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					                                                                        Chapter 41 Review Questions


Section 41.1

1) In a species of bird, some males help the females care for the eggs and young while other males
   do not. Young that are cared for by both the male and female are more likely to survive. Which of
   the following activity by males not providing parental care would represent the most direct trade-
   off for the reduced survival of his offspring?
   A. attacking the nests of neighboring males
   B. mating with additional females and fathering more eggs
   C. eating to build up energy stores for migration
   D. grooming to eliminate parasites from their feathers

2) Salmon are born in freshwater environments, migrate to the sea, and return to the freshwater
   stream where they were born to spawn. In freshwater, water constantly diffuses into the body and
   ions are lost from the body. In salt water, body water diffuses out of the body and excess ions can
   be gained from the water. A salmon’s gills have special cells to pump salt in or out of the body to
   maintain homeostasis. In response to the salmon’s moves between freshwater and salt water,
   some cells in the gills are produced and other are destroyed. These changes made in the cells of
   the gills during the lifetime of an individual salmon are an example of which of the following?
   A. natural selection
   B. trade-off
   C. acclimatization
   D. adaptation

Section 41.2

3) Your professor announces he has discovered a new species of birds that feeds mostly on worms
   and soft-bodied insects picked up from the ground and leaves. He asks you to use this information
   to predict the beak shape of these birds. Which of the following would you predict?
   A. wide and curved like a scoop
   B. long and narrow like tweezers
   C. medium-sized and very strong
   D. deep and powerful

4) What tissue types make up a human hand?
   A. connective and epithelial tissues only
   B. connective, nervous, cardiac, and epithelial tissues
   C. connective, nervous, and epithelial tissues only
   D. connective, nervous, muscle, and epithelial tissues
   E. muscle, nervous, and epithelial tissues

5) Epithelial tissues have polarity, with an apical side that faces the environment and a basolateral
   side that faces the interior of the animal. Because of the harsh environmental exposure on the
   apical side, epithelial cells have a short life span of 2–6 days. Which of the following is the most
   likely reason that the tissue as a whole does not wear away, despite the short life spans of the
   A. The epithelial tissue is unusually thick.
   B. The degraded tissue is recycled and restored to its original site.
   C. The tissue has cells that actively undergo mitosis and cytokinesis to replace the lost cells.
   D. New cells are transported in the blood to the site where old cells have worn away.

6) Which of the following is true of the fingerlike projections lining the lumen of the small intestine?
   A. They display a difference in structure between the sides of the epithelial tissue.
   B. They contain several tissue types.
   C. They increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients into the body.
   D. All of the above
   E. A and C only
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                                                                     Chapter 41 Review Questions

Section 41.3

7) Which of the following statements is a true statement about body size and physiology?
   A. The amount of food and oxygen that an animal requires and the amount of heat and waste that
      it produces are inversely proportional to its mass.
   B. The rate at which nutrients are used and waste products are produced by an animal is
      independent of its volume.
   C. Small and large animals face very different physiological challenges because body mass
      increases disproportionately rapidly as linear dimensions increase.

8) An elephant and a mouse are both running in full sun, and both overheat by the same amount
   above their normal body temperatures. Both move into the shade and rest to cool down. Which
   will cool down faster?
   A. elephant
   B. mouse
   C. They will cool at the same rate because they overheated the same amount.

9) Allometry is best described as
   A. a method of mathematics that requires all measurements to be in the metric system
   B. a mathematical relationship in which two quantities change at the same rate
   C. a mathematical relationship in which one quantity changes while the other stays the same
   D. a change in body mass accompanied by a disproportionate change in anatomical structure or
       physiological processes
   E. a change in body mass accompanied by a proportional changes in anatomical structure or
       physiological processes

10) Which of the following is not an example of an allometric relationship?
    A. In mammals, skeletal mass increases faster than overall body mass.
    B. In human evolution, brain size has increased faster than body size.
    C. Arm length has increased proportionately with leg length as humans have gotten taller.
    D. The number of eggs in female butterflies increases with a slope greater than 1 compared to
       body size.

11) What would you most likely measure to determine a caterpillar’s metabolic rate?
    A. oxygen consumption
    B. waste excretion
    C. amino acid synthesis
    D. rate of locomotion

12) A researcher is setting up an experiment to measure basal metabolic rate in prairie voles. Which
    of the following would be the best set of conditions for the voles immediately before and during
    the measurement?
    A. House in a cage with plenty of food and water to avoid stress; conduct measurements in a
         warmer room than room where housed.
    B. House in a cage with plenty of food and water to avoid stress; conduct measurements in a
         room the same temperature as the room where housed.
    C. House in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in
         a colder room than room where housed and exercise the voles.
    D. House in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in
         a room the same temperature as the room where housed.

13) Single-celled aquatic animals rely solely on diffusion across the cell membrane for gas exchange
    and nutrient absorption. If all of the following have the same length, which shape would have the
    most trouble exchanging enough materials across its membrane?
    A. round
    B. square
    C. tube
    D. spiral
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                                                                        Chapter 41 Review Questions

    E. donut

Section 41.4

14) How does the epithelium contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis?
    A. It acts as a barrier to create an internal environment different from the external environment.
    B. It regulates the exchange of ions between the body and the environment.
    C. It helps to prevent water loss from the body in a terrestrial environment.
    D. All of the above answers apply.

15) Which of the following is not a function of an effector in the homeostatic regulation of temperature
    in mammals?
    A. constriction of skin blood vessels to decrease heat loss
    B. shivering to generate heat in muscles
    C. comparing sensory input to the set point
    D. stimulating sweat glands to increase evaporation

16) What would happen if body temperature were controlled by a positive feedback system?
    A. More effectors would be needed to maintain the set point.
    B. Different integrators would be needed to maintain the set point.
    C. The body temperature would get increasingly away from the set point and result in death.
    D. The body temperature would be maintained much closer to the set point, causing stress to the

Section 41.5

17) A person standing and watching the stars on a cool, calm night is most likely to lose body heat by
    A. radiation
    B. convection
    C. conduction
    D. evaporation

18) Wading birds in northern climates are able to walk in pools of water on ice without dying of
    hypothermia because they have countercurrent heat exchangers in their legs. These exchangers
    allow heat in warm blood going to the feet to be transferred to cool blood returning from the feet.
    Why are such countercurrent heat exchangers so efficient at conserving heat?
    A. The gradient between the two currents is maintained even as one current cools and the other
        current heats.
    B. There is a large temperature differential from one end of each current to the other.
    C. Blood in the arteries and veins flow in the same direction, so there is no loss to friction.
    D. All of the above
    E. A and B only

19) What is the main reason that a person (body temperature 37ºC) sitting on the lake shore in air that
    is 15ºC lose heat less rapidly than when she is sitting on a stump in the lake with only her head
    above the water, which is 15ºC?
    A. Water conducts heat more efficiently than air does.
    B. Because water evaporates, heat is lost to evaporation.
    C. Metabolic heat production is greater in air than in water.
    D. Air is a poor insulator.

20) If you put a sweater on a lizard to provide insulation, what effect would this have on the lizard’s
    A. decrease heat loss from convection
    B. increase heat gain from radiation
    C. decrease heat gain from radiation
    D. Both A and B
    E. Both A and C
21) Animal form (anatomy) often correlates with function (physiology). Which of the following
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                                                                     Chapter 41 Review Questions

   examples least illustrates this correlation?
   A. short, powerful beaks on birds eating thickly hulled seeds
   B. flattened lamellae in fish gills
   C. wings on flightless birds like ostrich or emu
   D. streamlined body of fish for efficient swimming
   E. countercurrent heat exchanger in the limbs of an Arctic fox

22) Which term best describes an animal that, although generating heat through metabolism,
    nonetheless does not maintain a constant body temperature?
    A. homeothermic endotherm
    B. heterothermic ectotherm
    C. homeothermic ectotherm
    D. heterothermic endotherm

23) Which of the following statements comparing endotherms and ectotherms is false?
    A. Mitochondrial density and enzyme activity are 3–4 times higher in the cells of endotherms
       than in the cells of ectotherms of similar size.
    B. Ectotherms can use more of their energy intake for reproduction than endotherms.
    C. Both endotherms and ectotherms have high mass-specific metabolic rates.
    D. Both endotherms and ectotherms exchange heat with the environment through convection,
       conduction, radiation, and evaporation.

24) Although lizards are ectotherms, many species spend much of their day moving between sun and
    shade to maintain their body temperature within a narrow range. What is the purpose of
    expending so much energy to thermoregulate?
    A. Convection is not effective at midday, so the lizards must seek other sources of heat and
    B. Enzymes function best within a narrow range of temperatures.
    C. Insects are also ectotherms, and lizards are following their prey in and out of warm spots.

25) A lizard has spent the night under a rock. In the morning it needs to warm up. Which of the
    following activities would help it to get warm?
    A. Move into the sun to bask.
    B. Sit in the shade on a rock that has already been warmed by the sun.
    C. Open the mouth to absorb heat from the sun through evaporation.
    D. Both A and B
    E. Both B and C


26) Which of the following could be interpreted as an adaptation?
    A. presence of brown adipose tissue in small endotherms to achieve homeostasis with respect to
    B. altered gene expression in an individual frog exposed to cold to increase production of cold-
       tolerant proteins.
    C. a desert-dwelling antelope, the Arabian oryx, allowing its body temperature to rise as
       environmental temperatures increase during the day, then return to normal as temperatures
       decrease at night
    D. Both A and B
    E. Both B and C


Use the following information when answering questions 27 and 28:

The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is a Northern European freshwater fish often inhabiting ponds
that become hypoxic (have reduced oxygen levels) and even anoxic (have no oxygen) when the
surface freezes during the winter. Surprisingly, when oxygen levels are normal, these fish lack the
lamellae that provide a large surface area for gas exchange between water and blood: their gills are
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                                                                       Chapter 41 Review Questions

smooth. Yet when the level of oxygen in the water falls, the gill morphology undergoes a change:
packing cells stop dividing and programmed cell death is induced, exposing gill lamellae that were
buried in other tissue. With lamellae exposed, the gills have increased surface area for gas exchange.
These changes in gill lamellar profile are reversible: investigators observed that the gills return to
their normal structure within 7 days after returning the fish to well-oxygenated water. (Jørund Sollid,
Paula De Angelis, Kristian Gundersen, and Göran E. Nilsson, ―Hypoxia Induces Adaptive and
Reversible Gross Morphological Changes in Crucian Carp Gills,‖ Journal of Experimental Biology 206
[2003]: 3667–3673).

27) Gills serve multiple functions in fish in addition to gas exchange. Given the large surface area of
    gills with lamellae, what is the most likely explanation of why crucian carp cover protruding
    lamellae in their gills when levels of oxygen are normal?
    A. To prevent loss of heat to the surrounding water.
    B. To prevent loss of ions to the surrounding water.
    C. To prevent protein loss to the surrounding water.
    D. To prevent loss of oxygen to the surrounding water.

28) What adaptive feature(s) of fishes of the genus Carassius might help compensate for the reduced
    surface area of gills for gas exchange?
    A. decreased blood hemoglobin levels to aid oxygen transport in the blood
    B. decreased blood flow to gills to increase oxygen transfer from water to blood
    C. increased water flow over the gills to deliver more oxygen to the respiratory surfaces
    D. decreased water flow over the gills to allow more oxygen to be extracted from each unit
        volume of water
    E. increase in metabolic rate to draw more oxygen from the water flowing over the gills


29) How do biologists measure an animal’s metabolic rate?
    A. by taking its temperature
    B. by measuring how rapidly it uses oxygen
    C. by measuring how rapidly it uses glucose
    D. by measuring how rapidly it produces wastes

30) How is the structure of a connective tissue most closely correlated with its function?
    A. The density of cells in the tissue correlates with the tissue’s function.
    B. The type of cells in the tissue correlates with the tissue’s function.
    C. The origin of the tissue (from endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm) correlates with the tissue’s
    D. The nature of the extracellular matrix correlates with the tissue’s function.

31) As an animal gets larger, which of the following occurs?
    A. Its surface area grows more rapidly than its volume.
    B. Its volume grows more rapidly than its surface area.
    C. Its volume and surface area increase in perfect proportion to each other.
    D. Its volume increases, but its total surface area decreases.

32) Which of the following best describes the set point in a homeostatic system?
    A. the cells that collect and transmit information about the state of the system
    B. the cells that receive information about the state of the system and that direct changes to the
    C. the various components that produce appropriate changes in the system
    D. the target or ―normal‖ value of the parameter in question

33) What does it mean to say that an animal is a heterothermic endotherm?
    A. Its body temperature can vary, but it produces heat from its own tissues.
    B. Its body temperature varies because it gains most of its heat from sources outside its body.
    C. Its body temperature does not vary, because it produces heat from its own tissues.
    D. Its body temperature does not vary, even though it gains most of its heat from sources outside

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                                                                         Chapter 41 Review Questions

        its body.

34) Which of the following is an advantage that ectotherms have over endotherms of the same size?
    A. They require much less food.
    B. They can save energy in cold weather by hibernating (entering torpor for long periods).
    C. They can remain active in cold weather or at nighttime—when temperatures cool.
    D. They have higher metabolic rates and grow much more quickly.

35) Why is epithelium a particularly important tissue in achieving homeostasis?

36) The metabolic rate of a frog in summer (at 35°C) is about eight times higher than that in winter (at
    5°C). Compare and contrast the individual’s ability to move, exchange gases, and digest food at
    the two temperatures. During which season will the frog require more food energy, and why?

37) Consider the following cells, tissues, and organs:
     Nerve cells
     Brown adipose tissue
     Lung tissue in humans
     Absorptive sections of digestive tract
     Capillaries
     Beaks of Galápagos finches
     Fish gills
    How does the structure of these cells relate to their function?

38) Researchers who graph overall body mass versus skeletal mass for mammals ranging from mice
    to elephants find that skeletal mass increases much more rapidly than body mass does. Explain
    why this relationship occurs and why it is considered allometric.

39) Consider a day in which daytime temperatures reach 30°C and nighttime temperatures drop to
    18°C. Analyze how an ant might gain and lose heat by conduction, convection, radiation, and
    evaporation to avoid overheating during the day and escape cold-induced lethargy in the early
    morning and evening.

40) Explain how a countercurrent heat exchanger works.

41) When people move from sea level to a high elevation, their bodies undergo acclimatization.
    During this period, heart and lung activity and blood chemistry change to compensate for the low
    availability of oxygen. Design a study to test the hypothesis that human populations that have
    lived at high elevations for many centuries are not acclimatized to oxygen scarcity but are
    adapted. Also, test the idea that they are both acclimatized and adapted.

42) The fossil record documents the existence of tortoises that were the size of small cars, dragonflies
    that had wingspans of two feet, and predatory sharks that were larger than some of today’s
    whales. Using these examples, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of extremely large size
    in relation to natural selection. Explain why it is not possible for King Kong, the giant ape of movie
    fame, to exist.

43) An engineer has to design a system for dissipating heat from a new type of car engine that runs
    particularly hot. Recall that heat is gained and lost as a function of surface area. Suggest ideas for
    her to consider that are inspired by biological structures with exceptionally high surface
    area/volume ratios.

44) Suppose that you are the veterinarian at a zoo and have just been put in charge of caring for six
    individuals of a new mammal species. Almost nothing is known about the physiology of this
    animal. Describe how you would go about determining set points for body temperature, blood
    pH, blood glucose, blood pressure, and heart rate in this species. Is it reasonable to assume that
    the set points for adult males, adult females, and juveniles are identical? Why or why not?

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                                                                      Chapter 41 Review Questions

Multiple Choice

45) Which of the following descriptions is an example of acclimatization?
    A. Over many generations, the average length of giraffe necks has increased.
    B. The optimal temperature at which goldfish can swim at maximum speed will decrease if the
       goldfish is maintained in cold water.
    C. The average brain size of the ancestors of modern humans has increased dramatically over
    D. The emergence of the seed represents a very important event in the evolution of land plants.

46) Consider several objects that are heated and then allowed to cool. Which of the following would
    cool at the fastest rate?
    A. an object with a surface area of 20 and a volume of 10
    B. an object with a surface area of 40 and a volume of 30
    C. an object with a surface area of 8 and a volume of 2
    D. an object with a surface area of 10 and a volume of 30

47) What happens to the mass-specific metabolic rate of an organism as it gets bigger?
    A. Mass-specific metabolic rate would decrease.
    B. Mass-specific metabolic rate would remain constant.
    C. Mass-specific metabolic rate would increase.

48) Patrick Wells and Alan Pinder conducted experiments to explore how gas exchange occurs in
    Atlantic salmon at various stages of their life. They found that the percentage of oxygen uptake by
    the gills increases as the organism grows. Which of the following could explain this result?
    A. The gills provide a much lower surface-to-volume ratio, so that gas transfer becomes more
        efficient as the organism gets larger.
    B. The surface area of skin is much larger than the surface area of the gills.
    C. As an individual grows, the skin surface area decreases in relation to its volume (the surface-
        to-volume ratio drops). To avoid suffocation, gills must take over the bulk of the gas exchange
    D. As an individual grows, the skin surface area increases in relation to its volume (the surface-
        to-volume ratio increases). To avoid suffocation, gills must take over the bulk of the gas
        exchange activity.

49) The relationship between heart mass and body mass differs for dogs and cats. Which statement
    explains these differences?
    A. Cat hearts are smaller because they have smaller bodies. The heart does not have to work as
       hard in a smaller animal.
    B. There is no difference in the size of dog and cat hearts when you compare animals of similar
    C. Cats are much more active than dogs. This increased activity is reflected in the data when
       comparing heart mass to body mass for dogs and cats.
    D. The hunting style of dogs involves long-distance chases. Cats use short, quick sprints to
       ambush their prey. The increased activity associated with the hunting style of dogs requires a
       larger heart.

50) Which of the following terms implies the maintenance of relatively constant physical conditions?
    A. homeostasis
    B. acclimation
    C. adaptation
    D. isometry

51) Which of the following terms describes an animal that maintains body temperature by producing
    heat in its own tissues?
    A. isotherm
    B. ectotherm
    C. endotherm

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                                                                       Chapter 41 Review Questions

52) Which of the following represents a description of an ectotherm?
    A. a person shivering in the cold
    B. a turtle basking in the sun on a log
    C. a small animal increasing its rate of oxidation of fat in brown adipose tissue to produce heat
    D. a hormonally induced increase in basal metabolism for the purpose of generating heat

53) The direct transfer of heat between two physical bodies that are in contact with each other would
    A. evaporation
    B. radiation
    C. convection
    D. conduction

54) Which of the following would explain the observation that marine mammals maintain very thick
    layers of insulating fat?
    A. The fat helps prevent heat loss through the process of evaporation.
    B. The fat helps prevent heat loss through the process of conduction.
    C. The fat prevents heat loss through the process of convection.

55) When researchers compare the cells from tissues collected from endotherms and ectotherms of
    similar size, what would they expect to find?
    A. Endotherm cells will have a much greater density of mitochondria.
    B. Ectotherm cells will have a much greater density of mitochondria.
    C. Endotherm cells will have a much greater density of ribosomes.
    D. Ectotherm cells will have a much greater density of ribosomes.

Short Answer

56) What is the difference between adaptation and acclimatization?

57) What is the difference between a tissue and an organ?

58) Define allometry, and provide a biological example.

59) Would you expect to find brown fat in a reptile? Why or why not?

Chapter 41   Animal Form and Function                                                               8

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