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UNIT Introduction and Anatomical Terminology

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UNIT Introduction and Anatomical Terminology Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction, and Anatomical Terminology

Text reading Chapter 1

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following:
      anatomy                                cytology
      physiology                             histology
      gross anatomy
      regional anatomy
      systemic anatomy
      microscopic anatomy

2. What are the structural components of the human body?

3. Describe anatomical position.

4. Name the major body cavities divisions of the body and the organs found
in these cavities.

5. Define and apply the terms of directional references in the body.

6. Define and apply the terms of planes and sections.

7. Describe the four major abdominal-pelvic quadrants and the organs
located in these quadrants.

8. Learn the correct anatomical terms for areas of the body.

9. Name and give the location of the membranes that line the ventral body
cavity.

10. What is the difference between a visceral and parietal membrane?




                                      1
Lab Activities

1. Locate these directional terms a skeleton or torso model:
      superior                   dorsal
      inferior                   ventral
      cranial                    lateral
      caudal                     medial
      anterior                   proximal
      posterior                  distal

2. Find the following anatomical landmarks / regions on a chart or torso
model (use Fig 1.8 and Table 1.1 in your book as a reference)
      cephalon                 bucca
      cervicis                 mentis
      upper limb
              axilla
              brachium
              antebrachium
              carpus
              palma
              pollex
              olecranon
      abdominal region         umbilicus
      chest region             mamma
                               thoracis
      back of body             lumbus
                               dorsum
      groin area               inguen
      lower limb
              femur            popliteus
              crus             sura
              patella          hallux
              pelvis
              tarsus
              pes




                                      2
3. Be able to identify the following body planes on a skeleton or torso
model:
      sagittal
             midsagittal plane (median sagittal)
             parasagittal
      frontal (coronal) plane
      transverse (horizontal) plane

4. Locate and identify these body cavities and related structures on a torso
model, chart, or on a skeleton.
      dorsal body cavity
             cranial cavity
             spinal cavity
      ventral body cavity
             thoracic cavity
                    pleural cavity; pericardial cavity
                    mediastinum
                    diaphragm
             abdominopelvic cavity

5. Identify the membranes of the ventral body cavity. Use a torso model for
this activity.
       visceral pericardium     parietal pericardium
       parietal peritoneum      visceral peritoneum
       visceral pleura          parietal pleura

6. Identify the four basic abdominal quadrants on a torso model.

7. Identify the following cellular structures on the cell model or neuron cell
model: (Chapter 2 review)
       nucleus                                 nuclear membrane
       mitochondria                            Golgi apparatus
       smooth endoplasmic reticulum            centrioles
       rough endoplasmic reticulum             lysosomes
       plasma membrane




                                       3
Histology

Text reading Chapter 3

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following:
      tissue                           lamina propria
      histology                        matrix
      basement membrane                ground substance
      goblet cell                      lumen
      mesothelium
      endothelium

2. What are the general characteristics and the functions of the four basic
types of tissues in the human body?

3. Be able to identify and tell the differences between squamous, cuboidal
and columnar epithelia.

4. Identify and distinguish between simple, stratified, pseudostratified and
transitional epithelia.

5. Know the characteristics, functions, and locations of the various types of
epithelia tissues studied in this unit.

6. How are glands derived from epithelia tissue?

7. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?

8. Give some examples of unicellular and multi-cellular exocrine glands.

9. Know the difference between merocrine, apocrine and holocrine glands.
Be able to give examples of these types of glands and their methods of
secretion.

10. Be able to describe the structure of connective tissue including the cells
and the extra-cellular matrix (fibers and ground substance).




                                       4
11. Know the characteristics, functions, and locations of the types of
connective tissues studied in this unit.

12. Understand the differences in the structure and composition of the extra-
cellular matrix of the various types of connective tissue.

13. Know the structure, function, and location of the cutaneous, mucous, and
serous membranes.




                                      5
Lab Activities

The lab work in this unit will focus on the identification of various types of
epithelial tissue and connective tissue. These activities will require the use of
a microscope, your textbook or other lab manuals to aid in the identification
of these tissues. The microscopes in our lab have three objectives lens with
powers of 4X, 10X, and 40X. When studying tissues you need to “find” the
specimen on the slide with the low power 4X lens then use the higher power
lenses to see the finer details of the tissue.

Table 1 in the study guide lists the various types of epithelial tissues that you
will observe; Table 2 lists the types of connective tissues that you are
expected to know. Both tables provide information as to the location of these
tissues in the human body; you should fill in the blanks as to the function of
these tissues.

1. Connective tissues - identify the following structures:
a. areolar tissue (loose connective tissue)
         collagen and elastic fibers
b. adipose tissue
         adipocytes(fat cells)
c. dense irregular and dense regular connective tissue
         collagen fibers
         fibroblasts
d. hyaline cartilage
         chondrocytes
         lacunae
         matrix
         perichondrium
e. elastic cartilage
         chondrocytes
         elastic fibers
         perichondrium
f. fibrocartilage
         chondrocytes
         collagen fibers
g. blood
         red blood cells
         white blood cells
         plasma
h. bone
         osteocytes
         lamellae
         central canal


                                             6
i. muscle (three types)
       skeletal
                striations
                multi-nucleate
       cardiac
                intercalated discs
       smooth

j. reticular connective tissue
         reticular fibers




Table 1 – Epithelial Tissue

Tissue Type       Location of        Function   Slide Tray
                  tissue in the body
Simple squamous Glomerular                      Tray 1 - smear
epithelium        capsule of                    Tray 4 - kidney
(kidney, lung,    kidney, alveolus              Tray27 – blood
blood vessel)     of lung, inside               vessel lining
                  lining blood
                  vessels
Simple cuboidal Kidney tubules,                 Tray 4 - kidney
epithelium        ducts of glands
(kidney)
Simple columnar Lining of the GI                Tray 35 – GI
epithelium        tract                         tract
(Duodenum)                                      Tray 36 - same
Pseudostratified Lining of the                  Tray 5 - trachae
ciliated columnar trachea
epithelium
(Trachea)
Stratified        Lining of the                 Tray 3 -
squamous          esophagus and                 esophagus
epithelium non-   the vagina
keratinized
(Esophagus,
vagina)

                                     7
Stratified          Epidermis of the                  Tray 2 - skin
squamous            skin
epithelium
keratinized
(skin)
Transitional        Inner lining of                   Tray 40 - bladder
epithelium          the bladder and
(Bladder, ureter)   ureters

Table 2 – Connective Tissue
Tissue Type       Location in the          Function   Slide Tray
                  body
Areolar CT        Dermis of the                       Tray 6
(areolar tissue)  skin
Dense irregular   Dermis of the                       Tray 17 – skin
CT                skin                                Tray 2 – skin
(Skin)
Adipose CT        Under the skin,                     Tray 17 - skin
(Adipose tissue) around organs of
                  the body
Dense regular CT Tendons and                          Tray 10
(Tendon, White    ligaments
fibrous CT)
Hyaline cartilage Respiratory                         Tray 7 - trachea
(Trachea)         pathways, end of
                  bones, costal
                  cartilages
Elastic cartilage Epiglottis,                         Tray 8
                  external ear
Fibrocartilage    Intervertebral                      Tray 9
                  discs, meniscus
                  of knee
Bone              Skeletal system                     Tray 11
Skeletal muscle   Body muscles                        Tray 15
Cardiac muscle    Heart                               Tray 14
Smooth muscle     GI tract                            Tray 13
Neural tissue     Nervous system                      Tray 21
Blood             Vascular system                     Tray 29
Reticular CT      Spleen                              Tray 50


                                       8
Integumentary System

Textbook reading Ch. 4

Learning Objectives

1. Define:
      Superficial fascia
      Melanin
      Carotene
      Keratinocytes
      Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
      Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles

2. What are the functions of the skin?

3. The skin is composed of two tissue layers, what are these two layers?
What is the function of each of these layers?

4. Know the major layers of the epidermis, and the characteristics of each
layer. In the epidermis where would expect to find keratinocytes and
melanocytes? What are the functions of these cells?

5. What is the structure and function of the hypodermis?

6. In what layer of the skin do you find sebaceous and sudoriferous glands.
What is secreted by each of these glands?

7. Describe the structure of hair. What is the function(s) of hair?

8. Know the structure and functions of nails.

9. What are the differences between thick and thin skin?

10. What are the types of tactile receptors found in the skin? What are the
functions of these receptors?




                                         9
Lab Activities

1. On a microscope slide of skin, identify the following layers:
EPIDERMIS:
      stratum corneum
      stratum lucidum (thick skin only)
      stratum granulosum
      stratum spinosum
      stratum germinativium (basale)

DERMIS
    dermal papillae
    blood vessels

HYPODERMIS
    adipose tissue

2. On a microscope slide of skin/scalp identify the following:
      hair shaft
      hair follicle
      sebaceous gland
      sudoriferous gland

3. On a microscope slide of touch corpuscles identify:
      tactile corpuscle (Meissner’s)
      lamellated corpuscle (Pacinian)
(Note: these slides are also usually very good for identifying the layers of the
epidermis)




                                      10
Neural Tissue

Textbook reading Ch. 13

Learning Objectives

1. What is the difference between the central and peripheral nervous system?

2. What are the components of the central nervous system and the peripheral
nervous system?

3. Compare and contrast the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

4. What are the characteristics of neural tissue?

5. Know the structure and function of a neuron. What are the following:
dendrites, neurilemma, axon, axon hillock, synaptic terminals?

6. What is the function of the myelin sheath? What are the cells that form
this sheath in the central and peripheral nervous system?

7. What is the difference between myelinated and unmyelinated axons?

8. What are the six types of neuroglia cells. What is the function of each
these cell types?

9. What is the structure and functions of the following types of neurons
     sensory neurons
     motor neurons
     interneuron (association neuron)

10. Understand the differences between the following:
      gray and white matter
      nucleus and ganglion
      tract and nerve
      sensory and motor tracts




                                      11
Lab Activities

Histology of nervous tissue:

1. Neuron, giant multi-polar neurons
      neuron cell body
      axon
      dendrite
      neuroglia cells

2. Nerve fiber
      myelinated axons
      myelin sheath
      Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes)
      Nodes of Ranvier (myelin sheath gaps)

3. Nerve cross section
      nerve
      fascicle
      axons
      myelin sheath
      epineurium
      perineurium
      endoneurium

4. Review Table 13.1 as a helpful glossary for the nervous system.

5. Neuron cell model
      cell body
      dendrites
      terminal boutons (telodendria)
      axon
      axon hillock
      myelin sheath
      Schwann cell
      endoneurium




                                       12
Brain and Cranial Nerves

Textbook reading Ch. 16

Learning Objectives

1. What are the meninges of the brain and spinal cord? List the names of the
meninges, their locations and functions.

2. Know the following regions of the brain and the functions of these areas:
      Cerebrum
      Limbic system
      Diencephalon
            Thalamus
            Hypothalamus
      Mesencephalon
      Metencephalon (pons)
      Medulla oblongata
      Cerebellum

3. What is the relationship between embryonic brain vesicles and regions of
the adult brain? (Table 16.1)

4. Describe the location and structure of the ventricles of the brain. Locate
the following structures:
       lateral ventricles
       third ventricle
       interventricular foramen
       fourth ventricle
       cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of midbrain)

5. Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced in the brain? What is the path of
circulation of CSF in the brain and spinal cord? What are the arachnoid
granulations (villi).

6. What is the difference between a fissure, sulcus, and gyrus?

7. List the functions of the various lobes of the cerebrum.



                                      13
8. Know the names, numbers, and functions of the cranial nerves.

Lab Activities

1. Identify the following structures on the sheep brain:

Meninges
      Pia mater
      Dura mater
Forebrain
      Cerebrum
      Olfactory bulbs
      Cerebral hemispheres
      Corpus collusum
      Longitudinal fissure
      Thalamus
      Hypothalamus
      Pineal body
      Optic nerve
      Optic chiasm
      Septum pallucidum
      Pituitary gland
Midbrain
      Superior colliculus
      Inferior colliculus
Hindbrain
      Cerebellum
      Arbor vitae
      Medulla oblongata
Ventricles
      Lateral ventricles
      3rd ventricle
      cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of the midbrain)
      4th ventricle




                                      14
Using models and charts, identify the following structures on the human
brain:

1. Meninges
     dura mater
            falx cerebri
            tentorium cerebelli
     arachnoid mater
            subarachnoid space
     pia mater

2. Cerebral hemispheres
      cerebrum
             gray matter
             white matter
      cerebral cortex
             gyri (singular = gyrus)
             sulci (singular = sulcus)
             central sulcus
             precentral gyrus
             postcentral gyrus
             frontal lobe
             temporal lobe
             parietal lobe
             occipital lobe
             insula
      longitudinal fissure
      transverse fissure
      lateral sulcus
      corpus collusum
      lateral ventricles
             choroid plexus
      interventricular foramen




                                         15
2. Diencephalon
      thalamus
             intermediate mass
      hypothalamus
      pineal body
      third ventricle
             choroid plexus
      mammallary body
      optic nerve and optic chiasm

3. Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
      mesencephalic aqueduct
      corpora quadrigemina
            superior colliculi
            inferior colliculi

4. Hindbrain
      cerebellum
             cerebellar hemispheres
             arbor vitae
             falx cerebelli
      pons
      medulla oblongata
      fourth ventricle
             choroid plexus

5. Cranial nerves I-XII
      Find these nerves on brain models and charts.




                                      16
Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Textbook reading Ch. 14

Learning Objectives

1. Know the gross structure of the spinal cord. What are the cervical and
lumbar enlargements? What is the cauda equina?

2. What is the difference in length between the spinal cord and the vertebral
column? Where, at what level, does the continuous spinal cord end in the
vertebral column?

3. What are the meninges that surround the spinal cord?

4. Know the structure of the spinal cord. What is the organization of white
and grey matter in the spinal cord? What is the difference between a column
and a horn in the spinal cord?

5. What are the structures that originate from the spinal cord to form spinal
nerves?

6. Define the relationship between a root, ramus and a plexus.

7. What is the difference between the dorsal and ventral roots of a spinal
nerve?

8. Know the number and names of the spinal nerves.

9. Which ramus of a spinal nerve participates in the formation of a nerve
plexuses?

10. Distinguish between the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium?




                                      17
11. Name the four nerve plexus. From what region of the cord do the plexus
originate? What structures do the plexus innervate? Name some important
nerves that arise from the various nerve plexus.

12. Know the pathways for somatic motor and somatic sensory fibers in the
peripheral nervous system. Where do the fibers enter or exit the spinal cord?

13. List the components of a spinal reflex.

14. Define the term tract as it relates to the white columns of the spinal cord.

15. What type of cell bodies are found in the dorsal root ganglia? What cell
bodies are found in the anterior grey horn of the spinal cord?




                                       18
Lab Activities

Identify the following structures on models and charts:

1. Spinal cord:
      Gray matter
             Anterior(ventral) gray horn
             Posterior (dorsal) gray horn
             Lateral gray horn
             Central canal
             Gray commissure
      White matter
             Anterior white column
             Posterior white column
             Lateral white column
      Epidural space
      Dura mater
      Arachnoid mater
             Sub-arachnoid space
      Pia mater

2. Spinal nerves
      Dorsal root
             Dorsal root ganglion
             Sensory neurons
      Ventral root
             Motor neurons

Types of spinal nerves:
     8 cervical C1-C8
     12 thoracic T1-T12
     5 lumbar L1-L5
     5 sacral S1-S5

                                     19
3. Branches of the spinal nerves
      ventral ramus
      dorsal ramus
      gray and white communicating rami (autonomic nervous system)

4. Nerve plexuses
NOTE: the individual nerves listed under each plexus are the ones that you
need to find on chats or models.
      Cervical plexus
             Phrenic nerve
      Brachial plexus
             Musculocutaneous nerve
             Median nerve
             Radial nerve
             Ulnar nerve
             Axillary nerve
      Lumbar plexus
             Femoral nerve
             Great saphenous
      Sacral plexus
             Sciatic nerve
                    Common fibular (peroneal) nerve
                    Tibial nerve

5. Histology of the spinal cord – identify the following structures on a slide
of the spinal cord:
       white matter
       gray commissure
       dorsal gray horn
       ventral gray horn
              motor neuron cell bodies
       dorsal and ventral roots
       dorsal root ganglia
              sensory neuron cell bodies




                                      20
Autonomic Nervous System

Textbook reading Ch. 17

Learning Objectives

1. Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

2. Describe the following features of the autonomic nervous system:
      dual innervation
      preganglionic neuron
      postganglionic neuron
      chain ganglia
      sympathetic trunk
      white ramus
      gray ramus
      collateral ganglia

3. What body structures are innervated by the autonomic nervous system?

4. Know the differences in location, structure, and function between the
parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

5. For the sympathetic nervous system, know the pathways traveled by the
preganglionic and postganglionic fibers after leaving the spinal cord. This
should include knowledge of sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral) and
prevertebral ganglia (collateral).

6. Describe the pathways of preganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic
nervous system. What is a terminal ganglia? Where are the postganglionic
fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system located?

                                     21
Lab Activities

Locate the following on charts and models:

1. Sympathetic division
      white ramus
      gray ramus
      sympathetic trunk
             sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral)
      collateral ganglia (prevertebral)
             celiac ganglia
             inferior mesenteric ganglia
             superior mesenteric ganglia

2. Parasympathetic division
       vagus nerve

3. Preganglionic and postganglionic fibers




                                     22
Special Senses

Chapter 18 pages 479 - 500

Learning Objectives

1. What are the three anatomical regions of the ear?

2. Where are the ceruminous glands found and what is the function of these
glands?

3. What bones make-up the auditory ossicles? How are these bones arranged
and how do they help to amplify sound?

4. Describe the relationship between the membraneous labyrinth and the
bony labyrinth. What fluids are contained in these structures?

5. What are the three structures into which the bony labyrinth is divided?

6. What is the function of the utricle and saccule?

7. What structure rests on the surface of the oval window?

8. What are hair cells?

9. What is the function of the semicircular canals?

10. What structures are found in the vestibular complex?

11. Describe the arrangements of ducts in the cochlea.




                                      23
12. What is the organ of Corti? In which duct of the cochlea is this structure
found?

13. Describe the steps involved in auditory sensation.

14. What nerve sends auditory sensations to the brain?

15. What are the palpebrae?

16. What is the function of the lacrimal apparatus?

17. Name the three tunics of the eye.

18. In which tunic is the cornea and sclera found?

19. What three structures are found in the vascular tunic? What are their
functions?

20. What is the pupil?

21. Name the layers of the neural tunic.

22. What is the function of the rods and cones? Which is most numerous?

23. What are the macula lutea and the fovea centralis?

24. What are the two main chambers of the eye and what fluids are found in
these chambers?

25. What is the function of the lens?


LAB ACTIVITIES:

1. Microscope slide of the cochlea: find the flowing –
      organ of Corti                   tympanic duct
      Spiral ganglia                   tectorial membrane
      Vestibular duct                  basilar membrane
      Cochlear duct                    hair cells of the organ of Corti
      Vestibular membrane

                                        24
2. Microscope slide of the eye: find the following –
      cornea                     lens
      ciliary body               sclera
      iris                       pupil
      ciliary processes          choroid layer
      pigment layer              rods and cones
      bipolar cells              ganglion cells

3. On models or charts of the ear identify the following:
      auricle                   external acoustic meatus
      malleus                   incus
      stapes                    round window
      oval window               semicircular canals (all three)
      cochlea                   auditory tube
      vestibulocochlear nerve tympanic membrane
      utricle                   saccule

4. On models or charts of the eye identify the following:
      fibrous tunic             vascular tunic
      neural tunic              cornea
      lens                      sclera
      ora serrata               ciliary body
      suspensory ligaments      posterior cavity
      anterior cavity           pupil
      iris                      fovea centralis
      macula lutea
      lacrimal gland

5. Sheep eye dissection – find the following structures/features
      Cornea                     Sclera
      Optic nerve                Iris
      Pupil                      Ora serrata
      Ciliary body               Choroid
      Retina                     Lens
      Vitreous humor




                                      25
Skeletal System and Osseous Tissue

Text reading Chapter 5

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following:
      osteology                 osteoblasts
      osteogenesis              osteoclasts
      hematopoiesis             osteon
      trabeculae                fontanel
      (spicules)                epiphyseal plate
      osteocytes                epiphyseal line

2. What are the components and structures included in the skeletal system?

3. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton?

4. Name the functions of the skeletal system.

5. What are the organic and inorganic components of bone?

6. Give examples of the different types of bones: long bones, short bones,
flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones, and pneumatized bones.

7. Name the structural components of a typical long bone.

8. What are the periosteum and endosteum, and where are these structures
located in bone?

9. Where in a long bone do you find yellow and red bone marrow, and what
is the function of each type of marrow?

10. Where is compact bone and spongy bone found in a typical long bone?




                                     26
11. Describe the microscopic structure of compact bone. Answer the
following questions:
      What is an osteon?
      What is the function of the perforating and central canals?
      Where are osteocytes located?
      How do nutrients reach the osteocytes?
      What is the function of the perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers?
      Name the three different types of lamellae found in bone.

12. Compare and contrast the processes of intramembraneous and
endochondral ossification? Give examples of bones that are formed by each
type of ossification.




                                    27
Lab Activities

1. Using a split femur, identify these parts of a long bone:
      epiphysis                         marrow(medullary) cavity
      diaphysis                         periosteum
      compact bone                      endosteum
      spongy bone                       epiphyseal line

2. Be able to identify the following structures on a slide or model of compact
bone:
      osteon
      central (Haversian) canal
      concentric lamellae
      interstitial lamellae
      circumferential lamellae
      osteocyte
      canaliculi
      perforating canal (Volkmann’s canal)
      endosteum
      periosteum




                                     28
The Axial Skeleton – The Skull

Chapter 6

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following:
      cranium                    epicondyle
      foramen                    suture
      fissure                    fontanel
      canal                      meatus
      fossa                      process
      condyle                    trochanter
      tubercule                  tuberosity
      spine                      ridge
      ramus                      crest

2. What are the bones or bony features that make up the following:
     orbit of the eye
     cheek bone
     hard palate
     nasal septum and the nose

3. What is the location and function of the nasal conchae bones? Why are the
nasal conchae called the turbinate bones?

4. In which cranial bone would you find the sella turcica? What is the
function of this structure?

5. What is the name of the bone feature(s) that forms the following
articulations:
       a. the mandible and temporal bones
       b. the skull and the vertebral column




                                     29
6. Here’s something that may help with some of the various foramen,
fissures and canals in the skull. Fill in the table below with the bone name
and the structure that passes through the various openings.

OPENING                  BONE                         STRUCTURE
Foramen magnum
Carotid canal
Jugular foramen
Superior orbital fissure
Inferior orbital fissure
Optic foramen
Mandibular foramen
Lacrimal canal
Olfactory foramina
Internal acoustic meatus
External acoustic
meatus




                                      30
Lab Activities

1. Locate and identify the following sutures:
      coronal
      sagittal
      lambdoid
      squamous

2. Identify the eight cranial bones:
       frontal – 1         occipital - 1
       parietal – 2        sphenoid - 1
       temporal – 2        ethmoid – 1

3. Identify these facial bones:
       nasal               lacrimal
       maxilla             inferior and middle nasal conchae
       zygomatic           palatine
       mandible            vomer

4. Locate and identify the following features on the bones listed below:
      a. frontal bone:
             supraorbial foramen
             superciliary arch
             frontal sinus (sagittal section skull)
      b. temporal bone
             mastoid process
             external acoustic meatus
             zygomatic process
             styloid process
             squamous portion
             carotid canal
             jugular foramen
             mandibular fossa
             petrous portion (contains the internal ear structures; auditory
             ossicles)
             internal acoustic meatus



                                       31
c. occipital bone
       foramen magnum
       occipital condyles
       external occipital protuberance
d. sphenoid bone
       sphenoid sinuses
       greater wings
       lesser wings
       pterygoid process
       sella turcica
       superior orbital fissure
       optic canal (foramen)
       foramen ovale
       foramen rotundum
       foramen spinosum
e. ethmoid bone
       perpendicular plate
       crista galli
       cribriform plate
       cribriform foramina
       middle nasal concha
f. maxilla
       inferior orbital fissure
       maxillary sinuses
g. mandible
       body
       ramus
       angle
       coronoid process
       condylar process
       mandibular foramen
h. lacrimal bone
       lacrimal groove
i. palatine bone




                               32
Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and Thoracic Cage

Chapter 6

Learning objectives

1. Describe the functions of the vertebral column and thoracic cage.

2. Name the assigned features on the vertebrae listed below.

3. Be able to name the types of vertebrae, the number of each type, and
describe the features that are used to distinguish between each type of
vertebrae.

4. Know the function of the:
      intervertebral foramina
      intervertebral discs
      vertebral foramen
      transverse foramen (cervical vertebrae only)

5. Name the parts of the thoracic cage and sternum.

6. Identify the features of a typical rib.

7. Be able to distinguish between and list the number of true
ribs(vertebrosternal), false ribs(vertebrochondral), and floating ribs.




                                        33
Lab Activities


1. On a skeleton or vertebral column find the following structures:
      7 cervical vertebrae
      12 thoracic vertebrae
      5 lumbar vertebrae
      sacral vertebrae (5 fused)
      intervertebral foramina

2. All vertebrae have certain structures in common. Find the following
structures on the vertebrae.
       Vertebral foramen
       Vertebral body
       Neural arch
              Lamina
              Pedicle
       Transverse process
       Spinous process
       Superior articular facet
       Inferior articular facet

3. In addition to many common features, the vertebrae have certain special
features that are specific to the various groups of vertebrae. The following is
a list of vertebrae and the special features that you should learn:
        Cervical vertebrae
               Atlas (C1) – lacks a body and spinous process
               Axis (C2) – has a body and process called the dens (missing
               body of C1)
               C7 – vertebral prominens
               All cervical vertebrae have a transverse foramen
               Many of the cervical vertebrae have a bifid (split) spinous
               process




                                      34
      Thoracic vertebrae
           Costal facets for the attachment of ribs found on the body and
           the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae
           Long, pointed downward projecting spinous process

      Lumbar vertebrae
          Large body
          Articular facets face medially and laterally
          Short, thick transverse and spinous processes

      Sacrum(5 fused vertebrae)
           Auricular surface
           Median sacral crest
           Sacral canal
           Dorsal and ventral sacral foramen
           Superior articular facet

4. Thoracic cage
      Sternum – consists of the
             Manubrium
             Jugular notch
             Clavicular notch
      Body
      Xiphoid process
      Costal cartilage
      Ribs
             True ribs = 1-7
             False ribs = 8-12
             Floating ribs = 11-12
      Rib features
             Head
             Tubercle
             Shaft
             Costal groove




                                     35
Appendicular Skeleton

Textbook reading Ch. 7

Learning Objectives

1. Identify the bones and bony features outlined in the lab activities.

2. Know the numerical sequence of the digits in the hand and foot.

3. Which are the bones that come together to form the pectoral and pelvic
girdle?

4. Compare the pectoral girdle with pelvic girdle. Answer the following
questions:
      Which girdle has the greatest flexibility?
      What girdle forms the strongest joint?
      Which bones articulate to form the pectoral and pelvic girdle?

5. What is the difference between the true and false pelvis?

6. What is the difference between the pelvic inlet and outlet?

7. Identify the differences between the male and female pelvis.




                                       36
Lab Activities

Identify the following bones and bony features:

A. PECTORAL GIRDLE

1. Clavicle
      sternal end
      acromial end
      conoid tubercle

2. Scapula
      spine
      acromion
      glenoid cavity
      coracoid process
      supraspinous fossa
      infraspinous fossa
      subscapular fossa
      medial border
      lateral border
      superior border

B. UPPER EXTERMITY

1. Humerus
     head
     anatomical neck
     surgical neck
     greater tubercle
     lesser tubercle
     intertubercular sulcus
     medial epicondyle
     lateral epicondyle

                                     37
      capitulum
      trochlea
      coronoid fossa
      olecranon fossa
      deltoid tuberosity

2. Ulna
      olecranon
      coronoid process
      trochlear notch
      radial notch (proximal end)
      head (distal end)
      styloid process

3. Radius
      head
      radial tuberosity
      styloid process
      ulnar notch (distal end)

4. Carpals
      pisiform
      scaphoid
      lunate

5. Metacarpals I-V

6. Phalanges I-V
      proximal
      middle
      distal




                                    38
Identify the following bones and bony features of the pelvis and lower
extremities

A. PELVIC GIRDLE

1. Coxal bone
      acetabulum
      obturator foramen

2. Ilium
       iliac crest
       anterior superior iliac spine
       anterior inferior iliac spine
       posterior superior iliac spine
       greater sciatic notch
       iliac fossa
       auricular surface

3. Ischium
       ischial spine
       ischial tuberosity
       ramus of the ischium

4. Pubis
      superior ramus
      inferior ramus
      pubic symphysis
      pubic crest

B. LOWER EXTREMITIES
1. Femur
      head
      fovea for the ligament of the head
      neck

                                        39
      greater trochanter
      lesser trochanter
      linea aspera
      medial condyle
      lateral condyle
      intercondylar fossa

2. Tibia
       lateral condyle
       medial condyle
       intercondylar eminence
       tibial tuberosity
       medial malleolus
       fibular notch (distal end, lateral side)

3. Fibula
      head
      lateral malleolus

4. Tarsal bones
      talus
      calcaneus
      navicular
      cuboid
      medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiform

5. Metatarsals

6. Phalanges
      proximal
      middle
      distal




                                        40
Articulations

Textbook reading Ch. 8

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following terms:
      arthrology                 ligament
      symphysis                  tendon
      suture                     meniscus
      bursa                      tendon sheath

2. Define the terms syntharthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses as to the
degree of movement permitted at each joint, and be able to give an example
of each type of joint.

3. What is the difference between fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints?
How much movement is allowed at these joints? Provide examples of each
type of joint.

4. Describe the structure of a synovial joint. What is the function of synovial
fluid? Where is this fluid produced?

5. Describe the movements permitted at synovial joints.

6. Name the parts of the skeleton that form the knee and shoulder joint.
What movements are allowed at these joints?

7. What has happened in the following conditions?
     sprain
     dislocation
     bursitis
     tendonitis




                                      41
8. Give examples of the following types of synovial joints and the
movements allowed at these joints:
      plane joints             pivot joints
      saddle joints            condylar joints




Lab Activities

1. Identify the following ligaments on a model of the shoulder joint:
       coracoacromial ligament
       coracoclavicular ligament
       coracohumeral ligament

What movements are permitted at the shoulder joint?

2. Identify the following parts of the knee joint:
       medial meniscus
       lateral meniscus
       fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
       tibular (medial) collateral ligament
       anterior cruciate ligament
       posterior cruciate ligament

What movements are allowed at the knee joint?

What are the functions of the following structures in the knee joint?
a. anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
b. lateral and medial collateral ligaments
c. medial and lateral menisci

3. Identify joints on a skeleton that illustrate saddle joints, plane joints,
condylar joints, and pivot joints.




                                        42
Muscle Tissue and Organization

Textbook reading Ch. 9

Learning Objectives

1. Define the following:
      aponeurosis
      superficial fascia
      deep fascia

2. Compare and contrast skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle as to the
following:
      a. Identify and be able to recognize characteristics of each type
      of muscle on a microscope slide.
      b. What is the location of each type of muscle?
      c. Which of the muscle types are striated, non-striated, voluntary
      and involuntary?

3. What are the functions of skeletal muscle?

4. How is skeletal muscle attached to bone? What are the connective tissue
components of skeletal muscle?

5. Describe the histology of skeletal muscle. Understand the following
components of skeletal muscle: muscle fibers, sarcolemma, sarcoplasm,
myofibrils, and myofilaments.

6. Describe in detail the structure of a sarcomere.

7. Describe the structure of the actin and myosin fibers.

8. What is the function of calcium ions in muscle contraction?

                                      43
9. What is the function of troponin and tropomyosin in muscle contraction?

10. Where are calcium ions stored in a muscle fiber?

11. What is the role of the t-tubule in muscle contraction?

12. What is the neuromuscular junction? What is the neurotransmitter
released at this junction?

13. Describe the steps involved in the sliding filament theory of muscle
contraction.

14. What is meant by the terms prime mover, antagonist, and synergist?
Give examples of each.

15. What are first, second and third class levers? How do these terms relate
to muscles in the human body?

Lab Activities - Histology
1. Slide: Skeletal muscle
       muscle fiber (cell)
       striations
       nuclei
2. Slide: Motor End Plate
       axon
       muscle fiber
       neuromuscular junction
3. Slide: Smooth muscle
       smooth muscle cell
4. Slide: Cardiac muscle
       nucleus
       intercalated disc

Muscle cell model – locate the following
Sarcolemma                      Endomysium
Sarcomere                       Sarcoplasmic reticulum
T-tubules                       Terminal cisternae




                                      44
Cat Dissection

This exercise will be conducted over several lab periods. You will be
required to identify and demonstrate the required muscles and non-muscular
structures for the instructor. This is a graded exercise. To receive full credit
for this exercise you must participate in the dissection and be present on the
day that your cat is graded.

Things you will need:
Dissecting kit (scissors, probe, forceps)
Gloves and safety classes
Lab coat or apron

General Directions:
1. When you get your cat it will be sealed in a plastic bag.
2. Remove the cat by cutting open one end of the bag. You need to save the
bag to put the cat back into after each lab period.
3. Pour the liquid in the bag down the sink.
4. Place the cat on a large aluminum dissecting tray for dissection. These
trays must be cleaned and dried after every use.
5. VERY IMPORTANT: all the hair, tissue, fat and other cat material must
be disposed of in the proper container, NOT IN THE TRASH CANS! Please
do not put gloves and paper towels in the cat tissue container.
6. After your group has finished dissection for the evening, the dissection
tray must be cleaned, dried and put away. Your lab bench area must also be
cleaned and disinfected.
7. Before you put the cat back into the plastic bag be sure to spray the cat
with preservative. Place the cat back on the cart for return to the cat room.
8. Wash your hands before leaving class!




                                       45
Cat Dissection

1. Identify the following muscle in the head region of the cat:
       masseter
2. Identify these superifical muscle on the back:
       acromiotrapezius
       spinotrapezius
       clavotrapezius
       latissimus dorsi
       lumbodorsal fascia
       levator scapulae
3. Identify these deep muscles on the side and back of the cat:
       rhomboideus
       supraspinatus
       infraspinatus
       teres major
       clavodeltoid(clavobrachialis)
       acromiodeltoid
       spinodeltoid
       subscapularis
       serratus anterior
4. Identify these muscles on the ventral surface of the cat:
       pectoralis major
       pectoralis minor
5. Identify the following muscles on the arm of the cat:
       triceps brachii(lateral, long, and medial heads)
       biceps brachii
       brachialis
6. Dissect and identify these muscles on the forearm:
       brachioradialis
       extensor digitorum
       extensor carpi radialis
       extensor carpi ulnaris
       flexor carpi radialis

                                      46
       flexor carpi ulnaris
       flexor digitorum(palmaris longus)
7. Dissect the abdominal muscles:
       external obliques
       internal obliques
       rectus abdominis
       transverse abdominis
8. Dissect and identify the following muscles of pelvic girdle and
the lower appendages:
       gluteus maximus
       gluteus medius
       biceps femoris
       semitendinosus
       tensor fasciae latae
       fasciae latae
9. Identify the following superficial muscles of the thigh:
       sartorius
       gracilis
10. Dissect and identify the following deep muscles of the thigh:
       semimembranosus
       adductor femoris(two heads)
       adductor longus
       vastus medialis
       vastus lateralis
       rectus femoris
11. Identify the following muscles of the lower leg:
       gastrocnemius
       soleus
       tibialis anterior
       extensor digitorum longus
       flexor digitorum longus




                                     47
Muscles of the head, neck and upper appendage

Textbook reading Ch. 10

Learning Objectives

1. Locate and identify the human muscles and their actions listed in the lab
activities for this unit.

2. Name the actions of the muscles listed in the lab activities and also the
bones that these muscles move.

3. What is the difference between muscles that are superficial or deep?

4. Know the joints that muscles cross and the bones involved in the joint.

5. What are the muscles of the rotator cuff?

6. Using muscle models of arms, legs, torsos, or manikins be able to identify
all the muscles listed in the tables that follow.




                                      48
Lab Activities

Identify the following human muscles on charts, models, manikins and
yourself:

1. Muscles of facial expression:
     Orbicularis oculi – closes the eyes
     Orbicularis oris – protrudes the lips(kissing muscle)
     Platysma – draws the angle of the mouth downward

2. Muscles involved in chewing

Muscle           El             Dep              Pro           Ret
Masseter         X
Temporalis       X                                             X


3. Muscles that move the head

Muscle              F                 E             OpRo           Ro
Sternocleidomastoid F                               X
Splenius capitis                      X                            X


Key to muscle actions:

F = flexion                               El = elevation
E = extension                             Dep = depression
Ro = rotation                             UR = upward rotation
OpRo = opposite rotation                  DR = downward rotation
Ab = abduction                            MR = medial rotation
Ad = adduction                            LR = lateral rotation
Pr = pronate                              Pro = protract
Sup = supinate                            Ret = retract

                                      49
4. Muscles that move the scapula

Muscle             El Dep Ab Ad UR DR
Trapezius – upper X
          - middle           X
          - lower     X

Pectoralis minor          X                     X
Serratus anterior
        - all parts                        X

Levator scapulae      X
Rhomboids             X               X         X


5. Muscles that move the humerus

Muscle                        F E Ab Ad MR LR
Deltoid
  - Anterior                  X
  - Middle                            X
  - Posterior                     X
Supraspinatus                         X
Pectoralis major              X            X    X
Coracobrachialis              X            X
Subscapularis                                   X
Latissimus dorsi                  X        X    X
Teres major                       X        X    X
Infraspinatus                                       X
Teres minor                                         X
Biceps brachii                X
Triceps brachii – long head       X        X`


                                      50
6. Muscles that move the forearm
Muscle           F E Pr Sup
Biceps brachii X            X
Brachialis       X
Brachioradialis X
Triceps brachii     X
Pronator teres          X
Supinator                   X


7. Muscles that move the wrist
Muscle                   F              E
Flexor carpi ulnaris     X
Flexor carpi radialis    X
Palmaris longus          X
Extensor carpi ulnaris                  X
Extensor carpi radialis                 X




                                   51
Muscles of the Back, Thorax, Abdomen and Lower Appendage

Textbook reading Ch. 10 and 11

Learning Objectives

1. Locate and identify the human muscles and their actions listed in the lab
activities for this unit.

2. Know the actions of the listed muscles and the joints acted upon by the
muscles.

3. Name the muscles that form the following groups:
      hamstrings
      quadriceps femoris
      iliopsoas
      gluteals

4. Respiration is an important activity, understand the following:
a. What is the difference between tidal and forced respiration?
b. What muscles are used during tidal inspiration, and tidal expiration?
c. During forced respiration, what other muscles are used for this activity?
d. Explain why tidal respiration is considered a passive activity.




                                      52
Lab Activities

Identify the following muscles and their actions on charts, models, manikins
and yourself:

Key for muscle actions:
F = flexion                                 Ab = abduct
E = extension                               Ad = adduct
LF = lateral flexion(vertebral column)      DF = dorsiflex
Ro = rotation                               PF = plantar flex
MR = medial rotation                        INV = invert
LR = lateral rotation                       EV = evert



1. Muscles that move the spine, thoracic and lumbar regions.

Muscle               F E LF
Psoas major          X
Rectus abdominis     X
External oblique     X   X
Internal oblique     X   X
Erector spinae
      Iliocostalis     X X
      Longissimus      X X
      Spinalis         X X


2. Muscles involved in respiration
                        Tidal Respiration    Forced Respiration
Muscle                  Inspir. Expir.       Inspir. Expir.
Diaphragm               X                    X
External intercostals X                      X
Internal intercostals                                X
External oblique                                     X
Internal oblique                                     X


                                     53
Transverse abdominis                                   X
Rectus abdominis                                       X

3. Muscles that move the femur
Muscle                      F    E Ab Ad MR LR
Psoas major                 X
Iliacus                     X
Sartorius                   X                      X
Rectus femoris              X
Pectineus                   X              X
Tensor fasciae latae                  X
Gluteus maximus                  X                 X
Gluteus medius                        X        X
Gluteus minimus                       X        X
Biceps femoris (long head)       X
Semitendinosus                   X
Semimembranosus                  X
Gracilis                                   X
Adductor longus             X              X   X
Adductor magnus                            X



4. Muscle that move the leg (tibia)

Muscle                 F E MR LR
Semitendinosus         X   X
Semimembraneosus       X   X
Biceps femoris         X      X
Popliteus              X   X
Sartorius              X
Gracilis               X
Gastrocnemius          X
Rectus femoris           X
Vastus lateralis         X
Vastus medialis          X
Vastus intermedius       X




                                      54
5. Muscles that move the foot and toes

Muscle                                   DF PF INV EV F E
Tibialis anterior                        X     X
Tibialis posterior                          X X
Extensor hallucis longus – digit 1       X              X
Flexor hallucis longus – digit 1            X         X
Extensor digitorum longus – digits 2-5   X         X    X
Flexor digitorum longus – digits 2-5        X         X
Gastrocnemius                               X
Soleus                                      X
Fibularis longus                                   X
Fibularis brevis                                   X




                                    55
Blood

Textbook reading Ch. 20

Learning Objectives:

1. What are the functions of blood?

2. What are the two components into which blood can be fractioned?

3. Describe the make-up of plasma?

4. What are the proteins components of plasma, and what are the functions
of these proteins?

5. What are the formed elements of blood?

6. What is measured by a hematocrit?

7. What is the shape of red blood cells, and how does this shape contribute to
the function of red blood cells?

8. What is the function of red blood cells?

9. What is the function of white blood cells?

10. List the types of white blood cells, their relative abundance in whole
blood, and the specific functions of each type of cell.

11. What is the difference between a monocyte and a macrophage?

12. How are platelets formed?

13. Define the term hemopoiesis.

14. Where are red blood cells formed?

15. What is the function of erythropoietin?



                                      56
Lab Activities:

On a microscope slide of blood be able to identify the following types of
cells:

Red blood cells

White blood cells:
     Neutrophil
     Eosinophil
     Basophil
     Monocyte
     Lymphocyte




                                     57
Circulatory System: The Heart

Textbook reading Ch. 21

Learning Objectives

1. What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

2. Describe the differences between the systemic and pulmonary circuits in
the heart.

3. What are the layers that make up the wall of the heart?

4. Understand the location, structure and function of the connective tissue
components of the heart and pericardial sac. What are the parietal and
visceral layers?

5. Know the structure and function of the four chambers of the heart.

6. Know, in order, the pathway of blood flow through the heart.

7. Know the names, location and function of all the heart valves.

8. Describe the following:
      What is the mechanism by which the atrioventricular valves open
      and shut.
      What causes the semilunar valves open and shut?

9. Describe the path of coronary circulation.

10. What are the components and location of the nerve impulse conduction
system of the heart?

11. Why are the walls of the left ventricle thicker than the walls of the right
ventricle?




                                       58
Lab Activities

Identify the following structures on sheep hearts and on models and charts of
the human heart. (NOTE: the structures marked with an * are structures to
be found on sheep hearts).
Pericardial sac
        Fibrous pericardium
        Parietal pericardium
Pericardial cavity
*epicardium
*myocardium
*endocardium
 superior vena cava
 inferior vena cava
 coronary sinus
*right atrium
fossa ovalis
*tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
*interventricular septum
*chordae tendineae
*papillary muscle
*right ventricle
*pulmonary trunk
  pulmonary semilunar valve
*aortic semilunar valve
 right and left pulmonary arteries
*pulmonary veins
*left atrium
*bicuspid (mitral) valve (left atrioventricular valve)
*left ventricle
*aorta
  right and left coronary arteries
*trabeculae carneae
  ligamentum arteriosum




                                     59
Circulatory System: Blood Vessels and the Lymphatic System

Textbook reading Ch. 22 and 23

Learning Objectives

1. Know the microscopic structure of the wall of a large artery. What are the
layers (tunics) that make up the structure of an artery?

2. What are the layers of the wall of a vein? How does the venous wall
structure differ from the structure of a wall of an artery?

3. What is the function of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins?

4. Describe the structure of a capillary bed. What is the difference between a
continuous capillary and a fenestrated capillary?

5. Why do veins have valves?

6. Concerning arteries:
      a. Are there both right and left brachiocephalic arteries?
      b. Where does the common carotid artery branch to form the internal
      and external carotids? What do these branches supply?
      c. What part of the body is supplied with blood by the vertebral
      artery?
      d. Where does the brachial artery branch to form the radial and ulnar
      arteries?
      e. Where do these branches occur: common iliac to the external iliac;
      external iliac to the femoral artery.

7. Concerning veins:
      a. Are there both right and left brachiocephalic veins?
      b. The azygous vein drains what part of the body?
      What does this vein empty into?
      c. What is the importance of the median cubital vein?




                                       60
8. Describe the hepatic portal system. What is the function of this system?
Which veins come together to form the hepatic portal vein?

9. Fetal circulation: name the structures in the heart which are present as a
by-pass mechanism for the fetal lungs. What are the names of these
structures in the adult heart?

10. What is the function of the lymphatic system? How do lymphatic vessels
resemble veins?

11. What is the pathway of circulation of lymph from the lymph capillary
beds to the subclavian vein? Name the structures that the lymph passes
through along this pathway.

12. Know the structure and function of a lymph node.

13. Know the structure and function of the spleen. What is the difference
between the red and white pulp?

14. What is the function of the tonsils and thymus?

15. How many sets of tonsils are found in the human body? What are their
names and where are they located?

16. What is the function of B cells and T cells in the lymphatic system?
Where are these cells formed in the body?




                                      61
Lab Activities

1. On a slide of an artery and vein identify the following:
      artery
      vein
      lumen
      tunica interna (intima)
             endothelial cells
             internal elastic membrane (artery)
      tunica media
      tunica externa (adventitia)

2. On models and charts, identify the following ARTERIES:
      aortic arch
      brachiocephalic
      right and left common carotid
      right and left internal and external carotid
      right and left vertebral

Arteries of the upper extremity:
      Subclavian
      Axillary
      Brachial
      Ulnar
      Radial

Abdominal arteries
    Celiac trunk
    Superior mesenteric
    Inferior mesenteric
    Renal
    Right and left common iliac
    Right and left external iliac
    Right and left internal iliac




                                      62
Arteries of the lower extremity
      Femoral
      Popliteal
      Fibular
      Anterior tibial
      Posterior tibial

3. On charts and models identify the following VEINS

      Superior vena cava
      Right and left brachiocephalic
      Right and left external jugular
      Right and left internal jugular
      Right and left vertebral
      Azygous

Veins of the upper extremity
      Subclavian
      Axillary
      Brachial
      Cephalic
      Basilic
      Median cubital vein
      Radial
      Ulnar

Veins of the abdominal region
      Inferior vena cava
      Renal
      Right and left common iliac
      Right and left external iliac
      Right and left internal iliac

Veins of the lower extremity
      Femoral
      Greater saphenous
      Popliteal
      Anterior tibial
      Posterior tibial
      Fibular

                                        63
4. Locate the following structures on a chart or model:
      ligamentum arteriosum
      fossa ovalis

5. Locate the following lymphatic structures on any chart or model:
      Cisterna chyli
      Thoracic duct
      Right lymphatic duct
      Axillary lymph nodes
      Cervical lymph nodes
      Submandibular lymph nodes
      Inguinal lymph nodes
      Spleen

5. On charts and microscope slides, identify the following strictures in a
lymph node:
      afferent lymphatic vessel (chart)
      efferent lymphatic vessel (chart)
      lymph nodules/follicles (slide and chart)
      hilus (chart)
      capsule (slide and chart)
      trabeculae (slide and chart)

6. On a microscope slide of the spleen identify the following structures:
      white pulp
      red pulp




                                      64
CAT ARTERIES AND VEINS:
In the cat, the arteries are colored red, the veins blue. This color-coding
should help you identify the following arteries and veins.

ARTERIES:
Aortic arch                             Thoracic aorta
Abdominal aorta                         Brachiocephalic
R/L common carotid                      R/L subclavian
Axillary                                Brachial
Renal                                   R/L external iliac
R/L Internal iliac                      Femoral
Superior mesenteric                     Celiac trunk
Inferior mesenteric

VEINS:
Superior vena cava                      Inferior vena cava
Azygous                                 R/L brachiocephalic
External jugular                        Femoral
R/L subclavian                          Axillary
Subscapular                             Brachial
Renal                                   R/L common iliac
R/L External iliac                      R/L Internal iliac




                                       65
Respiratory System

Textbook reading Ch. 24

Learning Objectives

1. What are the functions of the respiratory system?

2. Know the function of the following structures of the respiratory system:
      nose                      bronchi
      pharynx                   bronchioles
      larynx                    alveoli
      trachea

3. How is the air you breathe in warmed, cleaned, and humidified as it enters
the respiratory system?

4. What is the function of the larynx? When you swallow, what prevents
food form entering the respiratory system?

5. What is the difference between the true and false vocal cords? How is
sound produced?

6. Name the sequence in order of the conducting pathway of air entering the
lungs. What is the epithelia lining the conducting pathway? What are the
structures that keep the conducting pathway open?

7. What is the structure and function of the alveolus?

8. Be able to describe the structure and function of the respiratory
membrane.

9. What are the muscles of respiration? What muscles are active in
inspiration? Which are active in expiration?

                                      66
10. How many lobes are found in each lung? What accounts for the
difference in the number of lobes?

11. What structures form the respiratory zone of the lungs?

Lab Activities
Locate the following structures on any chart or model

1. Nasal cavity
      superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae

2. Pharynx
      pharyngeal tonsil
      palatine tonsil
      nasopharynx
      oropharynx
      laryngopharynx

3. Larynx
      thyroid cartilage
      cricoid cartilage
      epiglottis
      glottis
      arytenoid cartilage
      vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
      vocal folds (true vocal cords)

4. Lungs
      right lung
      left lung
      parietal pleura
      visceral pleura
      apex of the lung
      base of the lung
      lobes (superior, middle, and inferior)




                                      67
5. Air passageways
       trachea
       tracheal cartilage rings
       carina
       right and left primary bronchi
       secondary bronchi
       tertiary bronchi

6. Muscles of respiration
     diaphragm
     external intercostals
     internal intercostals
     abdominal muscles

7. Identify the following on a microscope slide of the trachea:
       hyaline cartilage
       pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
       goblet cells




                                        68
Digestive System

Textbook reading Ch. 25

Learning Objectives

1. What are the functions of the following parts of the digestive system?
     Mouth
     Salivary glands
     Esophagus
     Stomach
     Small intestine
     Large intestine
     Rectum
     Gall bladder
     Liver
     Pancreas

2. Know the function of the following microscopic structures:
      goblet cells                    lacteal
      gastric glands                  intestinal glands
      parietal cells                  duodenal glands
      chief cells

3. Know the structure and function of each of the layers of the
gastrointestinal tract.

4. What structures in the small intestine are responsible for the increase in
surface area that aids in the absorption of digested food?

5. What is the function of the hepatic portal system? Name the blood vessels
which form this system.

6. What is the function of the gall bladder? Distinguish between the cystic
duct and the common hepatic duct.

7. What is the function of the pancreas?




                                       69
8. What is the function of the liver? What is a liver lobule? In which
direction does blood flow in a liver lobule?

Lab Activities

Identify the following structures on charts, and models.

1. Mouth
     hard palate                soft palate
     uvula                      gums
     oral cavity                tongue
     palatine tonsil

2. Salivary glands
       parotid gland
       submandibular gland
       sublingual gland

3. Teeth
      crown
      root
      root canal
      pulp cavity
      enamel
      dentin

4. Permanent teeth
      central incisor
      lateral incisor
      cuspid
      1st premolar
      2nd premolar
      1st molar
      2nd molar

5. Pharynx

6. Esophagus




                                      70
7. Stomach
      cardia
      fundus
      body
      pyloric region
             pyloric antrum
             pyloric sphincter
      rugae
      greater curvature
      lesser curvature

8. Small intestine
      duodenum
      jejunum
      ileum
      plica circularis
      villi
      ileocecal valve

9. Colon
      appendix
      cecum
      haustra
      taenia coli
      ascending colon
      right colic (hepatic) flexure
      transverse colon
      left colic (splenic) flexure
      descending colon
      sigmoid colon
      rectum

10. Liver
      left lobe
      right lobe
      hepatic duct (right and left)
      common hepatic duct




                                      71
11. Gall bladder
      cystic duct
      common bile duct

12. Pancreas
      pancreatic duct


Microscope slides

1. Identify the layers and various structures found in these layers on a slide
of the cross section of the digestive tract: NOTE – these layers are also
shown on the ceramic model of the digestive system.
       a. mucosa
              simple columnar epithelium
              goblet cells
              lamina propria
              muscularis mucosa
       b. submucosa
              dense irregular connective tissue
              blood vessels, glands and lymphatic tissue
       c. muscularis externa
              circular smooth muscle
              longitudinal smooth muscle
       d. serosa

2. Esophagus
      stratified squamous epithelium

3. Esophageal-stomach junction(cardiac junction)
      stratified squamous epithelium
      simple columnar epithelium

4. Stomach
      simple columnar epithelium
      gastric pits
      gastric glands
      smooth muscle
             circular
             longitudinal

                                       72
5. Duodenum
      simple columnar epithelium
      intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn)
      duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands)
      villi
      muscularis mucosa

6. Ileum
       simple columnar epithelium
       intestinal glands
       villi
       muscularis mucosa
       Peyer’s patches

7. Colon
      simple columar epithelium
      goblet cells
      intestinal glands

8. Pancreas
      pancreatic acini cells
      pancreatic islet cells (islets of Langerhans)




                                      73
Urinary System

Textbook reading Ch. 26

Learning Objectives


1. What are the functions of the urinary system?

2. What are the functions of the kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra?

3. What is the location, type of muscle tissue and the function of the internal
and external urethral sphincter?

4. Know the structure and function of a nephron. What is the difference
between a cortical and juxtamedullary nephron?

5. Know, in order, the blood vessels that supply the nephron.

6. Urine is formed by three processes, filtration, secretion, and absorption.
Which parts of the nephron carry out these processes?

7. What are podocytes? How do these cells function is the formation of the
filtration membrane in the glomerulus?

8. Name the structures that filtrate passes through from the glomerulus to the
outside. Where does the filtrate become urine?

9. What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? What structures
form this apparatus?

10. Know the histology of the kidney, ureters, and bladder (see lab
activities).



                                      74
Lab Activities

On models and charts identify the following structures.

1. Kidney
      hilus
      renal artery
      renal vein
      ureter
      renal cortex
      renal medulla
      renal pyramid
      renal sinus
             renal pelvis
             major calyx
             minor calyx

2. Nephron
      nephron = renal corpuscle + tubules
      renal corpuscle = glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule
      glomerulus
             podocyte
             filtration slit
      glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule – parietal layer
      proximal convoluted tubule
      loop of Henle
             ascending loop
             descending loop
      distal convoluted tubule
      juxtaglomerular apparatus
      collecting tubule
      cortical nephron
      juxtamedullary nephron



                                     75
3. Blood supply to the kidney and nephron

renal artery                    interlobular vein
interlobar artery               arcuate vein
interlobular artery             interlobar vein
afferent arteriole              renal vein
glomerulus                      arcuate artery
efferent arteriole

4. Ureters

5. Urinary bladder
      rugae
      trigone
      internal urethral sphincter

6. Urethra
      male
            prostatic urethra
            membraneous urethra
            spongy (penile) urethra
      female
            external urethral sphincter
            urethral meatus (external urethral orifice)




                                     76
Histology: Identify the following structures on a microscope slide

1. Kidney:
      Cortex
            Renal corpuscle
            Glomerulus
            Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule)
      Medulla

2. Ureter:
      lumen
      transitional epithelium
      muscle layer (muscularis)

3. Bladder:
      transitional epithelium
      lamina propria
      detrusor muscle




                                     77
Reproductive System

Textbook reading Ch. 27

Learning Objectives:

1. Learn the various structures of the male and female reproductive system
assigned in the lab activities.

2. Describe the structure of a mature sperm cell and ovum.

3. Know the function of the following structures in the male reproductive
system:
      scrotum                         prostrate gland
      testis                          bulbourethral gland
      epididymis                      urethra
      vas (ductus) deferens           penis
      seminal vesicles

4. What are the structures, in order, that sperm passes through after leaving
the testis?

5. Know the composition and volume of semen and the function of its
components.

6. Know the function of the following structures in the female reproductive
system:
      ovaries                         vagina
      oviduct
      uterus

7. List, in order, the structures through which the ova passes after leaving the
ovary.



                                      78
8. Understand and describe the menstrual cycle in a non-pregnant female.
What events occur at Day 1, 14, and 28 of the cycle? How are these days
related to the development of the follicle and the corpus luteum?

9. Describe the structures which comprise the mature ovarian follicle.

Lab activities

1. Male reproductive system: identify the following structures on charts and
models.
      Scrotum
      Testis
             Seminiferous tubules
      Epididymis
      Ductus (vas) deferens
      Spermatic cord
             Ductus (vas) deferens
      Ejaculatory duct
      Seminal vesicles
      Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland
      Prostate gland
      Prostatic urethra
      Membraneous urethra
      Penile (spongy) urethra
      Urethral orifice
      Penis
             Glans penis
             Prepuce
             Corpora cavernosa
             Corpus spongiosum

2. Female reproductive system: identify the following structure and charts
and models.
      Ovaries
      Uterine tube (oviduct or Fallopian tube)
            Ampulla
            Fimbria
            Infundibulum
      Uterus
            Fundus                    Internal orifice

                                     79
              Body                    External orifice
              Cervix
              Uterine cavity          Broad ligament
              Endometrium             Myometrium
              Perimetrium

      Vagina

      Vulva
              Mons pubis
              Labia majora
              Labia minora
              Clitoris
              Vagina orifice
              Urethral orifice

Histology: identify the following structures on microscope slides.

1. Testis
      seminiferous tubules
      sperm (lumen)
      interstitial cells

2. Vas deferens
      pseudostratified columnar epithelium
      muscularis layer

3. Penis
      Corpus spongiosum
      Corpora cavernosa




                                     80
3. Ovary
      primordial follicles
      primary follicles
      secondary follicles
      tertiary follicles (mature or Graafian follicles)
             antrum
             ovum
             granulosa cells
             zona pellucida
             corona radiata
             thecal cells
      corpus luteum

4. Oviduct or uterine tube
      mucosa
            ciliated columnar cells
            mucosal folds
      muscularis layer

5. Uterus
      endometrium
            stratum functionalis
            stratum basalis
      myometrium
      perimetrium

6. Vagina
      stratified squamous epithelium
      smooth muscle




                                       81
Final cat dissection:
This final look inside the cats will be to identify various reproductive
structures and organs in the cat. Here is a list of things to find in the cat:

Female:
     Uterine horns
     Uterus
     Ovary

Male:
        Testes
        Epididymis
        Spermatic cord
        Penis

General organs and structures:
     Greater omentum
     Lesser omentum
     Liver
     Gallbladder
     Stomach
            Rugae of stomach
            Pyloric junction
            Cardiac junction
     Pancreas
     Duodenum
     Ileocecal junction
     Cecum
     Ileum
     Colon – all regions
     Bladder
     Ureter
     Kidneys
            Cortex
            Medulla
     Spleen




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