Participatory Research Learning Outcomes 1. Analyze the philosophical traditions that support Participatory Research. 2. Analyze general purpose, assumptions and methods for Participatory Research. 3. Formulate a research strategy for Participatory Research 4. Reflect on benefits and limitations of Participatory Research. 5. Assess potential value of using this methodology in dissertation research. Research Traditions Orientations to Ontology (nature of Epistemology Research reality) (knowledge) Postpositivist Research Fixed, stable, observable, Gained through scientific and (Quantitative) measurable experimental research. Knowledge is objective and quantifiable. Interpretive Research Multiple realities that are socially Gained through understanding (Qualitative, phenomenology, constructed by individuals. the meaning of the ethnography, case study, process/experience. grounded theory) Critical Research Multiple realities that are based on Knowledge is generated through (Critical theory, feminist socioeconomic, political, and ideological critiques of power, theory) cultural basis. privilege, and oppression. Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education , knowledge and action research. London: Falmer Press Research Traditions Orientations to Research Axiological Methodological (Continues (Role of values) (Research strategies) Post-Positivist Research Emphasis is on the objective researcher, Descriptive (correlational) and (Quantitative) value free experimental research Interpretive Research Researcher’s subjective values, intuition, Qualitative, phenomenology, ethnography, (Qualitative, phenomenology, and biases are important case study, grounded theory ethnography, case study, grounded theory) Critical Research Researchers need to acknowledge their Both quantitative and qualitative methods (Critical theory, feminist theory) values and biases Session Objectives Understand the nature of participatory research and how it differs from action research, participatory inquiry, and appreciative inquiry Understand the goals and outcomes of participatory research Understand the use of participatory research as a dissertation method Be able to formulate a research question that is appropriate for study using participatory research The Action Culture of Inquiry The types of research within the action culture can be viewed as “in some sense as cousins in a family of participatory research” (Reason, 1994, p. 335). The Action Culture of Inquiry includes: Action Research Participatory Action Research Participatory Research Appreciative Inquiry The Action Research Culture of Inquiry Comparison Appreciative Action Participatory Participatory Inquiry Research Action Research Research Research Mutually generated Question generated by Question generated by Community generates Process question the organization. the community. and is in control of the Research controlled Research process process and conducted by controlled by researcher researcher Degree of Group process. Researcher asks f or High High Participation Authentic dialogue participation as needed Knowledge For practice Problem-solving Transf orm and Transf ormational Generation improvement advance scientif ic knowledge Knowledge Advance practice. Self - Improve system. Community action. Social action. Utilization determination Advance knowledge Advance knowledge. Development of critical consciousness. Power Shared Held by researcher Shared Egalitarian Outcomes Improvement of Solution to Empowerment. Empowerment of shared practice organizational Generation of scientif ic community problem. Scientif ic knowledge knowledge Association with Slight or none Possible Strong Strong Social Change Appreciative Inquiry Research Process Mutually generated question Group process. Authentic Degree of Participation Dialogue Knowledge Generation For practice improvement Knowledge Utilization Advance practice. Self-determination Power Shared Outcomes Improvement of shared practice Association with Social Slight or none Change Action Research Question generated by the organization. Research Process Research controlled and conducted by Researcher. Researcher asks for participation as Degree of Participation needed. Knowledge Generation Problem-solving Knowledge Utilization Improve system. Advance knowledge. Power Held by researcher Solution to organizational problem. Outcomes Scientific knowledge. Association with Social Possible Change Participatory Action Research Question generated by community. Research Research Process Process controlled by researcher. Degree of Participation High Knowledge Generation Transform and advance scientific knowledge Knowledge Utilization Community action. Advance knowledge. Power Shared Outcomes Empowerment. Generation of scientific knowledge. Association with Social Strong Change Participatory Research Research Process Community generates and is in control of the process. Degree of Participation High Knowledge Generation Transformational Social action. Development of critical Knowledge Utilization consciousness. Power Egalitarian Outcomes Empowerment of Community Association with Social Strong Change Appropriate Uses of the Forms of Action Inquiry Include Appreciative inquiry: Exploration of collective practice Action research: Resolve organizational problems in a participative way. Participatory action research: Serve both the community and the researcher. Participatory research: Serves the community with benefit to the researcher only by happenstance. Definitions of Participatory Research “A method of social investigation of problems, an educational process, and a means by which researchers and oppressed people can join together to take collective action for social change.” (Maguire, 1987) Definitions of Participatory Research “Participatory research provides a framework in which people seeking to overcome oppressed situations can come to understand the social forces in operation and gain strength in collective action…it produces knowledge that is linked simultaneously with and intimately to social action” (Park, 1993, p. 3). Definitions of Participatory Research “Participatory research seeks to generate knowledge and then to use that knowledge to empower the participants as they create solutions to the problems they face. Outcomes are focused not only on the creation of that change, but also on individual and group empowerment, and the creation of a heightened sense of self-esteem through ownership of the process and the solution” (Palloff, 1996, p. 47). Definitions of Participatory Research The knowledge generated by participants through participatory inquiry is “experiential knowing.” The result “is as much a process of recovery as of discovery” (Park, 1993, p. 18). Three Domains of Knowledge (Mezirow, 1990): Instrumental – Technical Knowledge Communicative – Practical Knowledge Emancipatory – Self-knowledge The Relationship of Knowledge and Power (Park, 1993; Palloff, 1996): Representational Knowledge = Power Over Relational/Community Knowledge = Power With Reflective Knowledge = Power Within Doing Participatory Research: A problem is identified by a researcher or the people experiencing the problem The problem is social in nature and calls for collective action to reach a solution The researcher may initiate a collective approach to problem OR The group experiencing the problem seeks out a researcher to assist them Phases of Participatory Research: Emergence Mobilization Development of a research design Action Two examples of participatory research: The Marin Cancer Project The Regional Coalition for Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Treatment The Role of the Researcher: Facilitator Educator Activist Advocate The Role of the Researcher: “The researcher participates in the struggle of the people…The researcher works with the community to help turn its felt but unarticulated problem into an identifiable topic of collective investigation” (Park, 1993, p. 9). Doing a Participatory Research Dissertation Problem selection – goals of empowerment and social action Researcher must organize/mobilize participants Researcher must act as an educator Phases of Dissertation Study: Phase I: Dialogue, Initial Organizing, and Problem Formulation Phase II: Formation of the Group and the Research Process Phase III: Assessment Dissertation Dilemmas: Be careful about committee formation Will I ever finish? Being both inside and outside of the process Resources Maguire, P. (1993). “Challenges, contradictions, celebrations:Attempting participatory research as a doctoral student,” in Park, Brydon-Miller, P., Hall, M. B. & Jackson, T. (Eds), Voices of Change (pp.157-176). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Mezirow, J. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Palloff, R. (1996), Confronting ghosts: Lessons in empowerment and action, Unpublished dissertation. Santa Barbara, CA: Fielding Graduate Institute. Resources Park, P. (1993). “What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective,” in Park, P., Brydon-Miller, M., Hall, B., & Jackson, T. (Eds), Voices of change (pp. 1-20). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Reason, P. (1994). “Three approaches to participatory inquiry,” in Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.) (1994), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 324-339) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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