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									Participatory Research
Learning Outcomes

 1. Analyze the philosophical traditions that support
    Participatory Research.
 2. Analyze general purpose, assumptions and
    methods for Participatory Research.
 3. Formulate a research strategy for Participatory
    Research
 4. Reflect on benefits and limitations of
    Participatory Research.
 5. Assess potential value of using this methodology
    in dissertation research.
Research Traditions
 Orientations to                    Ontology (nature of                    Epistemology
 Research                           reality)                               (knowledge)

 Postpositivist Research            Fixed, stable, observable,             Gained through scientific and
 (Quantitative)                     measurable                             experimental research.
                                                                           Knowledge is objective and
                                                                           quantifiable.



 Interpretive Research              Multiple realities that are socially   Gained through understanding
 (Qualitative, phenomenology,       constructed by individuals.            the meaning of the
 ethnography, case study,                                                  process/experience.
 grounded theory)


 Critical Research                  Multiple realities that are based on   Knowledge is generated through
 (Critical theory, feminist         socioeconomic, political, and          ideological critiques of power,
 theory)                            cultural basis.                        privilege, and oppression.




    Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education , knowledge and action research. London: Falmer Press
Research Traditions
Orientations to Research             Axiological                                  Methodological
(Continues                           (Role of values)                             (Research strategies)

Post-Positivist Research             Emphasis is on the objective researcher,     Descriptive (correlational) and
(Quantitative)                       value free                                   experimental research



Interpretive Research                Researcher’s subjective values, intuition,   Qualitative, phenomenology, ethnography,
(Qualitative, phenomenology,         and biases are important                     case study, grounded theory
ethnography, case study, grounded
theory)


Critical Research                    Researchers need to acknowledge their        Both quantitative and qualitative methods
(Critical theory, feminist theory)   values and biases
Session Objectives
 Understand the nature of participatory research and
  how it differs from action research, participatory
  inquiry, and appreciative inquiry
 Understand the goals and outcomes of participatory
  research
 Understand the use of participatory research as a
  dissertation method
 Be able to formulate a research question that is
  appropriate for study using participatory research
      The Action Culture of Inquiry



The types of research within the
action culture can be viewed as “in
some sense as cousins in a family of
participatory research”

(Reason, 1994, p. 335).
The Action Culture of Inquiry
          includes:



Action Research

Participatory Action Research

Participatory Research

Appreciative Inquiry
                   The Action Research Culture of Inquiry
                                Comparison
                         Appreciative                  Action                Participatory                Participatory
                           Inquiry                    Research              Action Research                Research

Research               Mutually generated       Question generated by     Question generated by       Community generates
Process                     question               the organization.         the community.           and is in control of the
                                                 Research controlled        Research process                  process
                                                  and conducted by             controlled by
                                                      researcher                researcher
Degree of               Group process.           Researcher asks f or               High                       High
Participation          Authentic dialogue       participation as needed

Knowledge                  For practice            Problem-solving           Transf orm and             Transf ormational
Generation                improvement                                       advance scientif ic
                                                                               knowledge
Knowledge            Advance practice. Self -     Improve system.           Community action.             Social action.
Utilization              determination           Advance knowledge         Advance knowledge.         Development of critical
                                                                                                         consciousness.
Power                        Shared               Held by researcher              Shared                    Egalitarian



Outcomes                Improvement of                Solution to            Empowerment.               Empowerment of
                         shared practice             organizational       Generation of scientif ic       community
                                                  problem. Scientif ic         knowledge
                                                       knowledge
Association with         Slight or none                 Possible                  Strong                      Strong
Social Change
                Appreciative Inquiry

     Research Process        Mutually generated question

                             Group process. Authentic
Degree of Participation      Dialogue

Knowledge Generation         For practice improvement

Knowledge Utilization        Advance practice. Self-determination

                Power        Shared

             Outcomes        Improvement of shared practice

Association with Social      Slight or none
               Change
                   Action Research
                             Question generated by the organization.
     Research Process        Research controlled and conducted by
                             Researcher.

                             Researcher asks for participation as
Degree of Participation      needed.

Knowledge Generation         Problem-solving


Knowledge Utilization        Improve system. Advance knowledge.

                Power        Held by researcher

                             Solution to organizational problem.
             Outcomes        Scientific knowledge.

Association with Social      Possible
               Change
          Participatory Action Research

                          Question generated by community. Research
     Research Process     Process controlled by researcher.


Degree of Participation   High


Knowledge Generation      Transform and advance scientific
                          knowledge

Knowledge Utilization     Community action. Advance knowledge.

                Power     Shared

             Outcomes     Empowerment. Generation of scientific
                          knowledge.

Association with Social   Strong
               Change
                Participatory Research

     Research Process        Community generates and is in control
                             of the process.

Degree of Participation      High

Knowledge Generation         Transformational


                             Social action. Development of critical
Knowledge Utilization        consciousness.
                Power        Egalitarian

             Outcomes        Empowerment of Community

Association with Social      Strong
               Change
       Appropriate Uses of the Forms of Action
                  Inquiry Include


Appreciative inquiry: Exploration of collective practice

Action research: Resolve organizational problems in a
participative way.

Participatory action research: Serve both the community
and the researcher.

Participatory research: Serves the community with benefit
to the researcher only by happenstance.
       Definitions of Participatory Research


   “A method of social investigation of problems, an

educational process, and a means by which researchers

and oppressed people can join together to take collective

               action for social change.”

                    (Maguire, 1987)
  Definitions of Participatory Research

“Participatory research provides a framework

in which people seeking to overcome oppressed

situations can come to understand the social

forces in operation and gain strength in collective

action…it produces knowledge that is linked

simultaneously with and intimately to social action”

(Park, 1993, p. 3).
   Definitions of Participatory Research

“Participatory research seeks to generate knowledge
and then to use that knowledge to empower the
participants as they create solutions to the problems
they face. Outcomes are focused not only on the creation
of that change, but also on individual and group
empowerment, and the creation of a heightened sense
of self-esteem through ownership of the process and
the solution”

(Palloff, 1996, p. 47).
    Definitions of Participatory Research


The knowledge generated by participants through

participatory inquiry is “experiential knowing.” The

result “is as much a process of recovery as of discovery”

(Park, 1993, p. 18).
Three Domains of Knowledge
       (Mezirow, 1990):



Instrumental – Technical Knowledge


Communicative – Practical Knowledge


Emancipatory – Self-knowledge
The Relationship of Knowledge and Power
            (Park, 1993; Palloff, 1996):




 Representational Knowledge = Power Over


 Relational/Community Knowledge = Power With


 Reflective Knowledge = Power Within
       Doing Participatory Research:

A problem is identified by a researcher or the people
experiencing the problem

The problem is social in nature and calls for collective
action to reach a solution

The researcher may initiate a collective approach to
problem OR

The group experiencing the problem seeks out a
 researcher to assist them
Phases of Participatory Research:


    Emergence

    Mobilization

    Development of a research design

    Action
Two examples of participatory research:



    The Marin Cancer Project



   The Regional Coalition for Adolescent Alcohol
   and Drug Treatment
The Role of the Researcher:



         Facilitator

         Educator

         Activist

         Advocate
        The Role of the Researcher:


“The researcher participates in the struggle of
the people…The researcher works with the
community to help turn its felt but unarticulated
problem into an identifiable topic of collective
investigation”

(Park, 1993, p. 9).
Doing a Participatory Research Dissertation




 Problem selection – goals of empowerment and
 social action


  Researcher must organize/mobilize participants


  Researcher must act as an educator
Phases of Dissertation Study:


 Phase I: Dialogue, Initial Organizing, and
 Problem Formulation


 Phase II: Formation of the Group and the
 Research Process


 Phase III: Assessment
      Dissertation Dilemmas:


Be careful about committee formation


Will I ever finish?


Being both inside and outside of the process
                    Resources
Maguire, P. (1993). “Challenges, contradictions,
celebrations:Attempting participatory research as a
doctoral student,” in Park, Brydon-Miller, P., Hall, M. B.
& Jackson, T. (Eds), Voices of Change (pp.157-176).
Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Mezirow, J. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in
adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Palloff, R. (1996), Confronting ghosts: Lessons in
empowerment and action, Unpublished dissertation.
Santa Barbara, CA: Fielding Graduate Institute.
Resources
Park, P. (1993). “What is participatory research? A theoretical and
    methodological perspective,” in Park, P., Brydon-Miller, M., Hall,
    B., & Jackson, T. (Eds), Voices of change (pp. 1-20). Westport, CT:
    Bergin & Garvey.

Reason, P. (1994). “Three approaches to participatory inquiry,” in
    Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.) (1994), Handbook of
    qualitative research (pp. 324-339) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
    Publications.

								
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