Bell Ringer Vocabulary Day

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Bell Ringer Vocabulary Day Powered By Docstoc
					         Bell Ringer Instructions
• Each day you will have vocabulary words to copy
  when the bell rings to start class.
• Copy each word onto a list in your notebook.
  These should be on loose-leaf paper.
• LISTEN to the definitions of the words as I go over
  them in class each day.
• There will be a QUIZ on the words at the end of
  each list—Every 25 words
• You will turn in your Bell Ringer words on the
  QUIZ day for a grade.
      Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words
                  List 1-1
• Accelerant--A substance, chemical, or compound that
  speeds the combustion process
• Accessory--One who assists in a subordinate capacity
  in the commission of an offense; one who aids and
• Accomplice--A partner in a given crime; one who
  knowingly and voluntarily assists another in the
  commission of an unlawful act
• Accountability--The state of being culpable,
  answerable, liable, or responsible
 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-2
• Acquittal--A setting free, absolving, release, or
  discharge of a defendant from a formal
• Admissibility of evidence--The ruling by the trial
  judge as to whether evidence is admissible at trial
• Admission--A voluntary acknowledgment made
  by a suspect to the existence of a fact or facts at
  issue in an investigation.
• Affidavit--A written statement of facts voluntarily
  made under oath.
  Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-3
• Age of accountability--The minimal age at which
  one is legally considered to have the mental
  capacity to be held accountable for his or her
  actions or inactions in a criminal context
• Age of consent--The minimal age at which a female
  may legally consent to sexual intercourse without
  placing her sexual partner in criminal jeopardy for
  charges of statutory rape or some like offense.
• Aiding and abetting--The affirmative assistance of
  facilitation in the commission of a crime through
  various forms of encouragement or support
 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-4
• Alibi--An excuse or explanation that the
  accused was elsewhere or otherwise could not
  have committed the alleged offense
• Altercation--A heated dispute, often ending in
  an assault or a battery
• Annulment--Invalidation or cancellation of
  something; the make void or abrogate
• Appeal--A review of the decision by a lower
  court by a higher court
 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-5
• Appellant--The person who initiates and carries
  forward an appeal from a lower court to a higher
• Apprehension--The physical seizure, taking, or
  arresting of a person for violation of a law
• Arbitrator--A neutral person chosen to settle
  disputes, outside of the formal justice system
• Arrest--The deprivation of one’s liberty through
  legal authority, usually for the purpose of
  formally charging him or her with a crime
 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-6
• Arson--The intentional and malicious burning or
  explosion of another’s building, vehicle, or
  property or the burning or explosion of one’s own
  for the purpose of insurance fraud
• Assault--A willful and lawful attempt to deliver a
  battery or a gesture that places another in the
  position to reasonably expect to receive a battery
• Attorney-Client Privilege--A client’s privilege to
  disallow disclosure of any confidential
  communications between himself/herself and the
  attorney of record
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-7
• Authenticating witness--One who testifies that a
  written document is what it purports and that it
  was generated by the party to whom it is
• Automated Fingerprint Identification System--a
  relatively recent computer-based fingerprint
  recording and classification technology
• Autopsy--The physical examination and surgical
  dissection of a body in order to determine the
  cause of death

            Quiz Tomorrow!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-1
• Bail--The surety or sureties, deposited with the court,
  procuring the release of a person under pretrial
  custody, for the purpose of ensuring the defendant’s
  appearance at trial
• Bailiff--An officer of the court responsible for the
  custody of prisoners while in court, the security of the
  court, as well as the protection of its personnel,
  property, and processes
• Battery--The unlawful use of force upon another, that
  which follows an assault
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-2
• Bench Trial--A trial before a judge without a jury;
  a trial where a jury waiver has been granted
• Benzidine Test--A preliminary chemical field test
  used on stains to detect the presence of blood
• Best-evidence rule--This rule requires the original
  or “best evidence” to be produced in court.
• Beyond a reasonable doubt--That level of proof
  required for a conviction for the violation of a
  criminal statute
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-3
• Bias--The influence, prejudice, inclination, or
  predisposition of opinion that does not leave the mind
  open to fully and fairly consider all facts in a legal
• Bill of Indictment--A legal document of accusation,
  often drafted by a prosecutor charging an individual
  with the commission of a crime (usually a felony).
• Bill of Rights--The first ten amendments to the United
  States Constitution
• Blackmail--Extorted payment made to prevent the
  disclosure of information that could bring about public
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-4
• Bond--An obligation imposed by money or other
  assets, which is deposited with the clerk of the court
  by the defendant, to secure temporary release from
• Booking--The administrative processing of an arrested
• Bounty--An award or premium offered and authorized
  by the government for the carrying out of a particular
• Bribe--Anything offered with the intention of inducing
  another to do something illegal, morally, or ethically
  Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words 2-5
• Brief--A written document prepared by an attorney
  representing a condensed statement of a larger
  document of facts and circumstances
• Burden of proof--The legal duty or responsibility to
  affirmatively establish a fact at issue
• Burglary--The unlawful entry of the dwelling of a
  place of another with the intent of committing a
• Cadaver--A dead human body
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-6

• Caliber--The size of a firearm projectile, bullet,
  or shell casing according to its diameter
• Capacity--A legal qualification, ability,
  competency, or disability
• Capital offense--Any offense punishable by
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-7
• Career criminal--A person with a history of
  criminal arrests and convictions for various
• Cease-and-desist order--A formal order issued
  by a court forbidding a person, persons,
  organization, or business to continue a specific
  act, actions, or course of conduct.
• Chain of command--An organizational hierarchy
  through which information and orders flow
           QUIZ TOMORROW!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-1
• Chain of custody--A formal accounting for the
  security of evidence to be used by the prosecution
  at trial to ensure the integrity of the evidence
• Change of venue--The movement of a case from
  one judicial venue to another, often granted when
  one of the parties to the case demonstrates that
  an impartial trial cannot be had in the original
• Character evidence--Evidence concerning one’s
  reputation or moral standing in the community.
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-2
• Charge--An allegation of a criminal act or acts against
  an individual, appearing in a formal complaint in
  misdemeanor cases or information or an indictment
  in a felony case.
• Child abuse--Acts or omissions endangering a child’s
  physical or emotional well-being.
• Child molester--One, often a pedophile, who in some
  capacity knowingly assaults a child sexually.
• Child neglect--The willing failure to adequately
  provide a minor child with the basic necessities of life,
  including but not limited to nutrition, clothing,
  housing, education, and adult supervision.
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-3
• Chronic offender--One who continues to
  violate the law long-term.
• Circumstantial evidence--Evidence, often
  testimonial, establishing facts from which a
  jury may make inferences regarding other facts
  at hand.
• Citation--A written order executed by a police
  agency to appear before a judge at a specified
  date and time
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-4
• Citizen’s arrest--A warrantless arrest executed
  by a private citizen for a violation of a serious
  breach of peace.
• Civil commitment--A civil detention or
  confinement of individuals who are disordered,
  alcoholically or chemically dependent, or
• Civil death--The act of losing certain privileges
  such as the right to vote, litigate, hold public
  office, because of a felony conviction
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-5
• Civil disobedience--A method of drawing
  attention to perceived injustice, condition, or law
  by purposely breaking another law.
• Civil law--That body of law dealing exclusively
  with private wrongs between individuals
• Civil liberties--Those liberties enumerated in the
  first ten amendments of the US Constitution that
  expressively states what the government can and
  cannot do to its people
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-6
• Civil rights--Those privileges to which a citizen
  may lawfully request affirmative governmental
  assistance, such as the right to vote.
• Clemency--A form of final nonjudicial relief for
  alleged crimes, generally issued by a governor
  of a state
• Coercion--Any compulsion or constraint,
  whether physical, psychological, direct or
  indirect, that compels one to act against their
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-7
• Competency--Those factors that make a witness
  legally qualified or disqualified to give testimony
  or evidence to be admitted or excluded from
• Complaint--A formal written accusation, made
  under oath and providing facts required to
  support a criminal charge
• Condemn--To pass judgment or pronounce guilty
    Bell Ringer Vocabulary List 3-8
• Confession--A statement that is usually
  recorded in some fashion, being composed of
  a number of admissions concerning the
  commission of a crime or crimes
• Confiscation--The authorized seizure of
  property without compensation
• Conflict of interest--A condition arising from
  decisions and actions by officials when they
  have a vested interest in the outcome of a
  controversy and cannot act in a neutral
  capacity          QUIZ TOMORROW!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-1
• Constitutional right--A right or a protection
  granted to the citizens of a commonwealth in
  the law of the sovereign
• Continuance--The postponement of a court
  proceeding for cause
• Contraband--Any property, material, object, or
  substance that is unlawful to possess, transport,
  or manufacture
• Convict--To find one guilty of a criminal offense
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-2
• Conviction--The affirmative determination or
  judgment of a court arising from a jury verdict
  or the decision of a judge at a bench trial
• Copycat Syndrome--The committing of an act,
  often criminal, in imitation of what others have
  recently done
• Coroner--An elected county-level criminal
  justice official charged with the duty of
  determining the cause of death where
  suspicious circumstances are present
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words list 4-3
• Correctional institution--A facility dedicated to
  administering the sanctions pronounced by the
  criminal courts following guilty verdicts
• Counselor--A licensed member of the legal
  profession who renders legal advice on issues of
  the law
• Count--A synonym for “charge” in criminal
• Court order--Any command or directive issued
  under the authority of a judicial officer
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-4
• Crime--Any act that a reasonable person would
  or should have known intuitively was a wrong
• Criminal contempt--The willful vilification of the
  court in the presence of the court
• Criminal intent--An element inherent in all
  crimes that must be proven in order to achieve a
  criminal conviction
• Criminalist--A forensic scientist who is employed
  by a crime laboratory
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-5
• Cross-examination--The reexamination of a
  witness by a party other than the original
• Cruel and unusual punishment--Punishment
  prohibited by the Eighth Amendment of the U.S.
• Curfew--A law, rule, or regulation establishing a
  time at which all persons of a specified age or
  class must be out of public places
• Custody--The legal detention of a person or thing
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-6
• Deadly weapon--Any weapon, instrument, tool,
  object, material, or substance used in a manner
  intended to cause death or great bodily harm to
• Death penalty--The imposition or sanction of
  death upon a criminal conviction for a small
  band of criminal offenses that meet special
• Decedent--The deceased or a dead person
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-7

• Defendant--One who is civilly sued or is
  criminally accused
• Defense--The defendant and his or her
  attorney collectively
• Delinquent--A juvenile offender

           QUIZ TOMORROW!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-1
• Demeanor--Conduct or outwardly observable
• Deportation--The banishment of a person to
  another nation state, often accompanied by
  confiscation of properties and the withdrawal of
  civil rights and liberties
• Detain--To restrain, delay, or keep in custody
• Detention--A noninvasive technical arrest where
  the decision to charge has not formally been
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-2
• Direct evidence--Evidence proving the
  existence of facts at issue deriving from the
  testimony of a first-hand witness
• Direct examination--The first examination of a
  witness by the party who summoned him or
• Discretion--A legally recognized prerogative
  granted to public functionaries to make their
  own judgments and to act in an official
  capacity in situations that are ambiguous
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-3
• Disorderly conduct--Any act against public
  morals, peace, and safety
• DNA fingerprinting--A metaphor for the
  unique identification rendered through
  biological processes, where comparisons are
  made upon a probability estimate
• Docket--The formal register in which the
  proceedings of the significant acts done in a
  court of justice are recorded
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-4
• Doe, John--A fictitious name given to a party
  in a legal action where his or her name is
  unknown or where he or she wishes to remain
• Domain--The sovereign authority of a state,
  allowing for public control, usage, or
  ownership of private property
• Domestic violence--An assault or battery upon
  a member of the household including a
  spouse, parent, child or other blood-related
  family member, or others living in the house
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-5
• Double jeopardy--A prohibition found in
  common-law and the Fifth Amendment against a
  second prosecution for the same offense
• Due process clause--Found in the Fifth and
  Fourteenth Amendments—individuals are
  guaranteed fundamental fairness in legal
  proceedings and the right to prevent government
• Duress--The unlawful influence inducing one to
  commit an act or crime otherwise not
  contemplated by the actor
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-6
• Embezzlement--The unlawful appropriation and
  or conversion of money or other assets places in
  one’s care to his or her gain
• Eminent domain--A legal document granting the
  state the right to seize private property for public
  interests with adequate compensation to the
• Entrapment--The act of the government inducing
  one to violate a criminal statute for the express
  purpose of arresting him or her
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-7
• Evidence--Something presented at trial with
  probative value, providing information to the
  court regarding matters in controversy, including
  documents, objects, substances, and testimony
• Examination--An investigation, search, or
  interrogation of a subject
• Exclusionary rule--A court-generated rule holding
  that evidence obtained in violation of the U.S.
  Constitution becomes tainted and thus, is
  inadmissible at trial
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-8
• Execution--The lawful putting to death of a
  person thus sentenced
• Executive order--Any order or regulation
  issued by the president or administrative
  agency of government by the president’s
  authority to interpret or carry out a law
• Exemplar--A form on nontestimonial evidence
  taken from or produced by the defendants

           QUIZ TOMORROW!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-1
• Exhibit--Any physical object offered in
  evidence at a trial
• Exhumation--The digging up of a corpse
• Exonerate--To free one from the verdict of
• Extortion--the exacting of something of value
  from another through threats, violence, or the
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-2
• Extradition--The process of formally
  surrendering a person wanted on criminal
  charges by one nation to another
• Eyewitness--One offering direct testimony
  concerning something that he or she has
  observed first-hand.
• Felony--A crime of greater gravity than a
• Finding--A decision on a question of fact by a
  jury, court, or other tribunal
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-3
• Fine--A sanction imposed by the court on a convicted
  person, stipulating a specific sum of money to be paid to
  the court
• Flight--The act of knowingly and voluntarily escaping or
  fleeing from justice
• Forgery--The unlawful act of imitating or counterfeiting
  documents or personal signatures for the purpose of
  deception with the intent to knowingly injure or defraud
• Fraud--The knowing and unlawful deception of another
  with the intent to cause him or her to unwillingly
  surrender property, rights, or money
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-4
• Fugitive--One who knowingly and intentionally
  flees from justice
• Gag order--An order issued by the court to
  attorneys and witnesses that prevents them
  from discussing a trial with the media in
  attempt to assure the defendant a fair trial
• Grandfather clause--A policy exempting those
  already vested under a preexisting rule to
  continue to do what a new rule disallows
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-5
 • Grand jury--A group of citizens judicially impaneled
   for the purpose of determining whether there is
   sufficient cause to bind a criminal defendant over for
 • Grievance--A formal complaint filed by the proper
   union representative with an organization regarding
   an issue covered under a collective bargaining
 • Hate crimes--Acts of violence or intimidation
   intended to victimize, terrorize, or frighten
   unpopular groups or individuals as a result of the
   ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-6
 • Hearing --A proceeding, generally before a
   trial, where facts, evidence, witnesses and
   arguments are reviewed or heard by a judge
   without a jury
 • Hearsay--Out-of-court statements offered with
   the intent of proving the truth of a matter
 • Hijacking--Taking control of any vehicle and/or
   the driver and passengers through the use of
   force or intimidation
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-7
• Hit and run--The unlawful flight by the operator of a
  motor vehicle from the scene of an accident resulting
  in death, injury, or damage to the property of
• Homicide--The killing of a human being by another
• Hostage--One confined or offered as a pledge for the
  attainment of specified agreements or conditions
• House arrest--The monitored restriction of a subject
  to his or her residence before a hearing

            QUIZ TOMORROW!
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-1
• Hung jury--A jury that is so irreconcilably divided
  as to be unable to come to a decision
• Immunity--Exemption, release, or freedom from
  legal obligations, duties, and requirements
• Impoundment--The confiscation or seizure by
  police or law enforcement authorities of
  evidence or materials used in the commission of
  a crime
• Inadmissibility--The inability to gain admittance
  into evidence for trial, under recognized rules or
  evidence and procedure
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-2
• Inalienable rights--Those rights that are not
  capable of surrender or transfer without the
  express consent of the person in possession of
  such rights
• Incapacitation--The lack of legal, physical,
  moral, or mental capacity
• Incarceration--An imprisonment or
  confinement in a penal, correctional, or
  custodial facility
• Incendiary--A type of device used to set a fire
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-3
• Incriminate--To blame, accuse, or suggest
  culpability in crime
• Indictment--A formal written accusation
  presented to the court by a grand jury, charging
  one or more persons with the violation of a
  statute after examination of facts
• Informant--One who provides information and is
  used as a source
• Injunction--A judicial order directed to a person,
  requiring that a person do or refrain from doing a
  particular act or thing
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-4
• Insanity--A term indicating the necessary
  degree of mental illness or capacity to negate
  one’s legal culpability, responsibility, or
• Intelligence--The acquisition of information
  relative to crime
• Intent--The state of mind behind a criminal act
• Internal Affairs Division (IAD)--A unit within a
  police agency charged with investigating police
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-5
• Interrogation--A forceful questioning or examination
  of a suspect in a criminal investigation
• Intrinsic evidence--The evidence garnered from a
  document needing no explanation
• Involuntary manslaughter--An unlawful homicide
  committed unintentionally
• Jeopardy--Exposure danger in legal process, criminal
  conviction and punishment
• Judgment--A judicial or other legal decision, decree,
  order, sanction, or sentence
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-6
• Jurisdiction--The authority and power to apply
  specific types of law and the geographic area
  in which the legal authority and power is
• Jury--A group of citizens, selected according to
  law and sworn to hear evidence in a legal trial
  and to render a decision based upon that
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-7
• Justification--A term used to demonstrate
  sufficient reason why a defendant acted in the
  way he or she did in the cause for which he or
  she is to answer before the court
• Juvenile--A person under a statutorily
  specified age who is potentially under the
  jurisdiction of a specialized court

Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-1
• Kidnapping--The unlawful, intentional, and
  felonious taking of a human being by force
  against his or her will
• Larceny--A general term for various forms of
  theft, defined as the unlawful and intentional
  taking of another’s property, without his or her
  consent and with the intent to permanently
• Latent fingerprint--One present yet not visible to
  the naked eye
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-2
• Lay witness--A non-expert who must testify to
  facts based on this or her ability to observe or
• Legal aid--A generic phrase used for a
  nationwide system providing legal services to
  those who cannot afford to hire private legal
• Lineup--A police investigative technique
  wherein a suspect is placed in a line with
  others known not to have been involved in the
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-3
• Litigation--A suit or judicial controversy
• Mandate--A command, order, or directive
  issued buy a court demanding that the proper
  officer enforce a judgment, sentence, or
• Mandatory sentence--A statutory provision
  requiring that a specified penalty be imposed
  for specific offenses upon conviction
• Manslaughter--The unlawful killing of another
  without malice
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-4
• Material witness--A witness whose testimony is
  so important to either the prosecution or
  defense that he or she may be required to post
  a bond to ensure appearance in court
• Medical examiner--A licensed physician, usually
  a pathologist, holding an appointed position at
  the county level, who performs autopsies on
  the bodies of persons that meet violent or
  unexplained deaths
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-5
• Mistrial--A trial terminated prior to its finish as
  a result of a lack of jurisdiction, improper
  drawing of jurors, or some other fundamental
• Modus operandi--A term that describes the
  habits, patterns, or operating methods of
• Morgue--A facility where dead bodies of
  unknown persons are held for identification
  purposes and eventual disposal
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-6
• Motive--The causative factor or combination of
  factors moving the will and inducing the action
• Murder--The unlawful and intentional killing of a
  human being
• Negligence--Conduct falling short of what would be
  expected of a prudent, reasonable person under
  similar circumstances
• Objection--A formal opposition, made in court and
  noted in the official record, to a statement or
  evidence presented
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-7
• Offender--A term for one implicated in a
  criminal act
• Ordinance--A public law or statute
• Organized crime--An illegal pattern of activity
  conducted by a consortium of people and/or
  organizations, acting in concert, to carry out
  fraud, theft, extortion, or intimidation
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-8
• Overrule--To supersede or to nullify
• Pardon--A remission of criminal acts
• Parole--The discretionary and conditional
  release from prison, under the authority of a
  supervising board

Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-1
• Pathology--The science dealing with the
  causes, development, and effects of diseases
  or death
• Perjury--The intentional false statement made
  by one under oath
• Petition--A formal written document delivered
  to the court, requesting judicial action in some
• Plaintiff--One who brings an action
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-2
• Plea--The answer of a defendant to a formal
  charge in open court
• Plea bargaining--The process of negotiation
  between the state and the defendant
• Polygraph--An electro-mechanical instrument
  that measures and records numerous
  involuntary physiological responses to acts of
• Postmortem--After death
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-3
 • Possession--The custody, detention, control,
   or occupancy of anything that is the subject of
 • Posthumous--Something occurring, arising,
   granted, or continuing after death
 • Precedent--A decision by an appellant court
   serving as the ruling authority on an issue in
 • Profiler--One who develops an idea of an
   unknown suspect
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-4
• Probable cause--The reasonable grounds to
  support a belief in a reasonable person of
  average intelligence that the accused is
  responsible for a crime in question
• Probation--The conditional release of one
  convicted of a crime into the community during
  a period of supervision under an officer of the
• Prosecution--The party who initiates and
  carries out a criminal or civil proceeding against
  a defendant
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-5
• Protective custody--Custody provided for the
  purpose of ensuring the safety of a person
• Public defender--A licensed attorney employed
  by a governmental entity, or one appointed by
  the court, to defend indigent defendants in
  criminal matters
• Racial profiling--The selective enforcement of
  the criminal law by police and law enforcement
  officers, based on a profile regarding a specific
  criminal activity, heavily based upon racial or
  ethnic characteristics
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-6
• Ransom--The money, consideration, or
  demand paid for the return of a kidnapped
• Rape--Sexual intercourse with another
  without lawful consent
• Rebuttal--A refutation of something asserted
• Recant--To withdraw prior testimony formally
  and publicly
Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-7
 • Relevance--The state or quality of being
   pertinent to the issue at hand
 • Remand--To return by court order for review
   or further consideration
 • Retribution--Punishment for wrongs


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