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Vali Dodonaea viscosa

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					                                             INDEX

Vali`i (Dodonaea,          D. viscosa)               African tulip tree (Spathodea cam-
    351, 352, 354, 355, 359, 394, 399,                  panulata) 212, 316, 318, 547,
    401, 402, 403, 559, 564, 585, 627,                   559, 566, 618; see also Spathodea
    658, 661, 669, 673, 675, 683; see                    campanulata
    also Dodonaea, D. viscosa                        Agavaceae 116, 205; see also agave
Abelmoschus moschatus 142                             agave 116, 487; see also Agavaceae,
Abronia 88                                              Agave americana
Abrus precatorius 137                                Agave americana (century plant) 487,
Abutilon grandifolium               (hairy               508, 514, 521; see also agave
    abutilon) 142,217                                Agave sisalana (sisal)           116, 205,
Acacia 304,309-310                                       487, 507, 508, 514, 521, 538
Acacia confusa (Formosan koa) 137,                   Ageratina adenophora (Maui pamakani)
    487, 506, 507, 508, 514, 521,538                     127, 304, 315, 326-327, 425, 468,
Acacia famesiana (klu) 137,215, 538                      538, 544, 547, 558, 563, 696; see
Acacia koa (koa)           155, 168, 186,                also Maui pamakani
    271, 274, 304, 363, 394, 399, 532,               Ageratina riparia (Hamakua pamakani)
    558,580, 667,674; see also koa                       127, 327, 411, 425, 426, 432, 434,
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) 137,                      468, 475, 538, 544, 547, 585, 689;
    289, 487, 506, 508, 513, 514, 528,                   see also Hamakua pamakani
    538, 547, 568, 816; see also black               Ageratum conyzoides 127, 327
    wattle                                           Ageratum houstonianum 127
Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood acacia)                Agonopterix ulicitella 564, 580
    487,508,513,514                                  Agraulis vanillae 291
Acalypha indica 136                                  agriculture 3, 4, 7, 8, 13, 16, 56,
Acalypha wilkesiana (beefsteak                           70, 73, 76-77, 79, 93, 99, 100, 108,
    plant) 214                                           113, 114, 115ff, 189, 249, 271, 317,
Acanthaceae (acanthus) 125, 209                          318, 397, 432, 434, 436, 439, 441,
acanthus (Acanthaceae) 125,209                           442, 446, 455, 456, 466, 467, 472,
Acanthospermum 127                                       474, 476, 478, 479, 502, 533, 546,
Achillea millefolium          70, 71, 72,                554, 559, 577, 591, 602, 618, 708,
   81,127                                                709, 713, 714, 727, 729, 753, 757,
Achyranthes aspera 125, 210, 613-614                     758, 759, 761, 762, 766, 767, 768,
Achyranthes atollensis 199, 210                          769, 770, 771, 772, 773, 799, 800,
Acridotheres tristis (common myna,                       826, 827
   Indian myna) 227,281,412                          agromyzid 413; see also Ophiomyia
Adelges piceae (balsam wooly aphid)                     lantanae
   20                                                Agropyron cristatum (bunchgrass) 15;
Adiantum jordanii 90                                     see also bunchgrass
`ae`ae (Bacopa monnieri) 220                         Agropyron desertorum (bunchgrass) 35;
Aerenicopsis championi 415                              see also bunchgrass
Aeschynomene virginica 433                           Agropyron repens 88
African dropseed             (Sporobolus             Agropyron spicatum (bunchgrass) 35;
   africanus)       209, 667; see also                  see also bunchgrass
   Sporobolus africanus                              Agroseris grandiflora 81



                                              837
 Index                                                                            838


 Agrostis avenacea         119, 629, 630,      doe (Aloe) 205
     636,641, 647, 650, 652, 672               Aloeaceae 205
Agrostis sandwicensis 626, 632, 634,          Alopex lagopus (arctic fox) 21
     636, 639, 640, 641, 646, 647, 650,        alpine zone 7, 268, 396, 541, 542,
     652,661, 662                                 551,556, 626, 784, 786, 796
Agrostis semiverticillata 88,119              Alpinia 124
Agrostis stolonifera 17,119                   Alternanthera (joyweed)         125; see
 `ahu`awa (Mariscus javanicus)         101,       also joyweed
     207; see also Mariscus javanicus         Alternanthera tenella (joyweed) 125,
Ailanthus altissima 20                            210
Aira caryophyllea 119                         Alternaria 291
 air plant (Kalanchoe pinnata) 214;           Altemaria passiflora 278
     see also Kalanchoe pinnata               Alysicarpus vaginalis 123,137
 Aizoaceae       81, 125, 209; see also        `amakihi (Hemignathus virens) 278
    carpetweed, fig-marigold                   amaranth (Amaranthaceae) 125, 210
 `akala (Rubus hawaiiensis) 476; see          Amaranthaceae (amaranth) 125, 210
    also Rubus hawaiiensis                    Amaranthus brownii 210
 `akepa (Loxops coccineus) 300                Amaranthus dubius (pakai) 125, 210,
 `akia (Wikstroemia, W. sandwicensis)             555
    359, 4 0 0 , 4 0 2 ; see a l s o          Amaranthus hybridus (green amaranth)
    Wikstroemia                                   125,210
 `akoko (Chamaesyce celastroides              Amaranthus lividus 126
    var.celastroides) 190,215                 Amaranthus spinosus (spiny pigweed)
 `akulikuli (Sesuvium portulacastrum)             126,210, 555
    209                                       Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)
 `alala      (Corvus        hawaiiensis,          126,210, 555
    Hawai`ian crow) 282, 288                  Amaryllidaceae 81, 487, 508
 albatross 201                                `ama`u 307, 367, 400, 401, 562; see
 albizia (Albizia) 487, 508, 513,                 also Sadleria cyatheoides, S.
    514                                          pallida
Albizia julibrissin 20                        `ama`uma`u (Sadleria cyatheoides, S.
Albizia lebbeck (siris tree) 137, 215            pallida)       348, 363; see also
alena (Boerhavia repens) 218                      Sadleria cyatheoides
Aleurites moluccana (candlenut,               Amblyopappus pusillus 70, 81
    kukui) 102, 136, 214, 607, 729; see       Ambrosia artemisiifolia 127
    also candlenut                            Ambrosia chamissonis 81
Aleurodicus dispersus (spiraling              American crocodile (Crocodylus
    whitefly) 456                                 acutus) 50,53,55
alfalfa (Medicago sativa)             216;    Ammannia 142
    see also Medicago sativa                  Ammophila arenaria (European beach
algae 21,33                                       grass) 8,16,119, 208
Alismataceae (water plantain) 116             AmsincJda 72
allamanda (Allamanda cathartica)              Amsinckia intermedia 83,131
    210                                       AmsincJda spectabilis 83
allelopathy 77, 227, 313, 315, 620,           Anacardiaceae 81, 126, 210, 493; see
    629                                           also mango
Allium cepa (onion) 207                       Anacardium occidentale 126
Allium fistulosum (bunch onion) 207           Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimper-
Allium praecox 81                                 nel)     90, 147; see also scarlet
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)                 pimpernel
    205                                       Ananas comosus (pineapple) 420, 444,
Alocasia macrorrhiza 102,116, 610                 453, 554, 730, 800; see also
                                                  pineapple industry
Index                                                                            839


 `anaunau (Lepidium bidentatum var.        Aphelan dra aurantiaca 125
    o-waihiense) 190,212                   Apiaceae       81, 126, 210; see also
 anchialine pools 542; see also aquatic        carrot, parsley
    habitat                                Apiastrum angustifolium 81
Andropogon        34, 35, 399, 401; see    Apienulicis 580
    also bunchgrass                        Apion ulicis 475
Andropogon glomeratus.         See Schi-   Apis mellifera (honeybee) 278
    zachyrium condensation                 Apocynaceae 126, 210; see also dog-
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge)            bane, periwinkle
    119,250,314, 322, 394, 398, 434,       aquatic habitat 6, 9, 17, 18, 20, 21,
    486, 487, 538, 547, 552, 563, 689,        32, 52, 59; see also anchialine
    734; see also broomsedge                  pools, riparian habitat
Anenome hupehensis 147                     aquatic plants 20, 30, 32,42, 52, 59
Anethum graveolens 126                     Aquifoliaceae (holly) 127
 angiosperms       116; see also species   Araceae 81,116, 205; see also taro
    listings                               Araliaceae (ginseng) 127, 211, 489, 510
Annonaceae 126                             aramina (Urena lobata) 104
Annona cherimola 126                       Araucariaceae (araucaria) 204
 annual bluegrass (Poa annua) 209,         Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk
    566; see also Poa annua                   Island pine) 204
Anous minutus melanogenys (black           Archlagocheirus funestus 20, 422
    noddy) 197                             arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) 21
Anredera cordifolia 131                    arctic ground squirrel (Citellus
Anthemis cotula 127                           undulatus) 21
Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll            Arctium lappa (gobo) 127, 211
    weevil) 52                             ardisia (Ardisia elliptica)          538;
Anthoxanthum odoratwn (sweet vernal-          see also Ardisia elliptica
    grass)     119, 314, 322, 487, 557,    Ardisia crenata (Hilo holly)         143,
    626, 630, 636, 640, 641, 650, 672,        487,508, 514, 521
    683,732; see also sweet vernalgrass    Ardisia elliptica (ardisia)          143,
anthropogenic effects       31, 64, 292,      538
    394, 395, 397, 398, 400, 403, 404,     Ardisia humilis 618
    597, 598, 600, 604, 606, 609, 611,     Ardisia solanacea (shoebutton
    612, 614, 618, 620, 796; see also         ardisia) 52,58
    human disturbance                      Arecaceae 81,205; see also palm
anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum)           Arenaria serpyllifolia 133
    205,714, 716, 718                      Argemone glauca 647,652
Anthurium andraeanum (anthurium)           Argemone mexicana 145
    205,714; see also anthurium            Argyroxiphium sandwicense (silver-
Anthurium andreanum cv. 'Marion               sword) 267, 637, 640, 642; see also
    Seefurth' 714                             silversword
Anthurium andreanum cv. `Ozaki'            Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp.
    714                                       macrocephalum ( H a l e a k a l a
Antiblemma acclinalis 452, 459, 460,          silversword) 556
    461                                    Argyroxiphium sandwicense var.
Antidesma 560                                 sandwicense (Mauna Kea silver-
Antigonon leptopus 146                        sword) 639; see also Mauna Kea
Antirrhinum nuttallianum 91                   silversword
Antirrhinum orontium 148                   Argyroxiphium virescens (green-
ants 11,12, 766                               sword) 6
`ape (Xanthosoma) 205                      armyworm 455
Aphanismablitoides 84                      arnotto (Bixaceae) 131
Index                                                                              840


 aroids 715                                 Athyriopsis japonica 321
 arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides)         Athyrium 308-310
     729; see also Tacca leontopeta-        Athyrium microphyllum 558
     loides                                 Atriplex 85
Artemisia californica (coastal sage)        Atriplex californica 71, 84
     70,72, 82                              Atriplex eardleyae 134
Artemisia pontica 127                       Atriplex lentiformis 85,134
Artemisia vulgaris 127                      Atriplex semibaccata (Australian
Arthraxon hispidus 119                          saltbush) 72, 74, 75, 76,85,134
 arthropods 291, 499, 601, 667              Atriplex suberecta (salt bush)
Arthrostema ciliatum (arthrostema)              134,213, 555
     142,487, 508, 515, 521                 Australian fern weevil (Syagrius
 artichoke (Cynara scolymus) 767               fulvitarsus) 562
 artillery plant (Pilea microphylla)        Australian fireweed (Erechtites
     21; see also Pilea microphylla            glomerata) 76; see also Erech-
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) 102,           tites glomerata, fireweed
     143,729                                Australian pine (Casuarina) 47, 49,
Arundina graminifolia             (bamboo      52,57, 59; see also Casuarina
     orchid) 119,402                        Australian saltbush (Atriplex semi-
Asclepiadaceae (milkweed) 127                  baccata)       75, 76, 78; see also
Asclepias curassavica 127                      Atriplex semibaccata
Asclepias physocarpa (balloon plant)        Australian tree fern (Cyathea
     127,538                                   coopen) 314, 318, 319, 551, 559,
ash 532; see also tropical ash                 561, 562, 571; see also Cyathea
Asiatic butterfly bush (Buddleia               cooperi
    asiatica)           547; see also       Avena 21
        Buddleia asiatica                   Avena barbata (slender oats) 73, 77,
A s i a t i c p e n n y w o r t (Centella      88,119
    asiatica)           558; see also       Avena fatua (wild oats) 72, 73, 74,
    Centella asiatica                          77,89,119; see also wild oats
asparagus fern                 (Asparagus   avianpox 201
    setaceus) 207                           avocado (Persea americana)          441,
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)            455; see also Persea americana
    207                                     `aweoweo (Chenopodium oahuense)
aspen (Populus tremuloides) 1                  213, 627, 629, 634, 654, 656, 658,
Aspidiaceae 81                                 661; see also Chenopodium oahuense
Asplenium 363                               Axis axis (axis deer) 701
Asplenium trichomanes 637, 640, 642,        Axonopus fissifolius (narrow-leaved
    650,670, 672                               carpetgrass)      119, 314, 323; see
Astelia menziesiana (pa`iniu) 345-             also narrow-leaved carpetgrass
    346,347, 349
Asteraceae (daisy, sunflower) 81, 82,       Baccharis 82
    83,127,157, 211                         Baccharis pilularis 71, 72, 82
Aster subulatus 127                         Bacopa monnieri (`ae`ae) 220
Astragalus (locoweed) 7, 86                 bacteria 8, 33
Astragalus miguelensis 71, 72, 86           bagnit (Tristellateia        australasiae)
asystasia (Asystasia gangetica)                217
    125,209                                 balloon plant (Asclepias physocarpa)
Asystasia gangetica (asystasia) 125,           538; see also Asclepias physocarpa
    209                                     Balsaminaceae           131; see also
Ategumia matutinalis 452, 454, 455,            touch-me-not
    459,461                                 balsam wooly aphid (Adelges piceae)
                                               20
Index                                                                          841


Baltimore* recta 127                       begonia (Begonia, Begoniaceae) 131
bamboo (Phyllostachys)         511, 518,   Belamcan da chinensis 118
    521,563, 572                           Belgian hare 93; see also rabbits
bamboo orchid (Arundina graminifotia)      bellflower (Campanulaceae) 133
    402; see also Arundina gramini-        bell pepper. See Capsicum annuum
   fotia                                   Benicasa hispida (Chinese melon)
Bambusa vulgaris (feathery bamboo)            487,509,513,515
    538                                    Berberidaceae 83
banana 119, 207, 729, 800; see also        Berberis pinnata insularis 83
   Musa, M u s a c e a e , Musa x          Berberis thunbergii 20
   paradisiaca                             Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)
banana poka (Passiflora moltissima)            199, 208, 364; see also Cynodon
    13, 41, 155-158, 163, 168, 169, 170,      dactylon
    172, 175, 176, 177, 178, 249,          berries      45; see also entries for
   271-293, 372, 392, 433, 438, 442,          Rubus species
   443, 444, 445, 472, 474, 476, 477,      Berulaerecta 81
   486, 491, 498, 501, 502, 536, 537,      be-still tree (Cascabela thevetia)
   538, 539, 540, 551, 567-568, 570,          210
   571, 572, 593, 667, 692, 694, 695,      Beta vulgaris 85
   696, 754, 755, 767, 769, 770-771,       Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Swiss
   772, 782, 783, 786, 829; see also          chard) 213
   Passiflora mollissima, Passiflora       Bidens alba 127
Barleria cristata 125                      Bidens alba var. radiata (Spanish
barley 72, 93                                 needles) 211
barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica,       Bidens cynapiifolia 127
   Lecythidaceae) 217                      Bidens gardneri 128
Barringtonia asiatica (barringtonia)       Bidens laevis 112,128
   217                                     Bidens lanceolata 128
Basella (Basellaceae) 131                  Bidens pilosa (beggar's tick)       42,
Bassiahyssopifolia 134                        128, 211, 630; see also Spanish
bat, Hawai`ian (Lasiurus cinereus             needles
   semotus) 781, 797                       big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala)
Bataceae (saltwort) 131                       454
Batis maritima 131                         Bignoniaceae (bignonia) 131, 212
bayberry 143; see also Myricaceae          biocontrol      14, 16, 236, 242, 387,
beach dropseed             (Sporobolus        411-428, 432-447, 466, 467, 472,
   virginicus) 209                            473, 474, 475, 491, 492, 493, 498,
beaches 50, 52, 55, 66, 70, 75, 101,          500, 502, 513, 563, 564, 568, 571,
   197; see also coastal zone                 572, 757-773, 783, 823, 824, 825;
beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-             see also biological control
   caprae subsp. brasiliensis)             bioherbicides. See mycoherbicides
   214                                     biological control 7, 9, 13, 16, 19,
beach naupaka (Scaevola sericea)              57, 58, 79, 158, 178, 226, 228, 236,
   197, 201; see also naupaka kahakai,        242, 250, 267, 274, 291, 292, 315,
   Scaevola sericea                           377, 386, 387, 318, 392, 411-428,
beefsteak plant (Acalypha wilkesiana)         452-462, 466-479, 485, 486, 487,
   214                                        489, 490, 491, 495, 498, 499, 503,
beekeepers 477, 761, 767, 770, 771,           507, 518, 522, 533, 537, 539, 540,
   772,773                                    544, 545, 567, 572, 578, 580, 581,
beetles 766; see also Coleoptera              582, 585, 699, 757-773, 781, 782,
beggar's tick (Bidens pilosa) 42;             783, 795, 813, 824, 825, 826, 829,
   see also Bidens pilosa                     830; see also biocontrol
Index                                                                             842


b i r d of p a r a d i s e     (Strelitzia   Blumea laciniata 112,128
    reginae) 207,716                         Blumea sessiliflora 112,128
birds 51, 75, 93, 104, 105, 156, 157,        Bocchoris fatualis 454
     158, 189, 190, 193, 195, 197, 200,      Bocconiafrutescens 145
    201, 227, 236, 241, 249, 271, 272,       Boehm australis var. dealbata
    278, 281, 287, 290, 292, 304, 308,           610
    311, 313, 316, 319, 343, 373, 412,       Boehmeria nivea 151
    477, 536, 540, 548, 553, 557, 561,       Boerhavia coccinea 144
    562, 567, 569, 601, 604, 612, 614,       Boerhavia herbstii 218
    628, 696, 700, 770, 781, 782, 785,       Boerhavia repens (alena) 218
    796, 797, 799, 825; see also             bogs 34, 304, 314, 395, 396, 541, 542,
    dispersal by birds, seabirds,               551, 554, 557, 558, 564, 565, 571,
    species listings, waterbirds                746,747
bison (Bison bison) 18                       boobies (Sula) 604
bitter herb (Centaurium erythraea            borage 131; see also Boraginaceae
    subsp. erythraea) 217                    Boraginaceae (borage, heliotrope) 83,
Bixaceae (arnotto, Bixa) 131                     131,212
black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra)           boreal vegetation 7
    559,563, 572                             Bos taurus (cattle)        35, 235, 281,
blackberry (Rubus argutus)            316,      342, 553, 577, 586, 602, 627, 701,
    341, 359-366, 467, 470, 476, 492,           726,727; see also cattle
    527, 529, 531, 532, 538, 544, 545,       botanical gardens 712, 713, 717, 719,
    551, 557, 558, 561, 569, 570, 571,          720,722
    572, 683, 689, 699, 770, 791; see        Bothriochloa 119
    also Florida blackberry, Rubus           Bothriochloa intermedia 112,119
    argutus                                  Bothriospermum tenellum 131
black-footed albatross (Diomedea             bougainvillea (Bougainvillea)         218,
    nigripes) 197                               716
black medic (Medicago lupulina)              Bougainvillea cv. 'Bridal Bouquet,'
    216; see also Medicago lupulina             cv. Turple Prince' 716-717
black mustard (Brassica nigra)               Bougainvillea spectabilis (bougain-
    212; see also Brassica nigra                villea) 218; see also bougainvillea
black noddy             (Anous minutus       bowstring hemp (Sanseviera) 205
    melanogenys) 197                         boxthorn (Lycium californicum) 71,
black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) 289,             94; see also Lycium californicum
    487, 506, 508, 513, 514, 528, 538,       Brachiaria mutica (paragrass) 119,
    547, 568, 569, 816; see also                208
   Acacia mearnsii                           Brachymeria obscurata 455
blackwood acacia (Acacia melanoxylon)        bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
    487,508, 513, 514                           400, 401, 557; see also Pteridium
blechnum fern (Blechnum occidentale)            aquilinum
    42; see also Blechnum occidentale        bracket plant (Chlorophytum capense)
Blechnum occidentale (blechnum fern)            207
    42,321                                   braconid, Braconidae 414, 416, 455
Blepharomastix acutangulalis 415             Bracon mellitor 414
Blepharomastix ebulealis         454; see    brambles 433, 435; see also Rubus
    alsoAtegumia matutinalis                    listings
blowflies (Calliphora) 278                   Brassica campestris (field mustard)
blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 75,              132,212
    76, 554; see also eucalyptus,            Brassicaceae (mustard) 84,132, 212
   Eucalyptus globulus                       Brassica geniculata 84
blue ginger            (Dichorisandra        Brassica juncea 132
   thyrsiflora) 206
Index                                                                                   843


Brassica nigra (black mustard, wild              Broussaisia arguta (pu`aha-nui) 313
     mustard) 73, 74, 84,132,212                 Broussonetia papyrifera (wauke) 102,
Brassica rapa (wild mustard) 4, 73,                  143, 729
     74                                          browsing 21, 496, 560, 611, 619, 625,
Brazilian peppertree               (Schinus          626, 628, 629, 630ff, 632, 633, 634,
     terebinthifolius)     6, 10, 31, 32,            639, 644, 661, 662, 676, 734; see
     43, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58,             also grazing
     59, 476; see also Christmas berry,          Brugmansia Candida 149
     Schinus terebinthifolius                    Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 147
b r e a d f r u i t (Artocarpus       altilis)   bryophytes 307, 396, 558, 667, 672,
     729; see also Artocarpus altilis                687, 688, 689, 690, 692, 693, 694,
Brevipalpus phoenicis 425                            695
Breynia disticha var. rosi-picta                 buckwheat          146, 219; see also
     (snow bush) 215                                 Polygonaceae
Brickellia californica 82                        Buddleiaceae (butterfly bush) 133
b r i s t l y foxtail (Setaria verti-            Buddleia asiatica (Asiatic butterfly
     cillata)       209; see also Setaria           bush) 133,547
     verticillata                                Buddleia madagascariensis 133
Briza 119                                        buffalo grass           209; see also
Brodiaea jolonensis 81                              Stenotaphrum secundatum
brome fescue (Vulpia bromoides}                  buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris}
     566; see also Vulpia bromoides                 402, 547, 732; see also Cenchrus
brome grass (Bromus)          72; see also          ciliaris
    Bromus                                       Bulbostylis capillaris 117
bromeliads 708, 715, 720                         bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare)           6,
Bromus (brome grass) 72, 650                        528; see also Cirsium vulgare,
Bromus arizonicus 89                                thistle
Bromus carinatus 89, 636, 640,641                bumble-mustard (Sisymbrium altissi-
Bromus catharticus 610                              mum)        8; see also Sisymbrium
Bromus diandrus 74, 89                              altissimum
Bromus inermis (smooth brome) 7,15               bunchgrass 16, 34, 35, 72, 73, 376,
Bromus madritensis 89                               398, 400, 563, 568, 649; see also
Bromus maritimus 89                                 Agropyron, Andropogon, Stipa
Bromus mollis (soft chess)            77, 89,       pulchra
     120                                         bunch onion (Allium fistulosum) 207
Bromus pseudolaevipes 89                         buprestid, Buprestidae 459,461
Bromus rigidus (ripgut grass)             120,   bur clover (Medicago polymorpha)
    626, 630, 636, 641, 647, 650, 652;              77, 216; see also Medicago
    see also ripgut grass                           polymorpha
Bromus rubens (red brome) 70, 77,                burro (Equus asinus) 10,14,17
    89,120                                       bush beardgrass            (Schizachyrium
Bromus tectorum (cheat grass) 8, 15,                condensatum) 394, 398, 399, 402,
     18,43,120; see also cheat grass                403, 405, 486, 493, 495, 699, 734;
Bromus trinii 89                                    see also Schizachyrium condensatum
Bromus willdenowii (prairie grass)               buttercup (Ranunculaceae)         147; see
    120,208                                         also Ranunculaceae
broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus)               butterflies    414, 416, 423, 766; see
    250, 314, 318, 394, 398, 399, 401,              also Lepidoptera
    402, 403, 405, 486, 487, 538, 547,           butterfly bush (Buddleiaceae) 133
    563, 689, 699, 734; see also                 button sedge (Fimbristylis cymosa)
   Andropogon virginicus                            206
Broussaisia 308                                  buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) 51,
                                                    213
Index                                                                              844


 cabbage palm (Livistona australis)         Cannabis sativa (marijuana) 249
    205                                     caper (Capparaceae) 133, 212
 cacao (Sterculiaceae) 150                  Capparis sandwichiana (puapilo) 212
 Cactaceae 133, 212, 422, 490, 511; see     Capra hircus (goat)          35, 73, 235,
    also cactus                                301, 377, 398, 496, 532, 551, 553,
 Cactoblastis 420,423,424                      581, 586, 602, 627, 666, 726, 784;
 Cactoblastis cactorum 420, 421, 422,          see also goat
    520                                    Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle) 133
 cactus 34, 133, 212, 411, 419, 420,       Capsellabursa-pastoris 84
    421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 473,     Capsella rubella (shepherd's purse)
    475, 477, 585, 766; see also               132,212
    Cactaceae, Opuntia                     Capsicum annuum (nioi)             149, 220,
 cactus scale 420                              461,555
Caesalpinia 137                            Cardamine 132
Caesalpinia bonduc (kakalaioa,             Cardamine californica 84
    kinikini) 137,215                      Cardionema ramosissimum 84
Caesalpinia decapetala (cat's claw)        Cardiospermum 148
    137,538                                Carduus (thistle) 766
Cajanuscajan 138                           Carduus nutans (musk thistle) 6, 19;
cajeput (Melaleuca quinquenervia)              see also thistle
    47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 59;    Caretta caretta caretta (loggerhead
    see also Melaleuca quinquenervia           turtle) 50; see also sea turtle
Cakile (sea-rocket) 8,84                   Carex 308, 314, 558, 565
caladium (Caladium bicolor) 205            Carex alligata 304; see also sedge
Calandrinia 90                             Carex echinata 557, 564
Calliphora (blowflies) 278                 Carex macloviana 647,650,652
Callisiafragrans 116                       Carex wahuensis 355, 670, 672
Calophyllum antillanum 135                 Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)
Calophyllum inophyllum (kamani)               42; see also Pinus caribaea
    102,104,135, 213,616, 729              caribou (Rangifer arcticus) 21
Calyptocarpus vialis 128                   Caricaceae (papaya) 133, 213
Calystegia macrostegia 70,72, 85           Carica papaya (papaya) 133, 213,730
Calystegia soldanella 85                   Carissa macrocarpa (Natal plum) 210
Camellia sinensis 150                      carnations 716
Camissonia 88                              carpetweed          143, 209; see also
Campanulaceae (bellflower) 133                Aizoceae, Molluginaceae
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)           Carpobrotus       72; see also Hottentot
   6, 9; see also Cirsium arvense,            fig, sea fig
   thistle                                 Carpobrotus aequilaterus (sea fig)
Canavalia 138                                 71, 75, 78, 81; see also sea fig,
Canavalia ensiformis         215;    see      ice plant
   alsojackbean                            Carpobrotus edulis (Hottentot fig)
Canavalia hawaiiensis 676; see also           76,81
   jackbean                                Carposina atlanticella 445
Canavalia kauensis        676; see also    Carposina bullata 452, 458, 459,461
   jackbean                                Carposinidae 459
candlenut (Aleurites moluccana)            Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) 767
   607, 612, 613, 618; see also            carrot 104, 210; see also Apiaceae,
   Aleurites moluccana, kukui                 Daucus pusillus
Canis domesticus (dog)         553, 627;   Caryophyllaceae (pink) 84,133, 213
   see also dog                            Cascabela thevetia (be-still tree)
canna (Canna, Cannaceae) 116, 206             210
Index                                                                              845


Casinaria infesta 455                        Cecropiaceae 134
Cassia 215                                   Cecropia obtusifolia 134
Cassia floribunda 610                        Cecropia palmata 618
Castilleja affinis 72,91                     Celastrus orbiculatus 20
Castilleja arvensis 149                      Cenchrus agrimonioides var.
Castilleja hololeuca 91                         laysanensis (kamanomano) 199, 208
castor bean (Ricinus communis)               Cenchrus ciliaris          120, 547, 732;
    215, 492, 506, 512, 519, 521, 522,           see also buffelgrass
    566, 569; see also Ricinus               Cenchrus echinatus (sandbur)         120,
    communis                                     194,195, 200, 208
Casuarina (casuarina)          10, 33, 47,   Centaurea        9, 19, 766; see also
    49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58; see also         Centaurea maculosa, knapweed
   A u s t r a l i a n pine, Casuarina       Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
    equisetifolia                                7,15,16,128; see also Centaurea
Casuarinaceae (she-oak) 134, 193, 213,       Centaurea melitensis (tocalote)       74,
    488,509                                     77, 79, 82; see also yellow star
Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood)               thistle
    10, 21, 49, 50, 134, 189, 193, 213,      Centaurium erythraea 140
    488, 509, 513, 515, 528; see also        Centaurium erythraea subsp.
    Casuarina, ironwood                         erythraea (bitter herb) 217
Casuarina glauca 49, 50, 134; see            Centella asiatica (Asiatic penny-
    also Casuarina                              wort) 126,558
Casuarina littoralis 616                     Centranthus ruber 151
Catabena esula 415, 416, 417                 century plant (Agave americana)
Catalina cherry (Prunus ilicifolia              508, 514, 521
    subsp. lyonii) 71                        cerambycid, Cerambycidae 415, 416,
Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) 126,           452,459, 461
   210                                       Cerastium fontanum 133
Catimbium speciosum (shell ginger)           Cerastium fontanum var. triviale
   209                                           (common mouse ear) 213
cats 93,94                                   Ceratophyllaceae (hornwort) 134
cat's claw (Caesalpinia decapetala)          Ceratophyllum demersum 17,134
   538; see also Caesalpinia                 Ceratophyllum glomeratum 84
   decapetala                                Cercosporella. S&zEntyloma
cattail 124; see also Typhaceae              Cereus uruguayanus 133
cattle (Bos taunts)         6, 7, 18, 21,    Ceroplastis cerripidiformis 291
   73, 77, 235, 259, 281, 287, 288,          Cestrum 149
   342, 419, 497, 553, 554, 557, 577,        chalcid 455
   586, 602, 603, 619, 620, 701, 726,        Chamaecrista nictitans (partridge
   727, 729, 766, 800; see also Bos             pea) 138,399
   taurus, cattle industry                   Chamaesyce albomarginata 136
cattle industry 412, 419, 584, 713,          Chamaesyce celastroides var.
   714, 732; see also Bos taurus,               celastroides (`akoko) 190, 215
   cattle                                    Chamaesyce degeneri 402
cayenne vervain            (Stachytarpheta   Chamaesyce hirta (hairy spurge) 136,
   dichotoma)            538; see also          215,604
   Stachytarpheta dichotoma                  Chamaesyce hypericifolia 136, 215
Ceanothus megocarpus subsp. insu-            Chamaesyce hyssopifolia 137
   laris (island bigpod ceanothus)           Chamaesyce maculata 137, 215
   71,91                                     Chamaesyce olowaluana 626
cecidomyiid (Cecidomyiidae) 452, 459         Chamaesyce prostrata (small ground
Cecropia 134                                    fig) 137,215
Index                                                                                  846


Chamaesyce thymifolia 137                       cholla (Opuntia prolifera)           70; see
Chasmanthe aethiopica 87                             also Opuntia prolifera
c h a n d e l i e r p l a n t (Kalanchoe        Chondrilla juncea (rush skeleton
    tubiflora)            214; see also             weed) 435
   Kalanchoe tubiflora                          Christella dentata 321
chaparral 8,17, 67, 71                          Christellaparasitica 322
cheat grass (Bromus tectorum)              8,   C h r i s t m a s b e r r y ( S chinus
    43,44; see also Bromus tectorum                 terebinthifolius) 6, 31, 43, 49,
cheese weed (Malva parviflora) 77,                  51, 210, 470, 476, 493, 522, 530,
    218; see also Malva parviflora                  538, 545, 547, 548, 559, 564, 569,
Cheirodendron 308-309                               571, 584, 585, 586, 593, 733, 755,
Cheirodendron trigynum (`olapa)                     787; see also Brazilian peppertree,
   290,347; see also `olapa                         Schinus terebinthifolius
Chelinidea tabulata 422                         Christmas trees 720,721
Chelinidea vittiger 420                         chrycoleus (Plectranthus scutellari-
Chelonia mydas mydas (green sea                     oides)       217; see also Plectran-
   turtle, sea turtle) 50                           thus scutellarioides
chemical control 7, 10, 13, 15, 19,             chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum) 128,
   20, 47, 54, 55, 58, 59, 79, 100,                 716
   178, 228, 236, 250, 274, 291, 292,           Chrysodeuds chalcites          412; see also
   293, 318, 319, 320, 341-373, 425,                noctuid
   440, 442, 445, 454, 455, 479, 488,           chrysomelid (Chrysomelidae) 414, 415,
   490, 491, 499, 500-501, 502, 526,                416, 417, 452, 459; see also leaf
   527, 532, 546, 548, 561, 562, 566,               beetle
   570, 572, 580, 581, 586, 734, 735,           Chrysopogon aciculatus 120
   740, 772, 783, 795, 816, 817, 823,           Cibotium (tree fern) 168, 204, 283,
   824,825, 829; see also herbicides                314, 366, 561, 562; see also hapu`u,
Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot) 84,134, 213              tree fern
Chenopodium 658                                 Cibotium glaucum (tree fern) 347,
Chenopodium ambrosioides 134                        367, 397, 400, 684; see also hapu`u,
Chenopodium californicum 85                         hapu`u pulu, tree fern
Chenopodium carinatum 134, 555                  Ciclospermum leptophyllum (fine-
Chenopodium murale (nettle-leaved                   leaved celery) 126,210
   goosefoot)         74, 77, 85, 134, 213;     Cinnamomum burmannii 141
   see also pigweed                             Cirsium (thistle)            766; see also
Chenopodium oahuense (`aweoweo)                     thistle
   213, 627, 631, 655, 657, 659; see            Cirsium a/vense (thistle)         6, 15, 17,
   also `aweoweo                                    19, 20; see also Canada thistle,
Chinese banyan (Ficus microcarpa)                   thistle
   218, 547, 564; see also Ficus                Cirsium occidentale 82
   microcarpa                                   Cirsium vulgare (thistle)          128, 528,
Chinese melon (Benicasa hispida}                    566, 630, 647, 650, 652; see also
   487,509, 513, 515                                bull thistle, Eurasian thistle
Chinese tallow (Sapium            sebiferum)    Cissus nodosa (thistle) 6, 152; see
   20                                               also bull thistle, thistle
Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata)               Cistaceae 85
   205                                          Citellus undulatus (arctic ground
Chionanthus ligustrina 144                          squirrel 21
Chloris            (feather fingergrass,        Citharexylum 151
   swollen fingergrass) 120, 208                citrus (Rutaceae) 220
Chlorophytum capense (bracket plant)            Claoxylon sandwicense 560
   207                                          Clarkia epilobioides 88
Index                                                                                847


 Claytonia perfoliata 90                       coconut leaf roller            (Hedylepta)
Cleome gynandra 133                               455
Clermontiaparviflora (`oha) 347, 349           Cocos nucifera (coconut)         102, 205,
 Clerodendrum philippinum 151                     613,729
clidemia (Clidemia) 241, 242, 243,             Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum
    244, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251, 320,             (croton) 215,715-716
    435, 452-457, 458, 460, 461, 467,          Coffea    arabica (coffee) 148, 455,
    468, 472, 474, 528, 532, 536, 537,            730,800; see also coffee
    538, 539, 540, 544, 551, 567, 570,         coffee (Coffea     arabica)      148, 220,
    572, 593, 755, 769, 821; see also             455, 730, 800; see also Rubiaceae
    Clidemia hirta, Koster's curse             coffee senna (Senna occidentalis)
Clidemia debilis 460                              566, 604, 606, 607; see also Senna
Clidemia hirta (clidemia)         142, 241,       occidentalis
    242, 243, 245, 247, 248, 314, 399,         Coix lachryma-jobi 120
    432, 435, 452, 456, 457, 458, 459,         Coleoptera (beetles) 424, 459, 766
    460, 461, 462, 467, 468, 525, 528,         collembola 667
    532, 536, 537, 538, 547, 551, 567,         Colletotrichum 278
    593, 755, 821; see also clidemia,          Colletotrichum gloeosporioides        250,
    Koster's curse                                432,435
climbing fig (Ficus pumila)             509,   Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    516, 521                                      f.sp. aeschynomene 433
Clitoriatemata 138                             Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.s.
cloud forest 542                                  clidemiae 457, 461
clubmosses 687                                 Colocasia esculenta (taro) 101, 102,
Clusiaceae (mangosteen) 135, 213                  116,120, 205, 729; see also taro
Clusia rosea (copey) 135, 213                  Columbia grass (Paspalum fimbri-
cluster pine (Pinus pinaster)            42;      atum) 208; see also Paspalum
    see also Pinus pinaster                      flmbriatum
coastal dune community 542                     Columbrina asiatica (lather leaf)
coastal lowlands 386, 396, 398, 400,              52,58; see also lather leaf
    402,513, 617, 626                          Comarostaphylos diversifolia 85
coastal sage (Artemisia             califor-   Combretaceae (Indian almond) 135, 213
   nica)       70; see also Artemisia          Commelina benghalensis 116
   californica                                 Commelinaceae (spiderwort) 116, 206
coastal scrub 8, 67, 68,70                     Commelina diffusa        (honohono) 116,
coastal zone 8, 16, 17, 50, 101, 103,             206, 327, 363
    104, 189, 190, 402-403, 419, 496,          Commelina erecta 117
   541, 559, 593, 601, 617, 618, 666,          common chickweed (Stellaria media)
   675, 676, 753, 782, 787, 796; see              213; see also Stellaria media
    also beaches                               common guava 52, 311, 315, 319, 399,
coat buttons (Tridax procumbens)                  492, 529, 538, 545, 547, 559, 565,
   211; see also Tridax procumbens                570, 584, 586, 616, 618, 620, 730,
Coccinellidae 424                                 733, 766; see also guava, Psidium}
Coccinia grandis 136, 569                        Psidium guajava
Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape) 219              common mouse ear (Cerastium fontanum
cochineal cactus 419; see also cactus            var.triviale) 213
cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) 43,            common myna (Acridotheres tristis)
   211; see also Xanthium strumarium             227, 281-282; see also Acrido-
cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata)                   theres tristis
   632; see also Dactylis glomerata            common plantain (Plantago major)
cocoa 221; see also Sterculiaceae                219; see also Plantago major
coconut (Cocos nucifera)         205, 613,
   729; see also Cocos nucifera
Index                                                                          848


common purslane (Portulaca oler-          Coreopsis gigantea (giant coreop-
  acea) 219; see also Portulaca               sis) 70, 72, 82
  oleracea                                Coreopsis lanceolata 128
common speedwell (Veronica plebeia)        364; see also Veronica
                                          Corethrogyne filaginifolia 82 plebeia
                                          Coriandrum sativum 126
competition 16, 19, 21, 33, 34, 35, 44,   corn (Zea mays) 209,730, 740
   45, 49, 51, 54, 64, 76, 100, 110,      Coronopus didymus (swine cress) 132,
           1,
   112, 1 3 193, 281, 301, 313, 314,         212
   315, 394, 397, 398, 435, 440, 544,     Cortaderia jubata 16
   556, 597, 598, 611, 616, 619, 620,     Cortaderia settoana 89
   625,629, 646, 661, 667, 700,821        Corvus hawaiiensis (Hawai`ian crow)
Compositae 493,512                           282; see also `alala
Compsolechia seductella 452, 459, 460     Corynocarpaceae 136; see also karaka-
congeners 42, 44, 387, 565                   nut
coniferous forest 7, 8, 9, 16, 19, 554;   Corynocarpus laevigatus (karakanut)
   see also pine forest                       136,528, 532, 816
conifers 533, 554, 564                    Cosmos caudatus 128
Conium maculatum 16                       cossid (Cossidae) 414, 415
Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) 213;      cotton boll weevil           (Anthonomus
   see also buttonwood                       grandis) 52
Convolvulaceae (morning glory) 85, 135,   cotton, wild (Gossypium hirsutum)
   214; see also morning glory               52; see also Gossypium hirsutum
Convolvulus 214                           Cotula australis 128
Convolvulus arvensis 82,135               Cotula coronopifolia 82
Conyza 611                                crape jasmine (Ervatamia) 210
Conyza bonariensis (ilioha) 128, 195,     Crassocephalum crepidioides 128
   211,610                                Crassula 214
Conyza canadensis 128                     Crassulaceae (orpine, stonecrop) 85,
Copestylum (=Volucella) tamaulipana          136,214
   420                                    Crassula erecta 82
copey (Clusia rosea) 213; see also        Cremastobombycia lantanella
   Clusia rosea                              (gracillariid) 413, 417
Coprosma (pilo) 308, 313, 631, 659;       creosote bush            152; see also
   see also pilo                             Zygophyllaceae
Coprosma acutifolia 609                   Crepis capillaris 128
Coprosma ernodioides (kukaenene)          Cressa trwdllensis vallicola 85
   401,669, 670,672                       crested honeycreeper            (Palmeria
Coprosma montana (pilo) 626, 670,            dolei) 300
   672; see also pilo                     Crinum asiaticum (spider lily) 207
Coprosma ochracea (pilo) 345, 347,        Crisicoccus 455
   355,363; see also pilo                 Crocodylus acutus (American croco-
Coptotermes formosanus (ground ter-          dile) 50; see also American
   mite) 198                                 crocodile
Cordialutea 606                           Crocosmia crocosmiiflora (montbretia)
Cordia sebestena (kou-haole) 212             118,363; see also montbretia
Cordia subcordata (kou) 102, 104,         Croesia zimmermanii 476
   132,212, 729                           Crotalaria 138
Cordyline 205                             Crotalaria incana (fuzzy rattle-pod)
Cordyline fruticosa (ti) 102, 116,           138,215,555
   205,607, 716                           Crotalaria pallida (rattle-pod) 138,
coreidbugs 420                               215
Coreopsis 93, 94                          croton (Codiaeum variegatum var.
                                             pictum) 215, 715
Index                                                                          849


Croton 620                                 Cyathea cooperi (Australian tree
Cryphonectria 433, 445                        fern) 314, 322, 551, 559, 561; see
Cryptantha 83                                 also Australian tree fern
Cryptoblabes aliena (phycitid) 412         Cycadaceae (Cycas, sago palm)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri 424                 204
Cryptomeria japonica (tsugi pine) 284      Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) 208
Cryptostegia grandiflora          (Palay   Cymbopogon refractus 120
   rubber vine) 56                         Cynara scolymus (artichoke) 767
Cryptotaenia canadensis 126                Cynareae 767
crystalline iceplant (Mesembryanthe-       Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) 89,
   mum crystallinum, M. nodiflorum)           120,199, 208, 364
   72, 76, 78, 93; see also                Cynoglossum amabile 132
   Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, M.       Cyperaceae 85, 117, 206; see also
   nodiflorum                                 sedge
cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 214,            Cyperus 117,311
   454,461                                 Cyperus alternifolius        subsp. fla-
Cucumis dipsaceus 136                         belliformis (umbrella plant) 206
Cucumis sativus (cucumber) 214, 454;       Cyperus brevifolia 610
   see also cucumber                       Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)
Cucurbitaceae (gourd) 85, 136, 214,           117, 436
   487,509                                 Cyperus halpan (sedge) 117, 314,
Cucurbita pepo (squash, zucchini) 214         319,323, 558; see also sedge
cudweed (Gnaphalium purpureum} 211;        Cyperus laevigatus (makaloa) 206
   see also Gnaphalium purpureum           Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) 206
cultivated plants     4, 75, 189, 190,     Cyperus rotundatus (purple nutsedge)
   192, 193, 197, 199, 203ff, 272, 412,       468
   433, 453, 617, 708, 712, 719, 722,      Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) 117, 206
   730; see also a g r i c u l t u r e ,   cypress (Cupressaceae) 51, 204
   horticulture, ornamentals               Cytisus monspessulanus 16,138
cultivation 100, 263, 278, 284, 616;       Cytisus palmensis 138
   see also agriculture, horticulture,     Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) 16,
   ranching                                   17,33,138, 766
Cuphea 142
Cuphea carthagenensis 142,328              Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Cupressaceae 204; see also cypress            120, 557, 630, 632, 650; see also
Cupressus 204                                 orchard grass
Curculionidae 459                          Dactyloctenium aegyptium 120
Curcuma longa (`olena) 102, 729            Dactylopius 420,422,424
curly dock (Rumex crispus) 436; see        Dactylopius austrina 765
   also Rumex crispus                      Dactylopius coccus 419, 424
currant tomato (Lycopersicon pimpi-        Dactylopius opuntiae     420, 421, 422,
   nellifolium) 105; see also Lyco-           520
  persicon pimpinellifolium                daisy (Asteraceae) 211; see also
Cuscuta campestris 136                        Asteraceae
Cuscutaceae (dodder) 85,136                dallis grass (Paspalum dilatatum)
Cuscuta salina 85                             315, 318, 364, 491, 683; see also
cyanea (Cyanea superba) 545                   Paspalum dilatatum
Cyanea grimesiana 560                      dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)     7;
Cyanea superba (cyanea) 6, 545                see also Taraxacum officinale
Cyanotricha necyria 568                    Danthonia 650
Cyathea 562
Index                                                                               850


Danthonia pilosa (hairy oatgrass)             Dicksoniaceae 204
    120, 566, 626, 630, 636, 640, 641,        Dicliptera chinensis 125
    647, 650, 652, 670, 672; see also         Dicotyledonae (dicotyledons) 125, 209
    hairy oatgrass                            Dicranopteris 308-309
Danthonia semiannularis 120                   Dicranopteris emarginata (uluhe) 372;
date palm (Phoenix             dactylifera)       see also uluhe
    206, 511, 513, 518                        Dicranopteris linearis (uluhe) 246,
Datura stramonium 149, 555                        302, 396, 538, 684; see also matted
Daucus pusillus (carrot) 81, 104,                 fern, uluhe
    126; see also carrot                      Dicrostonyx groenlandicus (Greenland
Davalliaceae 204; see also sword fern             collared lemming) 21
day % (Hemerocallis} 207                      dieback 201, 283, 416, 441, 461; see
deciduous forest/plants 9, 19, 20, 31,            also `ohi`a dieback
    49, 50, 51, 54                            Dieffenbachia (dumb cane) 205, 715
d e e r (Axis axis, Odocoileus                Dieffenbachia amoena cv. 'compacta'
   hemionus} 701                                  716
Delonix regia (royal poinciana) 215           Dieffenbachia amoena cv. 'Mary Ann'
Delphinium (larkspur) 7                           716
Delphinium parryi 90                          Digitaria 121
Dendrobium (dendrobium orchid) 714,           Digitaria ciliaris (Kukaepua`a)      120,
    718                                          208; see also kukaepua`a
Dendrobium xJac-Hawai`i 715                   Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) 121,
Dendrobium x Louis Bleriot 715                   208
Deschampsia         315, 316, 317, 675,       Digitaria longiflora 112,121
   683, 699                                   Digitaria setigera (kukaepua`a) 101,
Deschampsia grassland community 303-              102,121; see also kukaepua`a
   304, 308, 698                              Dioclea wilsonii (sea bean) 138, 216
Deschampsia nubigena 307, 400, 401,           Diomedea nigripes (black-footed
   557, 626, 630, 634, 670, 672, 683,            albatross) 197
   684                                        Dioscorea alata (yam) 102, 729; see
Descurainia pinnata menziesii 84                 also yam
Descurainia sophia 18, 555, 556               Dioscorea bulbifera 102,118
desert 9,14,17, 18,32, 551, 556               Dioscoreaceae 118; see also yam
desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis         Dioscorea pentaphylla 102,118
   nelsoni) 6,10                              Diospyros sandwicensis (lama) 397;
Desmanthus virgatus (virgate mimosa)             see also lama
   138,215                                    Diplazium sandwichianum (ho`i`o,
Desmodium 138,733                                pahole) 311, 558, 697
Desmodium cajanifolium 138, 509, 513,         Diptera (flies) 413, 459
   515                                        diseases 35, 228, 284, 411, 412, 420,
Desmodium sandwicense (Spanish                   425, 426, 432-447, 537, 539, 709,
   clover) 138, 215                              721, 722, 727, 763, 797; see also
Dianthus armeria 133                             pathogens
Diaspis echinocacti 420                       dispersal     4, 9, 11, 35, 44, 49, 56,
Diastema tigris 415                              77, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 108,
Dichanthelium cynodon 557, 565                   110, 112, 113, 158, 175, 177, 189,
Dichanthium 120                                  192, 193, 200, 203ff, 227, 241, 243,
Dichelostemma 72                                 246, 248, 249, 251, 255, 267, 271,
Dichelostemma pulchellum 72, 81                  272, 281-284, 287, 288, 292, 300,
Dichondra occidentalis 85                        302, 304, 311, 315, 319, 320, 343,
Dichondra repens 135                             376, 382, 386, 387, 388, 412, 432,
Dichorisandra thyrsiflora           (blue        433ff, 435, 436ff, 498, 500, 501,
   ginger) 206
Index                                                                          851


dispersal [cont.] 540, 547, 548, 557,    Dothiorella 441
    559, 560, 561, 567, 579, 597, 609,   Dothiorella berengeriana 228
    614,619, 626, 701, 785, 795,822      Douglas fir 35
dispersal by animals 45, 73, 156, 157,   downy rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus
    282,313, 700                           tomentosa) 538; see also
dispersal by birds 51, 101, 104, 105,       Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
    156, 157, 158, 193, 227, 241, 249,   Dracaena 205
    271, 272, 281, 287, 288, 304, 311,   Drepanidinae 477
    313, 316, 319, 343, 376, 412, 510,   Drosophila, drosophilids 12, 278
    540, 548, 557, 561, 562, 567, 569,   Druentia 460
    614,696, 700                         Druentia inscita 452, 459, 460,461
dispersal by humans 73, 74, 101, 103,    dry forest 225, 297, 342, 533,        541,
    113, 158, 159, 189, 192, 193, 198,      542, 545, 559, 560, 593, 602,      753,
    199, 200, 203, 225, 226, 241, 249,      787
    251, 255, 256, 272, 281, 285, 289,   dry habitat      177, 180-182, 350,   357,
    293, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319, 320,      378, 398, 412, 416, 417, 418,      419,
    376, 532, 612, 613-614, 616, 618,       468, 469, 533, 593, 600, 601,      602,
    700, 766; see also agriculture,         603, 606, 666, 667, 732, 733,      787,
    horticulture, Polynesian introduc-      788,789
    tion, ranching, reforestation        Drymaria cordata 134,328
dispersal by mammals 35-36, 158, 227,    Dryopteris 308
    241, 249, 271, 272, 281, 287, 288,   Dryopteris arguta 81
    315, 316, 496, 540, 548, 557, 558-   Dubautia 396,631
    559,561,567,570,667                  Dubautia arborea 626, 644, 645
dispersal by water 9, 17, 103, 104,      Dubautia ciliolata 645
    105, 193, 282, 288, 289, 319, 376,   duckweed (Lemnaceae) 118
    532                                  Ducula (pigeon) 612
dispersal by wind 9, 52, 56, 73, 74,     Dudleya caespitosa 70,72,85
    157, 158, 159, 193, 199, 278, 304,   Dudleya greenei 71, 85
    314, 315, 316, 319, 376, 388, 435,   Dudleya traskiae 67,70,85
    437,696, 765                         dumb cane (Dieffenbachia) 205;        see
Dissotis hensii 454                         also Dieffenbachia
Dissotis rotundifolia 142
Distichlis spicata (saltgrass) 72, 89    eagle 93
ditch polypogon (Polypogon interrup-     earthworms 667
   tus) 209; see also Polypogon          Echinochloa 121
   interruptus                           Echinochloa phyllopogon 112,121
Dithyrea californica maritima 84         Echinodorus rostratus 116
dodder 136; see also Cuscutaceae         Echium 265
Dodecatheon clevelandii insulare 90      Echium pininana 265
Dodonaea (`a`ali`i) 396, 627, 631,       Echium plantagineum 477
   657; see also `a`ali`i                Ecliptaalba 128
Dodonaea viscosa (`a`ali`i) 351, 355,    Ecthromorphafuscator 416
   394, 399, 559, 585, 615, 616, 669,    education, environmental 15, 57, 251,
   670,672, 673; see also `a`ali`i          293, 362, 404, 478, 485, 495, 502,
dog (Canis domesticus) 93, 541,             540, 541, 543, 568, 571, 582, 590,
   553,627                                  710, 712, 721, 723-724, 758, 784,
dogbane 126; see also Apocynaceae           785, 799-804, 807-811, 817, 822,
donkey (Equus asinus) 21; see also          825-826,829, 830
   Equus asinus                          Egeriadensa 118
Dopatrium junceum 149                    eggplant (Solanum melongena) 221,
Doryctes palliatus 416                      461
Index                                                                            852


Ehrharta stipoides (meadow ricegrass)        Entyloma compositarum 432, 434
    121, 315, 364, 372, 488, 528, 672,       Epiden drum x obrianianum 119
    687,732; see also meadow ricegrass       Epilobium adenocaulon 88
Eichhornia crassipes (water hya-             Epilobium angustifolium      (fireweed)
    cinth) 9, 20, 43, 52,124                     35; see also fireweed
Elaeagnaceae (oleaster) 136, 488, 509        Epilobium billardierianum     144, 630,
eleagnus 513                                     632,647, 650, 652
Eleagnus umbellata (oleaster)         136,   Epilobium billardierianum subsp.
    488,509, 513, 515                            cinerium 328-329
Eleocharis 111                               Epilobium ciliatum 144
elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum)        Epinotia lantana 413, 414, 417; see
    620; see also Pennisetum purpureum           also tortricid
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)        Epiphyllum oxypetalum (gooseneck cac-
    128,468, 618                                 tus) 212
Elephantopus scaber 468                      epiphytes 272, 313, 562
Elephantopus spicatus 128                    Equus asinus (burro) 10, 17; see also
elephant's foot (Elephantopus mollis)            burro, donkey
    468; see also Elephantopus mollis        Equus caballus (horse) 21, 287, 554,
Eleusine indica (goosegrass) 121,                602, 701; see also horse
   208,610                                   Equus caballus x asinus (mule)
elm 151; see also Ulmaceae                       602
Elymus caput-medusae 476                     Eragrostis 121
Elymus condensatus 89                        Eragrostis brownei (sheepgrass)
Elymus pacificus 89                              121, 558
emex 469, 475                                Eragrostis grandis (*emoloa) 400; see
Emex australis (emex) 469, 475                   also `emoloa
Emex spinosa (spiny emex) 146, 469,          Eragrostis paupera 208
   765; see also emex                        Eragrostis tenella (Japanese love-
Emilia coccinea 128                             grass) 121, 208, 616
Emilia fosbergii (red pualele) 129,          Eragrostis variabilis (`emoloa) 199,
   211                                          208; see also `emoloa
Emilia sonchifolia 129                       Eragrostis xerophila (tussock grass)
`emoloa (Eragrostis variabilis)                 604,606
   208, 400, 401; see also Eragrostis        Erechtites glomerata (Australian
   variabilis                                   fireweed) 74, 76, 79, 82; see also
`ena`ena (Gnaphalium sandwicensium              fireweed
   var. sandwicensium) 211                   Erechtites hieracifolia 129
Encelia californica 70                       Erechtites valerianifolia    129, 329,
Enceliafarinosa 129                             558
endangered species 300, 545, 644, 797,       Ericaceae 85
   807-808; see also specific taxa           Erigeron 647, 651, 656
endemism       189, 192, 193, 199, 203ff,    Erigeron annuus 129
   597, 598, 601, 604, 609, 611, 613,        Erigeron bellioides 129
   619,628, 752                              Erigeron foliosus 82
English ivy (Hedera helix) 489,              Erigeron glaucus 70, 82
   510, 517, 521; see also Hedera            Erigeron karvinskianus 129
   helix                                     Erigeron sanctorum 82
English plantain (Plantago lanceo-           Eriobotrya japonica (loquat) 147,
   lata) 219                                    488,509, 513,515
Entada scandens 216                          Eriogonum arborescens 70, 90
Entyloma 426,427                             Eriogonum giganteum var. compac-
Entyloma ageratinae 432,434                     tum 67,90
Index                                                                        853


Eriogonum grande 70, 71, 90              Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)
Eriophyllum 70                              215
Eriophyllum confertiflorum    82; see    Eurasian thistle (Cirsium vulgare)
                                            566; see also Cirsium vulgare
Eriophyllum nevinii 67, 82               Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum
Eriophyllum staechadifolium 82              spicatum) 20
Erodium 72                               European beach grass (Ammophila
Erodium cicutarium (red-stemmed             arenaria) 8, 208; see also
    filaree) 72, 73, 74, 77, 87, 140,       Ammophila arenaria
   630, 647, 651                         E u r o p e a n rabbit (Oryctolagus
Erodium moschatum 74,77,87                  cuniculus) 76; see also rabbits
erosion 29, 30, 73, 76, 78, 667; see     Eurytoma 452,458,459
    also soil disturbance                Eurytomidae 459
Ervatamia (crape jasmine) 210            Eustachys petraea 121,209
Eryngium foetidum 126                    Eutreta xanthochaeta      413, 417; see
Erysimum insulare 71, 84                    also tephritid flies
Erythrina 126                            evening primrose 144, 219; see also
Erythrina sandwicensis (wiliwili)           Onagraceae
   397, 603; see also wiliwili           evolution 4,11,12, 21,43, 397, 495
Erythrina variegata var. orien-          exclosures 398, 496, 526, 556, 557,
   talis (tiger's claw) 216                 559, 560, 625, 626, 632, 633, 634,
Eschscholzia 88                             635, 636-638, 639, 640-643, 644,
eucalypts       33, 557, 754; see also      645, 646, 647-648, 649, 650-651,
   Eucalyptus                               652-653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658,
Eucalyptus (eucalyptus) 78, 289, 488,       660, 661, 667, 668, 669, 676, 681,
   509, 516, 521, 554, 569, 571, 754;       682, 683, 684, 686, 687, 688, 689,
   see also eucalypts, Eucalyptus           690, 692, 693, 697, 701; see also
   globulus                                 fencing
Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum) 75,       extinction 6, 12, 110, 112, 199, 241,
   76, 88, 488, 551, 554; see also          598, 666, 701, 754, 769, 785, 799,
   Eucalyptus                               826,829, 830
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)
   528                                   Fagaceae (peas) 6,137,215
Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney blue gum)     Fagopyrum esculentum 146
   528                                   Falco peregrinus (peregrine falcon)
Euchylaena tomentosa 134                     50
Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia 87            false kamani (Terminalia catappa)
Eugenia 620                                  213; see also Terminalia catappa
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)        false mallow (Malvastrum coromandeli-
   144, 218                                  anum subsp. coromandelianum)
eumenidwasp 414                              218
Euphorbia 631                            false staghorn fern (Dicranopteris
Euphorbiaceae (spurge) 136, 214, 492,        linearis) 538; see also Dicran-
   512                                       opteris linearis
Euphorbia cotinifolia 137                fan palm (Washingtonia filifera)
Euphorbia cyathophora (wild poin-            75, 77; see also Washingtonia
   settia) 137, 215                         filifera
Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) 9, 15,    faya tree (Myrica faya) 225, 399;
   19, 767                                   see also Myrica faya, firetree
Euphorbia graminea 137                   feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata)
Euphorbia heterophylla 137,215               208; see also Chloris
Euphorbia peplus (petty spurge) 137,     feathery bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris)
   215                                       538
Index                                                                                  854


Feijoa sellowiana (guavasteen) 488,          fire [cont.] 94, 100, 158, 194, 235,
    509,513, 516                                  241, 242, 249, 250, 376, 386, 394-
fence, fence line, fencing 301, 302,              405, 452, 476, 485, 486, 495, 496-
    303, 311, 317, 318, 556, 558, 570,            497, 500, 502, 533, 551, 552, 553,
    627, 634, 669, 673-674, 675, 683,             559, 560, 563, 565, 568, 570, 577,
    686,692; see also exclosures                  581, 584, 586-587, 600, 602, 658,
feral animals       14, 67, 234-235, 301,         662, 676, 681, 699, 734, 735, 740,
    317, 391, 394, 551, 556, 559, 571,            754,785, 790, 821,823
    572, 602, 614, 668, 690, 784; see       firethorn (Pyracantha             angustifolia)
    also feral ungulates                          538; see also Pyracantha angusti-
feral goat. See goat                             folia
feral pig. See pig                          firetree     (Myrica faya) 13, 33, 42,
feral ungulates 267, 398, 496, 499,               225-240, 387, 388, 391, 392, 411,
    526, 601, 603, 666, 697, 700, 701,           433, 441, 445, 467, 470, 476, 486,
    795, 813; see also cattle, deer,              490, 498, 501, 502, 538, 568-569,
    goat, mouflon, pig, sheep                    571, 577, 690, 691, 692, 754, 755,
ferns 32, 42, 199, 204, 272, 301, 303,           770, 771-772, 781, 782, 783, 786,
    307, 308, 309, 321-322, 400, 544,            788, 789, 790, 791, 792, 795, 821,
    553, 558, 561, 613, 616, 630, 637,           829,830; see also Myrica faya
    640, 642, 650, 652, 667, 670, 672,      fireweed (Epilobium             angustifolium)
    675, 677, 678, 679, 684, 687, 688,           35, 77; see also Australian fire-
    689, 690, 693, 694, 695, 697, 715;           weed, Erechtites glomerata
    see also Polypodiaceae, species         fishes 6, 9
    listings                                fish geranium (Pelargonium hortorum)
Festucarubra 121                                 217
Ficus 218,728                               Flaveria trine/via 129
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)          flax (Linaceae) 141
    218                                     Flemingia strobilifera 139
Ficus carica 87                             flies 413; see also Diptera
Ficus elastica (Indian rubber tree)         Flindersia brayleyana (silkwood) 547
    218                                     Florida blackberry (Rubus argutus)
Ficus microcarpa (Chinese banyan)                316, 318, 319, 343, 359, 445; see
    143,218, 547, 564                            also blackberry, Rubus argutus
Ficus prolixa 615, 616                      flower flies (Syrphidae) 278
Ficus pumila (climbing fig) 509, 516,       flowers 712, 714, 715, 716, 720, 721;
    521                                          see also horticulture, ornamentals
field mustard (Brassica campestris)         Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame) 545
    212; see also Brassica campestris       Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel)
fig-marigold (Aizoaceae) 125                     16,126, 566
figwort 148, 220; see also Scrophu-         foraging       235, 436, 511ff, 584, 609,
    lariaceae                                    661, 662, 670ff, 701, 732, 733, 734,
Filago californica 82                            766, 773, 800; see also grazing,
Filago gallica 129                               browsing
Fimbristylis aestivalis 117                 forbs      8, 15, 72, 77, 78, 402, 557,
Fimbristylis cymosa (button sedge)               571, 630-631, 637, 640, 642,
    206,616; see also button sedge               647-648, 650-651, 652-653; see also
Fimbristylis schoenoides 117                     herbaceous plants, herbs
fine-leaved celery (Ciclospermum            forest birds 159, 290, 300, 752; see
   leptophyllum)      210; see      also         also birds, species listings
    Ciclospermum leptophyllum               Formosan koa (Acacia confusa) 487,
fire 3, 6, 8, 11, 17, 18, 21, 31, 35,            506, 507, 508, 514, 521, 538; see
    49, 50, 51, 70, 71, 76, 77, 79, 93,          d$>Q Acacia confusa
Index                                                                             855


 fountain grass (Pennisetwn setaceum)        fuzzy rattle-pod (Crotalaria incana)
    42, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161, 164,           215; see also Crotalaria incana
     168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 175, 176,
     178, 376-392, 394, 399, 401, 402,        Gahnia gahniiformis 672
    485, 491, 495, 499-500, 501, 507,         Gaillardia pulchella (waikahuli) 129,
    513, 522, 538, 551, 568, 571, 587,           211
    625, 627, 658, 661, 662, 734, 753,        Galinsoga 129
    754, 755, 782, 783, 786, 787, 788,        Galium angustifolium foliosum 91
    789, 791, 793, 794, 814, 821; see         Galium aparine 91
    also Pennisetum setaceum                  Galium bwdfolium 70,91
four o'clock (Mirabilis            jalapa)    Galium californicum miguelense 91
    144,218; see also Nyctaginaceae           Galium divaricatum 148
foxtail (Hordeum glaucurri) 77, 93;          gall flies 544; see also tephritid
    see also Hordeum glaucum                     flies
foxtail fescue (Vulpia myuros) 209;          Gallicolumba rubescens (Marquesan
    see also Vulpia myuros                       ground dove) 604
foxtail grass (Setaria gracilis)             gallinaceous birds 287
    64; see also Setaria gracilis            Gallusgallus (jungle fowl) 288
fox-tongue melastoma (Melastoma              gardenia (Gardenia) 220, 455
    sanguineum) 538; see also                Gardenia jasminoides (gardenia) 455
    Melastoma sanguineum                     Gamotia acutigluma 121
Fragaria chiloensis (strawberry) 401         Gastridium ventricosum 121
Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)             Gelechiidae 459
    148,364                                  genetic attributes, diversity, traits,
Frankeniaceae (Frankenia) 87, 140,               variation 4, 12, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45,
    216                                          110,112, 268, 442, 447, 727,785
Frankenia grandifolia 71,86                  Genisteae 773
Frankenia salina 140, 216                    gentian (Gentianaceae) 140, 217
Fraxinus ameiicana (white ash) 488,          Gentianaceae (gentian) 140, 217
    509,513, 516                             geometrid (looper, Scotorythra) 412
Fraxinus uhdei (Mexican ash, tropical        Geraniaceae (geranium) 87,140, 217
    ash) 144, 284, 488, 510, 513, 516,       geranium (Geranium) 631
    528,531, 532, 547                        Geranium cuneatum 626
Fregata minor (frigate bird) 604             Geranium dissectum 112,140
frog's-bits (Hydrocharitaceae) 118           Geranium homeanum 140,651
fruit industry       156, 158, 713, 714,     Geranium pusillum 140
    770,771                                  Geranium retrorsum 140
fuchsia (Fuchsia magellanica, F.             German ivy (Senecio mikanioides)
   paniculata) 510, 513, 516, 754;              155-157, 159, 161, 167, 169-172,
    see also Fuchsia magellanica, F.            175, 176, 178, 538, 625, 627, 661,
   paniculata                                   662; see also Senecio mikanioi-
Fuchsia magellanica (fuchsia) 144,              des
    754; see also fuchsia                    giant coreopsis (Coreopsis gigantea)
Fuchsia paniculata (fuchsia) 145,               70; see also Coreopsis gigantea
    510,513, 516; see also fuchsia           Gilia angelensis 89
fungus, fungi 45, 51, 228, 250, 275,         Gilia capitata 146
   291, 411, 417, 420, 426, 432-435,         Gilia clivorum 90
   436, 437-438, 441, 443-446, 457,          Gilia nevinii 90
   466,720                                   ginger 45, 124, 209, 345, 349, 716,
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp) 43,           717, 766; see also Hedychium,
    116                                         kahili ginger, Zingiberaceae
Fusarium oxysporum          420, 432, 433,   ginseng (Araliaceae) 127, 211; see also
   434,443, 444                                 Araliaceae
Index                                                                         856


Glenwood grass (Sacciolepis indica)        gorse mite (Teranycus lintearious)
    42, 316, 319, 558, 565, 570, 689;          580
    see also Sacciolepis indica            gorse thrips (Sericothrips staphy-
glorybush (lasiandra) 341, 343, 370-           linum) 580
    372, 467, 470, 472, 493, 512, 519,     gosmore (Hypochoeris radicata) 304,
    521, 538; see also Tibouchina              307, 315, 317, 319, 554, 556, 558,
    wvilleana                                  565, 634, 639; see also Hypo-
glossy nightshade (popolo, Solanum             choeris radicata
    americanum) 105; see also              Gossypium barbardense 142
   Solanum americanum, popolo              Gossypium hirsutum (wild cotton) 52,
Glycine soja (soy bean) 216                    142
Glycine wightii (glycine) 733              gourd 136, 214; see also Cucurbitaceae
Gnaphalium 82                              gracillariid 413; see also Cremasto-
Gnaphalium japonicum 129,672                  bobycia lantanella
Gnaphalium purpureum (cudweed) 82,         Gramineae 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 493,
    129,211, 647, 652                          511
Gnaphalium sandwicensium 647, 651,         grape 152, 222; see also Vitaceae,
   652                                         Vitis
Gnaphalium sandwicensium var. sand-        grasses 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17,
   wicensium (`ena`ena) 211                   21, 34, 42, 44, 56, 70, 71, 72, 73,
goat (Capra hircus} 14, 35, 79, 93,           76, 77, 78, 79, 93, 119, 156, 158,
   235, 301, 307, 314, 316, 317, 319,          199, 208, 250, 259, 283, 303, 308,
   377, 391, 398, 477, 485, 495, 496,         309-310, 312, 313, 314, 316, 322-
   532, 551, 553, 557, 559, 560, 563,         326, 343, 382, 386, 394, 396, 398,
   565, 566, 570, 571, 581, 586, 602,         399, 400, 401, 403, 404, 405, 412,
   603, 606, 608, 609, 610, 611, 613,         434, 476, 496, 511, 531, 533, 552,
   619, 627, 628, 666, 667, 668, 669-         553, 557, 559, 560, 562, 565, 566,
   682, 698, 699, 700, 701, 708, 726,         571, 586, 602, 604, 606, 626, 628,
   732, 733, 734, 784, 787, 788, 789,         629, 630, 632, 634, 636, 639, 640,
   790, 791, 797, 800; see also Capra         641, 642, 647, 650, 652, 658, 661,
   hircus                                     666, 667, 669, 670, 672, 675, 676,
gobo (Arctium lappa) 211; see also            677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682, 684,
   Arctium lappa                              685? 687, 688, 689, 690, 692, 693,
golden crown-beard (Verbesina enceli-         694, 695, 696, 697, 699, 700, 766,
   oides) 199, 211; see also                  767; see also Poaceae, species
   Verbesina encelioides                      listings
Gomphrena globosa 126                      grasslands 8, 9, 17, 18, 19, 21, 67,
Gonocarpus chinensis 141                      68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 77, 78,
goodenia (Goodeniaceae) 217                   79, 170, 180ff, 300, 301, 302, 304,
Goodeniaceae (goodenia) 217                   307, 309, 315, 316, 317, 319, 321ff,
goosefoot        134, 213; see also           395, 396, 397, 398, 401, 403, 422,
   Chenopodiaceae                             541, 542, 544, 551, 553, 557, 561,
goosegrass (Eleusine indica) 208;             565, 571, 586, 602, 620, 666, 668,
   see also Eleusine indica                   676, 677, 678, 679, 683, 697, 698,
gooseneck cactus             (Epiphyllum      699,732, 787, 796; see also prairie
   oxypetalurn) 212                        grass webworm (Herpetogramma licarsi-
gorse (Ulex europaeus) 255, 470,              salis) 585
   472, 475, 477, 502, 527, 530, 531,      grazing 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 17,
   538, 540, 551, 557, 563-564, 569,          18, 19, 21, 35, 45, 70, 71, 73, 74,
   570, 571, 577-582, 593, 770, 771,          77, 79, 93, 94, 259, 267, 287, 288,
   772-773, 830; see also Ulex                389, 477, 496, 502, 526, 536, 553,
   europaeus                                  554, 566, 571, 577, 578, 581, 586,
Index                                                                           857


grazing [cont.]      598, 603, 610, 619,   hairy oatgrass (Danthonia pilosa)
   625, 626, 628, 629, 630ff, 632, 633,       566, 626, 629, 634, 635, 639; see
   634, 644, 649, 661, 662, 726, 728,         also Danthonia pilosa
   732-735; see also browsing              hairy spurge (Chamaesyce hirta)
green a m a r a n t h (Amaranthus             215, 604; see also Chamaesyce
   hybridus) 210;             see also        hirta
   Amaranthus hybridus                     hala (Pandanus odoratissimus, P.
green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) 216           tectorius) 207, 402, 612
greenhouse orthezia (Orthezia              Haleakala silversword (Argyroxiphium
   insignis) 412                              sandwicense subsp. macroceph-
Greenland collared lemming (Dicro-            alum) 556
   stonyx groenlandicus) 21                Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) 8
green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas           Haloragaceae 141; see also water mil-
   mydas) 50; see also sea turtle             foil
greensword (Argyroxiphium virescens)       Hamakua pamakani (Ageratina riparia)
   6                                          411, 425-428, 432, 434, 446, 468,
Grevillea 342,359                             475, 538, 544, 547, 585, 689; see
Grevillea banksii (kahili flower,             also Ageratina riparia
   silk oak) 147, 341, 342, 356-359,       Haplopappus 68, 70
   528; see also silk oak                  Haplopappus canus 82
Grevillea robusta (silk oak) 147,          Haplopappus detonsus 70, 82
   341, 342, 356-359, 488, 528, 547,       Haplopappus ericoides 82
   783,793; see also silk oak              Haplopappus squarrosus 82
Grindelia latifolia 72,82                  Haplopappus venetus 70, 71, 82
groundsel (Senecio) 45                     hapu`u (tree fern) 366, 400, 401, 684,
ground termite (Coptotermes formo-            692, 789, 790; see also Cibotium,
   sanus) 198                                 C. glaucum
guava     45, 218, 318, 548; see also      hapu`u pulu (Cibotium glaucum) 347,
   common guava, Psidium, P.                  367; see also Cibotium glaucum
   cattleianum, P. guajava, strawberry     hare, Belgian 93
   guava, waiwi                            Harrisia martinii 133
guavasteen (Feijoa sellowiana) 488,        hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus)        103, 218,
   509,513, 516                               538,618,729
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum var.         ha`uowi (Verbena litoralis) 221;
   maximum) 732,733                           see also Verbena litoralis
gunpowder tree (Melochia umbellata}        Hawai`ian bat (Lasiurus cinereus
   490, 512, 520, 521, 522; see also          semotus) 781,797
   Melochia umbellata                      Hawai`ian crow (`alala, Corvus hawai-
Gygis alba (white tern) 197, 604              iensis) 282
Gymnetron tetrum 267                       Hawai`ian goose (nene, Nesochen sand-
Gymnoconia nitens 433, 446                    wicensis) 403; see also nene
Gymnospermae (gymnosperms) 116, 204        Hawai`ian monk seal (Monachus schau-
Gynaikothrips ficorum 454                     inslandi) 189
                                           Hawai`ian nama (Nama sandwicensis)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood            217
    tree) 139,216                          Hawai`ian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus
hairy abutilon (Abutilon grandi-             knudseni) 6
   foliuni) 217; see also Abutilon         Hawai`ian tree fern (Cibotium) 204
   grandifolium                            Hebe 266
hairy merremia (kuahulu) 105; see also     Hebebreviracemosa 610
   Merremia aegyptica                      Hedera helix (English ivy) 20, 489,
                                             510,517, 521
Index                                                                                  858


Hedychium (ginger) 45, 766                      herbs 17, 31, 42, 64, 70, 75, 76, 77,
Hedychium coronarium (white ginger)                 78, 198, 266, 303, 307, 311, 312,
    124,529                                         326-335, 498, 508ff, 513, 558, 565,
Hedychium flavescens (yellow ginger)                610, 611, 618, 619, 626, 627, 629,
    124,529                                         630, 632, 633, 634, 635, 636-638,
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili gin-                 639, 640-643, 644, 647-648, 650-651,
    ger) 124, 209, 311, 341, 342,                   652-653, 666, 669, 670, 672, 675,
    344-350, 387, 489, 498, 529, 551,               677, 678, 679, 681, 682, 684, 685,
   562, 584, 696, 754, 781, 782, 790,               687, 688, 689, 690, 692, 693, 694,
   792,814; see also kahili ginger                  695,696, 699; see also forbs
Hedylepta 455                                   Herpestes auropunctatus (small Indian
Hedyotis centranthoides 347                         mongoose) 241, 249, 403, 540, 567
He dyotis corymbosa 148                         herpetofauna       612; see also lizard,
Helianthemum greenei 85                             turtle
Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus              Herpetogramma licarsisalis (grass
    (sunflower)         211; see also sun-          webworm) 585
   flower                                       Hesperocnide tenella 92
Helichrysum foetidum 129                        Heterocentron subtriplinervium (pearl
Heliconia (heliconia) 716                           flower) 142, 372, 510, 517, 521; see
Heliconia psittacorum 207                           also pearl flower
Heliocarpus popayanensis 150                    Heteromeles arbutifolia (toyon) 71,
heliotrope           198, 212; see also             91
   B o r a g i n a c e a e , Heliotropium       Heteropogon contortus         (pili grass)
   procumbens                                       380, 396, 602, 677; see also pili
Heliotropium amplexicaule 132                       grass
Heliotropium curassivicum (nena) 83,            Heteropogon/Rhynchelytrum community
   198, 212                                         698
Heliotropium procumbens (heliotrope)            Heterotheca grandiflora 129, 647,
   132,189,198-199, 212                             649, 651, 652
Hemerocallis (day lily) 207                     Heterotrichum cymosum 454
Hemignathus lucidus affinis           (Maui     Heuchera maxima 91
   nukupu`u) 300                                hi`aloa (Waltheria americana)402
Hemignathus virens (`amakihi) 278               hibiscus (Hibiscus) 218, 454
Hemigraphis reptans 125                         Hibiscus esculentus (okra) 217
Hemiptera (lace bugs) 413, 475                  Hibiscus macrophyllus 142
Hemizonia Clementina 82                         Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (red hibiscus)
Hemizoniafasciculata 83                            218
herbaceous plants            645, 646, 647ff,   Hibiscus tiliaceus (hau) 103, 218,
   649, 650ff, 652ff, 654, 657, 658,               538,618, 729
   660, 661, 760; see also forbs, herbs         Hilaria jamesii 18
herbariums         100, 101, 103, 106-110,      Hilo grass (Paspalum conjugatum) 4,
   112, 113, 155ff, 193, 198, 199,                 6, 42, 250, 304, 311, 313, 314, 317,
   203ff, 243, 251, 256, 258, 717, 720,            318, 320, 490, 558, 561, 570, 571,
   744,745, 747, 749, 750                          618, 692, 697; see also Paspalum
herbicides 9, 13, 47, 53, 54, 79, 198,             conjugatum
   228, 250, 291, 292, 318, 320, 343-           Hilo holly (Ardisia crenata) 487,
   373, 432, 433, 434, 435, 439, 441,              508, 514, 521; see also Ardisia
   442, 474, 485, 486, 495, 498, 500,              crenata
   501, 502, 513, 514-520, 526, 532,            Himatione sanguinea freethii (Laysan
   545, 546, 548, 562, 571, 581, 584,              honeycreeper) 199
   586, 786, 824, 826; see also                 Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
   chemical control                                (Hawai`ian stilt) 6
Index                                                                       859


Hippeastrum 207                           Hunnemanniafumariifolia 145
Hippeastrum puniceum 118                  hunting 249, 477, 536, 541, 543, 609,
Hippobroma longiflora 133                    627,669, 684, 694, 699, 753,801
hog (Sus scrofa) 20, 93; see also         Hutchinsia procumbens 84
    pig, Sus scrofa                       hydric forest       169; see also wet
ho`i`o (Diplazium sandwichianum,             forest, hydric habitat
    pahole) 311; see also Diplazium       hydric habitat 170, 184-186; see also
   sandwichianum                             wet forest, wet shrub community
Holcus        683; see also Holcus        hydric scrub 169
    lanatus                               Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla,
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass) 6, 20,         milfoil) 9, 52
    122, 304, 315, 323-324, 364, 401,     Hydrocharitaceae (frog's-bits) 118
    489, 557, 562, 626, 630, 650, 670,    Hydrocleys nymphoides 118
    672,683, 684; see also velvet grass   Hydrocotyle 126,329-330
holly (Aquifoliaceae) 127                 Hydrophyllaceae (water-leaf) 87, 217
Homalanthus polyandrus 610                hydrothermal plant community 789
honeybee (Apis mellifera) 278             Hylocereus undatus (night blooming
honeycreeper. See Drepanidinae               cereus) 133, 212
honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae) 133          Hymenoptera 459, 461
honohono (Commelina diffusa) 206,         Hyparrhenia 676
   363; see also Commelina diffusa        Hyparrhenia grassland 698
Hordeum 21                                Hyparrhenia hirta 122
Hordeum californicum 89                   Hyparrhenia rufa (thatching grass)
Hordeum glaucum (foxtail) 70, 72, 77,        122, 398, 489, 676, 678, 699; see
   89; see also foxtail                      also thatching grass
Hordeum leporinum 73, 89,122,208          Hypena strigata 414, 415, 416,417
Hordeum murinum 647, 650, 652             Hypericum 135
Hordeum pusillum 89                       Hypericum degeneri 476
Hordeum vulgare 122                       Hypericum perforatum (Klamath weed)
horehound (Marrubium vulgare) 75;            7, 135, 469, 473, 765; see also
   see also Marrubium vulgare                Klamath weed
hornwort (Ceratophyllaceae) 134           Hypochoeris 83
horse (Equus caballus) 21, 93, 287,       Hypochoeris glabra 129
   554,602, 603, 701                      Hypochoeris radicata (gosmore) 129,
horticulture 44, 56, 115ff, 158, 197,        304, 315, 330, 554, 565, 630, 634,
   342, 343, 419, 432, 436, 439, 495,        637, 640, 642, 647, 651, 652, 670,
   546, 569, 708, 712-724, 768, 826;         672,684; see also gosmore
   see also ornamentals                   Hyptis pectinata 141
Hottentot fig (Carpobrotus edulis)
   76; see also Carpobrotus edulis        ice plant (Mesembryanthemum spp.)
hu`ahu`ako (Rumex albescens) 190;             8, 21, 34, 72, 73, 76, 77, 93; see
   see also Rumex albescens                   also Mesembryanthemum crystallium,
human disturbance, impact, intervention       M. nodiflorum
   4, 7, 11, 12, 32, 34, 44, 45, 49,      iceplant community 67, 68, 71
   50, 67, 78, 93-94, 99, 100, 103,       ichneumonid (Ichneumonidae) 415, 416,
   104, 112, 178, 193-198, 199, 235,          455
   283, 343, 526, 543, 544, 553, 555,     `ihi (Portulaca lutea) 219; see
   616, 619, 620, 658, 700, 728, 752,         also Portulaca lutea
   753, 799, 807, 809, 810, 822, 823;     `ihi`ai (Oxalis corniculata) 103;
   see also agriculture, anthropogenic        see also yellow wood sorrel,
  effects, cultivation, dispersal,            Oxalis corniculata
  logging, Polynesian introduction,       `i`iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) 278,
  ranching                                    477
Index                                                                                    860


 Ilex 127                                       Ipomoea (morning glory) 214, 365,
 Ilex anomala (kawa`u) 347, 397; see                538; see also morning glory
      also kawa`u                               Ipomoea alba 135
 `iliahialo`e (Santalum ellipticum)             Ipomoea aquatica 135
     220; see also Santalum ellipticum          Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) 102,
 `ilima (Sidafallax) 218                             135,214,729
 ilioha (Conyza bonariensis) 211;               Ipomoea cairica var. hederacea
      see also Conyza bonariensis                    135
Impatiens 131                                   Ipomoea congesta (morning glory) 363;
 importation 707-710, 712, 713, 717,                see also morning glory
     720, 721, 722, 723, 727, 822,              Ipomoea hederifolia 135
     826-829,830                                Ipomoea indica f. albiflora 214
 Indian almond (Combretaceae) 135, 213          Ipomoea indica f. indica (koali-
 Indian banyan (Ficus benghalensis)                 *awahia) 214; see also koali`awahia
     218                                        Ipomoea obscura 135
 Indian mallow 104                              Ipomoea ochracea 135
Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia,            Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasil-
     noni) 616; see also Morinda                    iensis (beach morning glory) 214
     citrifolia, noni                           Ipomoea purpurea 135
Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis)              Ipomoea triloba        (little bell)     135,
     412; see also Acridotheres tristis             214
Indian pluchea (Pluchea indica)                 Ipomoea violacea 136
     211; see also Pluchea indica               Iridaceae (iris) 87,118
Indian rhododendron (Melastoma candi-           iris (Iridaceae)          118; see also
     dum) 538; see also Melastoma                   Iridaceae
     candidum                                   ironwood (Casuarina            equisetifolia)
Indian rubber tree (Ficus elastica)                 189, 193, 197-198, 199, 200, 201,
     218                                            203, 213, 488, 509, 513, 515, 528;
indigo (Indigofera              suffruticosa)       see also Casuarina equisetifolia
     103, 399; see also Indigofera              Isachne distichophylla (`ohe) 347,
     suffruticosa                                   687
Indigofera spicata 139                          island bigpod ceanothus (Ceanothus
Indigofera         suffruticosa     (indigo)        megacarpus subsp. insularis)
     102,103,139, 399                               71; see also Ceanothus megacarpus
`iniko (Indigo suffruticosa)             103;       subsp. insularis
     see also Indigo suffruticosa               island night lizard (Xantusia river-
insecticides 344                                    siana) 71; see also herpetofauna
insects 14, 16, 19, 51, 75, 201, 228,           island oak (Quercus tomentella) 71;
     242, 267, 291, 385, 411, 412, 413,             see also Quercus tomentella
     414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 420, 424,         island sagebrush 74
     425, 426, 433, 436, 437, 438, 440,         Lcora (ixora) 716
     441, 445, 452-462, 466, 467, 468,
     469, 470, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476,         jackbean (Canavalia ) 215,676
     479, 537, 539, 562, 563, 564, 567,         jade tree (Portulacaria afro) 220
     578, 580, 585, 612, 667, 709, 720,         Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera
     721, 722, 727, 728, 759, 761, 763,            japonica) 9; see also Lonicera
     764, 765, 766, 767, 768, 769, 770,            japonica
     771,772, 773, 797, 823                     Japanese lovegrass (Eragrostis
invertebrates 290, 291, 349, 373, 557,             tenella) 208; see also Era-
     560, 601, 602, 604, 612, 781, 785,            grostis tenella
     796, 797, 824, 825; see also               Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japoni-
     nematodes, species listings                   cus) 227, 278, 281-282, 548, 567
Index                                                                         861


Jasminum sambac (pikake) 219              Kalimeris pinnatifida 129
Jatropha 137                              kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum)
Jaumea carnosa 83                             104,     213,     729; see a l s o
Java plum (Syzygium cumini) 399,             Calophyllum inophyllum
    493, 538, 545, 547, 559; see also     kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides
   Syzygium cumini                           var. laysanensis) 199; see also
Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocap-         Cenchrus agrimonioides var.
   sicurn) 364, 372, 493, 786, 790,          laysanensis
    791, 792, 793; see also Solanum       Kamehameha butterfly (Vanessa
   pseudocapsicum                            tameamea)278
Joinvillea gaudichaudiana 560             kamole (primrose willow) 104; see also
joyweed (Alternanthera tenella)                Ludwigia octovalvis
    210; see also Alternanthera           karakanut (Corynocarpaceae, Coryno-
   tenella                                   carpus laevigatus) 136, 528, 532,
Juncaceae (rushes) 87,118                    816
Juncus 72                                 kau-la`ai (`ohelo, Vaccinium reticu-
Juncus acuminatus 118                        laturri) 372; see also `ohelo,
Juncus balticus 87                           Vaccinium reticulatum
Juncus bufonius 87,118                    kawa`u (Ilex anomala) 347, 397, 401
Juncus effusus 118                        Keckiella cordifolia 91
Juncus ensifolius 118                     Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
Juncus mexicanus 87                          566, 626, 629, 632, 644, 646, 649;
Juncus planifolius       118, 558, 564,      see also Poa pratensis
   565,570                                kiawe (Prosopis pallida) 216, 402,
Juncus polyanthemos 118                      403, 492, 512, 513, 519, 603; see
Juncus tenuis 118                            also Prosopis pallida
jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) 288;          kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandes-
   see also gallinaceous birds               tinum) 6, 315, 320, 364, 387, 491,
Justicia 125                                 529, 544, 559, 562, 563, 571, 732,
                                             733;     see also Pennisetum
ka`e`e (Mucuna gigantea) 216                 clandestinum
kahili flower (Grevillea banksii)         kilau (Pteridium aquilinum var.
    528; see also Grevillea banksii,         decompositum) 363
    silk oak                              kili`o`opu (Kyllinga nemoralis)
kahili ginger (Hedychium gardneri-           101; see also Kyllinga nemoralis
    anum) 209, 311, 318, 341, 342,        kinikini (kakalaioa) 215; see also
    344-350, 372, 387, 489, 498, 529,        Caesalpinia bonduc
    551, 562, 570, 571, 572, 584, 691,    Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)
    692, 694, 695, 696, 697, 754, 781,       7, 469, 473, 475, 476, 765, 768; see
    782, 786, 789, 790, 792, 795, 814;       also Hypericum perforatum
    see also Hedychium gardnerianum       klu (Acacia farnesiana) 215, 538;
kakalaioa (Caesalpinia bonduc) 215;          see also Acacia farnesiana
    see also Caesalpinia bonduc           knapweed (Centaurea) 766, 767; see
kakonakona (Panicum torriduni) 208           also Centaurea
Kalanchoe daigremontiana x tubiflora      koa (Acacia koa) 155, 168, 170,
    214                                      177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185,
Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant) 136,           271, 274, 284, 285, 287, 288, 290,
   214                                       304, 307, 311, 313, 363, 394, 401,
Kalanchoe tubiflora (chandelier              403, 532, 558, 560, 561, 571, 580,
   plant) 136, 214                           581, 593, 667, 669, 675, 683, 696,
kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelana)         700,791
   281,288,477,770                        koa forest     168, 273, 290, 304, 309,
Index                                                                                 862


koa forest [cont.] 311, 403, 532, 542,          Lamiaceae 87,141, 217; see also mint
    558,560, 561, 571,593                       Lamium amplexicaule 555, 556
koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala)               Langsdorfia franckii 414, 415
    42, 112, 216, 399, 402, 489, 544,           lantana (Lantana camara)         42, 221,
    547, 552, 585, 733, 766, 782, 783;              399, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416,
    see also Leucaena leucocephala                  417, 418, 425, 426, 439, 467, 473,
koali`awahia (Ipomoea indica f.                     475, 476, 489, 538, 545, 547, 584,
    indica) 214                                     585, 593, 618, 765, 768; see also
koa-mamane forest 288                              Lantana camara
koa-`ohi`a forest 168, 170, 177, 271,           Lantana camara (lantana)         42, 151,
    285,287, 288, 290, 314, 315,532                 221, 399, 411, 412, 440, 467, 469,
kolea (Myrsine lessertiana) 347,                    489, 538, 545, 547, 584, 593, 618,
    349; see also Myrsine lessertiana               765; see also lantana
kolomona (Senna surattensis) 216;              Lantanophaga (=Platyptilia) pussilli-
    see also Senna surattensis                     dactyla (pterophorid) 413, 417
Koster's curse (clidemia, Clidemia             Laportea interrupta 112,151
    hirta) 241, 314, 320, 399, 432,            Lappula redowskii 18
    435, 452, 468, 532, 538, 544, 547,         Lapsana communis 129, 330-331
    567; see also Clidemia hirta,               Lascosomidae 459
    clidemia                                    lasiandra (glorybush) 343; see also
kou (Cordia subcordata) 104, 212,                   Tibouchina urvilleana
    729; see also Cordia subcordata            Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Hawai`ian
kou-haole (Cordia sebestena) 212                   bat) 781; see also bat
kuahulu (hairy merremia) 105; see also         larkspur (Delphinium barkeyi, D.
   Merremia aegyptica                              occidentale) 7
kudzu (Pueraria lobata) 9, 20, 492,            Lasthenia chrysostoma 72, 83
    512,519, 521                               lather leaf (Colubrina asiatica)
Kuehneola uredinis 433, 445, 446                   52,57, 58
kukaenene (Coprosma emodioides)                Lathyrus laetiflorus barbarae 86
    401, 669; see also Coprosma                Lathyrus latifolius 139
   emodioides                                  Lathyrus tingitanus 139
kukaepua`a (Digitaria ciliaris, D.             laua`e (Phymatodes          scolopendria)
   setigera) 101, 208; see also                    204
   Digitaria ciliaris, D. setigera             Lauraceae (laurel) 141
kukui (Aleurites moluccana, candle-            laurel (Lauraceae) 141
   nut) 214, 729; see also Aleurites           lava flows 288, 376, 378, 380, 394,
   moluccana, candlenut                            396, 398, 403, 500, 542, 692, 788,
Kyllingabrevifolia 117,324                         789,790
Kyllinga nemoralis         (kili`o`opu) 102,   Lavatera assurgentiflora 87
   117; see kili`o`opu                         Layia platyllossa 83
                                               Laysan finch (Telespyza cantans)
Lablab purpureus 139                               200
lace bugs 413; see also Hemiptera              Laysan honeycreeper (Himatione san-
lace-necked dove (Streptopelia                     guinea freethii) 199
   chinensis) 412                              Laysan rail (Porzana palmeri) 199
Lactuca sativa (lettuce) 211                   leadwort (Plumbaginaceae) 219
Lactuca serriola 83,129                        leaf beetle 452, 459, 461; see also
Lactuca serriola integrata 83                      chrysomelid
Lagenaria siceraria 102,136                    leaf roller      412, 455, 461, 476; see
lama (Diospyros sandwicensis) 397,                 also tortricid
   400,402, 789                                leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) 9,
LamarcTda aurea 74, 89                             767; see also Euphorbia esula
Index                                                                                 863


 Lecythidaceae (barringtonia) 217                 Linanthus androcaceus micranthus 90
 legumes (Leguminosae) 586, 733, 773;             Linaria canadensis var. texana
     see also Leguminosae                              149
 Leguminosae (legumes) 487, 489, 492,             Linaria texana 91
    508, 509, 510, 512; see also                   linden (Tiliaceae) 150
    legumes                                       Lindemia Crustacea 149
Leiothrix lutea (red-billed leio-                 Linum 141
    thrix) 227                                    Liothrips urichi (thrips) 242, 453,
 Lemnaceae (duckweed) 118                              454,567; see also thrips
Lemna perpusitta 118                              Lipochaeta integrifolia (nehe) 211
 lemonade berry (Rhus             integrifolia)    little bell (Ipomoea triloba) 214;
    71; see also Rhus integrifolia                     see also Ipomoea triloba
 lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus)                Liusposeidon 452,459,460,461
    208                                            liverworts 33,243,544
Leonotis 141                                      Livistona australis (cabbage palm)
Lepidium 132                                           205
Lepidium bidentatum var. o-wai-                    lizard 71
    hiense (`anaunau) 190,212                     Lobelia erinus 133
Lepidium nitidum nitidwn 84                        lobelioids 301, 667
Lepidium oblongum 84,132                          Lobularia maritima (sweet alyssum)
Lepidium strictum 84                                   132,199, 212
Lepidium virginicum (pepper grass)                 locoweed (Astragalus) 7
    132, 212                                      loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta
 Lepidoptera 413, 416, 455, 459, 461,                  caretta)50; see also sea turtle
    766, 772; see also butterflies,               logging 20, 21, 34-35, 49, 175, 274,
    moths, plume moths, species or group               283, 287, 288, 290, 476, 532, 533,
    listings                                           536,729, 800
Leptobyrsa decora          414, 415, 416,         logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechi-
    417,418                                            anurn) 216; see also Haematoxylum
Leptospermum 144                                       campechianum
Leptospermum scoparium (tea tree)                 Lolium 650
    144,544                                       Lolium multiflorum 122
Lepturus repens 208                               Lolium perenne 73,74,89
lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 211                      Lomatium caruifolium 81
Leucaena 33                                       long-horned beetle 452, 459, 461
Leucaena leucocephala (koa haole) 42,             Lonicera japonica (Japanese honey-
    112, 139, 216, 399, 489, 544, 547,                 suckle) 9, 20,133
    552, 555, 585, 733, 766, 782; see             looper (geometrid, Scotorythra) 412
    also koa haole                                loosestrife (Lythraceae) 142
Leucobryum gracile 243                            Lophospermum erubescens 149
lianas 271, 290; see also vines                   Lophostemon confertus (vinegar tree)
lichens 33, 396, 672, 675,677, 680                     529
Ligustrum 20                                      Lophura leucomelana (kalij pheasant)
Liliaceae 87, 118, 207, 491, 511; see                  281, 477, 770; see also kalij
    also lily                                          pheasant
liliko`i (Passiflora        edulis) 219,          loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) 488,
    443, 529; see also Passiflora                      509, 513, 515; see also Eriobotrya
    edulis                                            japonica
Liliumhumboldtii 71,87                            Lotus 86
lily 118, 207, 667; see also Liliaceae            Lotus dendroideus 70,86
Limnocharitaceae 118                              loulu (Pritchardia martii, P. remota)
Linaceae (flax) 141                                    206; see also Pritchardia remota
Index                                                                              864


lowland community 17, 255, 378, 386,         Madia sativa 129
   388, 389, 390, 392, 397, 402, 419,        mahogany (Meliaceae) 143
   420, 486, 508, 510, 511, 512, 522,        maile pilau (Paederia scandens)
   533, 561, 617, 675-679, 698, 699,            490, 511, 513, 518, 538; see also
   753                                          Paederia scandens
Loxioides bailleui (palila) 628              makaloa (Cyperus laevigatus) 206
Loxops coccineus ochraceus (Maui             Malabar melastome (Melastoma candi-
   <akepa) 300                                  dum, M. malabathricum) 155, 156,
Luculia gratissima 510,513,517                  157, 161, 162, 168, 169, 171, 174,
Ludwigia octovalvis (kamole, primrose            175, 176, 178, 402; see also
   willow) 102,104,145, 331                     Melastoma candidum, M.
Ludwigia palustris 145                          malabathricum
lupine (Lupinus hybridus) 489, 510,          Malachra alceifolia 142
   517,521                                   Malacothrixfoliosa 83
Lupinus 510,517,521                          Malacothrbc implicata 70
Lupinus albifrons (shrub lupine) 71,         Malacothrixincana 71,72,83
   86                                        Malacothrix indecora 83
Lupinus arboreus (shrub lupine) 71,          Malacothrbc saxatilis 70,83
   86                                        Malacothrix squalida 83
Lupinus bicolor 86                           Malacothrix succulenta 72,83
Lupinus chamissonis 86                       Malephora (sea fig) 72; see also sea
Lupinus hybridus (lupine) 489; see              fig, ice plant, sea fig vine
   also lupine                               Malephora crocea (sea fig vine) 76,
Lupinus succulentus 86                          81
Lupinus truncatus 86                         mallow 142, 217; see also Malvaceae
Luzula hawaiiensis 636, 640, 641,            malphigia 217
   672                                       Malpighiaceae (malphigia) 217
lycaenid 413; see also Strymon               Malvaceae (mallow) 87,142, 217
Lycium californicum (boxthorn) 71,           Malva parviflora (cheese weed) 74,
   72,92; see also boxthorn                     77,87,142, 218
Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) 92,         Malvastrum coromandelianum 142, 555
   149,220; see also tomato                  Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp.
Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (cur-             coromandelianum           (false mallow)
   rant tomato) 102,105,149, 555                218
Lycopodium cemuum (wawae`iole) 345,          Malvaviscus arboreus (turks cap) 218
   347; see also wawae`iole                  mamaki (Pipturus albidus) 363
Lysimachia nummularia 20                     mamane (Sophora chrysophylla) 180,
Lytanthus 266                                   181, 182, 183, 288, 351, 355, 363,
Lythraceae (loosestrife) 142                   399, 562, 580, 593, 626, 627, 628,
Lythrum maritimum (pukamole) 102,              632, 633, 634, 644, 654, 656, 658,
   104,142, 331-332, 363                        660, 661, 662, 666, 669, 673, 675;
Lythrum salicaria (purple loose-                see also Sophora chrysophylla
   strife) 9                                 mamane forest/habitat 593, 626, 627,
                                               628,633, 658, 660, 661, 662
macadamia (Macadamia         integrifolia)   mamane/naio forest 400
  730                                        mammals 11, 21, 272, 281, 537, 541,
Macaranga mappa 137                            598, 602, 612, 614, 616, 619, 797;
Machaerina angustifolia (`uki) 347,             see also species listings
  372                                        manele (Sapindus saponaria) 363
Macroptilium lathyroides 139                 Mangifera indica        (mango) 210, 441,
Madagascar olive (Noronhia emargin-            559; see also mango
  ata) 219                                   mango (Mangifera indica) 126, 210,
                                               441,559; see also Anacardiaceae
Index                                                                          865


mangosteen (Clusiaceae) 135, 213          mealybug 455
mangrove (Rhizophoraceae) 6, 147; see     mechanical control 7, 9, 10, 13, 15,
   also mangrove habitat, red mangrove      18, 19, 47, 53, 54, 55, 58, 78, 79,
mangrove habitat 50, 51, 53,58              80, 100, 178, 198, 199, 201, 250,
manual control 16, 17, 19, 53, 198,         274, 291, 292, 293, 318, 420, 432,
   246, 248, 250, 267, 268, 314, 315,       433, 440, 442, 445, 454, 479, 486,
   318, 319, 320, 356, 377, 382, 385,       495, 499, 500, 501, 502, 519-520,
   391, 441, 479, 513, 514ff, 526, 532,     526, 545, 546, 566, 568, 584, 585,
   545, 546, 783, 823, 824; see also        734, 735, 740, 772, 795, 829; see
   mechanical control                       also manual control
Marah macrocarpus 70, 72, 85              Medicago intertexta 139
marijuana (Cannabis sativa)249            Medicago lupulina (black medic) 139,
marine habitat 21, 47, 66, 104, 105,        216,651
   541,542                                Medicago polymorpha (bur clover) 72,
Mariscus 611                                73,74, 77, 86,139, 216
Mariscus javanicus (`ahuawa) 101,         Medicago sativa (alfalfa) 86, 216
   102,207                                Medinillavenosa 143
Mariscus pennatiformis          subsp.    mehamehame (Flueggea neowawraea)
   bryanii 207
maritime cactus scrub 71                  melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia,
Marquesan ground dove (Gallicolumba           cajeput) 10, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57;
  rubescens) 604                              see also cajeput, Melaleuca
Marrubium vulgare (horehound) 75, 87,        quinquenervia
   141                                    Melaleuca quinquenervia (cajeput,
marshes 9, 32, 48, 50,51,101                  melaleuca, paperbark) 4, 21, 32, 47,
Matricaria chamomilla 130                     49, 50, 144, 489, 510, 513, 517,
matted fern (Dicranopteris linearis,         529, 547, 816; see also cajeput,
   uluhe) 30, 311, 320, 697; see also        melaleuca
  Dicranopteris linearis, uluhe           Melastoma 156,168
Maui `akepa (Loxops coccineus ochra-      Melastoma candidum (Indian rhododen-
  ceus) 300                                   dron) 143, 155, 156, 157, 169, 175,
Maui blight 412                               186, 402, 454, 538; see also Malabar
Maui nukupu`u (Hemignathus lucidus           melastome
  affinis) 300                            Melastoma sanguineum (fox-tongue
Maui pamakani (Ageratina adenophora)         melastoma) 143, 538
  304, 315, 319, 425, 468, 538, 544,      Melastomataceae 142, 157, 241, 452,
  547, 558, 559, 563, 696; see also          454, 458, 460, 461, 487, 493, 508,
  Ageratina adenophora                       510,512, 821; see also melastome
Maui parrotbill {Pseudonestor xantho-     melastome 142, 242, 343, 403, 452,
  phrys) 300                                 454, 456, 460, 461; see also
Mauna Kea silversword (Argyroxiphium         Melastomataceae
  sandwicense var. sandwicense)           Meleagris gallopavo (turkey) 281; see
  593,639                                    also turkey
Maurandya antirrhiniflora 149             Melia azedarach (pride of India) 20,
Mauritius hemp (Furcraea foetida)            143,547
  43; see also Furcraea foetida           Meliaceae (mahogany) 143
meadow community 17                       Melia imperfecta 89
meadow ricegrass (Ehrharta stipoi-        Melilotus 19, 77; see also Meli-
  des) 315, 318, 320, 364, 372, 488,         lotus indica
  528, 687, 688, 689, 690, 692, 699,      Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
  700, 732; see also Ehrharta                216,555
  stipoides                               Melilotus indica (sweet clover) 77,
                                             86,139,216; see also Melilotus
Index                                                                                  866


Melilotus officinalis 139                   Metrosideros       polymorpha        (`ohi`a)
Melinis         34; see also Melinis            [cont]      558, 666, 670, 672, 673,
   minutiflora                                  674,675, 754, 785; see also `ohi`a
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)        Mexican ash (Fraxinus uhdei)              528;
   35, 122, 208, 315, 324, 372, 394,            see also Fraxinus uhdei
   398, 490, 533, 538, 547, 551, 559,       miconia (Miconia calves cens) 569,
   560, 676, 677; see also molasses            828
   grass                                    Miconia 458, 460, 461
Melinis/Rhynchelytrum community 698         Miconia acinodendrum 460
Melitara 422                                Miconia calvescens (miconia) 143,
melochia (Melochia umbellata) 402,             569,821, 827, 829; see also miconia
   510, 517, 521, 522, 538; see also        Miconia mirabilis 461
   Melochia umbellata                       microfauna. See invertebrates
Melochia umbellata (gunpowder tree)         Microlepia strigosa (palapalai)           363;
   150, 402, 490, 510, 517, 521; see           see also palapalai
   also melochia, gunpowder tree            Microseris 83
Mentha 20                                   Microsorium (Polypodium) scolopendria
Mentha pulegium 141                              616
Mentha xvillosa 93,141                      Microstegium vimineum 20
Merremia 136                                Microtus oeconomus (tundra vole) 21
Merremia aegyptica (hairy merremia,         midge 452, 458, 459
   kuahulu) 102,105                         Mikania micrantha 618
Merremia tuberosa (wood rose) 136,          milfoil (Hydrilla verticillata) 52;
   214                                         see also Hydrilla verticillata
Mesembryanthemum 93                         military activities     73, 76, 93, 189,
Mesembryanthemum chilense (ice plant)          190, 194-196, 197, 198, 199, 200,
   8; see also ice plant                       244,249, 554
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice          milkweed (Asclepiadaceae) 127
   plant) 21, 34, 71, 76, 78, 81; see       milkwort (Polygalaceae) 146
   also ice plant                           milo (Thespesia populnea) 103, 218;
Mesembryanthemum edule (ice plant) 8;          see also Thespesia populnea
   see also ice plant                       mimi`ilio (Spergularia marina) 213;
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (ice               see also Spergularia marina
   plant) 21, 71, 73, 74, 76, 81; see       Mimosa pudica 139
   also ice plant                           Mimulus flemingii 91
mesic forest/habitat      167, 168, 169,    mint 141,217 667; see also Lamiaceae
   170, 174, 177, 178, 182-184, 190,        Mirabilis californica 88
   226, 231, 234, 241, 242, 271, 284,       Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock) 144,
   285, 287, 288, 290, 376, 396, 398,          218
   532, 533, 541, 542, 545, 559, 562,       mites 425, 467, 764
   785,787,790,791,796                      Mitracarpus hirtus 148
mesic grassland 169                         mixed grass community 698
mesic scrub 169,785                         moa (Psilotum nudum) 204
mesic shrublands 533                        mock orange (Murraya paniculata 220
Meteorus laphygmae (braconid) 455;          Modiola caroliniana 142
   see also braconid                        mokihana (Pelea anisata)289
Metrosideros 308-309,680                    molasses grass (Melinis           minutiflora)
Metrosideros/Acacia/Sapindus forest            35, 208, 315, 318, 372, 394, 398,
   (`ohi`a/koa/manele forest) 359              399, 402, 405, 490, 533, 538, 547,
Metrosideros/native shrub community 698        551, 559, 560, 561, 565, 570, 572,
Metrosideros polymorpha          (`ohi`a)      676, 699; see also Melinis
  33, 155, 168, 186, 227, 271, 283,            minutiflora
  304,344,347,394, 400, 532,544,            Molluginaceae 143; see also carpetweed
Index                                                                                 867


Mollugo cerviana 143                          moths 413, 423, 454, 455, 564, 568,
Momordica charantia 136                         580,766; see also Lepidoptera
Mompha trithalama 452, 458, 459,461           mouflon (Ovis musimon) 628, 633,
Momphidae 459                                   639,662
Monachus schauinslandi (Hawai`ian monk        mountain apple (Syzygium malaccense)
   seal) 189                                     455, 729; see         also     Syzygium
Moneilema 422                                    malaccense
mongoose, small Indian (Herpestes             mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)
   auropunctatus) 241, 249, 403, 540,             10
   567                                        mountain parkland 791, 796; see also
monkeypod (Samanea samari) 216, 547;              montane parkland
   see also Samanea saman                     mountain pili (Panicum tenuifolium)
monk seal, Hawai`ian (Monachus schau-             401; see also Panicum tenuifolium
   inslandi) 189                              Mucuna gigantea (ka`e`e) 216
Monochoria vaginalis 124                      Mucuna urens (sea bean) 139, 216; see
Monocotyledonae, monocotyledons 116,              also sea bean
   205                                        Muehlenbeckia axillaris (wire vine)
Monolepis nuttalliana 85                          146, 507, 511, 517, 521
monstera (Monstera deliciosa) 205             Muhlenbergia microsperma 89,122
montane bog 542, 554, 557, 558, 562,          mulberry 143, 218; see also Moraceae
   563, 564, 572                              mule (Equus caballus x asinus}
montane forest 343,787                           602
montane habitat 254, 255, 256, 262,           mullein (Verbascum thapsus) 254-
   267,268, 272, 400, 525, 618,619               256, 258-259, 261-263, 265-268, 494,
montane parkland 401, 669, 672, 673-             557, 629, 644, 649, 661; see also
   674, 683, 685, 697, 700; see also              Verbascum thapsus
   mountain parkland                          Murray a paniculata (mock orange) 220
montane rain forest 225, 229, 231,            Musa 102,207,332
   234, 284, 401, 486, 753, 789,790           Musaceae 119, 207; see also banana
montane seasonal forest 229, 512              Musa troglodytarum 119
montane seasonal vegetation zone 343,         Musa x paradisiaca (banana) 119;
   386, 401, 403, 405, 486, 496,                 see also banana
   790-791                                    musk thistle 19
Montandoniola moraguesi 454                   mustard (Brassicaceae) 132, 212
montanoa (Montanoa            hibiscifolia)   Myadestes obscurus obscurus (`oma`o)
   547; see also Montanoa hibisci-               278; see also `oma`o
  folia                                       mycoherbicides 432, 433, 435
Montanoa hibiscifolia         (montanoa)      myna, common          (Acridotheres tristis)
   130,547                                       227, 281-282; see also Acrido-
montbretia (Crocosmia crocosmiiflora)            theres tristis
  363, 544, 545; see also Tritonia            Myoporum (naio) 284, 402, 611; see
  crocosmiflora                                  also naio
Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) 33;             Myoporum sandwicense (naio) 186, 363,
  see also Pinus radiata                         399, 626, 631, 655, 659; see also
Moraceae (mulberry) 87,143, 218, 509             naio
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry,          Myrica 228, 445
  noni) 102,105,148, 616                      Myricaceae (bayberry) 143, 225, 445,
morning glory 135, 363, 538; see also            490
  Convolvulaceae, Ipomoea                     Myrica cerifera       (wax myrtle) 227,
Morus alba (white mulberry) 143, 218             772
mosquito 201,753                              Myrica faya (faya tree, firetree) 13,
mosses 243, 272, 544, 660, 671, 675,             33, 42, 143, 225, 387, 399, 411,
  677,679, 680                                   433,441, 467, 469, 486, 490,538,
Index                                                                             868


Myrica faya (faya tree, firetree)          Nephrolepis biserrata 616
   [cont.]     568-569, 577, 690, 754,     Nephrolepis multiflora (sword fern)
   770, 772, 781, 782, 792, 821; see           199,204
   also firetree                           Nerium oleander (oleander) 210
Myriophyllum (water milfoil) 9, 20;        Nesochen sandwicensis           (Hawai`ian
   see also water milfoil                      goose) 403; see also nene
Myriophyllum aquaticum 141                 Nesofregetta fuliginosa (storm-
Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water          petrel) 612
   milfoil) 20; see also Myriophyllum      nettle 151,221
Myrsinaceae (myrsine) 143, 487             nettle-leaved goosefoot (Chenopodium
Myrsine lessertiana (kolea) 45, 347,           murale) 213; see also Cheno-
   349                                         podium murale
Myrsine saliciana 45                       New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax)
Myrtaceae (myrtle) 88, 144, 157, 218,          491, 506, 511, 513, 518, 529, 532;
   488, 489, 492, 493, 508, 509, 510,          see also Phormium tenax
   512                                     New Zealand red rabbit 93; see also
myrtle 144, 218; see also Myrtaceae            rabbits
Mytosis discolor 132                       New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia
                                               expansa, T. tetragonioides)        76,
naio (Myoporum sandwicense) 181,               209; see also Tetragonia tetra-
   182, 183, 284, 363, 399, 626, 627,          gonioides
   628, 656, 658, 661; see also            Nicandra physalodes 149
   Myoporum sandwicense                    Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) 17,
naio-mamane forest/woodland 626, 627,          150,220, 555, 603
   628,658                                 Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) 150,220
Nama sandwicensis (Hawai`ian nama) 217     night blooming cereus (Hylocereus
narrow-leaved carpetgrass (Axonopus            undatus) 212; see also Hylo-
  fissifolius)    314, 319; see also           cereus undatus
   Axonopus fissifolius                    nightshade (Solanaceae) 75, 149, 220;
nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) 151,             see also Solanaceae, Solanum
   221, 494, 506, 512, 520, 521, 786,          nodiflorum
   790, 792, 793; see also Tropaeolum      nioi (Capsicum annuum) 220; see
   majus                                       also Capsicum annuum
Nasturtium microphyllum 132                nitrogen cycle/fixation      33, 78, 193,
Nasturtium sarmentosum 102,132                 235,501, 568, 598, 667
Natal plum (Carissa macrocarpa) 210        nitrogen-fixing bacteria      8; see also
Natal redtop (Rhynchelytrum repens)            bacteria
   209, 380, 398, 565, 676; see also       noctuid, Noctuidae 412, 415, 416,459
   Rhynchelytrum repens                    noddy 200
naupaka kahakai (Scaevola sericea)         nohu (Tribulus cistoides) 222; see
   217, 402, 676; see also beach               also Tribulus cistoides
   naupaka, Scaevola sericea               noni (Indian mulberry) 105, 616; see
Nectria galligena 433                          also Morinda citrifolia
needlegrass (Stipa cemua) 626; see         Nopalea 419
   also Stipa cemua                        Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria
nehe (Lipochaeta integrifolia) 211            heterophylla) 204
nematodes 284, 433,467, 764                Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar
Nemophila pedunculata 87                       olive) 219
nena (Heliotropium         curassavicum)   northern jointvetch 433,435
   198, 212; see also Heliotropium         Nothocestrum 560
   curassavicum                            noxious plants 7, 19, 156, 157, 158-
nene (Hawai`ian goose, Nesochen sand-          159, 178, 226, 236, 241, 271, 314,
   wicensis) 403,502                           320,342, 343, 411, 412, 425,477,
Index                                                                              869


noxious plants [cont] 547, 625, 627,         `ohi`a rain forest 155, 177, 284, 306,
   658, 662, 707, 708, 767, 772, 773,            344,350,357
   826,827, 829                              `ohi`a-tree fern forest 284, 285
nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) 206;             `ohi`a vegetation type 666, 675,684
   see also Cyperus rotundus                 01 (Stachytarpheta dichotoma) 221;
nutrient cycle 6, 33, 486, 598, 620,             see also Stachytarpheta dichotoma
   667, 697, 734, 754, 821; see also         Oidaematophorus beneflcus (plume
   nitrogen cycle                                moth) 425; see also plume moth
nutrients 3, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35,         okra (Hibiscus esculentus) 217
   36,76,193                                 `olapa (Cheirodendron            trigynum)
Nyctaginaceae (four o'clock) 88, 144,            290,347,367
   218                                       Oleaceae (olive) 144, 219, 488, 490,
                                                 509,510; see also olive
 Ocimum 141                                  Olea europaea subsp. africana
 octopus tree (Schefflera          actino-       (olive)    144, 341, 342, 351, 353,
   phylla) 211, 547; see also                    354, 490, 523, 786, 793; see also
    Schefflera actinophylla                      olive
 Octotoma 414, 415, 416, 417                 oleander (Nerium oleander) 210
 Odocoileus hemionus (deer) 701              oleaster 136, 488; see also Eleagna-
odontonema (Odontonema stictum) 209              ceae, Eleagnus umbellata
 Odontonema cuspidatum 125                   `olena (Curcuma longa) 729; see
 Odontonema stictum (odontonema) 209             also Curcuma longa
 Oenothera 145                               Oligomeris linifotta 91
 Oenothera laciniata 145,219                 olive     144, 219, 341, 342, 350-356,
`oha (Clermontia parviflora) 347;                490, 523, 786, 788, 793, 794; see
    see also Clermontia parviflora               also Oleaceae, Olea europaea
`ohai (Sesbania tomentosa) 190, 216              subsp. africana
*ohe (Isachne distichophylla) 347,           olomea (Perrottetia sandwicensis)
    687                                          313
`ohelo (Vaccinium, V. reticulatum)           `oma`o (Myadestes obscurus obscurus)
    307, 348, 372, 400, 401, 626, 644,          227,278
    669; see also Vaccinium, V.              Onagraceae (evening primrose) 88, 144,
   reticulatum                                  219,510
`ohelo/pukiawe scrub 401                     onion (Allium cepa) 207
`ohi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha)             Ophiomyia lantanae (seed fly, agro-
    33, 155, 168, 169, 177, 189, 181,           myzid) 413, 414, 417
    182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 227, 229,       Opius lantanae 414
    271, 283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 290,       Oplismenus compositus 122
   306, 307, 345, 347, 349, 351, 359,        Oplismenus hirtellus 122,325
   367, 369, 372, 394, 400, 401, 402,        opuhe (Urera sandwicensis) 104
   532, 544, 548, 558, 561, 666, 673,        Opuntia (prickly pear cactus) 34,
   674, 675, 676, 687, 692, 694, 696,           411, 419, 420, 422, 585, 765; see
   754, 785, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791;           also cactus, panini cactus, prickly
   see also Metrosideros polymorpha             pear cactus
`ohi`a dieback 545, 548; see also die-       Opuntia aurantiaca (prickly pear cac-
   back                                         tus) 765; see also prickly pear
`ohi`a forest 168, 170, 177, 285, 287,          cactus
   288, 290, 304, 308, 310, 344, 366,        Opuntia cochenillifera 133
   370, 532, 542, 548, 558, 561, 754,        Opuntia cordobensis 419, 469
   788                                       Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear
`ohi`a-koa forest 155,168, 285,314              cactus) 84, 133, 419, 420, 432, 434,
`ohi`a/koa/manele forest (Metrosideros/         467,469,490,511,518, 521,529;
   Acacia/Sapindus forest) 359
Index                                                                              870


Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear          Oxalidaceae (wood sorrel) 145, 219
  cactus) [cont.]       see also panini     Oxalis comiculata (`ihi, yellow wood
  cactus, prickly pear cactus                  sorrel) 102,103,145, 219, 610,651
Opuntia littoralis (prickly pear cac-       Oxalis comiculata var. repens
  tus) 70, 84; see also prickly pear           612
  cactus                                    Oxalis corymbosa (pink wood sorrel)
Opuntia megacantha. See O. ficus-              145,219
  indica                                    Oxysporapaniculata 100,143, 569
Opuntia oricola 70, 84                      oyster plant (Tradescantia spathacea)
Opuntia prolifera (cholla) 70, 84              206; see also Tradescantia
Opuntia tuna 419; see also Opuntia            spathacea
   ficus-indica
Opuntia vulgaris 133                        Pachodynerus nasidens 414
orchard grass (Dactylus glomerata)          Paederia scandens (maile pilau) 148,
   557, 566; see also Dactylus                  490,511, 513,518,538
   glomerata                                pahole (Diplazium sandwichianum9
Orchidaceae (orchids) 119, 207, 708,            ho`i`o)    311; see also Diplazium
   715, 716, 717, 718, 720                     sandwichianum
Oreamnos americanus (mountain goat)         pa`iniu (Astelia menziesiana) 345,
   10                                           347,349
Oreobolus 558                               pakai (Amaranthus dubius) 210; see
Oreobolus furcatus 557                          zlsoAmaranthus dubius
ornamentals 44, 45, 49, 50, 51, 100,        Palafoxia callosa 130
   108, 110, 113, 114, 115ff, 156, 158,     palapalai (Microlepia strigosa) 363
   159, 190, 193, 196, 197, 199, 200,       Palay rubber vine (Cryptostegia gran-
   225, 289, 342, 343, 412, 436, 441,          diflora) 56
   443, 454, 497, 507, 508ff, 567, 568,     palila (Loxioides bailleui) 628
   569, 584, 616, 617, 712-724, 729,        palm 205, 715; see also Arecaceae
   768,772; see also horticulture           Palmaceae 511
Orobanchaceae (Orobanche) 88                Palmeria dolei (crested honeycreeper)
orpine 136; see also Crassulaceae              300
Orthezia insignis (greenhouse or-           palmgrass (Setaria palmifolia) 493,
   thezia) 412                                 538, 547, 692, 786, 789, 790, 792,
Orthocarpus densiflorus 91                     793; see also Setaria palmifolia
Orthocarpus purpurascens 91,149             panax (Pofyscias guilfoylei) 211
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European             Pancratium littorale         (spider lily)
   rabbit) 76; see also rabbits                207
Osteomeles anthyllidifolia        (*ulei)   Pandanaceae (screwpine) 207
   352, 355, 394, 402, 559, 627, 670;       Pandanus 613
   see also `ulei                           Pandanus odoratissimus (hala)        402;
Osteospermum calendulaceum 130                 see also hala
Ovis aries (sheep) 21, 577, 586, 602,       Pandanus tectorius (hala) 207, 612;
   625, 627, 701, 726, 773; see also           see also hala
   sheep                                    panic grass (Panicum maximum var.
Ovis canadensis nelsoni (desert big-           trichylum) 732
   horn sheep) 6; see also desert           Panicum maximum 122
   bighorn sheep                            Panicum maximum var. maximum
Ovis musimon (mouflon) 628; see also           (Guinea grass) 732; see also Guinea
   mouflon                                     grass
owl (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)            Panicum maximum var. trichylum
   221; see also Stachytarpheta                (panic grass) 732
  jamaicensis                               Panicum miliaceum 122
Index                                                                                  871


Panicum repens (torpedo grass) 122,           Passiflora edulis          (liliko`i, passion
    538                                           fruit) 145, 219, 271, 443, 444, 454,
Panicum tenuifolium 672                           529, 767, 770; see also liliko`i,
Panicum torridum (kakonakona) 208                 passion fruit
 panini cactus 419, 422, 469, 518, 521,       Passiflora foetida (water lemon) 145,
    522; see also Opuntia, prickly                443,444, 604
    pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica         Passiflora laurifolia 145
 Papaveraceae 88; see also poppy              Passiflora ligularis (sweet grana-
 papaya (Carica papaya)           133, 213,       dffla) 145, 272, 443, 444
    730; see also Caricaceae, Carica          Passiflora mixta 274
   papaya                                     Passiflora mollissima (banana poka)
paperbark (Melaleuca quinquenervia)               13, 41, 145, 155-157, 169, 175, 186,
    489, 510, 513, 517, 529, 547, 816;            249, 271-272, 274, 277, 293, 372,
    see also Melaleuca quinquenervia              392, 433, 438, 442, 444, 472, 486,
papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) 206                     491, 536, 537, 538, 551, 567-568,
paragrass (Brachiaria mutica) 208;                593, 667, 692, 696, 754, 767, 782,
    see also Brachiaria mutica                    829; see also banana poka
Parapholis incurva 89                         Passiflora pulchella 145
Paraserianthes falcataria 139                 Passiflora quadrangularis 145
parasites 45, 290, 412, 414, 416, 418,        Passiflora suberosa 145, 443, 444
    435,437, 455, 461, 472, 766,770           Passiflora subpeltata 145
Parentucelliaviscosa 149                      Passiflora tripartita 274,442
Parietaria hespera 92                         Passiflora x caerulea 145
Parkinsonia aculeata 139                      passion flower 35, 145, 219, 567; see
parsley 126; see also Apiaceae                    also Passiflora, Passifloraceae
Parthenium hysterophorus 130                  passion fruit 271, 443, 454, 730, 767,
partridge pea (Chamaecrista nicti-                770, 771; see also Passiflora, P.
   tans) 399; see also Chamaecrista              edulis
   nictitans                                  passion vine butterfly (Agraulis
Partulina porcellana       560; see also         vanillae) 291
   invertebrates                              pasture 228, 229, 235, 259, 317, 412,
Paspalidium ra diatum 122                        420, 436, 453, 468, 548, 553, 554,
Paspalum        122, 194, 208, 309-310,          559, 562, 563, 564, 565, 584, 585,
   365,372, 401                                  586, 587, 591, 734, 753; see also
Paspalum conjugatum (Hilo grass) 4,              cattle industry, grazing, rangelands
   42, 122, 250, 304, 313, 315, 490,          pathogens 36, 44, 45, 228, 272, 278,
   491, 558, 561, 618, 692; see also             284, 290, 387, 411, 425, 426,
   Hilo grass                                    432-447, 457, 462, 432-447, 457,
Paspalum dilatatum          (dallis grass)       461, 462, 466, 467, 468, 472, 475,
   122, 315, 364, 491, 610, 683; see             498, 580, 720, 759, 761, 763, 764,
   also dallis grass                             771; see also diseases
Paspalum fimbriatum (Columbia grass)          Paulownia tomentosa 20
   122,208                                    pea 137, 215; see also Fabaceae
Paspalum urvillei (vasey grass) 122,          pearl flower (Heterocentron subtrip-
   208, 315, 491, 538; see also vasey            linervium) 372, 510, 517, 521,
   grass                                         522; see also Heterocentron
Passiflora     35, 272, 278, 280, 443,           subtriplinervium
   444, 730; see also banana poka,            Pedilanthus tithymaloides (slipper
   Passiflora mollissima, passion                flower) 215
   flower, passion fruit                      Pelargonium hortorum (fish geranium)
Passifloraceae      145, 157, 219, 443,          217
   444,491; see also passion flower           Pelargonium zonale 140
Index                                                                              872


Pelea anisata (mokihana) 289                 Philaenus spumarius (spittle bug) 425
Pelea hawaiensis 560                         Philodendron (philodendron) 15, 205
Pellaea 90                                   Phlaeothripidae 242
Pellaea ternifolia        637, 640, 642,     Phleum pratense (timothy) 7,15
    647,650,652,672                          phlox 146; see also Polemoniaceae
Penestes 452,459,461                         Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) 206,
Pennisetum 34; see also Pennisetwn               511,513, 518
   dandestinum, P. setaceum                  Pholistoma 87
Pennisetum dandestinum             (kikuyu   Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)
   grass) 6, 89, 122, 315, 364, 387,             116, 491, 506, 511, 513, 518, 529,
   491, 529, 544, 559, 562, 732; see             532
    also kikuyu grass                        photosynthesis 31, 34, 290, 344
Pennisetum macrostachyum 122                 Phragmidium violaceum 435, 436, 445,
Pennisetum polystachion 122                      446
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)        phycitid (Cryptoblabes aliena) 412
    122,620                                  Phyla nodiflora 221
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)         Phyllanthus 137
    18, 42, 123, 155, 156, 157, 169,         Phyllanthus amarus 616
    175, 186, 376, 394, 485, 491, 495,       Phyllospadix 92
   507, 538, 551, 568, 587, 625, 627,        Phyllostachys       (bamboo) 511, 518,
   630, 650, 734, 753, 782, 786, 793,            521; see also bamboo
   814, 821; see also fountain grass         Phyllostachys nigra (black bamboo)
Penstemon cordifolia 71                          559,563; see also black bamboo
Peperomia 715                                Phyllostegiavariabilis 199,217
Peperomia pelludda 146                       Phymatodes scolopendria (laua`e) 204
pepper (Piperaceae) 146                      Physalis 150
pepper grass (Lepidium virginicum)           Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed) 145
   212; see also Lepidium virginicum         Phytolacca octandra 145
peregrine falcon (Falco peregri-             phytophagous insects        433; see also
   nus) 50                                      insects
Perisierola emigrata 414                     pickerel weed (Pontederiaceae) 124
Perityle emoryi 70,83                        Picris hieracioides 130
periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)             Piesmopoda 452,459,460
   210; see also Catharanthus roseus         pig 10, 11, 14, 16, 21, 35, 101, 158,
Perldnsietta saccharicida (sugar cane           227, 235, 241, 242, 244, 249, 271,
   leafhopper) 727                              275, 281, 283, 287, 288, 292, 300,
Perrottetia sandwicensis (olomea) 313           301, 302, 303, 305, 306, 307, 311,
Perse a americana (avocado) 141,                313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319,
   441-442,455                                  320, 343, 391, 477, 485, 495, 496,
pesticides     13, 440, 441, 442, 501,          513, 532, 540, 544, 545, 546, 548,
   525,526; see also herbicides                 551, 554, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561,
Petrorhagia velutina 134                        562, 565, 567, 570, 571, 600, 602,
Petroselinum crispum 126                        606, 608, 613, 619, 666, 667, 668,
petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus)                 675, 683-697, 699, 700, 701, 714,
   215; see also Euphorbia peplus               729, 770, 784, 788, 789, 790, 791,
Phacelia 87                                     797,800; see also Sus scrofa
Phaeornis obscurus 227                       pigeon (Ducula) 612
Phaius tankarvilleae 119                     pigweed (Chenopodium murale, Portu-
Phalaris minor 89                               laca oleracea) 77, 601, 604, 607
Phalaris tuberosa 16                         pikake (Jasminum sambac) 219
Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean) 216          Pilea microphylla (artillery plant)
Pheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)           151,221
   454
Index                                                                             873


 pili grass (Heteropogon contortus)         Plagiohammus spinipennis         415, 416,
    380, 396, 397, 398, 400, 402, 602;         417
    see also Heteropogon contortus          Plantaginaceae (plantain) 88,146, 219
pili uka (Trisetum glomeratum) 626,         Plantago 651
    629, 634, 646, 649, 658, 661; see       Plantago aristata 146
    also Trisetum glomeratum                Plantago australis 146
pilo (Coprosma, C. montana, C. ochra-       Plantago bigelovii 88
    cea)      313, 345, 347, 349, 355,      Plantago debilis 146
    363, 626, 661; see also Coprosma,       Plantago erecta erecta 88
    C montana                               Plantago hirtella 88
Pinaceae 116, 491, 511; see also pine       Plantago insularis 88
pine 32, 116, 511, 518, 521, 529, 533,      Plantago lanceolata (English plan-
    551, 554, 557, 564, 569, 571, 754;         tain) 146,219
    see also Pinaceae, Pinus                Plantago major (common plantain) 146,
pineapple (Ananas comosus) 420,                219
    444, 453, 554, 730, 800; see also       Plantago ovata 88
    pineapple industry                      plantain 146, 219; spe also Plantagin-
pineapple industry 453, 713, 714; see          aceae
    also pineapple                          plantations 284
pine forest/trees/pinelands 6, 42, 49,      plant succession 477, 500, 676, 701
    50, 51, 53, 54, 344, 554; see also      Platystemon californicus 88
    coniferous forest                       Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)
pink 133, 213; see also Caryophyllaceae        141,217
pink wood sorrel (Oxalis corymbosa)         Pleomele auwahiensis 561
    219; see also Oxalis corymbosa          pluchea 538; see also Pluchea
Pinus 511, 518, 521, 529, 533, 551,            symphytifolia
    565; see also pine                      Pluchea indica (Indian pluchea) 130,
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) 42,            211
    491; see also slash pine                Pluchea symphytifolia (pluchea)       199,
Pinus elliottii      (slash pine) 20, 54,      130, 211, 399, 469, 538; see also
    116,580; see also slash pine               sourbush
Pinus patula 116,554,564                    Pluchea xfosbergii 130,211
Pinus pinaster (cluster pine) 42,           Plumbaginaceae (leadwort) 219
    116,554, 564                            plumbago (Plumbago auriculata)219
Pinus radiata (Monterey pine) 16, 33,       plume moth 413, 425, 426; see also
    554,564                                    Lepidoptera, moths
Piperaceae (pepper) 146                     plumeria (Plumeria) 210
Piper methysticum 102,146                   Plumeria obtusa (Singapore plumeria)
Pipturus albidus (mamaki) 363                  210
Pisonia 604                                 Poa annua (annual bluegrass) 89, 123,
Pisonia grandis 218,604,606                    209,566
Pistia stratiotes 116                       Poaceae 88, 119, 157, 208; see also
Pithecellobium dulce 13                        grass
Pittosporaceae (Pittosporum) 146,           Poa douglasii 72,89
    492,511                                 Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
pittosporum (Pittosporum)            146,      18, 123, 566, 626, 630, 636, 640,
    492; see also Pittosporaceae,              641, 643, 747, 650, 652, 653; see
    Pittosporum undulatum                      also Kentucky bluegrass
Pittosporum undulatum (pittosporum)         Poascabrella 89
    146,492,511,513,518                     poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)
Pityrogramma triangularis 90                   215
Plagiobothrys californicus 83,84            pokeweed (Phytolaccaceae) 145
Index                                                                                 874


 Polemoniaceae (phlox) 89, 90,146              Potentilla agedii grandis 91
 polinalina (Vitex trifolia) 221               Pouteria sandwicensis 560-561
 pollination, pollinators        35, 44, 51,   prairie      9, 18, 49, 50, 51, 53; see
    278, 284, 620, 728                             also grasslands
 Polycarpon tetraphyllum 134,610                prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii)
 Polygalaceae (milkwort) 146                       208; see also Bromus willdenowii
Polygala paniculata 146                        predators, predation 44, 45, 267, 272,
 Polygonaceae        (buckwheat) 90, 146,          275, 403, 418, 437, 451, 627, 753,
    219,511                                        766,770, 797
Polygonum 146                                  prescribed burning 10, 16, 18, 25, 49,
Polygonum aviculare 146, 555                       53,54, 55, 526; see also fire
Polygonum convolvulus 147, 555                 preserve design 20, 701, 785-786
Polygonum glabrum 147                          prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.)
Polygonum punctatum 147,332                        70, 93, 419, 432, 434, 440, 467,
Polynesian effects, impacts, influ-                469, 477, 490, 511, 529, 765, 768;
    ences, introductions 12, 100, 101,             see also Opuntia, O. ficus-indica,
    102, 103, 104, 105, 396, 397, 400,             O. littoralis, panini cactus
    401, 553, 566, 602, 604, 607, 611,         pride of India (Melia azedarach)
    612, 613, 616, 726, 727, 729, 752,             547; see also Melia azedarach
    799-800; see also anthropogenic            primrose            147, 220; see also
    effects, human disturbance                     Primulaceae
Polynesian rat             (Rattus exulans)    primrose willow (kamole) 104; see also
    612; see also rat                             Ludwigia octovalvis
Polypodiaceae 90, 204; see also ferns          Primulaceae (primrose) 90,147,220
Polypodium californicum 90                     princess flower.            See glorybush,
Polypogon interruptus (ditch poly-                 Tibouchina urvilleana
    pogon) 89,123, 209                         Pristomenes hawaiiensis 414
Polypogon monspeliensis (rabbitfoot            Pritchardia 199,206,601
   grass) 74, 89,123, 209                      Pritchardia martii (loulu) 206
Polysdas guilfoylei (panax) 211                Pritchardia pacifica (vin) 206
pomace flies (Drosophila)           278; see   Pritchardia remota (loulu) 190, 206
   also Drosophila                             Procecidochares alani (stem gall fly)
pondweed (Potamogetonaceae) 124                   426
Pontederiaceae (pickerel weed) 124             Procecidochares utilis (stem gall
popolo (nightshade, Solanum america-              fly) 563
   num, S. nelsonii)          105, 190, 221;   Prosopis pallida (kiawe)          139, 216,
   see also Solanum americanum                    402, 492, 512, 513, 519, 603; see
poppy 145; see also Papaveraceae                  also kiawe
Populusalba 20                                 protea        147, 716, 718; see also
Populus tremuloides (aspen) 7                     Proteaceae
Portulacaceae (purslane) 90,147, 219           Proteaceae 147, 488; see also protea
Portulacalutea (`ihi) 194,219                  Prunella vulgaris (selfheal) 141,
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)              332-333,558
   147, 194, 219, 555, 601, 604, 610;          Prunus ilicifolia           subsp. lyonii
   see also pigweed                               (Catalina cherry) 71
Portulacaria afra (jade tree) 220              Prunus lyonii 91
Portulaca villosa 220                          Prunus x cerasifera 148
Porzana palmeri (Laysanrail) 199               pseudococcid 455
Potamogeton 112,124                            Pseudonestor xanthophrys             (Maui
Potamogetonaceae (pondweed) 124                   parrotbill) 300
potato (Solanum tuberosum) 93, 221;            Psidium        45, 158, 310; see also
   see also Solanum tuberosum                     common guava, guava
Index                                                                              875


Psidium cattleianum           (strawberry   purple loosestrife (Lythrum sail-
    guava) 35, 42, 144, 155-157, 169,          carlo) 9
    175, 186, 250, 303, 313, 335, 387,      purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundatus)
    437, 476, 492, 501, 529, 531, 544,         468
    547, 551, 558, 560, 618, 667, 689,      purslane        147, 219; see also
    754, 781, 782, 792, 816, 821; see          Portulacaceae
    also Psidium, strawberry guava          Pycnotus cafer       (red-vented bulbul)
Psidium cattleianum var. cattlei-              548
    anum (strawberry guava) 538; see        Pycreus polystachyos 207
    also strawberry guava                   Pyracantha angustifolia        (flrethorn)
Psidium cattleianum var. littorale             148,538
    (waiawi) 547; see also waiawi           Pyracantha crenati-serrata 148
Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum            pyralid, Pyralidae 459, 461
    (waiawi) 538; see also waiawi           Pyrausta perelegans 568
Psidium guajava (common guava) 52,          pyraustid, Pyraustidae 414, 415
    144, 218, 311, 315, 335-336, 399,
    492, 521, 538, 545, 547, 559, 565,      quarantine 236, 388, 391,       414,   426,
    584, 616, 730, 733, 766; see also         438, 439, 442, 454, 455,      456,   457,
    common guava, guava, Psidium              461, 467, 472, 473, 474,      495,   498,
Psilotum nudum (moa) 204                      523, 707, 708, 709, 727,      733,   760,
Pteridaceae 90                                763,764,767,771,827
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)          Quercus tomentella (island     oak)     71,
   400, 630, 637, 640, 642, 650, 670,         86
   672; see also bracken fern
Pteridium aquilinum var. decomposi-         rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeli-
   tum       (bracken fern, kilau) 363,        ensis) 209; see also Polypogon
   557; see also bracken fern, kflau           monspeliensis
pterophorid 413; see also Lantano-          rabbits 21, 76, 93, 94,195
   phaga (=Platyptilia)pussillidactyla      radish (Raphanus sativus) 212; see
Pteridophyta 204                               also Raphanus sativus
Pterolepis glomerata 143                    Rafinesquia californica 83
Pterostegia drymarioides 70, 90             rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) 20
pu`aha-nui (Broussaisia) 313                rain forest 34, 170, 225, 242, 300,
puapilo (Capparis sandwichiana) 212            302, 315, 318, 320, 342, 343, 366,
Puccinia canaliculata 436                      377, 386, 388, 396, 397, 398, 401,
Puccinia chondrillina 435                      486, 497, 498, 500, 501, 551, 558,
Pueraria lobata (kudzu) 9, 20, 492,            560, 563, 565, 567, 571, 626, 666,
   512,519,521                                 667, 668, 684, 686, 692, 694, 696,
Puffinus      pacificus chlorohynchus          697, 699, 700, 702, 753, 754, 770,
   (wedge-tailed shearwater) 200               784,785, 796
pukamole (Lythrum maritimum) 104,           Ramularia destructiva 433
   363; see also Lythrum maritimum          ranching 7, 9, 17, 19, 34, 67, 73, 75,
pukiawe (Styphelia tameiameiae) 35,            76, 77, 78, 93, 158, 175, 283, 388,
   307, 352, 355, 372, 394, 400, 401,          412, 420, 425, 426, 432, 467, 473,
   402, 559, 564, 626, 644, 666, 669,          476, 477, 497, 502, 546, 577, 578,
   683; see also Styphelia tameia-             580, 581, 584, 585, 586, 602, 616,
   meiae                                       700,728, 753, 758, 772, 800
pukiawe/`a`ali`i shrubland 564              rangelands/pastures 7, 9, 17, 19, 34,
puncture vine (Tribulus cistoidesf T.          158, 229, 236, 250, 343, 357, 387,
   terrestris) 470, 475, 476, 765,             411, 414, 425, 435, 436, 440, 467,
   768; see also Tribulus cistoides,           476, 477, 502, 507, 548, 554, 562,
   T. terrestris                               568,580, 584, 585, 587, 732,753,
Index                                                                                876


 rangelands/pastures [cont.] 758, 772;          Rhizogonium spiniforme 243
     see also grazing, ranching                 Rhizophoraceae (mangrove) 147; see also
Rangifer arcticus (caribou) 21                     mangrove, mangrove habitat
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer) 21                 Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) 6,
 Ranunculaceae (buttercup) 90,147                  147
Ranunculus 147                                  Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (downy rose
Ranunculus californicus 90                         myrtle) 144,538
Ranunculus repens 17,147                        Rhus integrifolia (lemonade berry)
Raphanus raphanistrum 132                          71,81
Raphanus sativus (radish) 132, 212              Rhynchelytrum 698
 raspberry (Rubus glaucus)        492; see      Rhynchelytrum grassland 698
 also Rubus glaucus                             Rhynchelytrum repens (Natal redtop)
rat 201, 604; see also Rattus, R.                  123, 209, 380, 398, 565, 676, 677,
    exulans                                        678
rat tail fescue (Vulpia myuros)                 Rhynchosia minima 139
    649; see also Vulpia myuros                 Rhynchospora 566
rattail grass (Sporobolus         africanus)    Rhynchospora caduca 325-326
    559, 565; see also Sporobolus               Ribes malvaceum 91
    africanus                                   Richardia brasiliensis 148
rattle-pod (Crotalaria pallida) 215             Ricinis communis (castor bean) 137,
Rattus 201; see also rat                           215, 492, 506, 512, 519, 521, 566;
Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat) 604,               see also castor bean
    612; see also rat                           riparian habitat      9, 14, 18, 31, 32,
red-billed leiothrix            (Leiothrix         72, 314, 315, 316, 541, 542, 558;
    lutea)227                                      see also aquatic habitat
red brome (Bromus rubens) 77; see               ripgut grass (Bromus rigidus) 626,
    also Bromus rubens                             649; see also Bromus rigidus
red-fruited cactus 420                          Rivina humilis 146
red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)           robin (Turdus migratorius) 51
    218                                         roadside habitat       20, 22, 110, 260,
red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) 6;                262, 268, 377, 378, 388, 389, 390,
    see also Rhizophora mangle                     391, 453, 499, 507, 510, 557, 578,
red pualele (Emilia fosbergii) 211;                580, 581, 587; see also ruderal
    see also Emilia fosbergii                      habitat
red-stemmed filaree (Erodium cicu-              rodent 11, 50; see also rat
    tarium) 77; see also Erodium                Rosa     148, 220, 454, 714; see also
    cicutarium                                     rose
red-vented bulbul (Pycnotus            cafer)   Rosaceae (rose) 91, 147, 157, 220, 488,
    548                                            492,509
reforestation 107, 113, 226, 231, 235,          Rosa multiflora 20
    342, 399ff, 497, 502, 507, 508ff,           Rosa wichuriana 20
    578, 726, 728, 729, 772; see also           rose 147, 220, 714, 716, 717; see also
    plant succession, revegetation                 Rosa, Rosaceae
Reichardia picroides 130                        rose apple (Syzygium jambos) 493,
reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) 21                    512, 513, 519, 530, 558, 559, 564,
Resedaceae 91                                      570; see also Syzygium jambos
restoration 8, 15, 394, 403, 526, 598,          royal poinciana (Delonix regia) 215
    625,697                                     Roystonea 206
revegetation 7, 78, 496, 497, 525, 557,         Rubiaceae 91, 148, 220, 490, 510, 511;
    563,667, 697, 699-701                          see also coffee, Rubus spp.
Rhamnaceae (Rhamnus) 91                         Rubus     13, 45, 158, 308, 362, 367,
Rhaphidophora aurea (taro vine) 205                392,433, 435, 445, 446, 476,477
Index                                                                                877


 Rubus argutus         (blackberry, Florida    Russian thistle (Salsola kali,
    blackberry)       148, 316, 341, 343,         thistle)     8, 411, 470; see also
    355-366, 367, 445, 446, 467, 470,             Salsola kali, thistle
    492, 525, 527, 529, 532, 538, 544,         rust (fungi) 435,436,445,446
    551, 557, 561, 683, 694, 770; see          Rutaceae (citrus) 220
     also blackberry, Florida blackberry
Rubus constrictus 436                          Saccharum 727
Rubus discolor 148                             Saccharum officinarum         (sugar cane)
Rubus ettipticus        (yellow Himalayan          102, 444, 524, 726, 727, 800; see
    raspberry) 148, 155, 156, 157, 169,            also sugar cane
     175, 186, 341, 343, 366-370, 399,         Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass)
    446, 472, 492, 692, 694, 696, 786,             42, 123, 316, 326, 558, 565, 689;
    793, 821; see also yellow Himalayan            see also Glenwood grass
    raspberry                                  Sadleria cyatheoides (`ama`u,
Rubus glaucus (raspberry) 446, 492                 `ama`uma`u) 307, 363, 400, 562
Rubus hawaiiensis (`akala) 445, 446,           Sadleria pallida (`ama`uma`u) 348
    476                                         safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)
Rubus lucidus. See Rubus argutus                   767
Rubus macraei 445, 446                         sage 70
Rubus niveus 149                               sagebrush desert 8
Rubus penetrans.           See blackberry,     Sagina decumbens 84,134
    Rubus argutus                              Sagina japonica 134
Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry)         148,   Sagittaria latifolia 116
    304, 333, 446, 558, 692, 694; see          sago palm 204; see also Cycadaceae,
    also thimbleberry                              Cycas
Rubus sieboldii 148                            St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum
Rubus ulmifolius 436                               secundatum)           364; see also
Rubus ursinus 91                                   Stenotaphrum secundatum
Rudbeckia laciniata 130                        Salicaceae 91
ruderal habitat 4, 7, 17, 18, 50, 51,          Salicomia subterminalis 85
    52, 53, 56, 77, 100, 105, 110, 190,        Salicomia virginica (samphire)         85,
    235, 242, 249, 254, 255, 256, 258,             135,213
    259, 261, 267, 320, 376, 386, 392,         Salix lasiolepis (willow) 72, 91
    452, 498, 506, 507, 509-512, 513,          Salmo gairdneri (rainbow trout) 20
    514ff, 523, 544, 554, 555-556, 565,        Salpichroa rhomboidea 150
    566, 567, 571, 822; see also               Salsola kali (Russian thistle) 8, 17,
    roadside habitat                               18,135, 411,470; see also thistle
Ruellia 125                                    saltbush (Atriplex suberecta)         213;
Ruelliabrittoniana 125,209                         see also Atriplex suberecta
Rumex acetosella (sorrel) 147, 307,            salt cedar (tamarisk, Tamarix)         17,
    333-334, 556, 631, 634, 637, 640,              31
    642, 651, 672, 684; see also sheep         salt concentrations       21, 34, 49, 50,
    sorrel                                         72-73,76
Rumex albescens (hu`ahu`ako) 190, 219          saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) 72
Rumex brownei 147, 610                         saltwort (Bataceae) 131
Rumex crispus (curly dock) 90, 147,            Salvia coccinea 141
    436                                        Salvia mellifera 70
Rumex faeginus 90                              Salvia occidentalis 141
Rumex obtusifolius 147                         Salvinia molesta 32,43
Rumex salicifolius 90                          Samanea saman (monkeypod) 139, 216,
rush 118; see also Juncaceae                      547
rush skeleton weed (Chondrilla                 Sambucus mexicana 133
   juncea)435
Index                                                                              878


 samphire (Salicornia virginica)              Scirpus 611
    213; see also Salicomia virginica         Scirpus cemuus californicus 85
 sandalwood (Santalaceae, Santalum,           Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)
    S. ellipticum)        199, 220, 400,          33, 766; see also Cytisus
    626,800                                      scoparius
 sandbur (Cenchrus echinatus)          200,   Scotorythra (geometrid, looper) 412
    208; see also Cenchrus echinatus          screwpine (Pandanaceae) 207
 Sanicula arguta 81                           Scrophulariaceae (figwort)       91, 148,
 Sanicula sandwicensis 561                        220,255, 266, 494
Sanseviera (bowstring hemp) 205               Scrophulariavillosa 91
 Santalaceae 220; see also sandalwood         scrub 225, 229, 234, 401, 604, 787,
Santalum (sandalwood) 400; see also               788,789
    sandalwood                                scrub communities 67, 68, 70-71, 78,
Santalum ellipticum (`iliahialo`e)                170, 180-186, 544, 613, 615, 620,
    199,220, 626; see also sandalwood             666, 675, 669, 676, 677, 678, 679,
Sapindaceae (soapberry) 148                      680,683
Sapindus 365                                  Scythris grandipennis (spine-feeding
Sapindus saponaria (manele) 363                  moth) 580
Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow) 20          sea bean (Dioclea wilsonii, Mucuna
Sargasso muticum 21                              urens)        216; see also Dioclea
savanna 51, 395, 397, 398, 526, 734,             wilsonii, Mucuna urens
    787                                       seabirds 94, 197, 199, 200, 601, 604,
sawgrass 51                                      609,610, 612, 620; see also birds
Saxifragaceae 91                              sea blite (Suaeda californica) 77,
Scaevola sericea (naupaka kahakai)               94; see also Suaeda californica
    197, 217, 402, 676, 679; see also         sea cliff community 67, 70, 73, 75,
   beach naupaka                                 564
Scaevola strand 698                           sea fig (Carpobrotus aequilaterus)
Scaevola taccada 616                             72, 75; see also ice plant,
Scalesia 620                                     Carpobrotus, Malephora
scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arven-           sea fig vine (Malephora crocea) 76;
   sis)      220; see also Anagallis             see also sea fig, ice plant
   arvensis                                   sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera) 219
Schefflera      actinophylla (octopus         sea-rocket (Cakile)          8; see also
   tree) 127, 211, 547                           Cakile
Schiedeaverticillata 190,213                  sea turtle 55, 189; see also green sea
Schinus 564                                      turtle, loggerhead turtle
Schinusmolle 44                               Sechium edule 136
Schinus terebinthifolius        (Christmas    sedges 117, 206, 303, 304, 311, 313,
   berry) 6, 21, 31, 43, 44, 47, 49,             314, 322-326, 396, 557, 565, 566,
   51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 126, 210, 470,            616, 636, 640, 641, 650, 670, 672,
   476, 493, 522, 530, 538, 545, 547,            675, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682,
   559, 564, 584, 593, 733, 755; see             687, 688, 689, 690, 694, 695, 696,
   also Brazilian peppertree, Christmas          697; see also Carex spp.,
   berry                                         Cyperaceae, Cyperus spp.
Schizachyrium 401                             sedge-rush-native shrub community 168
Schizachyrium condensatum (bush               seed fly (Ophiomyia lantanae) 413;
   beardgrass)      123, 394, 398, 434,          see also Ophiomyia lantanae
   486, 487, 493, 552, 677, 698, 699,         Selaginella bigelovii 92
   734; see also bush beardgrass              Selaginellaceae 92
Schizostachyum glaucifolium 102,123           Selaginella deflera 565
Schoenoplectus californicus 117               Selcabrunella 454
Index                                                                            879


 selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)        558;    shoebutton ardisia (Ardisia solana-
     see also Prunella vulgaris                 cea) 52,58
 Senecio (groundsel) 45                      shrub community 68, 69, 77, 168, 170,
 Senecio jacobea (tansy ragwort)       7,       302, 304, 307, 308, 314, 316, 342,
     16,17; see also tansy ragwort              343, 401, 403, 525, 532, 551, 554,
Senecio mikanioides (German ivy) 130,           557, 559, 562, 564, 566, 571, 593,
     155, 156, 157, 169, 175, 186, 538,         668,679, 697, 698, 699
    625,627; see also German ivy             shrub lupine (Lupinus albifrons, L.
Senecio sylvaticus (wood groundsel)             arboreus) 71; see also Lupinus
     16, 34, 35, 130, 631, 637, 642, 648,       albifrons, L. arboreus
    651,653                                  shrubs 8, 31, 42, 64, 70, 72, 73, 75,
Senecio vulgaris 83,130                         76, 78, 93, 193, 156, 193, 309, 313,
Senna didymobotrya 139                          316, 396, 399, 400, 401, 477, 509ff,
Senna obtusifolia 139                           544, 558, 560, 562, 565, 566, 567,
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)               585, 606, 616, 626, 631, 684, 697,
    140, 566, 571, 604; see also coffee         728,760, 772
    senna                                   Sicyos 214
Senna pendula var. advena 140               Sidaacuta 142
Senna septemtrionalis 140                   Sidafallax (<ilima) 218
Senna surattensis (kolomona) 140, 216       Sidarhombifolia 142,610
Sericothrips staphylinum (gorse             Sidaspinosa 142
    thrips) 580                             Sidalcea malvaeflora 87
sesame (Sesamum indicum) 476                Sigesbeckia orientalis 130,134
Sesbania sesban 140                         Silene 84
Sesbania tomentosa (`ohai) 190, 216         Silene gallica 74,84
Sesuvium portulacastrum (`akulikuli)        Silene laciniata 71,84
    209                                     silk oak (Grevillea banksii, G.
Setariaglauca 123                               robusta, kahili flower) 341, 342,
Setaria gracilis (foxtail grass) 123,           356-359, 488, 528, 547, 783, 786,
    364                                         788, 792, 793; see also Grevillea
Setaria palmifolia (palmgrass)       123,       banksii, G. robusta
    493, 538, 547, 692, 786, 793; see       silkwood (Flindersia         brayleyana)
    also palmgrass                              547
Setaria verticillata (bristly fox-          silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwi-
    tail) 123, 209                              cense)        267, 639; see also
sheep (Ovis aries) 21, 93, 497,                Argyroxiphium sandwicense
    577, 581, 586, 602, 603, 605, 606,      silviculture 32, 33, 290
    607, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630,      Silybum marianum 16, 74, 83
    633, 634, 644, 649, 652, 656, 658,      Singapore plumeria (Plumeria obtusa)
    661,662, 701, 714, 726, 773,800             210
sheepgrass (Eragrostis brownei)             siris tree (Albizia lebbeck) 215;
    558; see also Eragrostis brownei            see also Albizia lebbeck
sheep ranching 577                          sisal (Agave sisalana)         205, 487,
sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella)                 507, 508, 514, 521, 538; see also
    307, 317, 634; see also Rumex              Agave sisalana
   acetosella                               Sisymbrium altissimum (bumble-
shell ginger (Catimbium speciosurri)            mustard) 8,132,556
   209                                      Sisymbrium irio 132
she-oak 134; see also Casuarinaceae         Sisymbrium officinale 132
shepherd's purse (Capsella rubella)         Sisyrinchium bellum 87
   212; see also Capsella rubella           Sisyrinchium rosulatum 118
Sherardia arvensis 148                      Sisyrinchium strictum 118
Index


 slash pine (Pinus caribaea, P.               Sonchus oleraceus (sow thistle) 72,
    elliottii)    20, 51, 54, 491, 580;           74, 78, 83, 130, 211, 610, 631, 632,
     see also Pinus caribaea, P.                  648,651, 653
    elliottti                                 Sonchus tenerrimus 83
 slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis)         sooty tern (Sterna fuscata) 604
    210; see also Amaranthus viridis          Sophora chrysophylla (mamane) 186,
 slender oats (Avena barbata) 77;                 288, 351, 355, 363, 365, 399, 562,
    see also Avena barbata                        580, 626, 631, 645, 655, 656, 659,
slipper flower (Pedilanthus tithy-                666,671, 672, 673; see also mamane
    maloides) 215                             sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) 740
small ground fig (Chamaesyce pros-            Sorghum halpense 20,123
    trata) 215; see also Chamaesyce           Sorghum sudanense 123
    prostrata                                 Sorghum vulgare (sorghum) 740
small mammals 158,499                         sorrel (Rumex acetosella) 556; see
smooth brome (Bromus inermis) 7;                  also Rumex acetosella
    see also Bromus inermis                   sourbush (Pluchea             symphytifolia)
snails 560; see also invertebrates                199, 211, 399, 469; see also
snow bush (Breynia disticha var.                 Pluchea symphytifolia
    rosi-picta) 215                           sourgrass (Digitaria insularis)
soapberry (Sapindaceae) 148                       208; see also Digitaria insularis
soft chess (Bromus mullis) 77; see            sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
    also Bromus mullis                            78, 211; see also Sonchus
soil disturbance         11, 29, 35, 476,         oleraceus
    496, 565, 598, 602-603, 604, 611,         soy bean (Glycinesoja) 216
    614-615, 616, 619, 667, 669, 688,         Spanish clover (Desmodium sandwi-
    700, 727; see also cattle, erosion,           cense) 215; see also Desmodium
    goats, pigs, sheep, ungulates                sandwicense
soil fertility, nutrients      32, 33, 34,    Spanish needles (Bidens alba var.
    35,290, 477                                  radiata, B. pilosa) 211; see also
soil properties 35, 349, 728,754                 Bidens pilosa
Solanaceae (nightshade) 92, 149, 220,         sparrow, Santa Barbara song 94
    493; see also nightshade                  Spartium junceum 140
Solanum 150,611                               Spathodea campanulata (African tulip
Solanum americanum           (glossy night-      tree) 131, 212, 316, 547, 559, 566,
    shade)      102, 105, 221; see also          618; see also African tulip tree
    popolo                                    Spathoglottis plicata 119
Solanum douglasii 92                          Special Ecological Areas 22, 292, 372,
Solanum mauritianum 150, 618                     377, 387, 388, 391, 392, 445, 485,
Solanum melongena (eggplant) 221,461             488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494,
Solanum nelsonii (popolo) 190, 221;              495, 497, 498-499, 500, 503, 506,
    see also popolo                              507, 513, 522, 696, 752, 754, 781-
Solanum nigrum 610                               797,814,817
Solanum nodiflorum (nightshade) 75,           Spergula arvensis 112,134
    610; see also nightshade                  Spergularia macrotheca 71, 84
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem             Spergularia marina (mimi`ilio)          134,
    cherry) 150, 364, 372, 493, 786,             213
    793; see also Jerusalem cherry            Spermacoce 148
Solanum tuberosum (potato) 150, 221;          spider lily (Crinum asiaticum, Pan-
    see also potato                              cratium Morale) 207
Solidago canadensis 130                       spiderwort (Commelinaceae) 116, 206
Soliva sessitts 493, 512, 519,521             spine-feeding moth (Scythris grandi-
Sonchus asper 73,83,130                          pennis) 580
Index                                                                                881


spineless cactus 419, 420, 426                Stereocaulon vulcani 33
spiny emex (Emex spinosa) 765; see            Sterna fuscata (sooty tern) 604
    also Emex spinosa                         Stictocardia tiliifolia 136
spiny pigweed (Amaranthus spinosus)           stinkweed (Tagetes minuta) 627; see
    210; see also Amaranthus spinosus             also Tagetes minuta
spiraling whitefly (Aleurodicus               Stipa cemua (needlegrass) 123, 626,
    dispersus) 456                                647,650, 652
Spirodela polyrhiza 118                       Stipa lepida 89
spittle bug (Philaenus spumarius)             Stipa pulchra (bunchgrass)           72, 73,
    425                                           89; see also bunchgrass
Sporobolus africanus (African drop-           stonecrop 214; see also Crassulaceae
    seed, rattail grass) 123, 209, 559,       storm-petrel (Nesofregetta            fuligi-
    565, 610, 667, 670; see also African          nosa)612
    dropseed, rattail grass                   strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Sporobolus diander 123                            401
Sporobolus elongates 123                      strawberry guava (Psidium cattlei-
Sporobolus indicus (West Indian drop-             anum) 35, 42, 155-158, 165, 168-
    seed) 123,209                                 171, 173, 175, 176, 178, 250, 303,
Sporobolus pyramidatus 123, 209                   311, 313, 315, 317, 318, 319, 387,
Sporobolus virginicus (beach drop-                437, 476, 492, 501, 529, 531, 538,
    seed) 209                                     544, 545, 547, 551, 558, 559, 560,
spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis)             561, 564, 565, 566, 570, 572, 618,
    412                                           667, 689, 690, 692, 697, 754, 781,
spotted knapweed (Centaurea, C. macu-             782, 786, 787, 788, 789, 790, 792,
    losa)      7; see also Centaurea,             795, 816, 821; see also Psidium
    Centaurea maculosa                            cattleianum
spreading mistflower 425                      Strelitzia reginae (bird of paradise)
spurge 136, 214; see also Euphorbiaceae           207; see also bird of paradise
squash (Cucurbita pepo, zucchini)             Strepsicrates smithiana 772
    214                                       Streptopelia chinensis (spotted dove)
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed)         141,       412
    217                                       Streptosolen jamesoni 150
Stachytarpheta 112,151                        Striga asiatica (witchweed) 740
Stachytarpheta dichotoma (cayenne             Strongylodon ruber 560
    vervain) 151, 221, 538; see also 01       Strymon (lycaenid) 413, 414, 416, 417
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (owl)              Stylomecon heterophylla 88
    151,221                                   Styphelia 308
Stachytarpheta mutabilis 151                  Styphelia tameiameiae (pukiawe) 35,
Stachytarpheta urticifolia 151, 334               307, 352, 355, 394, 400, 559, 626,
staggerweed (Stachys arvensis) 217;               631, 645, 666, 671, 672; see also
    see also Stachys arvensis                     pukiawe
Stapelia gigantea 127                         Suaeda californica (sea blite) 70,
Stellaria media (common duckweed)                 73,77, 78, 85; see also sea blite
    74, 84,134, 213                           subalpine community 7, 263, 268, 386,
stem gall fly (Procecidochares                    396, 400-401, 486, 532, 533, 557,
    spp.) 426,563                                 562, 564, 571, 625, 626, 627, 628,
Stenogyne 651,658                                 644, 661, 666, 669, 672, 673-674,
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo                  675, 683, 697, 698, 699, 700, 784,
   grass, St. Augustine grass) 123,               791,796
   209,364, 610                               submontane forest 343, 754
Stephanomeria virgata 83                      submontane seasonal forest 229, 234,
Sterculiaceae 150, 221, 490, 510; see             386, 396, 398, 400, 401, 402, 486,
    also cacao, cocoa                             496,513, 782, 787, 788, 789,796
Index                                                                              882


 succession 8, 9, 15, 30, 31, 33, 34,          Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var.
    51, 54, 235, 254, 255, 267, 285,              cicla) 213
    288, 290, 316, 376, 397, 399, 401,         swollen fingergrass (Chloris barbata)
    477, 500, 534, 539, 565, 607, 609,            208; see also Chloris
    615, 616, 620, 676, 683, 700, 701,         sword fern (Nephrolepis      multiflora)
    733,734                                        199,204
 succulents 34, 67, 70, 402, 565, 715,         Syagrius fulvitarsus (Australian fern
    720                                           weevil) 562
 sugar cane (Saccharum          officinarum)   Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna)
    318, 444, 554, 726, 727, 729, 730,            528
    767, 800; see also Saccharum               Syncarpia glomulifera 530
    officinarum                                Synedrella no difolia 130
 sugar cane leafhopper (Perkinsiella           Syngamia 414
    saccharicida) 727                          Syngamia haemorrhoidalis     414, 415,
 sugar cane leaf roller          (Hedylepta)      417
    455                                        syngonium (Syngonium podophyllum)
sugar industry 453, 713, 714, 726-730;            205
    see also sugar cane                        Syrphidae (flower flies) 278
Sula (boobies) 604                             Syzygium 618
sunflower (Helianthus annuus var.              Syzygium cumini (Java plum) 144, 399,
    macrocarpus)      127, 211; see also          493,538, 545, 547, 559
    Asteraceae                                 Syzygium jambos (rose apple) 144,
Surinam cherry {Eugenia uniflora}                 493, 512, 513, 519, 530, 558, 564;
    218; see also Eugenia uniflora                see also rose apple
Sus scrofa       (pig) 10, 20, 35, 158,        Syzygium malaccense (mountain apple)
    227, 241, 242, 271, 275, 301, 343,            102,144, 455, 729
    477, 496, 532, 540, 551, 554, 600,
    666, 667, 729, 770, 784; see also          Tabebuia 212
    hog, pig, swine                            tacca (Taccaceae) 124
swamp mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta)            Taccaceae (tacca) 124
    528                                        Tacca leontopetaloides (arrowroot)
sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima)                102,124, 729
    199, 212; see also Lobularia               Tacsonia 274,443
   maritima                                    Tagetes minuta (stinkweed) 130, 627,
sweet clover (Melilotus indica)                   631,651
   216; see also Melilotus indica              Talinum 147
sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)              Tamarindus indica 140
   566; see also Foeniculum vulgare            tamarisk (salt cedar, Tamarix) 6,
sweet granadilla (Passiflora           ligu-      9,10,14,17,18, 31
   laris) 272; see also Passiflora             Tamarix 17
   ligularis                                   Tanacetum vulgare 130
sweet pepper. See Capiscum annuum              tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobea)      7,
sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) 214,               13,16; see also Senecio jacobea
   729; see also Ipomoea batatas               Taraxacum laevigatum 130
sweet vernalgrass (Anthoxanthum odo-           Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)     7,
   ratum) 314, 317, 319, 401, 487,                15,130, 631, 648, 651, 653
   557, 566, 626, 628, 634, 639, 644,          taro (Colocasia esculenta)         101,
   683, 732; see also Anthoxanthum                104, 116, 205, 729, 800; see also
   odoratum                                       Araceae, Colocasia esculenta
swine        605; see also pig, Sus            taro patches 101,104
   scrofa                                      taro vine (Rhaphidophora aurea)205
swine cress (Coronopus didymus)                Taxodium distichum (dwarf cypress)
   212; see also Coronopus didymus                32
Index                                                                                   883


 tea (Theaceae) 150                               Tibouchina herbacea 143
 tea tree (Leptospermum scoparium)                Tibouchina urvilleana (glorybush)
     544; see also Leptospermum                       143, 454, 470, 493, 512, 519, 521,
    scoparium                                        538; see also glorybush
 Teleonemia scrupulosa (tingid)           413,    tiger's claw (Erythrina variegata
     414,417, 475, 476; see also tingid              var.orientalis) 216
 Teleonemia vanduzii 415                          Tiliaceae (linden) 150
 Telespyza cantons (Laysan finch) 200             timothy (Phleum pratense)           7; see
 tephritid fly (Eutreta xanthochaeta)                 also Phleum pratense
     413,544; see also gall flies                 tingid, Tingidae 413, 414, 415, 416,
 Tephrosia purpurea 102,140                           475; see also Teleonemia
 Teranycus lintearious (gorse mite)                  scrupulosa
    580                                           Tithonia diversifolia 130
 Terminalia catappa (false kamani)                tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) 220;
     135,213                                          see also Nicotiana tabacum
 Terminalia myriocarpa 213                        tocalote (yellow star thistle) 77; see
 termite (Coptotermes formosanus)                     also Centaurea melitensis
     198                                          tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinelli-
 Tetragonia expensa (New Zealand                     folium) 105, 220; see also
    spinach) 76                                      Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium
 Tetragonia tetragonioides (New                   Toonaciliata 143
    Zealand spinach) 81, 125, 209; see            Torenia asiatica 149
    also New Zealand spinach                      Torilis nodosa 74, 81,126
 Tetramolopium humile 637, 640, 642              torpedo grass (Panicum repens) 538;
 Tetrazygia bicolor 143                              see also Panicum repens
 thatching grass (Hyparrhenia            rufa)   tortricid      412, 413; see also leaf-
    398, 402, 489, 787; see also                     roller, Epinotia lantana
    Hyparrhenia rufa                              Torulinium odoratum 111
Theaceae (tea) 150                               touch-me-not (Balsaminaceae) 131
 Thelypodium lasiophyllum 84                     Tournefortia argentea (tree helio-
 Themedavillosa 123                                  trope) 132, 200, 212; see also tree
 Thespesia populnea (milo) 102, 103,                 heliotrope
    142,218                                      Toxicodendron diversilobum 81
 Tibouchina urvilleana (lasiandra)               toxic plants 7, 8,16,597, 603, 606
    341, 343, 370-372; see also                  toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia) 71;
    glorybush                                        see also Heteromeles arbutifolia
thimbleberry (Rubus               rosifolius)    Tradescantia geniculata 111
    304, 558, 692, 696; see also Rubus           Tradescantia spathacea (oyster plant)
    rosifolius                                       117,206
thistle      6, 566, 569, 570, 766, 767;         Tradescantia zebrina (wandering Jew)
    see also bull thistle, Canada                    117,206
    thistle, Carduus nutans, Cirsium             Tragopogon porrifolius 130
    arvense, Cirsium vulgare, musk               Tragus berteronianus 123
    thistle, Russian thistle, Salsola            Trathalaflavoorbitalis 455
    kali                                         tree cactus. See Opuntia ficus-indica
thrips (Liothrips urichi) 242, 250,              tree fern       168, 170, 184, 185, 283,
    278,453, 454, 567                                284, 285, 287, 314, 397, 561, 562,
Thunbergia 125                                       667, 684, 692, 694, 800; see also
Thysanoptera 242, 278; see also thrips               cibotium, Cibotium, C. glaucum,
ti (Cordyline fruticosa)          205, 607,          Cyathea cooperi, hapu`u
    612, 613, 618, 716; see also                 tree fern forest 170,283
    Cordyline fruticosa
Index                                                                               884


tree heliotrope (Toumefortia argen-         turkey, wild (Meleagris gallopavo)
    tea)      199, 200, 212; see also          281,287
    Toumefortia argentea                    turks cap (Malvaviscus arboreus)
trees 10, 13, 20, 42, 64, 67, 75, 76,          218
    78, 101, 156, 158, 193, 200,            Tumera (Turneraceae) 151
    225-237, 303, 311, 312, 313, 316,       Tumera ulmifolia 151
    335-336, 396, 397, 399, 477, 508ff,     turtle 189, 502; see also green sea
    521, 527, 531, 532, 537, 552, 559,         turtle, herpetofauna, loggerhead
    560, 562, 566, 569, 616, 620, 631,         turtle, sea turtle
    632, 715, 727, 728, 729, 733, 771;      tussock grass (Eragrostis xerophila)
    see also species listings                  604; see also Eragrostis xerophila
tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)             Typhaceae (cattail) 92,124
    220, 603; see also Nicotiana            Typha domingensis 72, 92,112,124
    glauca                                  Typhalatifolia 124
trema (Trema orientalis)       151, 493,
    512,520, 521                            `uhaloa (Waltheria indica) 104,
Trembleya phylogiformis 143                     221; see also Waltheria indica
tribulus 222; see also Zygophyllaceae       *uki (Machaerina angustifolia) 347,
Tribulus cistoides (nohu, puncture              372
    vine) 222, 470, 475; see also nohu,     `ulei (Osteomeles           anthyllidifolia)
    puncture vine                               352, 354, 355, 394, 402, 559, 627;
Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine)             see also Osteomeles anthyllidi-
    152, 470, 475, 765; see also               folia
    puncture vine                           Ulex 33, 773
Tricachne insularis 123                     Ulex europaeus (gorse) 140, 255, 470,
Trichogramma 414, 416                           472, 502, 527, 530, 538, 540, 551,
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)                557, 563-564, 577, 593, 770, 830;
    130,211, 616                                see also gorse
Trifolium 15,86,140                         Ulmaceae (elm) 151, 494,512
Trimezia martinicensis 118                  uluhe 246, 302, 304, 311, 313, 320,
Triodanisbiflora 133                           396, 400, 401, 402, 684, 687, 696,
Trisetum glomeratum (pili uka) 626,             697, 790; see also matted fern,
    630, 647, 650, 652; see also pili          Dicranopteris spp.
    uka                                     umbrella plant (Cyperus altemifolius
Tristellateia australasiae (bagnit)             subsp.flabelliformis) 206
    217                                     ungulates 10, 11, 14, 22, 175, 315,
Tritonia crocosmiflora (montbretia)             317, 497, 501, 503, 536, 543, 597,
    544; see also montbretia                    598, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 606,
Triumfetta 150                                 608, 609, 611, 619, 620, 626, 628,
Tropaeolaceae 151, 221, 493, 512; see          629, 666, 667, 668, 697, 698, 699,
    also nasturtium                            700, 701, 753, 784, 797, 800, 822,
Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium) 151,              823; see also cattle, feral
    221, 494, 506, 512, 520, 521, 786,          ungulates, goat, pig, sheep
    793; see also nasturtium                upland forest 619
tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei)        284,   Urena lobata (aramina) 102,104
    488, 510, 513, 516, 531, 532, 547;      Urera sandwicensis (opuhe) 104
    see also Fraxinus uhdei                 Uromyces rumicis 436
tsugi pine (Cryptomeria japonica)           Uroplata girardi 415,416,417
    284                                     Urticaceae (nettle) 92,104,151,221
tundra 7                                    Urtica dioica holosericea 92
tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) 21         Urtica urens 92,151,631, 651,653
Turdus migratorius (robin) 51
Index                                                                                 885


Vacdnium Cohelo)            307, 308, 348,     Violaceae (violet) 221
    400, 626, 631, 645, 700; see also          Viola chamissoniana 561
    `ohelo                                     Viola maviensis 565
Vacdnium reticulatum (kau-la`ai,               Viola odorata (violet) 221
    <6helo)     372, 669, 671, 672; see        violet 221
    also `ohelo                                virgate mimosa (Desmanthus virgatus)
valerian (Valerianaceae) 151                       215; see also Desmanthus virgatus
vanda orchid 207                               viruses 45, 433, 453
Vanessa tameamea (Kamehameha butter-           Vitaceae (grape, Vitis) 152, 222
    fly) 278                                   Vitex trifolia (polmatina) 221
vasey grass (Paspalum              urvillei)   Vitis (grape) 222; see also Vitaceae
    208, 315, 318, 491, 538; see also          volcanism        11, 235, 236, 395, 396,
   Paspalum urvillei                               398,607, 610, 676, 692
velvet grass (Holcus lanatus)             6,   Vulpia 89
    304, 307, 315, 317, 319, 364, 401,         Vulpia bromoides (brome fescue) 124,
    489, 557, 558, 562-563, 565, 570,              566
    626, 632, 634, 683, 699, 700; see          Vulpia myuros (foxtail fescue, rat
    also Holcus lanatus                            tail fescue)      124, 209, 630, 636,
Verbascum blattaria 149                            641,647, 649, 650, 652
Verbascum lasiostachys 92                      Vulpia octoflora 89,124
Verbascum thapsus (mullein) 15, 16,
    149, 254-257, 259-260, 262-268, 494,       Wahlenbergia gracilis 133
    557, 629, 631, 648, 651, 653; see          waiawi (strawberry guava, Psidium
    also mullein                                  cattleianum)        538, 547; see also
Verbascum virgatum 149                            s t r a w b e r r y guava, Psidium
verbena 151, 221; see also Verbenaceae            cattleianum
Verbena bonariensis 151                        waikahuli (Gaillardia pulchella)
Verbenaceae (verbena) 92,151, 221, 489            211; see also Gaillardia pulchella
Verbena litoralis (ha`uowi, weed               Waltheria americana (hi'aloa) 402
   verbena) 152,221,364                        Waltheria indica (`uhaloa) 102, 104,
Verbena rigida 152                                221
Verbesina encelioides (golden crown-           Waltheria lophanthus 606
   beard) 131,199,211,556,651                  wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina)
Vemonia cinerea 131,616                           206; see also Tradescantia zebrina
Veronica arvensis 149                          Washingtonia filifera (fan palm) 17,
Veronica plebeia (common speedwell)               75; see also fan palm
    149,364                                    wasp 414
Veronica serpyllifolia 149,651                 waterbirds 101,104
Vestiaria coccinea (`i`iwi) 278,477            watercourses 17, 554, 562, 563, 564,
Vicia americana 86                                565,567
Vicia angustifolia 140                         water hyacinth (Eichhornia eras-
Vicia exigua 86                                  sipes) 9, 20, 43, 52; see also
Vicia sativa 555, 556                            Eichhornia crassipes
Vigna adenantha 102,103                        water-leaf (Hydrophyllaceae) 217; see
vin (Pritchardia pacifiea) 206                    also Hydrophyllaceae
Vmca minor 20                                  water lemon (Passiflora            foetida)
vinegar tree (Lophostemon confertus)             604; see also Passiflora foetida
   529                                         water milfoil (Haloragaceae) 9, 141;
vines 20, 42, 72, 75, 76, 156, 158,              see also Myriophyllum
   159, 271-293, 316, 442, 498, 506,           water plantain (Alismataceae) 116
   507, 509ff, 521, 567, 568, 678, 681,        water regimes 3, 6, 18, 29, 30, 32,
   692,728, 770; see also lianas                 35, 36, 49, 51, 76, 93, 241, 697,
                                                 821
Index                                                                               886


watersheds 107, 290, 477, 502, 537,            Wikstroemia sandwicensis ('akia) 400;
    539, 554, 564, 577, 580, 593, 667,             see also 'akia
    726,727,728,729,761, 800,801               wildfires. See fires
water table 9,14                               wild mustard (Brassica nigra, B.
wauke (Broussonetia             papyrifera)       rap a) 73; see also Brassica
   729; see also Broussonetia                     nigra, B. rapa
   papyrifera                                  wild oats (Avena fatua) 72, 77, 79;
wawae`iole (Lycopodium cernuum)                    see also Avena fatua
   345,347, 349, 372                           wild poinsettia             (Euphorbia
wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera)          772;        cyathopora) 215; see also
   see also Myrica cerifera                       Euphorbia cyathopora
wedelia 131,211                                wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
Wedelia trilobata (wedelia) 211                   364; see also Fragaria vesca
wedge-tailed shearwater            (Puffinus   wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
   pacificus chlorophynchus) 200                  281; see also turkey
weed verbena (Verbena litoralis)               wiliwili (Erythrina         sandwicensis)
   364; see also Verbena litoralis                397,402, 603
weevil 267, 475                                willow (Salix lasiolepis)          72; see
West Indian dropseed (Sporobolus                  also Salix lasiolepis
   indicus) 209; see also Sporo-               wilt disease 443, 444, 445
   bolus indicus                               wilt virus 453
wet forest 226, 271, 285, 287, 288,            wind disturbance 11, 52, 53, 66, 110,
   290, 304, 343, 344, 532, 541, 544,             198, 202, 241, 242, 244, 249, 282,
   696,787                                        283,287, 288, 289
wet habitat 168, 170, 171, 177, 178,           witchweed (Striga asiatica) 740
   184-186, 241, 242, 284, 313, 317,           wood groundsel (Senecio sylvaticus)
   343, 396, 416, 417, 468, 614, 666,             34; see also Senecio sylvaticus
   667                                         woodlands 17, 67, 71, 396, 402, 403,
wetlands 6, 9, 21, 47, 49, 51, 54,                625, 626, 644, 646, 650ff, 658, 661,
   101,104, 541                                   733
wet shrub community 542                        wood rose (Merremia tuberosa) 214;
white ash (Fraxinus americana) 488,               see also Merremia tuberosa
   509,513, 516                                wood sorrel (Oxalidaceae) 145, 219
white field daisy 7; see also chrys-           woody plants 13, 17, 31, 303, 313,
   anthemum                                       343, 349, 376, 397, 399, 434, 584,
whitefly (Aleurodicus           dispersus)        585, 611, 619, 626, 633, 634, 644,
   456                                            645, 654, 655, 658, 659, 660, 661,
white ginger (Hedychium coronarium)               662, 666, 667, 669, 670, 672, 675,
   529; see also Hedychium coronarium             676, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682,
white mulberry (Morus alba) 218;                  683, 685, 687, 688, 689, 690, 692,
   see also Morus alba                            693, 694, 695, 699, 700, 733, 734,
white sweet clover (Mililotus alba)               824
   216; see also Mililotus alba
white tern (Gygis alba) 197,604                Xanthium spinosum 74,83
white vine (Muehlenbeckia axillaris)           Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur) 43,
   507, 511, 517, 521; see also                   131,211, 556
  Muehlenbeckia axillaris                      Xanthosoma ('ape) 205
Wikstroemia ('akia)        359, 403; see       Xantusia riversiana (island night
   also 'akia                                     lizard) 71
Index                                                                       887


xeric habitats 155, 169, 180-182, 376,    yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis comicu-
   604                                       lata) 103, 219; see also Oxalis
Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grass) 124           comiculata
Xyris 124                                 Youngiajaponica 131,334-335

yam (Dioscoreaceae, Dioscorea alata)
    118, 729; see also Dioscoreaceae,
   Dioscorea alata
yellow-eyed grass (Xyridaceae) 124        Zantedeschia aethiopica 81
yellow ginger (Hedychium flavescens)      Zanthoxylum kauaense 561
    529; see also Hedychium flavescens    Zauschneria 88
yellow Himalayan raspberry (Rubus         Zea mays (corn) 209,730,740
    ellipticus)      155-158, 161, 166,   Zigadenus fremontii 87
    169-171, 174-176, 178, 341, 343,      Zingiberaceae 124, 209, 489; see also
    366-370, 372, 399, 401, 472, 492,        ginger
    692, 694, 695, 696, 786, 789, 790,    Zingiberzerumbet 102,124
    793, 794, 819; see also Rubus         Zinnia 131
   ettipticus                             Zosteraceae 92
yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus)      Zostera marina 92
    436; see also Cyperus esculentus      Zosterops japonicus (Japanese white-
yellow star thistle (tocalote) 77; see       eye) 227, 278, 548, 567; see also
    also Centaurea melitensis                Japanese white-eye
Yellowstone elk 15                        zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, squash)
yellow sweet clover (Melilotus,              214
   Melilotus indica) 77; see also         Zygophyllaceae (creosote bush,
   Melilotus, Melilotus indica               Tribulus) 152,222

				
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