Globalization 1. Definition Economically, globalization is the name for the process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world's markets and businesses (OECD-Definition). Globalization of the economy depends on the role of human migration, international trade, free movement of capital and the integration of financial markets. This process has speeded up dramatically in the last two decades as technological advances make it easier for people to travel, communicate, and do business internationally. Two major recent forces are advances in telecommunications infrastructure and the rise of the internet. In general, as economies become more connected to other economies, they have increased opportunity but also increased competition. As globalization becomes a more and more common feature of world economics, powerful pro-globalization and anti-globalization lobbies have arisen. The pro-globalization lobby argues that globalization brings about much increased opportunities for almost everyone, and increased competition is a good thing because of a more efficient production. The two most prominent pro-globalization organizations are the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Economic Forum. The World Trade Organization has 144 members, and was set up to formulate a set of rules to govern global trade and capital flows through the process of member consensus, and to supervise their member countries to ensure that the rules are being followed. It’s a governmental organization. The WTO and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), facilitate an increasingly internationally barrier- free flow of goods, services, and money. Regionally, organizations like the North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA), the European Union (EU), and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) work towards economic integration within their respective geographical regions. The World Economic Forum, a private foundation, does not have decision-making power but enjoys a great deal importance because it’s a powerful networking forum. The anti-globalization group argues that certain groups of people are not currently capable of functioning within the increased competitive pressure that will be brought about by allowing the economies to be more connected to the rest of the world. Important anti-globalization organizations include environmental groups like Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace; international aid organizations like Oxfam; third world government organizations like the G77; business organizations and trade unions whose competitiveness is threatened by globalization like the U.S. textiles and European farm lobby, as well as the Australian and U.S. trade union movements. In Germany the anti- globalization movement “Attack” became famous during the demonstrations against the G8-meeting in Heiligendamm. But besides the economic aspects, globalizaltion is also important on other fields. It can also be defined as the integration of economic, cultural, political, ecological and social systems through internationalization. Globalization is viewed as a long process, tracking the expansion of human population and the growth of civilization, which has accelerated dramatically in the past 50 years. Political globalization is the creation of a world government, which regulates the relationships among nations and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization.(1) Cultural globalization refers to the growth of cross-cultural contacts. It embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to consume and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". Ecological globalization describes global environmental challenges that can not be solved without international cooperation, such as the climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean. Social globalization corresponds to the achievement of free circulation by people of all nations. (1) see also www.worldfederalistmanifesto.com 2. Economic aspects of globalization In economics, globalization is the harmonization of prices, products, wages, rates of interest and profits towards developed country norms. (1) It’s the realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. Therefore a lot of necessary conditions, like the emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of goods for consumers and companies (industrial aspect), are necessary. Looking at the aspect of economic globalization, it can be classified in different ways. These centre around the four main economic flows that characterize globalization: • Goods and services, for example exports and imports • Labor/people, for example migration rates; inward or outward migration flows • Capital, for example inward or outward direct investment • Technology, for example international research & development flows. Among the major industrial economies, sometimes referred to as the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 65 percent of the total economic production is associated with international trade. Economists project that, in the U.S., more than 50 percent of the new jobs created in this decade will be directly linked to the global economy. The recent focus on the international integration of economies is based on the desirability of a free global market with as few trade barriers as possible, allowing for true competition across borders. Many economists assess economic globalization as having a positive impact and opportunities for economic development. Still, the process is not without its critics, who consider that many of the economies of the industrial North (for example North America, Europe, East Asia) have benefited from globalization, while in the past two decades many semi- and non-industrial countries of the geo- political South (for example Africa, parts of Asia, and Central and South America) have faced economic downturns rather than the growth promised by economic integration. Others voice concern that globalization adversely affects workers and the environment in many countries around the world. (1) see also: Shariff,Ismail: GLOBAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS. From: International Journal of Development Economics. Development Review, Vol1, No.2 (2003): p. 163-178 3. Political aspects of globalization Globalization has impacts in the political area, but there is not a consensus among social scientists about the nature and degree of its impact on national and international politics. Some political scientists argue that globalization is weakening nation-states and that global institutions gradually will take over the functions and power of nation-states. Other social scientists believe that while increased global inter-connectivity will result in dramatic changes in world politics, particularly in international relations, the nation-state will remain at the center of international political activity. The development of the contemporary nation-state, nationalism, inter-state alliances, colonization, and the great wars of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were in part political manifestations of changes in the structure of economic production. (1) Consequently, in the era of globalization, with its significant changes in global economic relations, the nineteenth and twentieth century model of the nation-state may become obsolete. The economic orientation of the modern nation-state has been centered on national economic interests, which may often conflict with the global trend towards the free and rapid movement of goods, services, finance, and labor. These processes give rise to the question of whether the modern nation-state can survive in its present form in the new global age. With the end of the so called Cold War between the two parts, the Eastern and the Western world, increased openness, multilateral organizations, and in particular the United Nations (UN), have changed their focus from maintaining the balance of power between the East and West to a more global approach to peace-keeping/peace-building, development, environmental protection, protection of human rights, and the maintenance of the rule of law internationally. The creation of legal institutions like the international criminal tribunals, as well as the proliferation of major international conferences aiming to address global problems through international cooperation, have been referred to as proof of political globalization. (1) see also: www.ssrc.org 4. International peace-keeping and the role of the UN International peace-keeping is growing all over the continents - maybe a consequence of globalization, too. First, you see what peace-keeping means and you learn to know the role of the United Nations (UN) in a globalized world. Then there will be some pros and cons of international peace-keaping and its consequences. Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace." (1) The Charter of the United Nations gives the UN Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations, as all UN Peacekeeping missions must be authorized by the Security Council. The UN is the largest multilateral contributor to post-conflict stabilization worldwide.Only the US Government deploys more military personnel to the field than the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). There are more than 100,000 personnel serving on 18 DPKO-led peace operations on four continents in twelve time zones, directly impacting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. The UN does not have its own military forces; it depends on contributions from Member States. 115 countries contribute military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping. Almost 73,000 of those currently serving are troops and military observers and about 9,500 are police personnel. In addition, there are almost 5,700 international civilian personnel, more than 12,400 local civilian staff. and some 2,000 UN Volunteers. In 2006, DPKO started negotiations on peacekeeping participation with more than 100 troop contributing countries; transported more than 800,000 passengers and 160,000 metric tonnes of cargo by air, and operated over 200 hospitals and clinics in the field. Nearly 2,000 uniformed personnel and more than 5,000 civilian staff serving on UN peacekeeping operations are women. (2) Peacekeeping costs, especially since the end of the Cold War, have risen dramatically. In 1993, annual UN peacekeeping costs had peaked at some $3.6 billion, reflecting the expense of operations in the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. By 1998, costs had dropped to just under $1 billion. With the resurgence of larger-scale operations, costs for UN peacekeeping rose to $3 billion in 2001. In 2004, the approved budget was $2.8 billion, although the total amount was higher than that. For the last fiscal year, which ended on June 30, 2006, UN peacekeeping costs were about US$ 5.03 billion. All member states are legally obliged to pay their share of peacekeeping costs under a complex formula that they themselves have established. Despite this legal obligation, member states owed approximately $1.20 billion in current and back peacekeeping dues as of June 2004. As a positve aspect of peace-keeping there may be a long and firm peace for the people in the country which needs the troops at the end of the peace-keeping process. (1) see also: www.un.org (2) see also: www.un.org 5. Texts on globalization Here you get an extract from an article written by David Held, Professor for Political Science, London School of Economics: “On Sunday, 23rd September 2001, the novelist, Barbara Kingsolver wrote in The Los Angeles Times: 'It's the worst thing that's happened, but only this week. Two years ago, an earthquake in Turkey killed 17,000 people in a day, babies and mothers and businessmen.... The November before that, a hurricane hit Honduras and Nicaragua and killed even more.... Which end of the world shall we talk about? Sixty years ago, Japanese airplanes bombed Navy boys who were sleeping on ships in gentle Pacific waters. Three and a half years later, American planes bombed a plaza in Japan where men and women were going to work, where schoolchildren were playing, and more humans died at once than anyone thought possible. Seventy thousand in a minute. Imagine.... There are no worst days, it seems. Ten years ago, early on a January morning, bombs rained down from the sky and caused great buildings in the city of Baghdad to fall down - hotels, hospitals, palaces, buildings with mothers and soldiers inside - and here in the place I want to love best, I had to watch people cheering about it. In Baghdad, survivors shook their fists at the sky and said the word "evil". When many lives are lost all at once, people gather together and say words like "heinous" and "honor" and "revenge".... They raise up their compatriots' lives to a sacred place - we do this, all of us who are human - thinking our own citizens to be more worthy of grief and less willingly risked than lives on other soil.' (2001) This is an unsettling and challenging passage. When I first read it, I felt angered and unsympathetic to its call to think systematically about the 11th September in the context of other disasters, acts of aggression and wars. A few days later I found it helpful to connect its sentiments to my own strong cosmopolitan orientations. Immanuel Kant wrote over two hundred years ago that we are 'unavoidably side by side'. Since Kant, our mutual interconnectedness and vulnerability have grown rapidly. We no longer live, if we ever did, in a world of discrete national communities. Instead, we live in a world of what I like to call 'overlapping communities of fate' where the trajectories of countries are heavily enmeshed with each other. In our world, it is not only the violent exception that links people together across borders; the very nature of everyday problems and processes joins people in multiple ways. From the movement of ideas and cultural artefacts to the fundamental issues raised by genetic engineering, from the conditions of financial stability to environmental degradation, the fate and fortunes of each of us are thoroughly intertwined. The story of our increasingly global order - 'globalization' - is not a singular one. Globalization is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. For example, there has been an expansion of global markets which has altered the political terrain, increasing exit options for capital of all kinds, and putting pressure on polities everywhere. But the story of globalisation is not just economic: it is also one of growing aspirations for international law and justice. From the UN system to the EU, from changes to the laws of war to the entrenchment of human rights, from the emergence of international environmental regimes to the foundation of the International Criminal Court, there is also another narrative being told - a narrative which seeks to reframe human activity and entrench it in law, rights and responsibilities. In the first section of this essay, I would like to reflect on this second narrative and highlight some of its strengths and limitations. Once this background is sketched, elements of the legal and political context of the 11th September can be better grasped. [...] The ground now being staked out in international legal agreements suggests something of particular importance: that the containment of armed aggression and abuses of power can only be achieved through both the control of warfare and the prevention of the abuse of human rights. For it is only too apparent that many forms of violence perpetrated against individuals, and many forms of abuse of power, do not take place during declared acts of war. In fact, it can be argued that the distinctions between war and peace, and between aggression and repression, are eroded by changing patterns of violence. The kinds of violence witnessed in Bosnia and Kosovo highlight the role of paramilitaries and of organized crime, and the use of parts of national armies which may no longer be under the direct control of a state. What these kinds of violence signal is that there is a very fine line between explicit formal crimes committed during acts of national war, and major attacks on the welfare and physical integrity of citizens in situations that may not involve a declaration of war by states. While many of the new forms of warfare do not fall directly under the classic rules of war, they are massive violations of international human rights. How do the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon fit into this pattern of legal change? A wide variety of legal instruments, dating back to 1963 (the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft), enable the international community to take action against terrorism, and bring those responsible to justice. If the persons responsible for the 11th September attacks can be identified and apprehended, they could face prosecution in virtually any country that obtains custody of them. In particular, the widely ratified Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (1970) makes the hijacking of aircraft an international criminal offence. The offence is regarded as extraditable under any extradition treaty in force between contracting states, and applies to accomplices as well as to the hijackers. In addition, the use of hijacked aircraft as lethal weapons can be interpreted as a crime against humanity under international law. […] The political and legal transformations of the last fifty years or so have gone some way toward circumscribing and delimiting political power on a regional and global basis. Several major difficulties remain, nonetheless, at the core of the liberal international regime of sovereignty which create tensions, if not faultlines, at its centre (see Held, 2002). […] The complex and differentiated narratives of globalization point in stark and often contradictory directions. On the one side, there is the dominant tendency of economic globalization over the last three decades toward a pattern set by the deregulatory, neo-liberal model. On the other side, there is the significant entrenchment of cosmopolitan values concerning the equal dignity and worth of all human beings, the reconnection of international law and morality, and the establishment of regional and global systems of governance. If the 11th September was not a defining moment in human history, it certainly was for today's generations. The terrorist violence was an atrocity of extraordinary proportions. It was a crime against America and against humanity; a massive breach of many of the core codes of international law; and an attack on the fundamental principles of freedom, democracy, justice and humanity itself, those principles which affirm the sanctity of life, the importance of self-determination and of equal rights and liberty. These principles are not just western principles. Elements of them had their origins in the early modern period in the West, but their validity extends much further than this. For these principles are the basis of a fair, humane and decent society, of whatever religion or cultural tradition. The principles of freedom, democracy and justice are the basis for articulating and entrenching the equal liberty of all human beings, wherever they were born or brought up. They are the basis of underwriting the liberty of others, not of obliterating it. Their concern is with the irreducible moral status of each and every person - the acknowledgement of which links directly to the possibility of self-determination and the capacity to make independent choices. The intensity of the range of responses to the atrocities of 11th September is fully understandable. There cannot be many people in the world who did not experience shock, revulsion, horror, anger and a desire for vengeance, as the Kingsolver passage acknowledges. This emotional range is perfectly natural within the context of the immediate events. But it cannot be the basis for a more considered and wise response. The founding principles of our society dictate that we do not overgeneralise our response from one moment and one set of events; that we do not jump to conclusions based on concerns that emerge in one particular country at one moment; and that we do not re-write and re-work international law and governance arrangements from one place - in other words, that we do not think and act over hastily and take the law into our hands. Clearly, the fight against terror must be put on a new footing. Terrorists must be bought to heel and those who protect and nurture them must be bought to account. Zero tolerance is fully justified in these circumstances. Terrorism does negate our most elementary and cherished principles and values. But any defensible, justifiable and sustainable response to the 11th September must be consistent with our founding principles and the aspirations of international society for security, law, and the impartial administration of justice - aspirations painfully articulated after the Holocaust and the Second World War - and embedded, albeit imperfectly, in regional and global law and the institutions of global governance. If the means deployed to fight terrorism contradict these principles and achievements, then the emotion of the moment might be satisfied, but our mutual vulnerability will be deepened. War and bombing were and are one option. President Bush described the attacks of the 11th September, and the US led coalition response, as a 'new kind of war'; and, indeed, the attacks of the 11th September can be viewed as a more dramatic version of patterns of violence witnessed during the last decade, in the wars in the Balkans, the Middle East and Africa. These wars are quite different from, for example, the Second World War. They are wars which are difficult to end and difficult to contain, where, typically, there have been no clear victories and many defeats for those who champion the sanctity of human life, human rights and human welfare. There is much that can be learned from these experiences that is relevant to the situation now unfolding. The contours of these 'new wars' are distinctive in many respects because the range of social and political groups involved no longer fit the pattern of a classical interstate war; the type of violence deployed by the terrorist aggressors is no longer carried out by the agents of a state (although states, or parts of states, may have a supporting role); violence is dispersed, fragmented and directed against citizens; and political aims are combined with the deliberate commission of atrocities which are a massive violation of human rights. Such a war is not typically triggered by a state interest, but by religious identity, zeal and fanaticism. The aim is not to acquire territory, as was the case in 'old wars', but to gain political power through generating fear and hatred. In Western security policy, there is a dangerous gulf between the dominant thinking about security based on 'old wars' - like the Second World War and the Cold War - and the reality in the field. Today, a clear cut military victory is very difficult to achieve because the advantages of supposed superior technology have been eroded in many contexts. As the Russians discovered in Afghanistan and Chechnya, the Americans in Vietnam, and the Israelis in the current period, conquering people and territory by military means has become an increasingly problematic form of warfare. The risks of concentrating military action against states like Afghanistan are the risks of ratcheting-up fear and hatred, of actually creating a 'new war' between the West and Islam, a war which is not only between states but within every community in the West as well as in the Middle East. No doubt, the terrorists always hoped for air strikes, which would rally more supporters to their cause. No doubt, they are now actively hoping for a global division between those states who side with America and those who do not. The fanatical Islamic networks that were probably responsible for the attacks have groups and cells in many places including Britain and the United States. An alternative approach existed, and might even be salvaged in some respects, although the longer the bombing goes on, and the longer the forces of the US and its allies have to remain in place to secure foreign lands, the less optimistic one can be. An alternative approach is one which counters the strategy of 'fear and hate'. What is needed, is a movement for global, not American, justice and legitimacy, aimed at establishing and extending the rule of law in place of war and at fostering understanding between communities in place of terror: First, there must be a commitment to the rule of law not the prosecution of war. Civilians of all faiths and nationalities need protection, wherever they live, and terrorists must be captured and brought before an international criminal court, which could be either permanent or modelled on the Nuremberg or Yugoslav war crimes tribunals. The terrorists must be treated as criminals, and not glamorised as military adversaries. […] The news (in October 2001) of an increasingly intense pattern of extra- judicial, outlaw killings (organized, targeted murders) on both sides of the Israeli-Palestine conflict compounds anxieties about the breakdown of the rule of law, nationally and internationally. This way only leads one way; that is, toward Hobbes's state of nature: the 'warre of every one against every one' - life as 'solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short'. Second, a massive effort has to be undertaken to create a new form of global political legitimacy, one which must confront the reasons why the West is so often seen as self-interested, partial, one-sided and insensitive. This must involve condemnation of all human rights violations wherever they occur, renewed peace efforts in the Middle East, talks between Israel and Palestine, and rethinking policy towards Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. […] And, finally, there must be a head-on acknowledgement that the ethical and justice issues posed by the global polarisation of wealth, income and power, and with them the huge asymmetries of life chances, cannot be left to markets to resolve. Those who are poorest and most vulnerable, locked into geopolitical situations which have neglected their economic and political claims for generations, will always provide fertile ground for terrorist recruiters. The project of economic globalisation has to be connected to manifest principles of social justice; the latter need to reframe global market activity. […] Of course, terrorist crimes of the kind we have just witnessed on the 11th September may often be the work of the simply deranged and the fanatic and so there can be no guarantee that a more just world will be a more peaceful one in all respects. But if we turn our back on this challenge, there is no hope of ameliorating the social basis of disadvantage often experienced in the poorest and most dislocated countries. […] November 5, 2001 Question: David Held considers the "interconnectedness" of the global community exhibited by the events of September 11. Discuss the role that he considers multilateral organizations should play in addressing terrorism/informal violence globally. What kinds of institutions would have to be put in place to make this happen? Do you think this is a realistic goal for the short-term? For the long-term? "Do We Still Have Universal Values?" Extract from a speech given by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan for the Global Ethics Foundation at Tübingen University, Germany, on 12 December 2003 Today, as globalisation brings us all closer together, and our lives are affected almost instantly by things that people say and do on the far side of the world, we also feel the need to live as a global community. And we can do so only if we have global values to bind us together. But recent events have shown that we cannot take our global values for granted. I sense a great deal of anxiety around the world that the fabric of international relations may be starting to unravel - and that globalisation itself may be in jeopardy. Globalisation has brought great opportunities, but also many new stresses and dislocations. There is a backlash against it – precisely because we have not managed it in accordance with the universal values we claim to believe in. In the Universal Declaration, we proclaimed that "everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services". Just three years ago, in the Millennium Declaration, all states reaffirmed certain fundamental values as being "essential to international relations in the twenty-first century": freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, and shared responsibility. They adopted practical, achievable targets – the Millennium Development Goals – for relieving the blight of extreme poverty and making such rights as education, basic health care and clean water a reality for all. Many millions of people in the world today are still far from enjoying these rights in practice. That could be changed, if governments in both rich and poor countries lived up to their commitments. Yet, three years after the Millennium Declaration, our attention is focused on issues of war and peace, and we are in danger of forgetting these solemn commitments to fulfil basic human rights and human needs. Globalisation has brought us closer together in the sense that we are all affected by each other's actions, but not in the sense that we all share the benefits and the burdens. Instead, we have allowed it to drive us further apart, increasing the disparities in wealth and power both between societies and within them. This makes a mockery of universal values. It is not surprising that, in the backlash, those values have come under attack, at the very moment when we most need them. Whether one looks at peace and security, at trade and markets, or at social and cultural attitudes, we seem to be in danger of living in an age of mutual distrust, fear and protectionism – an age when people turn in on themselves, instead of turning outwards to exchange with, and learn from, each other. Disillusioned with globalisation, many people have retreated into narrower interpretations of community. This in turn leads to conflicting value systems, which encourage people to exclude some of their fellow human beings from the scope of their empathy and solidarity, because they do not share the same religious or political beliefs, or cultural heritage, or even skin colour. We have seen what disastrous consequences such particularist value systems can have: ethnic cleansing, genocide, terrorism, and the spread of fear, hatred and discrimination. So this is a time to reassert our universal values. We must firmly condemn the cold-blooded nihilism of attacks such as those that struck the United States on 11 September 2001. But we must not allow them to provoke a "clash of civilisations", in which millions of flesh-and-blood human beings fall victim to a battle between two abstractions – "Islam" and "the West" – as if Islamic and western values were incompatible. Questions: 1. Point out UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's view of global values. 2. Analyse how Annan tries to make his speech effective. Pay particular attention to the use of rhetorical devices. 3. Comment on Kofi Annan's position that globalisation must be based on global values. Discuss the chances of the realization of such a view on the background of the current debate on globalisation, giving a few examples and referring to any relevant elements of the American Dream.