Warm up Artificial Insemination

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					                Genetic Engineering

                       Should we,
                   or should we not?
                  That is the question.

June 16, 2011                             1
• The clouded leopard, which makes its home on
   the Southeast Asian island of Borneo, was
   discovered to be a unique species. It is the
   island's largest predator. But, how did it come to
   be?
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                Controlled Breeding
• Mating organisms to produce offspring
  with certain traits is called controlled
  breeding.
• The offspring usually have the same
  desirable traits as their parents.
• Controlled breeding is used with livestock
  and plants.


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                Mass selection
• In mass selection, plants with desirable
  traits are crossed.
• Seeds produced by the plants are
  collected and planted. New plants develop
  from these seeds.
• If the new plants have the desirable traits,
  then their seeds are collected and planted.
• The process goes on and on, and
  eventually you will get a new kind of plant
  with desirable traits.
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• Mass selection is used to produce larger,
  more succulent strawberries.




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                Hybridization
• Sometimes two organisms with different
  kinds of genes are crossed. The offspring
  show traits of both parents.
• The mating of different kinds of organisms
  is called hybridization.
• For example, wheat and rye plants can be
  crossed to create triticale, which is more
  nutritious than either wheat or rye.
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       Triticale – a hybrid cross of
            wheat (left) and rye




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                • A mule is a
                  result of
                  hybridization.
                • Its father is a
                  donkey, and the
                  mother is a
                  horse.
                • Mules are sterile
                  and cannot
                  produce their
                  own offspring.
June 16, 2011                    8
• A mule is, in its usual meaning, an offspring from a male
  donkey and a female horse, while the reverse of such is
  called a hinny. The mule is easier to breed and larger in
  size than the hinny, and usually the chromosomal match
  up is better when it is a male donkey and female horse –
  producing a unique offspring. They are almost always
  sterile, however there have been a few rare cases where
  mules and hinnies have been able to produce offspring
  of one type or another. Donkeys have a total of 62
  chromosomes, and horses have 64 – the offspring have
  63 and cannot divide evenly, which renders them sterile
  in almost all cases. The mule has long ears, short thick
  heads, thin limbs, small hooves, and a short mane; it
  also does not sound like a donkey, nor does it sound like
  a horse. There are many coats, depending on the sire
  and the dam
                         ligers
                • Ligers are prone to
                  gigantism, the largest
                  cats in the world and
                  can be double the size
                  of an average adult
                  Siberian tiger.




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         Tigon
• from a male tiger
  and a female lion




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                Savannah




   Hybrid cross of a domestic cat or Bengal
   cat and a serval

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                Coywolf
• from a coyote
  and a wolf -
  although rare, it
  can happen in
  the wild




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                 Wolf Dog
• Happens often
  because dogs and
  wolves breed freely
• Their jaws are much
  stronger than those of
  a dog and are often
  used to exert
  dominance.


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                Iron Age pig
                      • Domestic Tamworth pigs
                        are crossbred with wild
                        boar to create „Iron Age
                        Pigs‟.
                      • The hybrids are tamer
                        than wild boar and
                        generally become
                        specialist pork sausages.
                      • Most of them are bred for
                        the specialist meat trade.


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                      Zorse




   • A zorse is the result of crossbreeding a
     horse and a zebra.
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                Zonkey
                         • A zonkey is the
                           result of
                           crossbreeding
                           a donkey with
                           a zebra.




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                      Zony
   • The Zony is the result of crossbreeding a pony
     with a zebra.




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                    Cama
• A Cama is a hybrid between a camel and a
  llama.
• They are born via artificial insemination due to
  the huge difference in sizes of the animals which
  disallow natural breeding.
• A Cama usually has the short ears and long tails
  of a camel, but the cloven hooves of a llama.
• Also most noticeably is the absence of the
  hump.

June 16, 2011                                     21
                Cama




June 16, 2011          22
                Cama




June 16, 2011          23
                Grolar/pizzly
• A grolar/pizzly hybrid is the product of a grizzly
  bear and a polar bear.
• Although the two bears are genetically similar,
  they tend to avoid each other in the wild.




June 16, 2011                                          24
                Leopon

                   • A Leopon is the result
                     of breeding a male
                     leopard and a female
                     lion.
                   • The head of the
                     animal is similar to
                     that of a lion while the
                     rest of the body
                     carries similarities to
                     leopards.
June 16, 2011                               25
                Hybrid Pheasant




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                Inbreeding
• Inbreeding is the mating of closely related
  organisms
• Offspring produced by inbreeding have
  genes that are very similar to their parents‟
  genes.




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• Inbreeding is used to breed racehorses,
  whose desirable trait is speed.
• Inbreeding is done only with animals for
  their desirable traits.


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    Why inbreeding is not allowed in
             most states




June 16, 2011                          30
                Inbreeding
• Mammals, most other animals, and higher
  plants as well, have evolved mechanisms
  to avoid inbreeding of any sort.
• Most pack animals (like lions, primates,
  and dogs), kick young males out of the
  pack so as to prevent them from mating
  with female relatives.


June 16, 2011                            31
                Animal Breeding
• Animal Breeders study the genes that
  control certain traits in animals.
• They use this info to breed animals and
  produce offspring with desirable traits.
• For example, a thoroughbred race horse is
  bred for speed. A workhorse is bred for
  strength. A showhorse is bred for their
  ability to jump.

June 16, 2011                             32
                Assignment
• Complete worksheet 3-12.
• Read genetic modification of squash
  plants article.
• Create a written outline of the information
  in the article.
• Answer discussion questions (counts as a
  quiz grade).

June 16, 2011                               33
                Warm up
•  Answer the following questions using
   complete sentences.
1. Define mass selection, hybridization and
   inbreeding.
2. Explain how inbreeding could be
   dangerous to an organism?
3. Would you rather have an inbred dog or
   a hybrid dog as a pet? Explain.

June 16, 2011                             34
                Warm up
• If a genetic disorder were present in your
  family, would you go to a genetic
  counselor before having children? Why or
  why not?




June 16, 2011                                  35
                Genetic engineering
                            • Genetic
                              engineering is
                              the process by
                              which new
                              forms of DNA
                              are produced.



June 16, 2011                                  36
                Gene Splicing
• Gene splicing is a process in which a
  section of DNA from one organism is
  transferred to the DNA of another
  organism.




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  Gene Splicing creates a new DNA
               strand




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            3 steps of gene splicing
                          1. DNA ring is
                             temporarily
                             opened using
                             certain specific
                             enzymes.
                          2. New genes from
                             another organism
                             are added, or
                             spliced, into the
                             DNA
                          3. The DNA ring is
                             closed.
June 16, 2011                                39
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                   Benefits
•      Using gene splicing, bacteria can be
       used to manufacture human insulin.
•      Potential cures for genetic disorders
•      Improve traits in certain plants and
       animals used for food.




June 16, 2011                                  41
                • Scientists have
                  discovered a gene
                  that makes
                  corn resistant to
                  certain damaging
                  insects.



June 16, 2011                         42
• Thanks to genetic engineering, North Carolina
  soybeans can now be sprayed with Roundup,
  making weed control easier, less expensive, and
  safer for the environment.


June 16, 2011                                   43
                Disadvantages
1. Experimenting with bacterial DNA may
   cause a disease for which there is no
   cure.




June 16, 2011                              44
• Will we create
  things that look
  like this?




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                   Cloning
• Cloning is the production of cells or organisms
  with identical traits.
• One way of cloning is to take the nucleus out of
  a cell from a donor animal.
• Then place the nucleus into an egg cell whose
  own nucleus has been removed.
• Next place the egg cell in the uterus of an animal
  and allow it to develop.
• When the baby animal is born, it is identical to
  the donor animal.

June 16, 2011                                     48
• Dolly, the first cloned
  sheep, was identical to
  her mother.
  June 16, 2011             49
• Clones can occur naturally in nature, a
  process called twinning. Identical twins
  are, in fact, clones.




                                             50
 What is the purpose of cloning?
   Clone
      ~ for medical purposes
      ~ animal models of disease
      ~ stem cells
      ~ genetically engineered animals for
            drug production
      ~ to revive endangered or extinct
            species
      ~ to reproduce a deceased pet or child
June 16, 2011                              51
• Scientists often clone bacteria to make
  drugs.
• Cloning can also help produce animals
  with desirable traits.
• Scientists use cloned animals to study
  diseases.




June 16, 2011                               52
                Assignment
•   Complete worksheet 3-13
•   Study guide 13-4
•   Complete section review 13-4
•   Complete genetic engineering enrichment




June 16, 2011                             53
                Warm Up
• Solve the following problems
• In humans, the genes for colorblindness and
  hemophilia are both located on the X
  chromosome with no corresponding gene on the
  Y. These are both recessive alleles. If a man
  and a woman, both with normal vision, marry
  and have a colorblind son, draw the Punnett
  square that illustrates this. How many/what
  percentage of each could be expected?

June 16, 2011                                 54
                Cloning Humans
• Read the article “Cloned Human Embryo
  Created From Skin Cells”
• Answer the questions that follow using
  complete sentences.
• Be prepared to share.




June 16, 2011                              55
                Homework
• Study for test tomorrow




June 16, 2011               56

				
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