Chapter 5 of Dissertation CHAPTER

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					                                      CHAPTER V


       This chapter presents the synopsis of the findings of the study, the

conclusions and recommendations of the study.

       The primary purpose of this study is to derive basis for developing a

handbook for effective school management. It sought to determine the levels of

the   principals   in    terms   of     their   intelligent   leadership   and   leadership


Specifically, the study assessed the following questions:

              1. What are the levels of intelligent leadership of school principals

                   as perceived by the principals themselves and their teachers in

                   terms of:

                        1.1 Sharing vision and objectives

                        1.2 Leading

                        1.3 Following

                        1.4 Interacting

                        1.5 Analyzing Situations

                        1.6 Formulating Team

                        1.7 Getting Results

                        1.8 Managing Values and Culture

                        1.9 Organizing

                     1.10 Globalizing

             2.    What are the levels of leadership competencies of school

                  principals as perceived by the Principals themselves and their

                  teachers in terms of:

                     2.1 Professional Competence

                     2.2 Interpersonal Competence

                     2.3 Technical Competence

                     2.4 Efficiency Competence

                     2.5 Wellness Competence

                     2.6 Self-confidence

      3. Is there a relationship between intelligent leadership and leadership

          competencies of school principals?

      4. Are there differences in the perception between school principals and

          teachers in the intelligent leadership and leadership competencies?

      5. What leadership handbook could be proposed to enhance the level of

          intelligent leadership and competencies of school principals?


      Based on the results of the statistical analysis of the data, the following

findings were derived:

      1. The school managers are described by the teachers and themselves

as “very intelligent”. They are rated as 3.88 (by teachers) and 4.19 (by school

managers), which suggest a high level of Intelligent Leadership. They are “very

intelligent” in all ten indicators of their Intelligent Leadership Levels.

       In terms of shared vision and objectives, the computed mean of 4.22 and

3.86 by teachers and school managers, respectively reveal that it is contributory

to schools current stature. A leader should usually have a strong vision and

should be able to sell that to others. In every case it is important that the vision is

shared and everyone is committed to it. Without real commitment the vision is

not guiding our work. It is very difficult to get a group of people to work efficiently

together without a clear vision.

       The leader (s) level of intelligent leadership are likewise rated with “very

intelligent”. Although the Teachers rated it a little lower (3.91) than the principal’s

rating (4.30), still the weighted mean are interpreted as “very intelligent”.

       Leaders are certainly the key players in the leadership process. They

have the responsibility to create a process that works well, because usually they

have more authority and power and they exert more influence than do followers.

However, it is important to remember that everyone can have both leader and

follower roles in different contexts and situations; you are a leader in some

relationships and a follower in others.

       Followers, with an overall mean of 4.31 (from Principals) and 3.91 (from

Teachers), although the same overall mean as Leaders (s) indicators, are still

interpreted as “very intelligent”.

       Followers are active.     They share the responsibility of the leadership

process. Followers can become leaders and leaders can become followers in

any leadership relationship.       Followers do not do followership, they do

leadership. They are in leadership relationship together. This is shared and

collaborative leadership. Followers and leaders develop a relationship wherein

they influence one another as well as the organization and society.

       The principal disposes “very intelligent” in terms of dialogue indicator.

There are high means of 4.20 and 3.86 as quantified from the responses of

teachers and principals.

       Leaders and followers are the people in this leadership interaction which

on its best can be described as a dialogue. Dialogue means that team members

(leaders and followers) are capable to suspend and enter into a genuine thinking

and learning together. Both parties are active and know their roles. Interaction is

based on influence relationship, multidirectional and non-coercive.

       The interaction aims as achieving the objectives effectively.        Result

orientation is a typical feature of leadership which differentiates leadership

relationship from other kind of relationship.

       The situation indicator of the principal is perceived as “very intelligent”.

The computed values of 4.22 and 3.87 strengthen the said claim. Although the

teachers yielded lower mean of 3.87 than the Principals themselves (4.22), both

weighted means are still interpreted as “very intelligent”.

       The readiness of leaders means, how able, willing and flexible they are to

use different kinds of leadership styles. The readiness of followers means, how

able and willing they are to share the leadership responsibilities and tasks.

       In terms of team indicators, the computed weighted means of 4.20 (from

Principals) and 3.86 (from Teachers) attest the efficiency of Principals along this


       Leadership is a team (communal) relationship.        Many times the most

important learning and performing unit of an organization is a team. We should

be able to lead teams and lead within teams efficiently. Team as a social system

is a very important element of an intelligent leadership. The maturity level of

teams should be able to assess by measuring their management and leadership


       Foremost, Principals are rated with “very intelligent” on the Results

indicators.   Their computes means of 4.02 (from Principals) and 3.84 (from

Teachers) attest this claim.

       Leaders and followers intend to achieve real results or change. This kind

of result orientation is a typical feature of leadership. The quality of leadership

can be assessed at the interaction level and at the result level. At result level we

can be successful or unsuccessful. The successful results can be effective or

ineffective. The case when intended results are achieved in the expense of the

followers motivation is an example of this .

       Values and Culture have a very crucial role in intelligent leadership. The

same was strengthened by the computed means of 4.28 (from Principals) and

3.87 (from Teachers). The principals are rated as “very intelligent”.

       Leadership has a moral dimension. It should always be based on same

universal principles like respect, service, justice, honesty and community. The

leader should follow these principles and also help followers to assess their own

values and needs in order to raise

       In terms of organization, principals were rate by themselves (4.08) and

teachers (3.89) as “very intelligent”.

       Every organization has its own values, culture and structure. A leader

should be flexible enough to apply his/her leadership behavior to the features of

the organization or clever enough to understand that a certain organization is not

suitable for her/him.

       Intelligent leadership also underlines the importance of different levels of

leadership, which are individual, team organization and society. At individual

level we should focus on       self mastery, at team level the focus is on social

synergy, at organizational level the focus is organizational learning and at the

society level the focus is on sustainable development.

       In terms of industry, society, world indicators, principals were rated by

themselves and their teachers as “very intelligent”, 4.10 and 3.89 respectively.

       The leadership process happens in an organization which is a part of an

industry or a branch. Organizations are a part of societies, countries, continents

and so on. All this happens in our “global village” which in a way has become

smaller and smaller and is a bigger system within which we work. In intelligent

leadership it is important to see the big picture.        We should lead in a

comprehensively simplified way.       We should develop a global balanced

scorecard which should include financial, political, technological, social,

ecological and spiritual factors.

       2.   The results disposes that both teachers and principals rated the

leadership competency of principals as “very competent”. The six dimensions of

leadership Competencies were individually rated in a scale of 5 by both groups of


       More specifically, the Professional Competence garnered a weighted

mean of 4.45 (from Principals) and 4.04 (from Teachers). The “very competent”

shows that the principal is working in a job where he/she finds fulfillment to the

maximum extent possible. He/she is motivated, has clear objectives and enough

competence, gets feedback and feels that she has challenging tasks and can

develop herself continuously.

       The Principal is fairly well on its Interpersonal Competence. This is based

on the computed means of 4.02 and 3.82 which were reported by Principals and

Teachers respectively.

       Interpersonal competence describes a persons ability to communicate

positively in stressful situations; express openly and honestly her thoughts and

feelings to others in a way that also takes into consideration the thoughts and

feelings of others.    He/she should be able to understand another person’s

thought, feelings and behavior, to place himself/herself to their position and see

things from their point of view.

       The school manager must be able to communicate efficiently (including

body language); clearly, precisely, consistently and with many channels. He/she

must be able to affect others positively and efficiently, receive and give feedback

continuously and are open to new ideas. Most importantly he/she must be able

to continuously build and maintain friendly contacts and networks with people

which someday be useful in their work.

       The teachers and principals reported the leadership competence to have

been favorably depicting a positive leadership culture. With computed means of

3.86 from teachers and 4.06 from principals, the leadership competence indicator

shows “very competent”.

       Along this dimension, leadership competence means the ability to

formulate impressive visions, communicate and implements them.              A leader

should have the ability to work effectively and always try his/her best. He/she

should have a high achievement orientation and always to improve the results.

       School    manager     possesses    the   ability   to   delegate   power   and

responsibility, build trust and inspire others. It means motivating and coaching to

take individual responsibility.    The ability to work in teams and lean team

members so that they will achieve their results efficiently.

       Corollary to the Leadership Competence is the ability to develop his/her

subordinates and supports their growing to more challenging jobs.                 It is

management in teaching.       He/she should also possess the ability to enable,

involve, lead and manage people in change situations and get good results in

change programs.

      Another aspect of Leadership Competence on which principals were rated

high is the Efficiency Competence. This is strengthen by the computed means of

4.08 from Principals and 3.87 from teachers. True enough, the school managers

to perform his duty must have the ability to see precisely and objectively; to

search continuously and curiously for new knowledge. This means perception

without prejudices and with a wide perspective. He/she is able to read weak

signals. Another similar form is active information seeking.

      A leader should also possess the ability for analytical and conceptual

thinking. He/she is a person who is able to organize complicated entities and

can see the inter-relationships, a person that is capable of system thinking.

      Another important component of Efficiency Competence is the ability to

make decisions easily and rapidly. He/she can invent, modify and apply different

decision making methods to support this activity. He/she must have the ability to

use time efficiently in order to achieve goals as well as the personal readiness to

change is high.

      In terms of well-being competence, Principals was still rated high and that

indicators shows “very competent”. This is shown by the weighted means of 4.26

(from Principals) and 3.99 (from Teachers).

      Well-being competence includes physical condition or the ability to

manage and take good care of one’s body, mental condition or the ability to

manage own mental energy and thinking process in a positive way, social

condition or the ability to develop social relationships at home, at work and

among hobbies, spiritual condition which describes how balanced the person is

herself and with her values.      Person experiences some deeper meaning in

this/her life and is able to appreciate life as such.         This kind of personal

spirituality is connected to one’s existential issues. The level of consciousness

and spirituality as an effect on others.

       Stress management is also one of the many indicators of Wellness

Competence. This describes the persons ability to positively manage her stress

and anxiety. Above all humanity as a wellness competence must be observed by

school managers. This is the ability to understand one’s own limits, learn from

ones mistake and staying calm and humble even at the moment of success.

       Self-Confidence assessment is also high. The reported means of 4.39

and 3.97 from Principals and teachers strengthen this claim. This shows that

principals develop his/her ability to appreciate enough and his/her view of his/her

present way of thinking, feeling and acting. Self-Confidence has five different

dimensions    which    are   internal   self-confidence,   external   self-confidence,

acceptance, positive attitude and dominance.

       3. The Intelligent Leadership of principals greatly contributes to the

Professional Competence. The over-all correlation coefficient of .691 depicts

that there is a high relationship between the entire variables of Intelligent

Leadership and the Professional Competence of Principals. When taking by

dimensions, the correlation coefficient at .01 level considering a two-tailed test.

It means that when principals have better intelligent leadership, Professional

Competence become favorable too.

       The interpersonal competence and Intelligent Leadership shows high

correlation relationship as strengthen by a correlation value of .792.           The

computed values are high and are significant at .01 level. It suggests that the

interpersonal competence of leadership are influenced by these ten (10)

dimensions of intelligent leadership.

       The interpersonal competence of the leaders is the ability to influence,

supervise, lead, manipulate and control people at all levels of the organization

towards the more effective achievement of organizational goals.

       The computed correlation coefficient .824 signifies that leadership

competence and the levels of intelligent leadership of principals are related. The

higher the effectiveness of the leaders on their levels of intelligent leadership, the

better is the leadership competence too.

       A correlation coefficient of .798 predisposes a high relationship between

the efficiency and intelligent leadership. Leaders should be able to possess the

ability for analytical and conceptual thinking.      A leader is able to organize

complicated entities and can see the interrelationship. Leaders are capable of

system thinking.

       The overall correlation coefficient of .705 implies a high and direct relation

between levels of intelligent leadership and wellness competence. By wellness

competence leaders should have developed good physical and mental condition

to be able to lead effectively. He should also possess good spiritual condition to

balance herself and her values. A good leader must also be able to manage

stress and remain humble.

      The values of correlation .687 depict a very high relationship. These are

the relationships between the intelligent leadership and self-confidence.        A

leaders degree of self-confidence will be able to determine his ability to

appreciate himself enough and his view of his present way of thinking, feeling

and acting. Self-confidence has five different dimensions which are internal self-

confidence,   external   self-confidence,   acceptance,   positive   attitude   and


      4.1 The data imply that there is no significant difference between the

description of the teachers and Principals, themselves, on the Results (1.38),

Organization (1.38) and Industry, Society, World (1.48).     However significant

differences are observed on Shared vision and objectives (2.67), Leaders (2.98),

Followers (2.68), Dialogue (2.42), Team (2.08), Values and Culture (2.75) and

Overall (2.19). The significance on their assessment was culled from the results

of t-values which are higher than critical value of 1.645. The t-value connotes

that teachers and principals have different views, perceptions and evaluation of

how effective is the principals doing with respect to the intelligent leadership.

The teachers and Principals are on the same level of understanding on Results,

Organization and Industry, Society, World but with different understanding on

Shared vision and objectives, Leaders, Followers, Dialogue, Team and Values

and Culture. The overall value of t shows that what actually is being done by the

Principals are not totally being perceived by the teacher subordinates as is.

There is, therefore, no clarity and accuracy in Intelligent Leadership.

       The principals have to rely on varied skills and perform different activities

depending on the hierarchical level and hob responsibilities. For the twenty four

(24) principals, shared vision and objectives is increasingly important. Critical

skills needed by them in the fast changing society of today include the ability to

create an exciting teaching environment as well as to motivate confidence in and

support of followers for the school and leadership.        The Principals have to

strengthen public relations (Dialogue), empower teacher (Team) and improve

coordination and enhance communication skills.         The said Principals, being

directly in charge of the teacher, need the ability to inspire teachers (values and

culture) on a day-to-day basis and sustain such motivation towards the

attainment of the school objectives.

       Rather than simply issuing memoranda or orders.            The middle level

managers should find a ways to benefit teachers insights and opinions. They

can creatively do this, by empowering teachers to make decisions and solve

problems. Anyway, they both have the same notion of the Intelligent Leadership

being done in the school.

       4.2   The overall mean of 4.21 and 3.92 from among principals and

teachers, respectively, imply that the two groups on different levels describe the

Leadership Competency of Secondary School Principals. The t-value depicting

the difference is not significant at Interpersonal Competence (2.68), Leadership

Competence (1.42) and Efficiency Competence (4.32).            However values for

Professional Competence (2.68), Wellness Competence (1.81), Self-Confidence

(2.60) and overall (1.25) shows significant relationship. The overall value of 1.84

is higher than that of the critical value of 1.645.

       The Principals and teachers are on the same level of understanding on

Interpersonal Competence, Leadership Competence and Efficiency Competence

and with different levels of understanding on Professional Competence, Wellness

Competence and Self-confidence of their Principals.        The overall leadership

competence of Principals shows significant relationship which connotes that

Principals and Teachers have different levels of understanding with regards to

the Leadership Competency.

       Wellness competence and Self-confidence of Principals do affect the

performance in the school system. The Principals should be aware of these

competencies and how they affect their own behavior and maybe used to

enhance or undermine teaching performance.

       The Principals as leaders have to cope up with individual differences in

order to promote cooperation and collaboration to produce something that is

more than merely the sum of its parts. There is synergy in the school because of

combined action in which diverse or desperate peoples or groups work together.

The objectives of course is to increase effectiveness by sharing perceptions,

insights and knowledge, so as to produce effective results.

       Wellness competence and Self-confidence of Principals do affect the

performance in the school system. The Principals should be aware of these

competencies and how they affect their own behavior and maybe used to

enhance or undermine teaching performance.


The following conclusions are inferred from the finding of the study:

   1. That the principals are “very intelligent” with regards to the levels of

      Intelligent Leadership. They are qualified, prepared and competent along

      the ten indicators of Intelligent Leadership.

   2. The Statements in the Leadership Competency describes he/she well.

      Principals are competent enough to do the tasks assigned to them by the

      Department Of Education.

   3. The Intelligent Leadership of principals greatly contributes to the

      Professional Competence. The over-all correlation coefficient depicts that

      there is a high relationship between the entire variables of Intelligent

      Leadership and the Professional Competence of Principals.

   4. There were significant differences on the perception between principals

      and teachers in the Intelligent Leadership and Leadership Competency of


   5. That a handbook on Intelligent Leadership and Leadership Competency is

      relevant for the attainment of an effective Intelligent Organization.


      Based on the findings, the following were recommended.

1. The instrument used in this study can be used to determine the levels of

   intelligent leadership and leadership competency of new recruits who will

   be assigned to handle the position of Principals in secondary schools.

2. The Intelligent leadership model should be tested in many      ways in order

   to find out its strength and weaknesses. It is developed for knowledge

   intensive intelligent organizations.

3. Some kind of assessment tool can be developed based on the model.

   There will be many interesting theoretical and practical areas of research.

4. The Leadership Competency tool needs some improvements. A test

   analysis should be made including the collection of large enough

   comparative material. A factor analysis of the items and competencies

   should be made too.

5. The efficiency of management and leadership training is certainly one key

   area for further research. We should be able to define a macro- and micro

   pedagogical environment for management learning.            Mentoring as a

   leadership “engine” is also an interesting area of research.

6. The whole idea of shared leadership also needs empirical evidence. What

   are the main requirements to make it work in practice? What kind of

   leadership culture is needed? One quite new and interesting idea would

   be how different regional and country cultures are affecting leadership.

   The research question here would be: how culture bound is leadership.

7. Adapt the Intelligent Leadership Handbook for Intelligent Organizations for

   the better school governance and to attain effective organization.

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Description: Chapter 5 of Dissertation