Full Conference Program - Enviro by fjzhangxiaoquan


									                                ESAC 2011 Annual Conference
                            Preliminary Program (April 1 version)

                                                Monday, May 30

7:45 to 8:55

        Big Thinking Lecture: Location TBA
            David Adams Richards
             Threatened Identity: What do we lose when we lose the sense of place?
        As our consumer culture takes an increasing interest in locally-produced goods, global communication networks are
        breaking down the importance of location in business, employment and consumption. Our communities are both
        larger and less geographic, but at the same time increasingly specific and stratified. In his Big Thinking lecture at the
        2011 Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, David Adams Richards will explore the meaning of “local” in a
        globalized world, asking if place and communities are worth preserving. David Adams Richards is one of Canada’s
        greatest place-based writers. Set against the backdrop of the Miramichi River Valley of New Brunswick, many of his
        novels deal with family histories and struggles. His critically acclaimed novel Mercy Among the Children was co-
        winner of the Giller Prize in 2000. He is also one of only a few Canadians to win a Governor General’s Award for both
        non-fiction and fiction. He is a member of both the Order of Canada and the Order of New Brunswick.


        ESAC Baby Breakfast Banquet: Tilley 28
            A small breakfast in celebration of the newest and smallest ESAC member

9:00-10:30                  ESAC Keynote Plenary: Tilley 5
            Katherine O'Brien (School of Graduate and Professional Studies, Cape Breton University)
             Sustainable Happiness: Harmonizing Our Internal and External Landscapes (Abstract

10:45-12:15                           Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 5): Sustainable Development and Fossil Capitalism
Chair: Tara Goetz

   Laurie Adkin (Political Science, University of Alberta) and Brittany Jane Stares (Rural Economy,
    University of Alberta)
    Turning up the Heat: Hegemonic Politics in a First World Petro-State
    This paper documents and analyzes the hegemonic strategy adopted by the Alberta Government since 2008 to counter
    critics of its commitment to intensive, short-term exploitation of hydrocarbon resources, and, in particular, of the “dirty
    oil” extracted from the bituminous sands for export to the United States. The authors show, first, that, as in other “petro-
    states,” rapid hydrocarbon development has driven institutional change. However, because the government has also had
    to respond to spreading international campaigns by opponents of its development strategy, significant state resources
    have been invested not only in bureaucratic reorganization but in public relations campaigns and intergovernmental
    lobbying on the part of the province’s International Offices and cabinet ministers. Second, on the basis of a careful study of
    dozens of government documents, websites, and blogs, as well as media-reported statements, the authors reconstruct the
    discursive strategy that has been deployed both provincially and internationally. One pillar of this strategy, they argue, is a
    Promethean capitalist interpretation of sustainable development which emphasizes technological solutions (most
    centrally, carbon capture and storage), minimizes environmental risks and harms, seeks to discredit critics, reasserts the
    authority of governmental knowledge claims, and reassures the public as to the competency of state management of the
    resource. At the policy level, this strategy is underpinned by massive investments in research projects that seek to extend
    the life of fossil fuel extraction in the province and that serve to legitimate the sustainable development discourse. A
    second pillar of the government’s discursive strategy is what the authors call “nativist neo-liberalism.” This discourse has
    roots in provincial elites’ long-standing conflict with the federal state over control of resource wealth, and although the
    reality of the provincial royalty regime and multinational ownership of productive capacity tends to contradict the populist
    rhetoric of provincial elites, resource nationalism (or nativism) continues to be an important tool in the government’s
    discursive tool-kit. With the economic nationalism of the federal Liberal government of the 1970s-1980s defeated, and a
    neo-liberal Conservative Party currently in office at the federal level, the main “threat” to provincial and corporate elites
    now comes from a globally interconnected environmental movement that demands a substantial Canadian climate change
    plan and an end to local environmental devastation. While right-wing populism in Europe is generally opposed to
    globalization, its neo-liberal variant in Alberta, benefiting from rentierism, pursues the freedom to export the province’s oil
    and gas without interference from environmentalists who, in the Premier’s words, “would damage the future prosperity of
    our province.”

   David Campanella (Environmental Studies, York University)
    Concealing the Carbon: Carbon Sequestration and “Sustainable Development” in the Alberta Tar
    The composition of the global energy system is at the centre of the struggle to both define and realize “sustainable
    development” in an era of global climate change. A crucial point of contention is the future role of fossil fuels. Globally,
    various technological and market “fixes” constitute the dominant strategies to address the “climate crisis”, while the
    continued expansion into new extractive frontiers is marked by increased resistance. The Alberta tar sands is such a
    frontier. State and industry actors operating in the tar sands argue that development can be reconciled with climate-based
    objectives through deploying “carbon capture and storage” (CCS), postponing reductions in the production of CO2
    emissions by interning them underground. Elite support for CCS in Alberta is mirrored by a broader, multinational effort to
    frame CCS as an essential technology for the global response to climate change that would facilitate the continuation of a
    fossil-based energy system amid “carbon constraints”. My research is an empirically-driven analysis of the development of
    CCS in Alberta using a combination of political economy and cultural theory that takes complexity, discourse, and the
    indeterminacy of struggle seriously. I seek to understand how various state and non-state actors converged upon
    supporting CCS as an emission reduction mechanism, the discursive and organizational strategies employed to confer
    social legitimacy, the different forms and sites of resistance, and the interrelations between the dynamics occurring in
    Alberta with those operating at the national, regional, and global scale. To do so, I contextualize the issue within the
    historic role of the fossil fuel industry in international climate politics, as well as the history of hydrocarbon development
    in Alberta. My research indicates the continuation of a “sustainable development” operating in Alberta that subsumes
    environmental objectives to the dictates of capital accumulation, where significant public resources are mobilized for the
    oil industry through a mixture of “prairie populism” and “rentierism”, and which prioritizes technology as the means to
    reconcile ostensibly irreconcilable objectives. I conclude that CCS in Alberta is intended to operate as a government-
    industry led effort to secure confidence and legitimacy for further investment in the tar sands in response to increasingly
    tense and politically and spatially diverse resistance. Overall, my research adds empirical weight to arguments for
    conceiving of the Alberta state as a particular form of a “petro-state”, and it provides a deeper understanding of the
    politics of technical fixes proposed to address the contradictions embedded in fossil capitalism.

   Sarah Rotz (Environmental Studies, York University)
    Deconstructing ‘Carbon Governance’: The Implications of Enacting Eco-Neoliberal Networks of Power
    on a Universal Scale
    This paper connects environmental justice issues to contemporary climate change research by outlining the dominant
    networks of climate change governance and detailing the corresponding climate change mechanisms invoked; often
    defined as universalized, market-based and ‘eco-neoliberal’ in nature. Additionally, I identify the implications that these
    prevailing networks and mechanisms may have on diverse governance contexts—implications which are in need of urgent
    analysis in the wake of COP 16. Specifically, while recent deliberations in Copenhagen and Cancun have increasingly
    framed the solutions to climate change within the structures and objectives of the industrialized market economy,
    industrialized societies continue to extract and consume far more ecological resources than their populations require while
    concurrently injecting disproportionate amounts of emissions and waste into global common space. In light of this,
    developing a critical, inclusive and multi-scalar definition of ‘carbon governance’—which recognizes the significance of
    larger systems of unequal ecological exchange—may significantly impact common notions and practices of responsibility,
    accountability and justice within the global environmental governance regime. Moreover, it may cause some to question
    the legitimacy of such a globalized environmental governance system altogether. Accordingly, this paper will chart the
    identity of climate change politics and its relation to the market economy. It will then delineate the process of carbon
    commodification vis a vis the creation of carbon markets and offsetting schemes. Subsequently, it will analyze the
    implications this system has on networks of power between developed and developing countries, as well as the different
    social and livelihood systems within developing countries.

Discussant: Ryan Katz-Rosene (Geography, Carleton University)

Session 2 (Tilley 28): Identifying and Developing Sustainability Related Skills
Chair: Diane Pruneau (Université de Moncton)

   Jackie Kerry, Diane Pruneau & Jimmy Therrien Kerry (Université de Moncton)
    Skills demonstrated by municipal employees and farmers during their adaptation to climate change

    In New Brunswick, several impacts of climate change already appear. For employees of coastal municipalities and for
    farmers, adaptation becomes a necessity. These citizens must learn to prepare themselves and to react to unexpected
    events. As it corresponds to citizens renewing their practices and teaching one another new procedures, adaptation
    requires time and skills. Currently, little research exists on identifying citizen's skills that facilitate adaptation to climate
    change and on the educational strategies that could be used while accompanying citizens in an adaptation process. Two
    studies were conducted during which the adaptive skills of municipal employees and farmers were observed while they
    were looking for adaptations to flooding (municipal employees) and to changes in precipitations (farmers). The employees
    and farmers separately attended workshops following a general problem-solving process to allow the demonstration of
    their competences. The participants tried to solve a problem that was significant for them. The municipal employees
    implemented efficient adaptations to flooding: mapping at-risk zones and restoring biodiversity on the coast. To adapt, the
    municipal employees used the following skills: problem solving (highlighting components of the problem and identifying
    constraints), thinking forward and backward, predicting risks, vulnerability analysis, local knowledge, planning, and
    communication. The farmers demonstrated a wider array of skills. Used to adjust their farming practices to bad weather,
    they predicted that their already declining soil was very vulnerable to extreme events. They implemented the following
    adaptations: planting low-tillage radish and practicing more culture rotations. During their adaptation process, the farmers
    showed deep knowledge of their domain and their area; critical thinking (which they used for assessing the solutions);
    thinking forward and backward; identification and control of the variables affecting crops; openness to novelty;
    collaboration; self-efficacy and optimism. The research resulted in recommendations for accompanying groups of citizens
    while they try to adapt to climate change.

   Michel Léger & Diane Pruneau (Université de Moncton)
    Changing family habits: a study into the process and the skills necessary for adopting climate change
    mitigation behaviours

    This paper is a contribution to the growing body of research concerned with climate change and the need to adopt more
    widespread mitigation behaviours at the local level. The literature on public awareness of climate change points to general
    public concern, yet behavioural response remains limited. Several studies have examined this apparent gap between public
    values and daily behaviour. For instance, environmental psychology literature reveals a number of factors involved in
    deciding to adopt environmentally sound behaviours. Knowledge, past experiences with nature, established behavioural
    patterns, values and social networks are just some of the cognitive and affective factors reportedly at play. In addition to
    these factors, perceptions literature identifies important psychological and physiological barriers to change such as
    dissonance and denial. In the present study, we look to better comprehend the strategies and skills used by families who
    succeed in adopting mitigation behaviours. We are particularly interested in documenting the factors influencing their
    change as a social group and understanding the interaction dynamics involved in their day to day experience of
    undertaking chosen behavioural changes. Moreover, we are curious as to the various competencies demonstrated by
    family members as they seek to integrate new environmental behaviours. We studied the cases of 3 suburban families as
    they attempt to incorporate various climate change mitigation behaviours into their day to day life. Cross-case analysis of
    our findings revealed the emergence of several competencies applied by family members as they encountered challenges
    associated with their behavioural change experience. For example, families succeeded in adopting behavioural changes
    when they demonstrated skills such as collaboration, environmental citizenship, organization, perseverance and collective
    self-efficacy. Famillies who hope to adopt mitigation behaviours need to share common biospheric values, feel as though
    they can successfully change and function as a well-balanced collaborative social unit.

   Diane Pruneau, Jackie Kerry, Maryse Cousineau & Jimmy Therrien
    The results of an educational program aimed at developing students’ self-efficacy in regards to
    environmental action

    Youth sometimes demonstrate unfavourable feelings towards their engagement in environmental action: despair, the
    impression of not being able to make a difference. The emergence of these feelings seems to be due in part to the
    complexity of environmental problems and the lack of ecological literacy at school. This feeling of helplessness expressed
    by youth could be described as a low self-efficacy. Five strategies were used to develop hope and self-efficacy towards
    community environmental action in students. Students were given the opportunity, working with their classes, to
    accomplish a local action as part of an NGO’s project. The second strategy consisted of instructors reading short success
    stories based on local groups and student achievements in having successfully helped the environment through action. To
    help promote the students’ understanding of how people are helping the environment, a local environmental group
    presented the different actions they were involved in, followed by students watching an inspiring documentary about a
    class that helped their community’s environment. To increase students’ environmental knowledge on actions, instructors
    showed short presentations on several group actions. The project ended with an environmental action being chosen and
    planned by each class. Quantitative and qualitative data on hope and self-efficacy were used to follow the evolution of the
    students’ attitudes. At the start of the project, students thought that an environmental action consisted of individual acts
    such as picking up waste. Initially with this conception, students felt confident in their power to help the environment.
    They were also optimistic when thinking about the ecological future of their community. As the students participated in
    the activities, their conception of environmental actions opened up to other types of acts such as planting trees, building
    birdhouses and bird feeders, restoring the biodiversity, etc. In most cases, students not only maintained their initial self-
    efficacy but developed a greater desire to act, highlighting the importance of adult guidance in their projects.

Discussant: Claude Côté (Environment Canada)

Session 3 (Tilley 305): Science, Technology, Politics and Policy in the Energy
and Transportation Sectors
   Minxing Si and Shirley Thompson (Natural Resource Institute, University of Manitoba)
    Energy Efficiency Assessment by Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) and waste
    heat recovery in the reheat furnace at a Steel Company
    The steel industry is one of the most energy intensive industries, contributing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This
    research analyzes the feasibility of waste heat recovery and assesses energy efficiency at a steel company, Gerdau
    Ameristeel in Selkirk, Manitoba. The process heating assessment and survey tool (PHAST) determined that the overall
    efficiency in the reheat furnace is 60%. Flue gas losses are the biggest energy losses in the reheat furnace, accounting for
    29.5% of the total energy losses during full production. Heat losses from wall, hearth and roof are also significant, being
    7,139,170 kJ/hr during full production. To reduce energy inefficiencies, it is recommended that billets be preheated to 315
    °C in the reheat furnace. This requires 1.48 hours to capture waste heat with a preheating section length of 1691.64 cm.
    The annual energy savings are estimated to be $215,086.12 requiring a 3.03 years payback period. This study has been the
    first time to determine the required size of a preheating box and the rate of heat transfer through billets in the preheating
    section. This project involves the priority area of a feasibility study and requires research and development of new
    processes and is a strategic study related to industrial sector of steel making. In addition, this project will consider how a
    100 year old steel company can be sustainable by industrial ecology and eco-efficiency initiatives.

   Ryan Katz-Rosene (Geography, Carleton)
    Canada’s missing high-speed trains: A puzzle in environmental political economy
    Proponents of a high-speed rail (HSR) line in Canada’s busiest corridor suggest that it could help reduce greenhouse gas
    (GHG) emissions and health care costs associated with automobile accidents and air pollution from vehicles, all while
    alleviating dependency on fossil fuels. Yet as history has shown, Canadian HSR projects have met numerous politico-
    economic obstacles – and projects have never come to fruition despite continued efforts over the last forty years. This
    paper briefly historicizes this puzzle of environmental political economy, arguing that the reasons for Canada’s missing
    high-speed trains can be found in the prevailing material and subjective structures that have historically characterized the
    political economic space(s) in which the proposed HSR projects are located.

   Chris Buse (Public Health, University of Toronto) , Cheryl Teelucksingh (Sociology, Ryerson
    University), Rebecca Hasdell (Public Health, University of Toronto), Blake Poland (Public Health,
    University of Toronto) and Sarah Wakefield (Geography, University of Toronto)
    Who has the power? The energy crisis and environmental justice in Toronto

    Most jurisdictions in Canada today—including Toronto—are facing an ‘energy contradiction’ whereby high levels of energy
    use are inherently unsustainable, but energy continues to drive economic growth and urban expansion. Toronto is a city
    with residents from diverse socio-economic and ethno-cultural backgrounds. Addressing the energy contradiction in
    Toronto will not be possible unless the needs of its diverse populations are taken into account. This presentation discusses
    preliminary findings from a SSHRC funded program of research focussing on the role that environmental non-
    governmental organizations (ENGOs) play in framing energy-related environmental concerns for Toronto’s diverse
    population. The goal of this research is two-fold. First, we aim to identify and understand the work being conducted by
    ENGOs in the city of Toronto on a wide range of energy issues/challenges, with a particular emphasis on understanding
    practices that both engage and support Toronto’s diverse communities. Energy issues are broadly defined and include
    home energy, transportation, conservation and renewables. Second, we seek to identify and develop important
    relationships between various environmental and energy stakeholders in Toronto. An initial review of ENGOs from the
    Ontario Environmental Network identified 58 organizations who were invited to participate in dialogic interviews. This
    presentation communicates initial findings from the interviews emphasizing personal and organizational perspectives on:
    how energy problems are approached; the impact of energy problems on Toronto’s various communities; and potential
    solutions to energy problems. Early findings suggest that environmental justice and diversity are not yet at the forefront
    of decision-making and planning processes concerning energy issues. However, issues relating to diversity are being
    increasingly taken-up by many of these organizations through collaborations with the non-profit sector. Promising
    practices for better engaging and supporting Toronto’s diverse communities are discussed before offering lessons-learned
    from our early engagement with Toronto-based ENGOs.

   Nicole Dusyk (Institute for Resources, Environment, and Sustainability University of British
    Controversy and Cooperation: Local responses to British Columbia’s clean energy policy
    In June 2010, the government of British Columbia passed a new Clean Energy Act. This was the culmination of three years
    of policy transition that sought to integrate a climate change mitigation agenda into provincial energy policy. Inevitably,
    the implementation of the Clean Energy Act and its related policies are, and will continue to, have significant implications
    for local communities throughout the province particularly in energy producing regions. At the same time, the recent
    climate policy and successful local sustainability initiatives are creating new spaces of engagement for municipal
    governments and community organizations. Drawing on theories of socio-technical change and the concept of hybrid
    forums (Callon, Lacoumes, and Barthe 2009), this paper examines how local actors are negotiating and contesting
    provincial energy policy and the rationalities, policies, and technological configurations that are emerging from these
    forms of engagement. I draw on empirical data from interview-based case studies of two communities in northeast BC,
    Dawson Creek and Fort St. John, to consider both local responses to provincial energy policy as well as the potential for
    local action to reverberate through the provincial energy network. My findings suggest that although these communities
    are small, with relatively little political power, they are each in a position to influence the meaning and structure of
    sustainable energy in British Columbia: Dawson Creek by providing a model of locally-adapted, community-led
    sustainability and Fort St. John by contesting the rationality and limits of provincial clean energy policies.
12:30-1:50                   Luncheon Talk (Memorial Hall)

12:30              Light Luncheon Buffet
12:45-1:30         Artists Engage the Environment Panel Discussion (Discussants: TBA)
1:30-1:50          Art Gallery Visit: Tropos and Liquid Measure

                   The University of New Brunswick Art Centre presents two exhibitions examining the nature of water by
                   Fredericton artist Deanna Musgrave. Tropos is an installation-based multimedia presentation examining the
                   ritual and symbolic significance of water. Liquid Measure is a juried exhibition that explores the politics and
                   commodification of water.

2:00-3:30                              Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 5): Gender, Risk and TechnoPolitics
   David McRobert (Business, Humber College)
    Economic Instruments and Waste Diversion: Reflections of a Garbage Lawyer on 25 years of change
    The object of the study is to analyse changes in public policy related to waste diversion in the past 25 years. The focus will
    be on Canadian examples but the author also will discuss international developments on producer responsibility, waste
    reduction and re-use. The theoretical framework is ecological history; informed by the work of economic historians such
    as Harold Innis and the Annales school (Braudel). The author also will outline the implications of his research and advocacy
    on economic instruments and Ontario’s Blue Box system for the long–term viability of sustainable waste management
    systems and developing sustainable and healthy communities. The author advocated a wide range of economic
    instruments for used materials when he was a waste management campaigner at Pollution Probe and worked with Ontario
    Green Party between 1983 and 1988. The Blue Box system resulted in the loss of thousands of jobs in the refillable soft
    drink network (e.g. Pop Shoppe) that dominated Ontario and most North American jurisdictions prior to the late 1960s.
    Many local jobs in smaller communities were lost and the soft drink industry was able to reduce the price of soft drinks.
    This allowed them to capture a larger share of the stomachs of Canadian consumers, encouraging a shift from milk and
    juice consumption to much cheaper soft drink products. A related problem is that adults and children began to consume
    cheap soft drinks on a daily basis (sometimes many cans or bottles in a single day). In some products levels of sugar, corn
    syrup and caffeine spurred addictions similar to those witnessed with the massive marketing of cigarettes to residents of
                                   th       th                                                         th            st
    developed nations in the 19 and 20 centuries and underdeveloped nations in the late 20 and early 21 centuries.
    Cheap soft drinks have contributed significantly to rising obesity levels in North America, prompting the current Ontario
    government to establish a Ministry of Health Promotion in 2004. Collecting solid waste and recyclables at curbside and
    processing them in material recovery facilities (MRFs) is extremely dangerous work. Injury and death rates are very high.
    Repetitive strain injuries from handling of recyclables at curbside and in MRFs are endemic. The Ontario Blue Box system
    produced very poor quality glass from early days because of contamination from pyrex dishes, light bulbs, etc. It took
    more than 22 years for the Ontario government to amend the program to impose deposits on alcohol bottles, yielding

   Heather MacLeod (Saint Mary's University)
    Keeping Agricultural Soils Sustainable: The Fight Against Biosolids in Nova Scotia
    With the launch of Halifax’s Sewage Treatment Plant came the city’s decision to transform sewage sludge into biosolids
    through partnering with a multinational engineering firm. The final product sold to farmers, and used on city lands,
    outraged citizens concerned over potential soil contamination from the residue of hazardous chemicals found in sewage
    sludge. So began a movement to stop the use of biosolids on agricultural and urban soils in Nova Scotia. Key to this debate
    is concern over the sustainability of healthy agricultural soils, the production of non-polluted food and protection of public
    health from exposure to toxic biosolid constituents. This presentation will examine the discourse over biosolids in Nova
    Scotia. Competing truth claims and persuasive strategies employed by activist opponents and industry supporters will be
    compared. As well, the validity of science research and capitalist industrial influences examined. Research involved a
    review of documentary evidence examined through the lens of discourse analysis. As well qualitative interviews with key
    participants were conducted. The study reveals activists had the impact of advancing understanding on the issue
    influencing media coverage, community engagement and public policy on the use of biosolids. However, many citizens
    believe that better solutions to this issue still need to be found and political agitation continues.

   Wilhelm Peekhaus (Information Studies, University of Wisconsin)
     Resisting Agricultural Biotechnology and Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in South Africa: Lessons
    from the Field
    Based upon ethnographic research conducted in South Africa, this paper interrogates various projects being undertaken by
    various civil society organizations in that country that are mobilizing against genetically engineered crops in ways designed
    to help rural populations promote agro-ecology. The people involved in such social movements recognize that agricultural
    biotechnology is a complex topic and that the science and the risk that surround it have been purposely mystified to
    discourage average citizens from debating the informational, environmental, ethical and moral issues surrounding this
    science and its technologies. Moreover, industry and government discourses constructed around agricultural
    biotechnology typically discount, when not completing ignoring, alternative production practices. Thus one of the major
    imperatives for a number of activists is to expand the contemporary discussions around agricultural biotechnology in a
    way that responds to the concerns being articulated by a variety of constituents who are largely excluded from the current
    regulatory decision-making processes. A substantial part of the problem comes down to issues around the collection,
    creation, use, and dissemination of information. That is, there are considerable information gaps among a number of
    people affected by agricultural biotechnology. The paper will elaborate the informational and educational efforts being
    undertaken by these civil society groups to respond to such gaps, including some illustration of various agricultural
    projects designed to help farmers engage in production practices that are sustainable, equitable, and protective of

   Robyn Lee (York)
    Precautionary Consumption of Household Chemicals as Women’s Work
    In this paper I will explore a gendered analysis of chemical labeling of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and phthalates.
    Since women assume primary responsibility for the sustainability of the household and for the health of family members,
    campaigns to reduce chemical exposures in the home must take into account gendered burdens of domestic labour. I
    critically examine how media coverage of the risks posed by BFRs and Phthalates almost always includes advice on how to
    limit one’s exposure to these chemicals in the home. However, monitoring and attempts to mediate household exposure
    to BFRs and phthalates is labour that disproportionately falls to women. Women feel a responsibility to protect their
    families, a responsibility that is not felt (or not acted upon) by men to the same extent. Based on a literature review of
    research on the distribution of domestic labour and women’s disproportionate participation in environmentally-oriented
    behaviours, I argue that campaigns to mediate exposure to chemicals such as BFRs and phthalates in the home are likely to
    result in an increase in women’s burden of domestic labour. The downshifting of responsibility for reducing household
    chemical exposures from governments and industry to individual consumers is thus likely to fall disproportionately to
    women. The promotion of improved chemical labeling assumes that individuals will be able to take steps to reduce their
    exposures. If this is not possible undesirable behaviours may result from the attempt to avoid exposure. In the conclusion
    of this paper, I will explore how a focus on chemical labeling may lead to politically conservative results as the increase in
    women’s domestic labour leaves them with even less time and energy available to engage in environmental activism.

   Ellen Sweeney (Environmental Studies, York)
    The Gendered Implications of Breast Cancer, Risk and the Environment
    One in nine women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime and an estimated 23,200 women in Canada will be
    diagnosed this year.1 Breast cancer is caused by a combination of hormonal, genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors,
    however, the established risk factors such as a family history account for less than half of diagnosed cases.2 Advances in
    medical and environmental science have created an increased awareness of the relationship between toxic agents and
    human health, as well as discussions surrounding the nature of risk in relation to environmental health. My research
    utilizes a theoretical framework centered on Beck’s risk society which defines risk as the probabilities of physical harm due
    to technological processes.2 The production and management of risk are identified as a social responsibility. In
    contemporary society, the dangers associated with an increase in chemical contaminants include risks to bodies that are
    both pervasive and cumulative. These risks are unlimited across space and time, as they cross international borders and
    have the potential to affect future generations. Environmental breast cancer activists frame the disease as representative
    of environmental hazards inscribed on women’s bodies. Findings from a critical literature review indicate that a gendered
    experience of breast cancer recognizes the social, political, economic and environmental factors that influence the disease.
    Activists are both constrained and enabled by gender considerations in their efforts to promote research on environmental
    causes and disease prevention.

Session 2 (Tilley 28) Environment, Sustainability and Education
   Brian McCain and Vanessa Paesani (The Gaia Project)
    Project Based Learning in Sustainable Engineering
    The Gaia Project is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to delivering interactive project based learning opportunities in
    sustainable engineering to New Brunswick students. All of our projects incorporate three basic principles: (1) Data
    Informed Decisions – We want students to be able to explain why, and quantify the effect of each decision made along the
    way to their solution. (2) Economic Assessments – We expect students to be able to assess the cost effectiveness of their
    solutions, and be able to optimize their projects with limited budgets. (3) Environmental Impact and Lifecycle Assessments
    – We need students to take a holistic view to their projects by examining them from cradle to grave, as opposed to just
    examining the use phase, and acknowledging that greenhouse gas reduction is not the only environmental issue at stake.
    We are currently working with 9 New Brunswick high schools to implement student-driven sustainability projects. During
    fall 2010 semester we worked with three high schools where students began building a sustainability plan for their school;
    students focused on collecting baseline consumption data so that they could begin setting both short- and long-term
    reduction targets. These projects were completed in a new course called Advanced Technology 120. Students proposed
    various resource-saving measures to reduce both energy and water consumption at their schools based on data collected.
    During winter 2011 semester, students at 7 high schools will be embarking on a similar challenge – three schools will be
    conducting sustainability projects in Advanced Technology 120 (one of which offered this course in the fall), while another
    four schools will be offering these through Environmental Science. These projects will enhance sustainability education in
    the province by engaging students in a problem-solving environment where they are the ones challenged to find the

   Emily McMillan (Laurentian University)
    The influence of religion on environmental attitudes in homeschooling Canadians
    Environmental attitudes are shaped by a variety of factors including our educational history and our cultural background.
    This talk focuses on the finding of the critical role that religion plays in how people relate to environmental issues. This
    research set out to understand the impact of an alternative educational model on attitudes toward the environment,
    through an examination of an understudied but growing segment of the Canadian population, homeschoolers. The
    literature on homeschooling so far centers on academic achievement, civic engagement and personal growth (leadership,
    self-esteem). This is the first research that asks about the environmental attitudes of homeschoolers. Utilizing mixed
    methods, the environmental attitudes of homeschooling parents and youth are examined and contrasted with those
    involved with public school. In a nationwide online survey, demographic information was collected and environmental
    attitudes were measured using Dunlap et al.’s (2000) New Ecological Paradigm scale and Mayer and Frantz’s (2004)
    Connectedness to Nature Scale. Contrary to previous studies, this work identifies religion as a key factor influencing the
    environmental attitude score. Religious homeschoolers had a lower score on the two environmental attitude scales than
    non-religious homeschoolers and religious public schooling parents. Follow up interviews illustrated how religious
    convictions can influence environmental attitudes in different ways, whether it is a stewardship ethic, a belief in the merits
    of frugality, or a belief that the rapture will render environmental problems moot. Non-religious homeschoolers were
    found to have stronger environmental attitudes than public schooling respondents. Other factors that may affect
    environmental attitudes are also explored, including educational philosophy, amount of time spent outside, and significant
    life experiences. The goal of this research is to understand what factors lead to different levels of concern about the
    environment, important if we are to realize sustainability as a society.

   Hari Tiwari (Social Welfare Council, Nepal)
    Environmental Improvement Through Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
    Environmental conservation constitutes an important part of the NGO’s development program. They cares for
    environment and the earth in all its activities, and endeavors to improve it through many approaches such as improved
    animal management, biogas, plantation, maintaining hygiene and sanitation, reduced/no use of pesticides and chemicals
    in agriculture, etc. Care for environmental aspects result directly in clean and green surrounding and better and human
    and livestock health. One of the important efforts made for improving the environment is training on ‘Improving the
    environment’ and ‘improved animal management’ as part of the Cornerstones which raises the awareness of the
    participants and in turn they practice it through different innovative activities. The project also supports activities and
    inputs for fodder forage and fruit saplings plantation, biogas installation, improved cooking stoves, hygienic toilets as
    appropriate, organic kitchen gardening, etc. Raising ruminant animals without proper plans for nutrition, feeding,
    management, and waste-disposal, are liable to pollute the environment. Feeding excess nitrogen than required or
    excessive amounts of protein or imbalanced diet with degradable and undegradable proteins and other nutrients may
    increase nitrogen excretion in feces or urine. Nitrogen is of primary environmental concern because of losses of ammonia
    in the air and nitrate contamination of surface and ground waters. Biogas supports to protect nitrate leaching to the
    ground and protects water, methane emission to the atmosphere, and provides better organic manure for agriculture, and
    clean energy for lighting and cooking, which in turn also conserves nearby forest by reducing their dependency on it for
    fuel woods. Organic kitchen gardening is one of this programme core of project. They receive and practice at their
    homestead, and some goes beyond to commercial scale. They are also given orientation on preparing organic manure and
    pesticides from local materials, and input supports like vegetable seeds are provided to inculcate a habit of producing and
    eating vegetables at home. Some groups are preparing organic pesticides using animal urine and special types of herbs,
    and practicing vermiculture to make compost from different kinds of degradable wastes. Women groups of this project
    show strong signs of empowerment that are clearly visible in the way they present their concerns and solutions. They have
    increased their self confidence and leadership capacity. This has recognized the importance of empowering poor
    communities for making them self-reliant and uplifting sustainably, and has chosen livestock based incentive to enter into
    the community. Project activities and especially the Cornerstone training is found more effective in shaping people’s
    attitude and behavior which are reflected in a friendly social environment wherein everyone lives with respect and dignity,
    in less or no discrimination against caste or gender, and in better family environment. This program is effective in
    alleviating hunger and poverty among project participating families. Improvement in livestock production practices are
    visible in project implemented areas which is also learnt and practiced by nearby farmers. Implementation of
    environment, women empower health worker etc. generated employment opportunities for rural communities. Fodder
    plantation in farm and communal lands, incorporation of nutritious fodder and forage for animals feeding, vegetable
    cultivation all proved sustainability, resource conservation increased in farm incomes.

   Margaret O’Shea (Institute for Resources, the Environment and Sustainability, UBC)
    Exposing Embodied Sustainability: Engaging community members on sustainability with arts-based
    Studies of sustainable behaviours centre almost exclusively on economic and psycho-social motivations for behaviour
    change, but these approaches fail to capture the human embodied experience of sustainable actions. Improved
    understanding of the embodied nature of the practices and principles of sustainability provides insights valuable for
    addressing the sustainability challenge. Arts-based methods for engaging with communities are proving to be powerful
    tools for learning about and communicating the need for behaviour change for a sustainable future, and can provide
    access to participants’ embodied knowledge. This presentation focuses on a community-based recycling project in
    Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside, and the use of photo elicitation to gather participants’ perspectives, ideas, and
    embodied experiences. This method required participants to creatively contribute to the academic study while exploring
    their contribution to the recycling project. A framework for analysis derived from performance theory was used to
    structure the results; both the photographic task and the daily actions of participants were analyzed as embodied
    performances of behaviours for sustainability. In addition to specific recommendations for improving and expanding the
    recycling project that resulted from the study, the photographic task empowered participants to learn more about the
    recycling project and other project members, contributed to a heightened sense of community, and produced material
    useful for publicising the recycling project. Engaging community members with an arts-based method revealed insights
    and lessons about the embodied nature of sustainable practices including the inherently social nature of human
    behaviours, the influence of situational factors on otherwise routine actions, and how sustainable behaviours can be
    inhibited or facilitated by the physical environment.

Session 3 (Tilley 305) Transition Towns and Intentional Communities
   A. MacDonald, P. Bryk and S. Ross (Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo and Wilfred
    Laurier Universities)
    Transitioning the Local Food Movement in Guelph, Ontario

    Transition Towns are grassroots community based movements that seek to overcome climate change and oil depletion
    challenges. In 2006, Rob Hopkins founded the first Transition Town, in Totnes, England. By 2010, the movement has grown
    to three hundred and twenty Transition Towns in thirty‐one countries. Canada has seventeen official Transition Towns and
    twenty‐three that have applied for approval. The Transition Movement is a positive and creative response to the
    challenges of peak oil and climate change through the development of local resilience. This research examined Guelph, a
    Transition Town in Southern Ontario, and utilized key informant interviews to determine how the Transition Movement
    intersects with the local food movement, and to identify barriers and opportunities to developing resiliency within the
    local food system. Guelph, Ontario is a strong case study for this research because the town’s local food and Transition
    Town movements are both vibrant and strongly supported by the community. This vibrancy allowed the research team to
    secure pivotal interviews, identifying intersections between the two movements. This research found that while overlap
    exists between the local food and Transition Town movements, there are many opportunities for the two to enhance one
    another’s efforts and to achieve the common goals of a more resilient food system and community. Our research
    highlights the intersection of these two movements and identifies future opportunities for them to work together.
    Sustainability has become increasingly important to localities around the world, and resilience is a fundamental aspect of
    this sustainability. These movements aim to develop resilience in communities, and through the examination of their
    potential interconnections novel opportunities for community resilience are identified.

   Chris Buse (Public Health, University of Toronto), Blake Poland (Public Health, University of Toronto),
    Cheryl Teelucksingh (Sociology, Ryerson), Randy Haluza-Delay (Sociology, King’s College University),
    Paul Antze (Anthropology, York University), Fabio Cabarcas (Population and Public Health, University
    of British Columbia), Rebecca Hasdell (Public Health, University of Toronto), Bethany Elliot (Public
    Health, University of Toronto)
    Equity, Social Change and Community Resilience: An Exploration of Transition Towns in Canada
    The language of ‘resilience’ has become commonplace within the discourse of sustainability. It has been particularly useful
    in understanding and responding to a range of emerging environmental challenges including the potential for ‘runaway’
    climate change, accelerated resource depletion with resulting energy and food scarcities, ecosystem degradation and the
    loss of biodiversity. Resilience-oriented theory and practice reject dominant risk-management approaches to addressing
    and mitigating these challenges, opting for a more holistic understanding of the complex, non-linear relationships that
    exist within and across social and environmental systems. In this presentation we examine the literature on community
    resilience as framed in relation to the emerging challenges identified above. As both a ‘community of practice’ and a social
    movement, ‘Transition Towns’ have made building community resilience central to their work. Transition Towns (TT)
    emphasize the need for an integrated and community-based transformation of social, economic and environmental
    practices. Originating in the UK in 2005, and now present in numerous countries around the world (including over 40
    chapters in Canada), TTs highlight the need to (re)localize the production of basic needs, ‘re-skill’ for the transition to a
    lower-carbon future and build resilient communities that provide opportunities for connectedness, diversity, inclusion and
    celebration. We identify two primary issues for discussion when considering TTs. First, the TT movement sits uneasily at
    the juncture of two competing uses of the term ‘resilience’ in the extant literature: one that emphasizes stability,
    efficiency and recovery (resilience as a state - i.e. the capacity to ‘bounce back’ from shocks), and another that emphasizes
    adaptive capacity, learning and transformational change (resilience as process). Second, we discuss how the challenge of
    social equity is discussed and operationalized (or not) as central to community resilience. Finally, implications for future
    research and practice will be identified.

   Felix Munger (Psychology, Wilfred Laurier University)
    Intentional Communities as Social Movement: The Pursuit of Environmentally and Socially
    Sustainable Communities
    In this exploratory study, the author conducted interviews with individuals from different intentional communities to
    investigate the intersection of environmental sustainability, social justice, and community. The impact of environmental
    issues such as global climate change is undoubtedly one of the biggest challenges faced by humanity today. Authors
    increasingly point to the link between environmental degradation, other societal issue (e.g., social injustices), and the
    continuous decline of community as root causes. Consequently, effective and sustainable solutions to the crisis need to
    address these issues jointly. Many intentional communities consider these issues together in their attempts to create
    sustainable ways of living, making them valuable natural experiments. This explorative study accessed the knowledge and
    experiences of individuals living in intentional communities through structured in-depth interviews among a sample of ten
    individuals who are living or have lived in communes, cohousing, co-ops, ecovillages, and spiritual communities throughout
    North America. The study found that intentional communities indeed are active attempts to address community,
    environmental sustainability, and justice through three main common structures: values, physical structures, and
    organizational structures. Furthermore, the results suggest that joining an intentional community is a complex process one
    that requires a person to overcome barriers and go through various stages of adjustment. The relevance of the findings is
    twofold. First, in the pursuit of sustainable forms of community, individuals, planners, and even policy-makers should be
    mindful how community values and structures will impact environmental sustainability, social justice, and community.
    Second, in the attempt to expand the uptake of intentional communities, attention needs to be paid to the complexities of
    joining and living in such communities.

3:45-5:15                             Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 5): The Politics of Development
   Sonja Killoran-McKibbin (Environmental Studies, York)
    Protecting what from whom? International cooperation, protected areas and resource extraction in
    the Bolivian lowlands
    The growing body of literature on the co-construction of economics and ecology carries with it tremendous implications
    when examining environments of the Global South. The past decades have shown the growing relevance of Marx’s theory
    of metabolic rift as it is carried out through the global division of nature and labour. Not only are consumers removed from
    production through market processes, they are geographically divorced from sites of production. This contributes to the
    creation of the Global South as both a source of natural resources and an externalized idyllic nature for the globe. The
    region is at once seen as a provider of primary commodities, a pristine nature available for adventurous tourists, and as
    holder of the ‘lungs of the world’ and provider of ecological necessities. This paper examines the manner in which these
    three themes play out in the Bolivian department of Santa Cruz, home to much of the country’s oil and gas reserves, as
    well as one of the country’s largest protected areas. The paper focuses on two key ecological interventions in the
    department: the displacement of indigenous populations for expanded hydrocarbon extraction and the NGO-led
    establishment of the Protected Area Noel Kempff Mercado. By exploring the correlation of these two interventions, the
    paper takes a critical look at the language of protection and the manner in which international cooperation intervenes in
    environments of the Global South. The paper suggests that protection is applied both as a neo-colonial measure of “saving
    green spaces from brown faces” and as a mechanism to disrupt populations and temper resistance to further resource
    extraction in bordering regions.

   Ewa Modlinska (Environmental Studies, York)
    Does the Plantar Project in Brazil make sense? ‘Sustainable development’ in the United Nations
    Framework Convention on Climate Change
    The aim of this paper is to understand how the Plantar Project in Brazil was administered through a broader international
    framework that emerged in response to climate change. The Plantar Project is one of the most recognized Clean
    Development Mechanism (CDM) project that is popularly used by climate justice advocacy groups to highlight issues that
    exist within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under which the CDM is
    administered. This paper will review three Plantar Project documents that are available on the World Bank’s Carbon
    Finance website: Project Idea Note (Plantar 2000), Project Appraisal Document (World Bank 2002), and the Environmental
    Assessment of the Plantar Project (Kornexl 2001). The objective is to explore the underlying logic of the arguments
    presented by Plantar S. A. to acquire funding from the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund and which at the time appeared
    sufficient to fulfil the regulatory precedence established by the UNFCCC. An introduction to the UN Framework Convention
    on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Clean Development Mechanism is given to provide some context in which
    to explore the decisions that were made by Plantar S. A. and the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund. The assumptions and
    implications of the ‘rational arguments’ in favour of the Plantar Project will be explored by considering some of the key
    actors involved in ‘sustainable development’ at the UNFCCC level. In the research scope of this paper, the policy actors
    include the Plantar S.A. company and the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund; some focus will be given to the response of
    SinksWatch and CDM Watch (non government organizations that track and scrutinize CDM projects). The interest is to
    explore how the UNFCCC framework is operationalized and how the contested definition of ‘sustainable development’
    allows the questionable administration of projects such as the Plantar Project in Brazil.

   Mark Stoddart (Sociology, Memorial) & Howard Ramos (Sociology and Social Anthropology,
    Wilderness, Wildlife and the Call for Local Democracy: Social Movements and Environmental
    Governance at Jumbo Pass, BC, and the Tobeatic Wilderness Area, NS
    Jumbo Glacier Resort is a proposed ski resort that would be located in the Purcell Mountains of south-eastern British
    Columbia. It has been opposed by environmental organizations for over 20 years, due to its potential impacts on local
    grizzly populations and alpine ecosystems. The Tobeatic Wilderness Area, a popular canoeing destination, has been
    described as Nova Scotia’s largest wilderness and the “wild soul of the Maritimes.” After several years of conflict over off-
    highway vehicle (OHV) use, the area was protected in 2006. This paper uses these two cases to examine the relationship
    between social movements and environmental governance where outdoor sport has become the subject of environmental
    conflict. The analysis is based on interviews with key environmental movement actors, mass media coverage, and
    environmental organization websites. Both cases show that environmental organizations and their supporters call for local
    democracy, echoing recent literature on environmental governance and ecological citizenship. This is done through the
    valorization of the ‘local' and encouraging individual participation as ecological citizens. However, the two movements
    examined engage governance very differently. In the Tobeatic case, environmentalists were actively recruited to
    governance processes and adopt a collaborative stance in relation to the provincial government. In the Jumbo case, by
    contrast, environmentalists have a more oppositional and distant relationship to government. Environmentalists involved
    in this conflict also take a much more sceptical stance towards environmental governance in the Jumbo Pass region. A
    comparison of these cases demonstrates how environmental mobilization against the ecological harms of outdoor
    recreation may be linked to demands for more open structures of environmental governance.

   Allison Goebel (Environmental Studies, Queens University)
    Urban Protests in Contemporary South Africa: A Struggle for Environmental Justice?
    South Africa is experiencing high levels of public protest, often relating to lack of affordable housing and lack of access to
    basic services such as water, sanitation and energy, but also as expressions of political and economic marginality and
    distrust of elected officials in the “new South Africa”. This paper examines current urban protests and movements in
    South Africa, with particular focus on the shack-dwellers movement known as Abahlali baseMjondolo originating in
    Durban, using press reports, internet sources, scholarly literature and some original interview-based research carried out
    in early 2010. The paper explores understanding these protests and movements from multiple theoretical perspectives
    including environmental justice, anti-globalization and feminist, and within the context of imagining a sustainable urban
    future for South Africa.

Session 2 (Tilley 28): Innovation and Adaptation
   Christopher Ling (Environment and Sustainability, Royal Roads University) and Ann Dale (Canada
    Research Chair in Sustainable Community Development, Royal Roads University)
    Linking Landscape, human diversity and innovation

    In the natural world, the transfer of resources between landscape features such as the corridors and patches that make up
    the mosaic of ecological niches is increased where those boundaries are more complex. Using an illustrative case study
    method in the context of Canadian communities this paper will explore this as an analogue for the relationship between
    natural landscapes and human communities and the possible link between those landscapes greater human diversity and
    innovation. The case studies are all examples of human communities with higher than average populations of the creative
    class and with noted landscapes that have influenced the nature and direction of development. We explore the possibility
    that there is a link between landscape and creativity and consider how this may reflect the potential for cultural diversity
    and thus for sustainable community development: sustainable communities being a key component of environmental

   Gary Bowden (Sociology, University of New Brunswick)
    On the Limits of Resilience: Social Change and Cultural Death among the Norse Greenlanders, 985-
    Broadly speaking, theories of the relationship between resources and long-term societal trajectories fall into one of four
    camps: a) neo-Malthusian arguments that resources ultimately limit economic development, b) cornucopian arguments
    that human ingenuity will triumph over resource limitations, c) Marxist inspired accounts which argue that the problem is
    the distribution of resources rather than the amount and d) Homer-Dixon's attempt to reconcile the first two by focusing
    on the gap between the requirement for and supply of ingenuity rather than resource limitations. The nearly 500 years of
    Norse settlement on Greenland -- beginning with the arrival of a few hundred settlers, growing to a population of several
    thousand and ultimately disappearing entirely -- will be used as a case study to examine the relative utility of these four
    accounts. Several significant events and processes, particularly the onset of the Little Ice Age around 1200 (which placed
    constraints on the resources that served as the basis for the traditional Norse economy) and the eastward spread of the
    Thule culture (which provided a model of how to adapt to the colder climate) make this a useful case for comparing the
    four accounts. Overall, the Greenland Norse made a wide range of social and technological adaptations designed to cope
    with the changes they were experiencing, but these adaptations were all within a range of options consistent with their
    cultural heritage. They did not make the one change, wholesale adoption of the Thule mode of existence, that would have
    allowed them to survive. Faced with the choice of living like the Thule or dying like Norse, they chose the latter. Based on a
    detailed analysis of the archaeological and ethno-historical evidence it will be argued that a) there exist minor aspects of
    the evidence that support all four of the accounts but b) Homer-Dixon's theory provides the best overall explanation for
    the trajectory of Greenland Norse society. Finally, the case will be used to highlight a class of phenomena relevant to
    Ingenuity Gap theory but largely ignored by Homer-Dixon. Specifically, Homer-Dixon treats the ability to supply ingenuity
    as the product of the presence or absence of various socio-cultural factors that facilitate ingenuity coupled with potential
    biological limitations (e.g., is our brain capable of understanding the complexity of the problem). Evidence from the Norse
    Greenland case suggests the need to consider the operation of socio-cultural processes that actively limit or hinder
    ingenuity as well as those that facilitate it.

   Sadia Afrin (Geography, University of Waterloo)
    Living with climate change and floods: Sufferings and adaptation strategies of the poor in Dhaka city
    Climate change is responsible for the ever-increasing flood disasters in Bangladesh. It has been predicted that the
    frequency of severe flood will increase in Bangladesh, and nearly 20 million people will be exposed to the future floods.
    The country faced a massive flood in 2004, which affected about 40 million people, claimed a death toll of 800 lives, and
    damaged about 2.2 billion USD. The flood inundated approximately 45% areas of Dhaka city, the capital of the country. The
    poor living in the informal settlements in Dhaka city were the most vulnerable group. Therefore, the study investigated the
    adverse impacts of the flood on livelihoods of the poor in Dhaka city. It also aimed to explore their adaptation strategies to
    cope with the flood. The study collected data from a questionnaire survey of 193 households, two case studies, and two
    focus group discussions to collect data from the field. In addition, it also collected data from the secondary sources. The
    results demonstrated that in 2004 the flood tormented the livelihood of the poor people in Dhaka city. The flood created a
    lot of sufferings for the poor people not only physically and mentally but also financially. They suffered a heavy financial
    loss mainly accumulated from residential damages, income losses and health crises. The study identified that poverty,
    inadequate livelihood assets, and weak adaptation strategies of the poor increased their vulnerability to the flood.
    Therefore, the study recommended that vocational trainings and income-generating activities should be initiated for the
    urban poor to alleviate their poverty and to increase their livelihood assets. Moreover, the adaptation strategies of the
    poor should be strengthened through proper trainings, educations, and awareness-raising activities. Finally, measures are
    also required to integrate these local adaptation strategies with national disaster management practices.

   Ashlee Cunsolo Willox (Environmental Design & Rural Development, University of Guelph), Sherilee
    Harper (Population Medicine, University of Guelph), Victoria Edge (Population Medicine, University
    of Guelph), and the Rigolet Inuit Community Government
    Climate Change, Mental and Emotional Health, and Adaptation: What We Can Learn from Inuit in
    Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    For Canada’s Inuit populations, land-based activities such as hunting, fishing, trapping, and travelling to cabins contribute
    greatly to health and well-being. Climatic and environmental change and variability, however, are altering local
    ecosystems, and as a result, it is becoming increasingly challenging for many Inuit to continue to practice land-based
    activities. These changes in weather, ice, and snow directly affect the lives of Inuit, and hold significant implications for
    mental and emotional health and well-being. From data gathered as part of a multi-year, community driven project in
    Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Labrador, Canada, Inuit have shared that these changes elicit feelings of anxiety, sadness, depression,
    stress, fear, anger, and lament over the rapid and disorienting pace of change. Sharing results from a qualitative case
    study, framed with an EcoHealth approach, data for this presentation will be drawn from a community-wide
    Environmental Distress Surveys and 87 in-depth interviews with Inuit community members and public health
    representatives from through Nunatsiavut, Canada. This presentation will examine the connections between climate
    change and mental and emotional health and well-being, and consider the implications for individual and community
    resilience and sustainable adaptation strategies. In particular, the importance of considering mental and emotional health
    and well-being to ensure that adaptation techniques and strategies are holistic, locally-appropriate, culturally-relevant,
    and sustainable, will be highlighted. This talk will be of interest to researchers, policy makers, government representatives,
    and community-engaged workers who are interested in the ways in which climatic and environmental change are
    impacting the health and well-being of remote communities and the implications for resilience, adaptation, and
    community and environmental sustainability.
Session 3 (Tilley 305): The Meaning of Place
   Amanda Solmes (Environmental Studies, Wilfred Laurier University)
    Ecological Citizenship as a place-based phenomena
    To better comprehend how to move towards a more sustainable society, we must sidestep from the current discussion
    about new technology and “sustainable development” and reflect on the core of the matter. It has been formally
    recognized that humans are one species in a system of many and cannot be separated from nature; however, we have yet
    to redesign our value systems or ways of living to reflect this acknowledgement. To bring these fundamentals to light, I
    recommend that we begin with a discussion around the notion of “ecological citizenship” and reflect on what this
    approach could have to offer in terms of shifting the paradigm of ecological values. Since ecological citizenship is a place-
    based understanding that examines the relationship between individuals and their ecosystem, it is important to reposition
    these ideas from their current state – rooted in political theory – and examine them in the context of their application to
    individual places. This discussion is grounded in lessons learned from a wilderness-based case study in South-western
    Yukon that demonstrates how ecological citizenship has been embodied in the region and identifies reasons for what has
    encouraged its transformation to take place over time.

   Claudia Grill (Bielefeld Graduate School in History and Sociology)
    Polar bears, tourism and garbage dumps – Dealing with Climate Change and Sustainability in
    Thousands of tourists are flocking to Churchill, Manitoba, every fall to look at polar bears, which have become a symbol of
    the dramatic consequences of humans’ unsustainable lifestyle and climate change. My presentation draws out some of the
    local perceptions of environmental change in Churchill and is based on my ongoing PhD project. The underlying
    assumption behind my research is that in order to understand the social relevance of the global phenomenon of climate
    change we need to focus on different cultural practices in everyday lives. Therefore means and spheres of interaction with
    the environment are being analyzed through long-term fieldwork based on video ethnography. Drawing from Marcus'
    ”multi-sited-ethnography“, I am “following“ discourses and concepts that are relevant to understand the socio-cultural
    impacts of environmental changes. People in Churchill have to deal with manifold impacts of climate change. Not only are
    the polar bears – the emblem of the local tourism economy – thought to be threatened by rising temperatures. Changing
    weather patterns are also forcing people to adapt daily activities and established practices such as trapping or hunting.
    Another highly contested issue is waste management. However, next to the perceived negative effects, Churchill’s
    inhabitants also discuss possible positive impacts: The port could be accessible for a longer period of time and serve as a
    major hub for shipping to Europe. Moreover, the current “end-time” scenario promises to attract an ever increasing
    number of tourists, who come to Churchill to see polar bears “as long as they are still there”... The paper thus provides
    some insights into how people living in a specific northern community conceptualise sustainability and how these ideas
    link up with local interpretations and strategies concerning climate change.

   Kara Rickson (Griffith University, Australia)
    ‘Placing’ exposures and navigating extremes: Negotiating agendas for climate change adaptation

    Growing recognition that climate change poses a range of immediate and longer-term threats to social and environmental
    sustainability, outstripping any mitigation efforts, has drawn attention to imperatives, challenges, and opportunities for
    adaptation. Within this context, many of Southeast Queensland’s regions and communities have been identified as both
    highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and as the site of considerable population growth and development. In
    terms of ‘natural’ and ‘technological’ hazards, for example, risks of harm for people and their environments are expected
    to vary markedly both within and across ‘place’, not only as a function of geographic location, ecological quality or
    biophysical diversity, but also in relation to specific political, socio-economic, and cultural contexts. This paper examines
    ‘local’ and broader ‘engagements’ with environmental risk, particularly in relation to places identified as socially and
    physically vulnerable. Three issues are centrally addressed: 1) the ways that environmental risks are framed as problems
    and solutions identified, 2) how these risks and vulnerabilities are variably produced, distributed or imposed, and 3) how
    they are negotiated and managed ‘in place’. This focus allows investigation of the ways that people in different social and
    physical ‘locations’ engage with, or are exposed to, risks, and how these may be structured by, or influence, institutional
    and organizational processes. The study employs a case approach and is grounded in environmental sociology, bringing
    together investigation of both the material aspects of social-environmental interactions and the ways socio-political
    processes shape, and differentiate, the vulnerabilities and risks we face. Studying these dynamics is important because
    they greatly influence differential exposures to ‘hazards’ and capacities to address them, both within these places and
    further afield.
   Gary Martin (Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton)
    Sprawl and Spin: Emerging contests over definitions of urban sustainability in Ottawa

    This paper explores potential urban planning contests in the Ottawa region. These contests are portended by the
    sustainability discourse in the City of Ottawa planning exercise called Choosing Our Future, and by reactions (or lack
    thereof) to sustainability planning by developers in the region. From media reports of planning debates in Ottawa, it
    appears that discursive constructions of sustainable neighborhoods vary considerably between City planners and
    residential developers. Further, my years in the building industry and recent site visits to residential construction projects
    indicate a disconnect between discursive constructions of sustainable development and the actual construction of new
    housing and neighborhoods in Ottawa, regardless of how developments are portrayed by developer marketing. This paper
    begins with a political ecology of new housing in Ottawa, the global to local pressures on the City of Ottawa to define and
    promote sustainable development, and the pressures on developers to continue business-as-usual. It then explores the
    gap between urban planning discourse and residential building in Ottawa through an analysis of City planning documents
    and developer advertising, interviews with stakeholders (planners, developers and builders), mapping exercises, energy
    analyses and comparisons with sustainable construction best practices. How far apart are these stakeholders? The main
    assumption guiding the research is that common terms of reference shared by planning and builder stakeholders would be
    a good place to start dialogue on what constitutes sustainable neighborhoods in particular, and sus tainability in general –
    both of which remain elusive and contested concepts in Ottawa.

   Susan Aquino (Mariano Marcos State University, Philippines)
    Gender Mapping In The Biomass Energy Sectors In Northern Philippines
    This study sought to map out the differentiated roles that men and women significantly play over time and space in the
    biomass energy systems (BES) particularly cookstove and biogas. A pre-tested, structured interview schedule was used to
    gather the primary data from respondents composed of fabricators and contractors, users and sellers of the two BES. The
    two sectors are dominated by male, full-time waged employees but are in farming and fishing as an alternative source of
    income, middle and old-aged players with relatively high level of education and long experience of involvement in the
    biomass energy. Socially, most belong to the high class, Catholic, and generally have positive attitude towards BES.
    Geographically, the role-players reside in the rural lowlands. They are easily accessible to roads, transport vehicles and
    service facilities like the markets and stores. The major category of the MMSU-AREC area is rural, with a flatland
    classification and very accessible to reach because of the easy road conditions. Socio-politically, particularly on authority of
    influence, males within and outside of the family are dominant in most of the affairs and concerns of the respondents.
    Results showed that there is a contrast in the gender role profile between the cookstove and biogas systems. The
    cookstove system is female-dominated specially in the roles of marketing. In contrast, the biogas is a male-dominated
    system both on the role of building and utilization. Only one from among the respondent is a male builder. This is so
    because of the so-called masculine labor that involves building a biogas. In the cookstove sector, the fabricators are at the
    same time sellers in the cookstove, all-females because their husbands have other jobs and cookstove-making and selling
    is all on the wive’s hands. Children in the family are helping their mothers/women in the manufacture of cookstove.

6:00-7:30: Wine and Cheese Social at the Beaverbrook Art Gallery

$10 for nibblies in an inspiring venue. See some of Dali's most important works and chat up your colleagues!
                                                 Tuesday, May 31

8:45-10:15                             Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 5): Resource and Land Use Policy
   Nathan Deutsch and Iain Davidson-Hunt (Natural Resources Institute, U. of Manitoba)
    Scaling up to community-based planning and management: the case of the Whitefeather Forest
    Steering Group
    Cross-scale adaptive governance posits the need for institutional frameworks that bridge community-level institutions and
    state institutions. This paper presents a case study conducted with the community of Pikangikum First Nation in
    northwestern Ontario. The Whitefeather Forest Initiative (WFI) is a community-level planning process for economic
    renewal being undertaken by Pikangikum. Customary land use and resource management authority in Pikangikum was
    decentralized to knowledgeable individuals with responsibility for the well being of extended family groups. Pikangikum
    opened up policy space for the WFI, exercising agency, and effectively constructing a new institution at the community
    level through which they engage in resource planning and management. The Whitefeather Forest Steering Group presents
    an example of an innovative governance approach which responds to the need to plan at the community-level, while
    respecting customary authority embedded in extended family areas. The Steering Group allows for Pikangikum elders to
    bring their knowledge directly into the planning process, engaging with state management institutions and effectively
    challenging the technocratic forestry planning and management process.

   Jeji Varghese (Sociology and Anthropology, University of Guelph)
     Alternative Land Use Services (ALUS) Pilot: Ecological Modernisation or Commodification Feeding
    the Treadmill of Production?
    There is increased recognition that in addition to producing food and fibre, rural lands provide a range of environmental
    goods and services (EG&S) such as wildlife habitat, scenic amenities, recreation areas and green space. Current approaches
    to encouraging the provision of EG&S from rural lands generally rely on land use regulations or farm programs. Based on
    the premise that these two models are reaching the limits of their usefulness for various reasons, an alternative approach
    involving the use of market exchange relationships to bring willing buyers of EG&S into contact with willing sellers has
    been established through Alternative Land Use Services (ALUS) Pilot. This paper draws on an ALUS Pilot case study in
    Ontario to explore which of the two environmental sociological perspectives, Ecological Modernisation or Treadmill of
    Production, the pilot is more closely aligned. As such, the paper begins with a review of the main tenants of both
    perspectives followed by an overview of the ALUS Case. Following, is a critical examination of whether the ALUS pilot,
    touted as a form of empowerment for farmers and consumers and an alternative mechanism for ensuring EG&S, is in
    alignment with ecological modernisation or whether the ALUS pilot commodifies nature such that it becomes part of the
    treadmill of production.

   Carolyn Peach Brown (Environmental Studies, UPEI)
    Institutional perceptions of opportunities and challenges of REDD+ in the Congo Basin
    Tropical forests are the central focus in international policies designed to mitigate climate change through maintenance
    and enhancement of carbon stocks. While forest ecosystems absorb about 30 percent of CO2 emissions every year and
    store large reservoirs of carbon, conversion of forests through deforestation and degradation is a source of carbon
    emissions. Measures to reduce deforestation are considered to be one of the quickest and least expensive ways of
    achieving large emissions cuts. Therefore, international climate negotiations have focused on ways to mitigate climate
    change through a new policy known as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). This policy
    also has potential to contribute to sustainable development goals, maintain biodiversity, and vital ecosystem services.
    Countries of Central Africa, containing the Congo Basin rainforest, have become a focal point for the implementation of
    this policy. However, REDD+ presents many challenges in implementation at the international, national and sub-national
    level to achieve climate mitigation and sustainability goals. Using a qualitative approach, research was conducted with
    institutions of the state, private sector and civil society involved in forest and climate change issues in Cameroon, Central
    African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. Through semi-structured interviews and content analysis of relevant
    documents, the perceptions of the opportunities and challenges of REDD+ were analysed. Institutions perceived that
    REDD+ would provide opportunities for economic development and poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation,
    increased collaboration across diverse stakeholders, and governance reform. Challenges identified were the complexity of
    the REDD+ policy, lack of technical capacity for implementation, sharing of benefits, and the need for investment in rural
    agriculture to facilitate the transition from shifting cultivation. Although there are some differences, the broad agreement
    across institutions and countries provides a common basis to take advantage of the opportunities and address the

   Jesse Woodward (Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan)
    The Economic Realities of Weak Sustainability

    The paper provides an assessment of weak sustainability principles through a consideration of the UK/Norway’s North Sea
    oil experience, in particular the implications of the revenue streams created by these projects, and the concept of
    sustainable development as formulated by Herman E. Daly.

   Kate Sherren (Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie)
    Lessons from transdisciplinary research on tree decline in Australia’s grazing landscapes

    Tree decline has been documented in farming and grazing landscapes around the world, risking negative consequences for
    biodiversity and for important ecosystem services. We used solution-oriented transdisciplinary research to understand the
    possible consequences of tree decline in Australia’s temperate grazing landscapes, and explore appropriate management
    and policy responses. Here we share lessons from a 3 year research program into tree decline undertaken collaborately
    with local graziers. We established the scale of the tree decline problem and identified some solutions using multiple
    methods. We then simulated tree decline and its consequences for landscape aesthetics and biodiversity, using photo-
    realistic animations and empirically derived habitat relationships. The results foreshadow dramatic visual and ecological
    impacts for the region. We determined costs of options for addressing tree decline based on the experiences of case
    farmers. Our findings support the need for policies to encourage wildlife-friendly grazing practices (e.g. high-intensity, fast-
    rotation grazing, low chemical fertiliser use) as well as active planting and protection.

Session 2 (Tilley 28): Environmental History
   Jennifer Gerrits (Environmental Studies, York)
     “Dealing with living things:” Integrated pest management in Nova Scotia’s Annapolis Valley, 1940 -

    Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring is frequently recognized as the foundational moment in modern environmentalism. Carson,
    however, acknowledged many who had gone before her in the search for safer alternatives to chemical pesticides. She
    recognized the work of Dr. Alison D. Pickett and his colleagues at the Agriculture Canada Research Station in Kentville,
    Nova Scotia. The research presented here focuses on Pickett’s work in Annapolis Valley apple orchards chronicling his use
    of pesticides, their failure, and his subsequent search for alternatives. Alternatives which were more successful at
    controlling pests, less costly and posed fewer environmental risks. The paper provides an historical perspective of ‘the
    pesticide debate’ that continues to inform modern environmental action as “a shining model but one too little emulated.”

   Andrew Watson (History, York)
    Poor Soils and Rich Folks: Household Metabolisms and Sustainability in Muskoka, 1860-1920

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, Eurocanadians resettled the region of the Muskoka Lakes as part of a larger
    liberal project to further colonize North America. Resettlers who took up free land grants in the 1860s and 1870s
    discovered thin, acidic soils beneath old growth forests that proved incapable of providing for all of their material needs,
    and which resulted in a reliance on exogenous inputs from places to the south that continues to this day. By the 1880s,
    however, tourism had emerged as a vital market for people in Muskoka. Over the course of the late nineteenth and early
    twentieth centuries, permanent residents and tourists established interdependent relationships, which formed the
    foundations for more sustainable social, economic, and ecological arrangements. New social and technological forces, such
    as consumerism and the internal combustion engine, however, emerged after the turn of the century to reorient
    household consumption patterns towards a greater proportion of less sustainable exogenously-based inputs. This project
    applies a societal metabolisms methodology1 to mainly written primary sources in order to study the flows of energy and
    material in Muskoka households between 1860 and 1920, and premises that nothing was (or is) completely sustainable,
    only more or less sustainable in relation to time (comparisons between periods) and space (comparisons within periods).
    Sustainability actually implies instability and change, rather than stasis and continuity, and therefore, demands
    consideration of both the cultural and environmental forces shaping society. Thus, this study argues that the degree to
    which life on the Shield can be considered sustainable has changed according to the economic constraints, environmental
    limitations, and socio-cultural norms and attitudes regarding consumption. Moreover, this study is intended to
    demonstrate the history is essential to the understanding of sustainability, and that sustainability
    is a useful analytical category for the study of history.

   David Zylberberg (History, York)
    Charcoal or Pit-Props: A Comparison of Woodland Management in 18th Century Hampshire and the
    West Riding of Yorkshire

    Eighteenth-Century England was a country of great regional diversity in energy regimes, with a large coalfield in the
    industrializing regions of the north and west that contrasted with a dependence on plant fuels in a more agrarian south
    and east. This paper compares woodland management between two counties that embody the characteristics of these
    two regions. Hampshire is along the south coast and lacked local supplies of coal with wood and peat being the primary
    energy sources. As a result, its woodlands continued to exhibit traditional management practices, with 12 year coppice
    cycles used to maximize the growth of wood suitable for making charcoal or burning as faggots. Meanwhile, in the West
    Riding a large local coalfield meant that wood was not burned domestically in the 18th century and only used for a few
    specialized industrial uses after 1740, when technological advancements allowed iron to be smelted by coked coal.
    However, coal mines required large numbers of wooden pit-props to prevent collapses and local woods were generally
    managed on 21 year coppice cycles to maximize the growth of these larger shoots. Based upon reading the local accounts
    and sale records of woodlands, this paper will argue that while the two woodland ecosystems differed, both should be
    understood as being managed to efficiently produce fuel for the domestic and industrial uses of their regions. The
    sustainability of these two systems is more complex since both maximized production of the desired wood in a reliable
    manner that could be continued indefinitely but could not increase to the same extent as population was expanding. This
    paper fits with the conference theme by offering a historical perspective on the local management of environmental
    resources in a generally sustainable manner.

   Barry Johnson (Wayne State University)
    Wastewater Processing Comes to Detroit

    Detroit was one of the cities identified by the International Joint Commission as polluting the Great Lakes in contravention
    of the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. The United States Public Health Service also reported on the pollution that
    entered the Detroit River from Detroit’s sewers. Pollution by sewage threatened lives with a dramatic increase in cases of
    Typhoid Fever and other gastro intestinal sicknesses. Chlorination of water supplies reduced these incidents to an
    acceptable level minimizing the arguments of sanitarians proposing waste water treatment. Expansion of the city to
    encompass a rapidly rising population channeled the city’s financial resources into infrastructure. Waste water treatment
    was not deemed necessary to accommodate this growth. Adjacent communities, affected by the pollution attempted to
    create a metropolitan approach to waste water treatment; this effort failed through a lack of political will and clearly
    defined objectives. Efforts by Detroit to build a plant were stymied by inter city and statewide politics, and insufficient city
    finances. New Deal programs and innovative legislation at the city and state level eventually provided the capital required
    to construct and operate a waste water plant and provide for repayment of the loans to the federal government. Detroit
    with this waste water treatment plant and its water treatment plant is unique in that it is the only central city acting as a
    service provider for a metropolitan area unlike most metropolises where metropolitan districts extend beyond political
    boundaries to provide utilities. Federal involvement in this and other large-scale civil engineering projects during this
    period was the only way it was possible for them to be completed. A certain degree of sustainability was built into the
    plant through the use of methane gas generated from the activated sludge to drive a generator, and to heat the sludge to
    accelerate the process, and as a fuel in the incinerators. Other sustainable methods considered but not implemented were
    the use of the dried sludge as fertilizer, and the use of ashes from incinerated sludge, silicon, as an ingredient in concrete
    block making.

Session 3 (Tilley 104): Gender, Organization and Adaptation in Bangladesh
Co-Sponsored with CASID (Canadian Association for the Study of International Development)
Chair: Nilufar Ahmad (World Bank)
   Mohammed Salim Uddin and Fikret Berkes (Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba)
    Sustainability of Community-Based Organizations: A Case Study from a Bangladesh Wetland

    We focus on the sustainability of community-based organizations (CBOs), which are member-managed grassroot
    organizations with broad socio-economic objectives. To study the factors that influence the functioning and sustainability
    of CBOs, we carried out studies of these organizations in Hakaluki haor, the largest wetland in Bangladesh (haor is a kind of
    wetland in Bangla language). CBOs were created in Hakaluki in the late 1990s, with the help of NGOs, for community
    resource management, as part of the Community-Based Fisheries Management project Phase-2 (CBFM-2). CBOs were
    nurtured throughout the project period to make them sustainable following the completion of the CBFM-2 project. The
    research aimed to understand the organization process of CBOs and the challenges they faced. A mixed-method research
    approach (both qualitative and quantitative) was followed. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, such as focus group
    discussions, key informant interviews and mini-workshops were used with three CBOs in three different villages. At the
    completion of CBFM-2 in 2006, CBOs largely ceased to exist because funding and logistic support disappeared. The CBOs
    were able to continue some of their functions as long as their activities brought economic and livelihood benefits (such as
    microcredit loans) to members. As well, the CBOs still continued to carry out their role in local rule-making, such as closed
    fishing periods and establishing fish sanctuaries in the low-water season. In these various functions, the CBOs required
    critical support from both local and national NGOs. Perhaps more fundamentally, CBOs faced challenges because
    Government wetland leasing policies continued to favour elites and middlemen, instead of enabling resource use directly
    by fishers, their communities and their CBOs.

   Shirley Thompson (University of Manitoba)
    Gendered Adaptation and Climate Change in Bangladesh : Considering gender in Sustainable
    Livelihood models

    Focused adaptation measures are needed for women who are more vulnerable than men to climate related impacts due
    to their social status, cultural norms, lack of access and control over resources and lack of participation in decision making
    processes. This study of ten climate change hotspots in Bangladesh considered that women bear a disproportionate
    burden of consequences of climate change because of their marginalized status and dependence on local natural
    resources. A new model of sustainable livelihoods was developed to show that social capital provides an asset that men
    more easily than women draw upon in constructing their livelihood strategies, enhancing their capacity to adapt climate
    change scenario. At a broader scale social capital contributes to the effective operation of networks and channels through
    which government programs can effectively support rural communities in their efforts to adapt to climate change.

   Iqbal Ahmed (Bangladesh International Development)
    Study Findings for Bangladesh

    This study of ten climate change hotspots in Bangladesh showed how people are coping with the consequences of climate
    change, providing recommendations for changes to improve the sustainability of livelihoods. In order to increase the
    adaptive capacities of each of the communities, it is essential that their asset base is increased to an adequate level.
    During workhops, the participants pinpointed some of the major actions that should be taken by the government, NGOs or
    the community itself to enhance their current conditions. Regardless of the hazard, some future suggestions were
    common in all hotspots, while some were only specific to that particular area. Some recommended actions, such as
    building embankments, are meant to reduce the exposure of the community to hazards while others such as increasing
    livelihood opportunities are meant to enable the people to cope better with the hazard situation.

Discussant:        Durdana Islam (Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba)

10:30-12:00                                      Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 5): Designing Sustainable Communities
   Zainub Ibrahim (University of Waterloo)
    Tourism Planning and Development in Egypt
    Despite the abundance of work on planning for tourism, little work has been done on the assessment of tourism plans,
    their implementation and effectiveness, and whether their goals and objectives have been achieved (Wall & Mathieson,
    2006). This makes it difficult to learn from experience. Many tourism plans set goals and objectives to increase the volume
    of tourism i.e. the number of tourists and assume that benefits will accrue to locals through trickle-down effects. Instead,
    plans should specify real goals, such as improving the lives of local residents through the creation of jobs and incomes, and
    focus on objectives such as the types of tourism and tourists, and ways to involve local people and maintain the
    environment as means to achieve the goals, rather than as ends in themselves (Wall & Mathieson, 2006). To date, a
    holistic method for the assessment of tourism planning is lacking from the literature. This study strives for such an
    assessment of plans at national, regional and local levels, and considers the synchronization and collaboration of various
    agencies and stakeholders through the development of principles and indicators and their application to tourism planning
    in Egypt and in the Egyptian Red Sea governorate. This study is based on a review of the literature review on planning
    assessment, both in general and in the tourism development context, an analysis of Egyptian tourism planning documents,
    and interviews with key informants from the Egyptian government, academia and planning consultants. It is found that
    tourism in Egypt largely follows the trend of according growing attention to environmental and social sustainability. The
    values of collaboration and synchronization on the part of multiple agencies are recognized. However, the benefits of
    these initiatives have yet to accrue for a number of reasons that will be discussed. This study, thus, increases
    understanding of the links between agencies at different scales and with different functions, enhances knowledge of
    development and planning and, ultimately, encourages stakeholder groups to work together towards common sustainable
    development objectives.

   Heather Davis (University of Waterloo)
    Integrated Sustainable Community Development (ISCP)
    Twelve idealized principles of Community Economic Development (CED) that meets the objectives of triple-bottomline
    sustainable development, at the municipal level, were derived from primary and secondary literature review. As a case
    study, ideal type analysis was performed on the Town of Huntsville, Ontario, and its municipal sustainability strategy. This
    case study offered an interesting example of municipal-scale community economic development for in-depth study as, like
    many other small rural towns in Ontario, Huntsville crafted a sustainability strategy in response to local economic
    hardship, demographic change, and to protect quality of life. Examining this case for the presence of idealized CED
    principles provides insight regarding the trajectory of the case sustainability strategy and highlights areas where
    improvements are warranted. The results of this exercise highlight several pathways for Huntsville to explore in order to
    maximize the benefits of CED to the social, economic and environmental realms of society. The analysis underscored the
    importance of good leadership and strong social capacity throughout all of the CED principles. These features have the
    collective power to bring people together, facilitate cooperation and shared decision-making, and mobilize resources and
    talent needed to realize visions of an equitable, sustainable, and brighter future. Second, the complex and unpredictable
    nature of social, economic, and ecological systems must be accepted. Finally, the need for ongoing community and
    stakeholder participation in sustainability planning and implementation cannot be underscored enough. This research
    provides an interesting and practical example of how community economic development is embedded in sustainable
    community planning. It is hoped that the lessons learned from this case study are useful to the Town of Huntsville and
    other communities embarking on similar projects. This work also contributes to understanding the theoretical
    underpinnings of CED and provides an example of how progress can be assessed in-practice using the ideal-type standard.

   Daniel Savard (Department of Environment, Government of New Brunswick)
    Conservation Design for Building Sustainability
    The ‘conservation subdivision’ concept is very popular in the US but still not very well known here in Canada. The Province
    of New Brunswick has been promoting the concept since 2006 and has been working with some developers to implement
    the concept. To this date seven projects are at different stages of progress. One of them, called ‘Le Village en Haut du
    Ruisseau’ (Dieppe, NB) is in the process of being built. At the final phase of the project, close to two hundred units will be
    built on 12.5 ha (in 2010 about 30 units were built). The most interesting part of the project is the conservation of
    wetlands and natural open space on more than 70% of the property itself. In addition, best management practices for
    stormwater management were incorporated to the project to take care of the run-off in a responsible manner, the
    subdivision is compact, and it takes advantage of the site for better energy efficiency of all units to be built. The sale
    revenues are going to be 16 times more important than if the property would have been built in a conventional way. The
    concept, called Sustainable Community Design for subdivisions in New Brunswick, is very simple to understand. It can be
    summarized by describing it as a ‘golf course’ subdivision where you replace the golf course by the area you want to
    preserve (i.e. wetlands, flood prone, unsuitable areas for building) and the significant features that the community would
    like to keep with the property (Ex. Mature trees, cultural sites, agricultural or scenic areas). The developer builds around
    the areas to preserve or conserve without losing one unit allowed under the zoning provisions that apply in the area. At
    least 50% of the buildable area that would normally be used for building is protected in a natural way with the
    implementation of the concept. In addition to the protection of the natural areas and communities’ significant features,
    the concept allows innovations to take place when dealing with stormwater management, and infrastructure building. At
    the same time, the engineering and construction costs are significantly less expensive (about 1/3 of the conventional
    costs), it sells faster, and it also generates with time higher assessment of residences (Ex. 12% to 16% more in 20 years
    than houses built in conventional subdivisions). The concept needs to become more mainstream in light of our need to
    respond to climate change and building more sustainable communities.

   R. Amanimehr (University of Seville, Spain)
    Hosts, Guests, Cultural Diversity and Development: The Sustainability of Religious Heritage

    The history of Spain is the field of the diversity and multiple encounters among religions and ethnics. This history is a story
    of conquest and re-conquests also, which means a victory of some of them against the others. From all of those stories,
    now days there remained not only the books to read, but also a lot of cultural heritages to see, use, comprehension and
    development. The cultural heritages, to survive need to be used, but the question is by whom? and for what? Spain is
    silently proud to have been victorious against Muslims who now leave there as a guest or minority who need temples to
    celebrate their traditions; and there is a great amount of this kind of temple, the glorious examples of mosque architecture
    which are now the cultural heritages of that country. Meanwhile, it’s prohibited for example to pray in the great mosque
    of Cordoba. That’s a mosque, and its best function would be pray in, and as a heritage monuments it’s good to give it a
    proper function to survive; but Spain, among the history, development and diversity, is encountered to a great paradox.
    Who is the owner of a Religious heritage like a Mosque in a Catholic territory like Spain today? This paper will focus on this
    struggle among the Religious Heritage, Cultural Diversity, and the Development in Spain.

Session 2 (Tilley 28): The Value of Looking Back: Using History in
Environmental Studies
Joint Roundtable With NiCHE, the Network in Canadian History of the Environment
 Bill Parenteau (Chair) (History, University of New Brunswick)
 Claire Campbell (History and College of Sustainability, Dalhousie University)
 Joshua MacFadyen (History, University of Western Ontario)
 Mark McLaughlin (History, University of New Brunswick)
    The Brundtland Commission may have given us a working definition of sustainability, but as Wynn wryly suggested, the
    issues embedded in sustainability have much deeper roots. Yet in public discussion the “environment” is usually headlined
    only in the present or future tenses: in a language of crisis and immediacy, or a speculation about proposed alternatives.
    Historians and historical geographers, however, believe it essential to consider the “thousand previous investments and
    accidents of history” that have shaped the places and practices that we have inherited, in order to craft thoughtful and
    effective responses. Environmental history helps us understand the depth and complexity of human impact on the natural
    world, by placing specific sites and issues in a longer tradition of appropriation and use. It also sheds light on human
    motivation and action by situating older practices in their ideological, political, and cultural contexts. But at the same
    time, we can find earlier examples of resilience, adaptation, and engagement with the natural world that might serve as
    inspiration for new kinds of sustainable practice. Equally important, an historical study encourages – indeed requires –
    drawing upon evidence from across the humanities and sciences. Our roundtable, all members of NiCHE [Network of
    Canadian History and Environment], will discuss our experiences in connecting the environmental history of Atlantic
    Canada to teaching, research, and policy. Josh will discuss the application of GIS in assessing Prince Edward Island’s rural
    landscapes; Mark and Bill, the implications of New Brunswick’s history of industrial forestry for sustainable public forest
    management; and Claire, the challenges of teaching Atlantic history in an interdisciplinary program of environment and

Session 2 (Tilley 104) Food Sovereignty and Traditional Ecological Knowledge
   Asfia Gulrukh Kamal (Natural Resource Institute, University of Manitoba)
    Participatory research for food sovereignty and sustainable livelihood: Case of Northern Manitoba
    First Nation Communities
    For the past three decades food insecurity has been considered as a rising health concern in Canada ((Thompson et al
    2010, Power 2008, Tarasuk 2001), particularly for Aboriginal peoples. A recent University of Manitoba study and
    household food security survey of 536 households in 14 northern Manitoba remote communities found that 75% of
    households are deprived of a regular healthy diet. Very limited access to store-bought healthy food was available in many
    communities (NHFI Evaluation Report, 2009; Northern Food Prices Report 2003) are connected with social, economic,
    cultural and political injustice. First Nations living on reserve were not included in the Canadian Community Health Survey
    2.2 survey (Northern Food Prices Steering Committee, 2003, NHFI Evaluation Report, 2009: 5). The outcomes of this unjust
    process are health disparities, social suffering and cultural disruption on Aboriginal peoples in Manitoba, Canada. In this
    research my aim will be to trace the past history of food security in northern Manitoba First Nation communities, and
    observe whether the contemporary approach appreciates local rights and food movements. For this study I will adopt
    advocacy/participatory worldview and participatory research. Participatory worldview has its foundation on political,
    empowerment issue-oriented, collaborative and change oriented insights (Cresswell 2003). Driven from postpositive
    worldview, participatory research approach was well accepted by theorists as a perspective to voice for social justice and
    issues of the marginalized (Cresswell 2009) and hence its insights go with my research objective.

   Sana Kavanagh (Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie)
     “Eels were life to our people”: Traditional ecological knowledge of eels as food, medicine,
    community, and life among participants in the Mi’kmaq food and ceremonial fishery in Unama’ki
    (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eels are an important part of the Mi’kmaq traditional food system, known as netukulimk or the traditional way of life. In
    this presentation, I explore a key theme, “eels were life to our people”, which emerged through qualitative analysis of
    semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 community-recommended eel fishery participants, from 4 Mi’kmaq
    communities in Unama’ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia. Using quotations and thick description, I try to portray the unique
    cultural perspective on interdependence and sustainability among these participants and how they link their ecological
    knowledge, practices, and values. Traditional ecological knowledge of eels encompasses knowledge, practices, and beliefs
    related to catching, preparing, and eating eels. Eels are consumed as food and medicine, and valued as a survival food,
    staple food, and special food. Participants also explain that eel food brings the community together when it is shared. Food
    is central to ecological thought among participants because they depend on eels for food and thus life and so they
    perceive themselves to be interdependent with the environment. For some participants and elders, the traditional way of
    life is valuable because it reminds a person of his or her interdependence with the environment through food. Therefore,
    participants value respectful and reciprocal activities which allow them to show reverence for the eel as a source of life
    while harvesting, preparing, sharing and consuming eels. Funding for this research was provided by the Tier 1 Canada
    Research Chair in Integrative Science, Dr. Cheryl Bartlett.

   Khan Rubayet Rahaman (Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University)
    Traditional Knowledge to mitigate the environmental risks of cyclones in coastal Bangladesh
    The remote coastal people of Bangladesh suffer from recurrent devastating cyclones for long time. To live with possible
    havoc of cyclones, they apply early warnings and few protection measures at the community level. This knowledge and
    practice reduce their risks of probable damages. In one sense, it can be termed as a socio-cultural and economic resource.
    Documentation and research on this issue help formulating well and efficient cyclone preparedness planning. This study
    has been conducted in one of the major vulnerable coastal areas in Bangladesh. It has followed participatory rural
    appraisal (PRA) tools, questionnaire survey, visual survey and semi-structured questionnaire survey to complete the paper.
    This study scrutinized why and how the relevance and need for cyclone preparedness so important for the local people. It
    plans to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of preparedness mechanisms at the household and community level using
    traditional knowledge and practices. The study identifies both structural and non-structural traditional practices to avoid
    the huge damage from cyclone with special emphasis on housing construction practices to protect their housing from
    cyclone disaster, such as, roof protection, roof form, roof shape, knotting practices, floor elements, elevation of plinth
    level, setting styles of houses and trees and etc. It also covers other traditional practices like use of disaster preparedness
    calendar, crop selection, safe place and selection of route to safety, and so on. It discusses the early warning systems
    analyzing the animal behavior, weather, and river and canal behavior and also tries to find out the scope of using this
    knowledge. At the end, the research recommends that traditional knowledge is very much important to reduce the risks of
    human and monetary losses in the vulnerable coastal areas of Bangladesh.

   Coral Voss (Interdisciplinary Studies, UBC)
    Conservation Policy, Sustainability and Traditional Ecological Knowledge
     Future environmental conservation initiatives and strategies should consider the incorporation of Traditional Ecological
     Knowledge (TEK) into conservation policies and sustainability strategies. The inclusion of TEK in conservation and
     sustainability proposals is strongly justified by the long-term involvement of indigenous peoples with their environment.
     Additionally, TEK is encompassed by its people, their subsistence and duty to maintain an environment which will continue
     to sustain them. This paper reviewed cases of the utilization of TEK in conservation efforts and co-management
     agreements with the Maori in New Zealand and Haida in Haida Gwaii, Canada. The literature review focused on:
     differences or similarities in the deployment of TEK in these regions, whether the variances were cross-cultural and the
     overall impact of TEK on conservation and sustainability. The main objective of this study was to emphasize the
     opportunity for integration of TEK with western science in constructing conservation policy and practices directed at
     sustainability. Additionally, the study reviewed the accomplishments achieved and hindrances encountered by the Maori
     and Haida, to develop a context for more comprehensive successes. The study consisted of an extensive literature review
     of relevant, current articles and government documentation. The key conclusions reached in this study were: TEK can be a
     valuable tool in the establishment, implementation and management of conservation policies and sustainable
     management systems; TEK offers important historical contexts of the condition and composition of local ecosystems; and
     TEK presents global conservation knowledge an extremely useful value system, a way of viewing the environment and
     humanity’s place in it. This topic holds great relevance and promise for sustainability as TEK offers an alternative avenue in
     environmental knowledge, rooted in the environment and relationship of people to their environment.

12:15 - 1:20                  Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Location TBA): Big Thinking Lecture
Andrew Weaver (Canadian Research Chair in Climate Modelling and Science, University of Victoria)
How Can Canadians Keep Their Cool in a Warming World?

Canadians across the country are already feeling the effects of a warming climate. Yet, there is much confusion and
misinformation complicating the public’s understanding of the issue. A stew of science, economics, ideology and spin
characterize the discourse on global warming — making it almost impossible for citizens to develop informed opinions on the
topic. In his 2011 Big Thinking lecture at the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Andrew Weaver will explore how
climate scientists can effectively communicate with the media, government and the public, resulting in evidence-based public
policy and better informed citizens making choices about their future. A recognized expert in both climate science and science
communication, Andrew Weaver holds the Canadian Research Chair in Climate Modelling and Science at the University of
Victoria, British Columbia.

Session 2 (Tilley 104): Harvesting Hope in Northern Manitoba Video and Panel
Food sovereignty through participatory video: Harvesting Hope in Northern Manitoba
Co-Sponsored with CASID (Canadian Association for the Study of International Development)

35 minute documentary/participatory video followed by 25 minute discussion with three panelists,
including producer, director and researchers: Shirley Thompson, Asfia Gulrukh, and Durdana Islam
(University of Manitoba)

Clearly the market food system is not working for Aboriginal people in Northern Manitoba when three-quarters of the
population in Northern Manitoba’s rural communities are food insecurity. Extensive compromises in food selection and total
food intake are documented in conjunction with more severe levels of food insecurity and poverty. A recent survey by
Thompson et al found levels that were eight times higher in Northern Manitoba reserves and other communities, finding 75%
food insecurity in 14 northern Manitoba communities (n=534). In fly-in communities the rates were even higher at 79%. Food
access is affected by a fly-in community’s lack of access to all-weather roads, which increases the final price, limits the types of
food available, particularly restricting fresh fruit and vegetables and damages the food. High unemployment and low incomes
with high prices for food leads to household food insecurity. Currently public health restrictions, due to prions and other risks,
prohibit selling wild game and ban free public distribution of country foods in hospitals and schools if the food has not been
processed and inspected at a federal food processor. But a federal food processor is not available in northern Manitoba. As part
of this presentation we will show the participatory video called “Harvesting Hope in Northern Manitoba” which looks at policy
from the community level. This video features First Nation and Metis people from Northern Manitoba as well as academics and
past Assembly of Manitoba Chief, Ovide Mercredi. It is a sequel to the video ‘Growing Hope in Northern Manitoba’ to allow a
more indepth exploration of the issues based on community perspectives.

1:30-2:20: Luncheon and ESAC Annual General Meeting (Tilley 5)

Nourishment is the theme --nourish your body while you help nurture ESAC's future growth at the

2:30-4:00                              Multiple Sessions

Session 1 (Tilley 28) Environmental Science
   Geoff Hill
    The application and performance of urine diversion and solids dehydration in the management of
    human waste in remote alpine environments

    In order to minimize the costs and impacts associated with human waste management in remote environments and the
    common use of helicopters to remove full excrement barrels, we designed and tested three alternative waste treatment
    systems suitable for cold climate off-grid application, at the Kain Hut, Bugaboo Provincial Park, BC, Canada. By quantifying
    the mass of excreta deposited per toilet use, we were able to compare the performance of urine-diversion (UD), solar-
    dehydration (UD12V), and 110V-evaporation (UD110V) against the standard all-wastes-in-one barrel collection (BFO). UD
    significantly reduced human excreta by 60% potentially saving $500 per barrel-helicopter-hour when removed with a Bell
    407 helicopter. UD12V solar dehydration consistently raised the air temperature and reduced the relative humidity for an
    average of 7 hrs/day by 3.2OC and -9% dehydrating the excreta mass by a non-significant additional 9% beyond UDO.
    UD110V evaporation consistently raised the air temperature and reduced the relative humidity, in an insulated basement
    chamber, by an average of 25OC and -44%, dehydrating the excreta mass by a significant additional 34% beyond UDO (94%
    less than BFO). More research needs be conducted on the optimal collection container for the resulting condensed solids
    and on the ecological impacts of locally discharged urine. Future research will test the benefits of urine diversion on pit
    toilets in order to reduce pathogen and nutrient leaching through the excrement and enhance natural perimeter soil
    microbe and plant communities surrounding the pit as a second layer of defence against environmental contamination.

   Kira Jade Cooper (Environment, University of Waterloo)
    Public policy, carp disposal and PCB concentration in landfills

    Fish epizootics are rapidly causing international concern regarding the sustainability of numerous fish industries and their
    associated communities. In Canada, these issues are compounded as some of the diseased fish are known to
    bioconcentrate elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants which have been associated with carcinogenic and
    mutagenic effects on exposed biota. During the summer of 2008, a mass die-off of Cyprinus carpio carpio (L.) occurred in
    Lake Simcoe and ten surrounding water bodies between Peterborough and Simcoe County as a result of an outbreak of the
    species-specific Koi Herpesvirus (KHV). Following the mass mortality of C. carpio (L.) (common carp), by recommendation
    of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), residents of this locale were instructed to bury the carcasses at a
    minimum depth of two feet or to double-bag the fish for roadside pickup. Considering the history of unsustainable
    development in the Lake Simcoe and Great Lakes region and extensive literature documenting the trophic amplification of
    persistent organic pollutants in carp, concern was raised regarding the chronic exposure of First Nations communities and
    local residents to toxic substances such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which were assumed to be concentrated in
    the disposal pits. Using a deterministic random design, disposal and control sites were geo-referenced and sampled with a
    coring device to extract soil samples for semi-quantitative immunological testing. At present, it can be concluded that sites
    used to dispose C. carpio on Snake Island after the 2008 KHV outbreak indicate an elevated concentration of PCBs, some
    sites exceeding the Canadian legal threshold of 50 ppm for hazardous waste. Because of this, there is reasonable concern
    that current disposal guidelines for fish epizootics are not sustainable, as they do not sufficiently consider the socio-
    ecological health of First Nations and private landowners.

   Zenaida Agngarayngay (Research and Development Directorate, Mariano Marcos State University,
    Seaweed as Source of Health and Wellness

    Nutritional quality of our food produced has significantly diminished in over the past 50 years. The synergistic effect of
    stress, toxicity, and nutritional depletion can be devastating, weakening our immune system and eventually succumb
    dreadful diseases. Our body is designed to utilize natural substances, however, we ingest new synthetic chemicals and use
    more drugs of all kinds, thus, antioxidants from natural source is essential. Seaweeds are good source of antioxidative
    compounds specially the brown algae. Antioxidants are becoming very necessary in today’s world in boosting the immune
    system to impart related human health benefits. However, synthetic antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisol (BHT) and BHA
    need to be replaced with natural antioxidant as they were found to be toxic, responsible for liver damage, promoters of
    carcinogenesis and alteration of enzyme activities. In the present study, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol
    crude extract of brown seaweed scientifically known as Hydroclathrus clathratus Howe was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-
    picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity, and total phenol content. The decrease of purplish visible color of
    the stable DPPH free radical when mixed with the H. clathtratus extract indicates that H. clathtratus has free radical chain
    formation mechanism making it possible as antioxidant. Total phenol content was evaluated following Folin-Ciocalteu
    method and similarly, result suggests an antioxidant activity of H. clathratus which migh phenol substrates. The overall
    results of the study are indicative of the potential of H. clathratus as medicinal agent in pharmaceutical industry and in the
    food processing industry to preserve foods.

Session 2 (Tilley 104): Discourses and Networks
   Neil Balan (Edwards School of Business, University of Saskatchewan)
    Environments, Human Terrain, and Interests: Between Counterinsurgency & Ecology in Canada
    Given the often political and social justice thrust of environmental discourse (whether polemical or ‘good science’), the
    constellation of security, conflict, and war is a relevant and indeed constitutive concern for environmental studies rather
    than a lacuna. As such, this offering attempts to trouble a number of distinctions regarding the categorical imperatives of
    the human, social, and natural sciences, and their abilities to gather together what Bruno Latour has called matters of
    concern. By first acknowledging how ecological and environmental idioms and rhetorics have drifted into the critical
    humanities, this working paper proposes an interdisciplinary discussion of contemporary environments of foreign war
    alongside domestic economic development through the rhetorics of human terrain and counterinsurgency (COIN). These
    concerns converge quite distinctly through the optic of environment. While COIN seems initially at a remove from the
    politics of environment in Canada, I contend it’s worthwhile and even crucial to link these logics together. In developing
    an environmental conception of war waged under the sign of COIN—with its continuum of operations—I link
    contemporary Canadian military doctrine to environmental considerations regarding domestic iterations of Canadian
    capitalism, especially as this relates to engaging with local and indigenous communities in Northern and Western Canada.
    The paper interrogates how environmental issues specific to Northern development—with its social and economic benefits
    and fall-outs—are articulated through not simply the idiom of ‘stakeholders’ (e.g., corporate social responsibility discourse,
    triple-bottom line reporting, monitoring) but also through state-based procedures nominating ‘recalcitrant’ adversaries,
    enemies, and opponents whose dissent or deliberation is countered or pacified through a number of methods specific to
    the non-kinetic spectrum of operations characteristic of COIN warfare. A key consideration here is the very genealogy of
    these methods, and the question of what I call the militarization thesis as it relates to different domains of human life in its
    social, political, and environmental contexts. In conclusion, the paper identifies the how the interventionist logic of foreign
    expeditionary wars waged as counterinsurgencies are subsequently pollinating decisions, nominations, and encounters
    between state actors, agents of industry, activists, and communities. Ultimately, I contend the conception of war as risk
    and environmental management system is in fact operating as a meta/master trope to frame and make intelligible political
    and political economic debates regarding environment and ecology in Canada—a conceptual and paradigmatic logic that is
    ideologically and politically problematic.

   Stephanie Sodero (University of Oxford)
    Implied sustainability: The case of British Columbia’s carbon tax
    In 2008, British Columbia was a first-mover in North America, implementing a broad-based, escalating carbon tax that was
    matched with reductions in personal and corporate income taxes. Carbon taxation is a form of environmental pricing that,
    in coordination with other policy initiatives, has the potential to address unsustainable fossil fuel and land consumption
    habits that characterize North American transport and development patterns. Drawing on 24 dialogue interviews and a
    document analysis, this research reassembles the interactions that resulted in British Columbia’s carbon tax, exploring the
    tensions between environmental sustainability, economic efficiency and political acceptability. This research was grounded
    in Actor-Network Theory, which successfully offers a fine grain approach to capturing processes and highlights the role
    that non-human entities, such as greenhouse gas emissions, play in such processes. It was found that the concept of
    ‘sustainability’ was largely implicit. For some actors, the tax was a means of moving toward environmental sustainability,
    while for other actors the potential environmental benefits of the tax were secondary to implementing an economic policy
    that holds appeal across the political spectrum. In both cases, the emphasis of policy discussions centred on the tax’s
    economic efficiency, revenue neutrality, administrative ease and public acceptability. The documentation of the process
    that caused carbon pricing to emerge as a political priority and a practical reality in British Columbia yields increased
    understanding of the framing of sustainability within carbon pricing policy discussions.

   Barry Wallace (Culture and Communication, York)
    Green Communication: More Than Word Play!
    Literature pertaining to terms such as communication, the environment, sustainability, and green indicates a predominate
    focus upon the use of communication for environmental awareness, but little research or discourse exists on the greening
    of communication itself, other than a recent consideration of the environmental impact of contemporary information
    technology. This paper proposes the concept of green communication: “the selection and use of environmentally
    sustainable practices for communication.” By applying an interdisciplinary approach that draws from sociology,
    communication theory, environmental studies, and marketing, it is argued that the addition of “green” to
    communication” would act as a powerful contagion – one that would influence both behavior and the social imaginary.
    The ultimate vision being that a commitment to, and practice of, green communication will lead to an increase of
    sustainable communication practices – and serve to remind and influence participants of the importance of sustainability
    beyond their respective communication practices.

Session 3 (Location TBA) Panel Discussion: How Do We Build Resilient
Communities in the Face of Climate Change?
   Andrew Weaver
   Noorjehan Johnson
   Ratana Chuenpagdee
   Ian Mauro

    The science is complex, the picture is daunting, the impacts all too real. A global challenge, climate change is creating
    environmental, economic and social upheaval, particularly in coastal and northern communities. What strategies are
    available to those communities to mitigate and adapt to climate change and its impact on their ecosystems? Are there
    governance and policy hurdles hindering the development and implementation of such strategies? Can and will local
    actions make a difference? Join Big Thinking speaker and Canada Research Chair in Climate Modeling and Science, Dr.
    Andrew Weaver, Inuit anthropologist and Vanier Scholar Noorjehan Johnson, Canada Research Chair in Natural Resource
    Sustainability and Community Development, Dr. Ratana Chuenpagdee, and Ian Mauro, Canada Research Chair in
    Geography and Environment and filmmaker in this inspiring conversation on community activism, sustainability and

4:00 - 6:00    Film Screening: Inuit Knowledge and Climate Change
(MacLaggan Hall 105)

Discussant: Ian J. Mauro (Geography and Environment, Mount Allison University)
Canada Research Chair in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change

Nunavut-based director Zacharias Kunuk (Atanarjuat The Fast Runner) and researcher and filmmaker Dr. Ian Mauro (Seeds of
Change) teamed up with Inuit communities to document their knowledge and experience regarding climate change. This new
documentary, the world’s first Inuktitut language film on the topic, takes the viewer “on the land” with elders and hunters to
explore the social and ecological impacts of a warming Arctic. This unforgettable film helps us to appreciate Inuit culture and
expertise regarding environmental change and indigenous ways of adapting to it. Following the film screening, Dr. Mauro will
be present to answer questions and engage in a lively discussion with the audience regarding the film and new media methods
in the environmental and social sciences.

5:30-7:00                    President's Reception (Student Union Building)
                                      Wednesday, June 1

Forest Walk: 9:30-10:30
Individuals from the Conservation Council of New Brunswick lead a walk through an old growth forest
close to town. Transportation to site available. Meeting location: To be announced. Registration: $10

Brunch at 11:00
Join the Executive for Brunch following the Forest Walk (Location: To be Announced)

Sessions of interest offered by other Societies

Environmental sociology, Section A              May 31 15:15 16:45      Edmund Casey Hall G-11

Environmental Research Cluster Caucus           Jun 01 08:45 10:15      Edmund Casey Hall 124

Issues in Food and the Ecosystem                Jun 01 08:45 10:15      Edmund Casey Hall G-11

Eco-politics, Eco-systems: Preserving Nature    Jun 01 10:30 12:00      Edmund Casey Hall G-11

Environment and Society in Atlantic Canada      Jun 01 17:00 18:00      Edmund Casey Hall 103

Sociology in the forest sector                  Jun 03 08:45 10:15      Edmund Casey Hall G-11

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