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					Presidency
    POSC 121
   Braunwarth
Traditional Presidency
l   Founders’ vision:
    l Limited and insulated
      Presidency
    l A relatively powerful
      Congress
    l Small National
      Government
l   Why?
l   Feared Dictatorial Rule
       Post-Modern Presidency?
l   The role of the presidency has grown
    dramatically in the 20th century.
l   But the president faces a lot of limitations
l   For instance, in order to be successful
    must work with Congress and others
    (Neustadt’s Power to Persuade)
    l Pursue a simple, limited agenda
    l Schmooze your own party and make
      deals with the other
    l If necessary, “go public” and appeal
      directly to the people
Modern Presidency =
High Expectations
l   What are the
    expectations we have
    of the president?
l   Focal point of Media
l   Manager of Economy
l   Chief Legislator
l   Global Leader
l   Commander-in-Chief
Dangers of the “Expectations”
Game
  l   Can any human being meet these expectations?
  l   NO, inevitably will fail in some way
  l   Hard just to stay informed
  l   Can try to limit exposure of embarrassing
      information through the use of Executive
      Privilege but one can’t control everything
  l   What can a president do to increase his approval
      rating when he inevitably fails in some way?
  l   Danger is that he could use military action to
      promote a “rally around the flag” effect
  l   Presidents often commit troops without
      Congressional approval.
“Expectation” Dangers
          l   Facts indicate that Reagan
              bombed Grenada in order to
              overcome bad press following
              death of U.S. Marines in Beirut
          l   Clinton bombed Iraq,
              Afghanistan, and the Sudan
              “coincidentally” at sensitive
              moments of the Lewinsky
              scandal
          l   Would GW Bush have invaded
              Iraq if Bin Laden was in jail and
              the economy was doing
              better?
    Pres v. Congress: The War
    Powers Act
l    President is the Commander in Chief
l    Congress has the power to Declare War
l    Troops are often committed without a formal
     declaration of war
l    President is supposed to consult with Congress if
     possible and is only supposed to send in troops if 1)
     war is declared, 2) statutory authorization 3) national
     emergency and then he must report to Congress
     within 48 hours
l    Within 60 days, troops must be removed unless
     Congress 1) declares war, 2) extends 60 day period,
     3) can’t meet because of attack
l    In theory, Congress decides on war and President
     wages it
l    In Reality, Congress does not enforce their powers
CA Leadership
         l   California is a diverse state
         l   Individual Legislators
             l   represent a small constituency
         l   Interest Groups
             l   represent a narrow agenda
         l   Parties
             l   represent an ideology
Gubernatorial Leadership
                l   Governor is elected by
                    the entire state
                l   Can articulate an
                    agenda or priorities
                    from which everyone
                    can work
Limited Leadership
                l   Governor’s abilities are
                    far more limited than
                    most people would
                    expect
Limited Power by Design
l   Power divided into three branches
    l   Other two limit what Governor can do
l   Unlike the President, he doesn’t even Control the
    Executive Branch
    l   most employees are permanent and professional
l   Eclipsed by other smaller governments
    l   County, Municipal, and Special Districts
l   Governor is restricted by National Gov’t
    l   Recession, Tax Policy, Mandates, etc.
l   Governor gets less limelight than Pres.
    l   Difficult to rally public opinion
    l   But, advantages to less public scrutiny
Limited Power by Design
l   Governor shares power with an elected Plural Executive
l   Lieutenant Governor, State Controller, Secretary of
    State, Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent of
    Public Instruction, Insurance Commissioner all elected
    separately
l   Can lead to different executives working at cross
    purposes
l   For instance, the Lieutenant Governor is elected
    separately and acts as Governor when the Gov. is out of
    state
l   Why would we elect rather than have the governor
    appoint these positions?
Gubernatorial Powers
l   Makes a number of appointments
    l   including UC regents and Board of Governors of
        CA Community Colleges
l   Job is Sought after
    l   Usually the most expensive Gubernatorial race
l   Has been a stepping stone for presidential
    hopefuls
Legislative Leader
l   Has veto power and line-item veto
l   Plays key role with redistricting
l   Key “Deal-Maker”
    l   Especially with legislature weakened by term-
        limits
    l   “In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is
        King”
California Budget
l   Budget requires a 2/3 vote and must be
    balanced.
l   The 2/3 vote requirement really gives power
    to the minority party; they essentially have
    veto power
l   Gov. submits the budget and plays key role

				
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