academic career (Björklund,K., Olsson, A.C.,2004).
 Women in Higher Education


 Women underrepresentation among academics and
gender inequalities in academia appear to be persistent
and a global phenomena.
 The global nature of women’s under-representation in
academia is increasingly being recognized. Even in
countries that are considered to be at the forefront of
promoting gender equality, such as Finland, women still
encounter subtle forms of discrimination (Husu, 2001).
   Britain
 Universities in Britain have been described as male bastions of
privilege and power, and women’s chances of entry, promotion
and retention are generally lower than men’s (Hansard Society
Commission Report, 1990).

 On the other hand over the last three decades considerable
alarm has been expressed in the UK over relative under-
representation of women in science and engineering courses.

 Such concerns have been manifested in a proliferation of
academic and professional bodies dedicated to encouraging
more students, and particularly women, into such courses
(Siann,G., Callaghan,M.,2001).
USA
 According to the American Association of University Professors
(AAUP), Since 1974 there have been significant demographic and
legal changes affecting the academic profession.

 Notably, the percentage of women faculty has increased: in 1975
women made up 22.5 percent of full-time faculty, while in 2000,
women constituted 36 percent of full-time faculty, according to
the AAUP’s Annual Report on the Economic Status of the
Profession (AAUP Home Page, 2005 ).

  In 1998, among full professors at doctoral institutions, the
proportion of faculty members who are women is only 19 percent.
( AAUP, 2005 ).
Japan
 Masako Amano stated that women in higher education
tend to focus on specific areas that were essentially
extension of the role of mother and wife or are inherently
perceived as women friendly areas, such as Home
Sciences, Humanities, Education etc.

 Although the postwar educational reform opened all
forms of higher education to women in 1949, in Japan it
took more than three decades to attract almost equal
number of women and men to higher education (Amano,M.,
1997).
Australia
 Kate White focused on women and leadership in Higher
Education in Australia. She stated that looking at the female
academic staff participation rates in Australia there is a clear
indicator for vertical segregation.

“ Women academics’ participation rates in higher education
in Australia explain in part why women are less research
active. Given their high participation rates at below lecturer
level, many have greater teaching and administrative loads
and fewer opportunities to conduct research.” (White,K., 2003)

 She also pointed out that “While 16 % of the Australian
professors are female, it has been estimated that only 11% of
full professors are women”.
Women in Higher Education in Turkey

 Approximately 38 % of all professionals, working in the higher
education are women. 27% of full professors are female. This fact
has generated a great deal of research relating to professional
stratification and gender distribution in the educational sphere.

 There has been very long-standing and deeply rooted
participation of women in this area. One of the very definite
characteristics of this field is the hierarchy that extends from
primary school education on one end to university professorship
on the other end.
Women in Higher Education

 Data for academic staff disaggregation by gender show
patterns of both vertical and horizontal segregation.

 The pattern of attrition (the further one goes up the hierarchy,
the fewer the women) persist in all disciplines including
business, social studies and language-based studies.

 There are nevertheless disciplinary differences, with women
best represented in language based studies at almost every
grade and worst represented in engineering and technology.
Following diagrams show the distribution of women academics
in different countries and in different disciplines.
                       (%)




                        0
                        2
                        4
                        6
                        8
                       10
                       12
                       14
                       16
          Australia

          Belgium

           Canada

           Finland
                             Countries (2004)




            France
                             Average Years of




          Germany

               Italy

             Japan
                                      Schooling




           Mexico
                                      in




          Sweden

           Turkey
Male
                                      OECD




                UK

               USA

          Average
Fem ale
                                 (%)




                        0
                            20
                                  40
                                       60
                                            80
                                                 100
             Australia


              Austria


              Finland
                                                       Fields (2002)

              France


             Germany


              Greece


                 Italy


               Japan


              Mexico


              Norway
Undergrad.




               Spain


              Sweden
Graduate




              Turkey
                                                       University Degrees Awarded to Females in all




                  UK


                 USA
Ph. D.




             Average
       Female Students Ratio in Different Fields in Higher
       Education - OECD 2002
      100
                        Health and Welfare                              Math. and Computer Sciences               Humanities, Arts and Educ.
      90                Social Sci., Business, Law                      Engineering and Construction
      80

      70
      60
(%)




      50

      40

      30

      20
      10

       0




                                                                                                                               UK


                                                                                                                                    USA
                                                      Germany




                                                                                                                                           Average
                                   Finland




                                                                Italy
                                             France




                                                                                            Norway
                         Austria
            Australia




                                                                                                     Spain
                                                                           Japan


                                                                                   Mexico




                                                                                                             Sweden


                                                                                                                      Turkey
                          (%)




            0
                5
                    10
                         15
                              20
                                   25
                                        30
                                             35
Australia


 Austria


 Finland


  France


Germany


    Italy


  Japan
                                                  (Engineering) - OECD 2002




 Mexico


 Norway


   Spain


Sweden
                                                  Female Students Ratio in Higher Education




 Turkey


      UK


    USA


Average
                           (%)




                 10
                      20
                           30
                                 40
                                      50
                                           60




             0
Australia


 Austria


 Finland


  France


Germany


     Italy


   Japan


 Mexico
                                                (Life Sci. Phy.Sci.) - OECD 2002




 Norway


   Spain


Sweden
                                                Female Students Ratio in Higher Education




 Turkey


      UK


     USA


Average
                          (%)




                10
                     20
                          30
                                40
                                     50
                                          60




            0
Australia


 Austria


 Finland


  France


Germany


    Italy


  Japan
                                               (Math, Comp Sci) - OECD 2002




 Mexico


 Norway


   Spain


Sweden
                                               Female Students Ratio in Higher Education




 Turkey


      UK


    USA


Average
                                    (%)




                                                              100




            0
                10
                     20
                          30
                               40
                                    50
                                          60
                                               70
                                                    80
                                                         90
Australia


 Austria


 Finland


  France


Germany


    Italy
                                                                    (Health Sci.) - OECD 2002




  Japan


 Mexico


 Norway


   Spain


Sweden
                                                                    Female Students Ratio in Higher Education




 Turkey


      UK


    USA


Average
                                (%)




            0
                10
                     20
                          30
                               40
                                    50
                                         60
                                              70
                                                   80
                                                        90
Australia


 Austria


 Finland


  France


Germany


    Italy


  Japan
                                                             (Hum.Arts.Edu.) - OECD 2002




 Mexico


 Norway


   Spain


Sweden
                                                             Female Students Ratio in Higher Education




 Turkey


      UK


    USA


Average
Women Professors in World, Different Ranks,
All Disciplines - OECD 1998
       50
       45
                                A (Full)                      B (Assoc.)                                 C (Assist.)
       40
       35
       30
       25
 (%)




       20
       15
       10
       5
       0




                                                                                                            Australia

                                                                                                                        USA
            Turkey




                                                                                 Germany
                                                           Italy




                                                                                           Netherlands
                                                                   Greece
                                 France




                                                                            UK




                                                                                                                              Israel




                                                                                                                                                     Ireland
                                          Spain




                                                                                                                                       Switzerland
                                                  Sweden
                     Portugal
Women in Higher Education
While there are some statistics on student population,
there are no coherent, publicly available statistics on the
employement of scientists. Nevertheless, such statistics
as do exist show the following (Rees,T, 2001);
 Women now constitute about 50% of first degree
students in many countries of the world
 The percentage of full professors who are women is
very low worldwide, for the most part, below 15%
 There are considerable variations in the proportion of
women students between disciplines
Women in Higher Education
 There has been a slow increase in the proportion of
professors who are women
 Women tend to dissapear from academic life before
obtaining career posts
 The higher the position in the hierarcy, the lower the
percentage of women
 Men are appointed to academic positions in numbers
disproportionate to those in the recruitment pool at each
grade.
From “Women as a problem” to “ Academia
as problematic” and some Methaphors

 There are male networks in the academy. Men help and support
each other.

 A resistance towards women is seen clearly in research
positions, research resources, power and influence.

 The gendered structure of care work puts men at an advantage
in their career.

 The science culture is not women friendly
(Benchert,S., Staberg,E.M. (2001).
From “Women as a problem” to “ Academia
as problematic” and some Methaphors

 In recent years, researchers in the field of women
studies are using different terminology in their works.
Problems that women have been facing in term of gender
equality are presented as

“women as a problem”.
From “Women as a problem” to “ Academia
as problematic” and some Methaphors

Although, a gradual shift of focus can be observed in
research from

“women as a problem”
 to “academia as problematic”
“women as a problem”

 to   “women having problems” approach.
Methaphors
Some of the metaphors referring to women’s predicament in
academia are discussed by Husu,L (2001). Metaphors linked to
universities such as

 “Ivory Tower” brought the new metaphor of “ Storming the
Tower”
Metaphors related to

 “Glass Ceiling” which reflects limitation on academic promotions
for women or

 “Chilly Climate” which depicts the fuzzy academic processes for
women reflects inconveniences in the academic environment.
Women in Academia
 There is a widely spread picture of the academy where staff
positions and grants for research is distributed on no other
grounds than merits and scholarly achievements.
 From such a point of view, the lack of women on higher levels in
the academic system might appear as the result of poorer
performances or lacking ambitions.
 This is not the only picture of the academic system. It can also
be seen within a context where personal contacts and informal
networks are essential to advance.
 As an American professor put it: “Getting a position on the
faculty of an academic institution is much like getting
membership in a country club – you get in if those that already
are members want you in.”
                                      (Björklund, K, Olsson,A.C, 2004 )
Women in Academia
 These informal networks are in reality often all-boys clubs.
 The down side of the peer-review system becomes visible when
men in influential positions act as gatekeepers, blocking the
career paths of women and promoting the careers of other men.

 This creates barriers between levels of the pyramid, commonly
termed “glass ceilings”, that works as obstacles for female
students to progress to and beyond postgraduate studies and into
academic careers, eventually leading to positions as professors
and academic leaders.
Women Access to Science Engineering
and Technology
 Horizontal segregation is another important problem for
women in higher education. There is a widely shared image by
the society that women are expected to study and work as
professionals in certain areas which match with their roles in
their families as mothers. This traditional pattern has a great
impact on women contribution to science, engineering and
technology.

 Bebbington carried out a study on women in science,
engineering and technology and draw the attention to different
patterns of gender segregation in different disciplines.
  Women Access to Science Engineering
  and Technology
She stated that “In considering disciplinary variations across
European member states, a report by ETAN on women and science
shows a trend replicated across Europe of a generally

 Higher representation of women in the social and
biological sciences
 A low presence in the natural sciences and engineering,
even though the percentages may vary somewhat between
countries.”
Women Access to Science Engineering
and Technology

She also stated that
 The pattern of steep attrition is replicated in the USA;
evidences show that high level of “getting in” (quantitative
feminisation) may not lead to women scientists “ getting on”
(vertical feminisation). She also pointed out that “The question of
how and why different patterns of gender segragation exist among
the sciences and how these link epistomologically to scientific
endeavour        requires     deeper,     more       thoroughgoing
exploration”(Bebbington,D., 2002).
 ETAN Report

European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN) has
formed a group named “The ETAN Group on Women and
Science”. The ETAN report focused on three areas
(Rees,T. 2001);
 The underrepresentation     of   women   in   science,
engineering and technology
 The lack of attention paid to the gender dimension in
science
 The lack of gender balance in decision-making about
scientific policy
ETAN Report

For gender equality report proposed three models:



 Equal Treatment; The 1957 Treaty of Rome that set up
the forerunner to the EU included an Article committing
signatory countries to equal treatment for women
and men in pay. Equal treatment as an approach to
gender equality is clearly rooted in the liberal feminist
tradition. However, equal treatment does not lead to
equal outcome.
ETAN Report

Positive Action; The shortcomings of the law on equal
treatment in combating sex discrimination and ensuring
equal pay were recognised in the EC in the 1980s.
Hence, a series of positive action measures were co-
funded to address the disadvantages experienced by
women.

These, measures principally training projects
designed to improve women’s skills and
enhance their employibility (Brine, 1999).
ETAN Report

Mainstreaming; is a process of conducting a gender-impact
assessment of all proposed legislation and policies.

It means a wholesale redesign of systems and
structures.
It means analysing the ways in which current systems in
effect advantage men, and recasting them to open them up
to men and women.
Gender mainstreaming can be regarded as a systematic
integration of equal opportunities for women and men into
the organization and its culture, into policies, programmes
and projects, into ways of seeing and doing (Rees,1998)
Women in Science Engineering and
Technology (SET) in EU
  At European level the starting point was a common
 preoccupation about the fact that the number of women involved
 in Engineering in Europe is increasing very slow-too slow!

  In general, context where there are less and less students-men
 and women-attracted by Engineering. From the point of view of
 social justice and efficiency such a situation appears
 unacceptable.

  The intention was to understand why it is so, and to try to
 identify and analyse efficient solutions (Beraud, A.,2003).
Women in SET in EU
Some of most interesting theories argue that:

 Interdisciplinary degrees appear to be more attractive to female
students than single/traditional/classical engineering degrees

 Mono-educational training instead of co-educational is central
point for women to be more successful and attracted to the
engineering studies

 Project based learning, small teaching groups, teaching of non-
traditional topics by specialist, have been recommended, among
others, as factors creating more effective learning environment for
female students.
 Women in SET
This project was initialised in 2001. Since interdisciplinary
degrees appear to be more attractive to female students than
single and or traditional and or classical degrees, some
recommendations have been made (Beraud, A.,2003):

 Set up interdisciplinary degrees to increase the proportion of
  women taking up engineering

 Include at least 25% of socio-economic contents
 Interdisciplinary subjects should be introduced in the
  curriculum as early as possible.

 Ensure that information of interdisciplinary degrees and career
  opportunities reached school pupils at key stages
Women Academics in Turkey
 Although, Women in Higher Education has no more than 100 years
history in Turkey, at the moment 41% of students in higher education
are female and 38% of all academic personnel in the universities are
women.
 This is an impressive figure with respect to developed countries
but it is even more impressive if we go into the details of the figures.
 27% of Full Professors, 32% of Associate          Professors, 31%of
Assistant Professors are female in Turkey.
 Turkey is setting a unique example with a patriarchal Islamic
cultural heritage and conspicuously high differences in literacy rates
between men and women.
Women Academics in Turkey

 Since 1990’s, there has been significant increase in the number
of female students in higher education and in academia in Turkey.

 The number of women academics vary in different disciplines
such as in medical sciences and literature women have a share
over 40% while it is 30% in engineering and architecture.

 We may talk about vertical or horizontal segregation in Turkey.
On the hand when we compare the ratio of the female students in
science, engineering and technology we observe that Turkish
universities have higher ratios of female students in SET
programs compared to many developed countries.
Women Academics in Turkey
 The most important finding of this pilot study is that the
proportion of women academics at upper levels are very close.
 Women doing Master or Ph.D as research assistant in the
universities have 44% of the total research staff. Not all of them
stay in universities for further positions but still 31% of assistant
professors and 32% associate professors, 27% full professors are
female.
 It is clear that vertical segregation does not exist in Turkish
universities when women with Ph.D decide to continue their
research work in universities. This is an interesting fact that
needs further research to find out the factors and mechanisms
which creates these results in Turkish Academia.
Women Academics in Turkey
 The conventional interpretation of the rise in women's education
and professionalisation in Turkey often attributes it to secular
ideology and Westernizing reforms of Kemal Atatürk.
 A series of reforms enacted by the state of the Turkish Republic
following its founding by Atatürk in 1923, were aimed at giving
women equal status with men.
 As a consequence of this policy, the state ideology and the elite
subculture, strongly encouraged women's higher education and
career-orientedness as part of their modernization mission
(Kağıtcıbaşı, 1989).
Women Academics in Turkey
 Raising and having a daughter or marrying a woman with a
professional career has been a valuable asset in the
subculture. However, once the demands of the professional
career became disruptive, many of these professional women
found their families support ending.
 The Turkish women viewed their education as investments
and thought they would feel guilty were they to waste those
investments by withdrawing from the academic world, even to
pursue an alternate career.
                      Women %




        28,0
               30,0
                      32,0
                             34,0
                                    36,0
                                           38,0
                                                  40,0
1993-
1994

1994-
1995

1995-
1996
                                                         Years in Turkey




1996-
1997

1997-
1998

1999-
2000

2000-
2001

2001-
2002

2004-
2005
                                                         Variation of Women Teaching Staff by
        Numbers of Teaching Staff in Turkey
                    2004-2005
Title                 Female    Male           Total      Female %
Professor                3020           8361      11381         27
Assoc. Professor         1728           3728       5456         32
Asst. Professor          4504           9957      14461         31
Instructor               5262           8802      14064         37
Language Instructor      3382           2582       5964         57
Specialist               1013           1431       2444         41
Research Assistant      12512          15759      28271         44
Total                   31434          50662      82096         38
           Distribution of Teaching Staff According to
                 Professions in Turkey 2004-2005
      80
      70
                                                                                    Women %   Men %
      60
      50
(%)




      40
      30
      20
      10
       0




                                                                                      Arts
                                                                      Agriculture
                     Sciences




                                                        Engineering




                                                                                              Total
                                Math and
           Medical




                                           Literature
                                Science




                                                                       Forestry
                                                         and Arch.
                      Social




                                                                         and
Total Number of HE Students in Turkey 2004-
                   2005

  Male 59 %           Female 41 %



                                       1
                                       2




                          887 000
       1 252 000
Undergraduate Students in Turkey
          2004-2005

Male 56 %         Female 44 %




  770 000            600 000
     Graduate and Doctorate Students in Turkey
                    2004-2005

               Female 43 %   Male 59 %
Male 57 %                                 Female 41 %




      Graduate 92 800           Doctorate 38 000
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

  Istanbul Technical University (ITU) is a well-respected state
 university having a long history and sound reputation in
 engineering and architecture education in Turkey.

  ITU has been experiencing continuous change ever since its
 foundation in 1773 during the Ottoman era. This change has been
 multifaceted: from an imperial to a republican institution at the
 start of the 20th century; from an international to a global outlook;
 and from a deterministic to a quality-based system after 1996.
 A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

 Even in periods when ITU enjoyed unequivocal successes
among its peers, it has always maintained a culture of change,
and that is why the university motto is phrased as
“Pioneer through the Ages”.

 The winds of change brought one of the major revisions in the
history of ITU in the 1960’s. Previously, ITU conferred a
prestigious title of a “Diplomingeniuer” (translated to our system
as “High Engineer”) degree upon its graduates, which was
accepted as the equivalent of a Master’s degree.

 The administrators of the University understood future trends
and thus they moved to a B.Sc. and M.Sc. System in 1969
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University


The internationalization project was triggered by restating the
mission statement, followed by the determination of strategic
goals and the performance criteria.
The starting point of the development plan is best summarized in
the revised mission statement of the University in 1996:


“to graduate engineers, scientists, architects, and artists who can
compete worl-wide”
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

 The university has been then completely restructured to meet
the needs of global graduates.

 Structural and functional reforms together with assessment
methods have been designed and implemented.

 These reforms have created flexible, adaptable educational and
research environment in which the implementation of new
approaches have become more efficient and effective in terms of
administrative and fiscal constraints.
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

 University senate decided to restructure the curriculum for all
the programs and included 20% of social science courses into the
engineering curriculum in order to open up new horizons for
future engineers.

 Project based learning has become an important component in
the education. Continuous improvement has been achieved by
international accreditation.
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University
 One of the most important development has been the
establishment of new multi-discipliner under graduate and
graduate programs outside the classical engineering fields.

 Flexibility offer students for double major and minor degrees
and professional Master Degree programs offer in multi-
discipliner fashion to increase the chances of graduates in the
job market.

 Bilingual teaching and research environment increases the
mobility in and out at horizontal level.

 Another important opportunity created for the future
graduates is the vertical mobility.
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University
For Academic staff, same type of conceptual framework has been
developed.
 Multi-disciplinarity has been supported in research and teaching.
 Research budget has been increased enormously and mobility
encouraged by providing fund outside the state budget.
 Awards have been used to motivate research staff.
 Nursery, primary school and high school were established for
staff’s children and these schools later have attracted many
students from outside of the university.
 Dormitories have been constructed and housing developments
realized in the campus for staff.
A Case Study: Istanbul Technical University

 Reforms in education and research and facilities developed in
campuses attracted more female student and staff in Istanbul
Technical University after the year 2000.

 Following Tables show the women academics and students
according to their subject areas. We observe the similar
tendencies in our country and our university, but definitely
Turkey and ITU offer better opportunities for women in higher
education.
ITU Students 2004
FACULTY               Women/Men Ratio
Maritime                   10,8
Electrical Eng.            12,9
Science and Letters        48,5
Naval Architecture          9,9
Civil Eng.                 16,4
Management                 29,0
Chemical Eng.              41,5
Mining Eng.                15,2
Mechanical Eng.            17,5
Architecture               57,2
Aerospace Eng.             17,8
Music Conservatory         42,6
Average                    29,0
ITU Staff 2004
Department             Women/Men Ratio
Electrical Eng.             29,8
Science and Letters         49,8
Naval Architecture          21,4
Civil Eng.                  28,5
Management                  39,2
Chemical Eng.               46,5
Mining Eng.                 21,5
Mechanical Eng.             15,4
Architecture                59,0
Aerospace Eng.              25,8
Maritime                    25,5
Music Conservatory          36,1
English Prep. School        82,1
Average                     39,8
ITU Staff 2004
  Departments          FEMALE MALE     TOTAL    %Female
  Science                  123     124     247        50
  Civil Eng.                74     186     260      28,0
  Architecture             124      86     210        59
  Mechanical Eng.           27     148     175        15
  Electronics Eng.          51     120     171        30
  Business Add.             40      62     102        39
  Chemistry                 60      69     129        46
  Mining                    26      95     121        21
  Naval Arch.               12      44       56       21
  Maritime                  12      35       47       25
  Aeronautics               17      49       66       26
  Nuclear En.               10      16       26       38
  Fine Arts                  7       7       14       50
  Language                 128      28     156        82
  Music Conservatory        13      23       36       36
  Average                                           39,8
                               Female (%)




                    10
                         20
                              30
                                   40
                                        50
                                             60
                                                  70
                                                       80
                                                            90




                0
       Science


       Civil Eng.


   Architecture


Mechanical Eng.


Electronics Eng.


 Business Add.
                                                                 ITU Staff 1999 - 2004




     Chemistry


         Mining


    Naval Arch.


       Maritime


   Aeronautics


      Language

     Music
  Conservatory
                                   2004
                                   1999
Radikal Newspaper July
2005




                         ITU Girls Beat the Boys

                         This year girls get the first
                         three graduation ranks in all
                         departments of Chemistry
                         and Metalurgy Faculty in ITU.
Conclusions
 Formal obstacles and legislation excluding women
from higher education have now been removed for
many decades and women are well represented on
undergraduate and graduate levels in HE (Higher
Education) system in developed and some developing
countries.
 Researchers or research teams who focus on EO in
HE point out different types of segregation in Higher
Education and Research.
Conclusions

Gender based segragation in higher education
works in three different ways.


   vertical segregation,
   horizontal segregation
Conclusions

 One of the reasons that many researchers pointed
out is the family responsibilities of women. The
demands of motherhood and family are defining
environment and an image for women graduates
especially in science, engineering and technology
which limit their opportunities to find permanent,
full time jobs.
Conclusions
 On the paper, on surface everthing seems OK in
developed and some developing countries as well,
but this is not the case in real life.

 Hidden obstacles are usually emerging whenever a
female person is approaching a new achievement. If
there is no move forward no obstacles observed.

   These     obstacles   excluding  women    from
participating in higher education as academics and
students cause serious problems to develop human
resources in holistic approaches.
 Conclusions
 Providing equal rights on the paper do not mean
providing equal opportunities and social priviliges
to women to access higher education.

 Value system of the society and variety of cultural
patterns which have been shaped throughout
centuries create rigid environment for changes and
new developments.

 The difficulty with dealing these problems lies
behind the surface of the opaque wall which hides
many irrational and traditional patterns.

				
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Description: Globalization and Unemployement document sample