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PERSONALITY MAHMOUD I. QAMAR Dept. of Educational Psychology Educational & Human Relationship College Taiba University • The term "personality" is a key word in psychology. • It implies certain physical and mental traits which are characteristic of a given individual; these traits determine to some extent, the individual's behaviour or adjustment to his surroundings. • The terms personality and human behaviour are inter-related. • Psychology, in its broader concept, implies study of human personality. • It is important to bear in mind that the personality of the doctor affects very much the well-being of the patient. • Components of personality • There are at least 4 component of personality : (I) PHYSICAL : • These are the physical traits or features of an individual namely height, weight, colour, facial expression, physical health, etc. • To the layman, a good personality means an impressive, symmetrical and healthy body. (2) EMOTIONAL : •A person’s emotions also go into the make-up of his personality. •Emotions are the feelings we have – fear, anger, love, jealousy, guilt, worries. •These feelings affect an individual's personality. (3) INTELLIGENCE: • Personality also implies intellectual ability. • An intelligent person will have a forceful personality. • A person with sub – normal intelligence is described as a "dull" person. (4) BEHAVIOUR: • Behaviour is a reflection of one's personality. • It is partly dependent upon our feelings and partly on the expectations of the society. • Behaviour is described in such terms as gentle, kind, affectionate, balanced, submissive and aggressive. • When we assess human personality all these components must be taken into consideration. Personality traits A trait is described as tendency to behave in a consistent manner in variable situations. • Human personality is a bundle of traits. • The basic personality traits are established by the age of 6 years. • Some traits, we cultivate (e.g., good manners). may conceal (e.g., kindliness), We modify depending upon the society in which we are placed (e.g., sense of humour). • The following are some of the personality traits: Cheerfulness Loyalty Good manners Reliability Sportsmanship Sense of humour Honesty Tactfulness Kindliness Willing to help others. • The personality traits we look for in a doctor are kindliness, honesty, patience, tolerance, perseverance, consciousness, thoroughness and initiative. • It is possible to cultivate these traits. • The Swiss Psychiatrist, Carl Jung (1875- 1961) divided personalities into 2 types - extrovert and introvert. • The extrovert is a person who is thought to be dashing, practical, active, showing-off and easily mixes with people. • An introvert is a person who is reserved, shy and generally keeps to himself. • Most people exhibit characteristics of both. Development of personality Human life consists of definite stages of growth, and each stage is marked by distinctive psychology. (1) Infancy : • The first one year of life is called infancy. • The infant is hardly a social creature. • There is rapid physical and mental growth. • The infant is totally dependent on the mother. • By the end of first year, the infant is able to stand up for a short while and tries to walk with a little support. • He enjoys simple tricks and games. Development of personality (2) Pre-school child: • This stage is marked by considerable growth of brain. • The child feeds himself, speaks, loves his home, fears dark, loves stories and wants to assume responsibility. • He begins to mix with other small children. Development of personality (3) School-age: • The school-age period ranges from 5 to 15 years. • The school going child is active all the time. • By the age of 8 the mental powers are fully developed. • The brain of the child at the age of 8 years is almost of the same size as an adult. • The child begins to reason. Development of personality 3) School-age: • There is gradual detachment from the family, and greater attachment to his playmates and friends. • He begins to form groups. • The period of childhood terminates with the onset of puberty, which is about: 11 years in the case of girls. 13 in the case of boys. Development of personality (4) Adolescence : • Adolescence or “teenage” is a turbulent period in one's life. • This is a period of rosy dreams, adventure, love and romance. • The teenager strives for independence. • He dislikes parental authority. • He becomes fully aware of social values and norms. • There is rapid physical growth. Development of personality (5) Adults: • The person is mature and more balanced. • The physical and mental characteristics are fully developed. • It is difficult to draw a line when adolescence ceases, and adulthood begins. 6) Old age: • It is difficult to say when old age begins. • It is a gradual process marked by decline in physical powers and acuity of sense organs. • Old age is marked by certain psychological changes such as: impaired memory rigidity of outlook Irritability Bitterness inner withdrawal and social maladjustment. Character and will • The concept of personality also involves assumptions about character and will of the person. • Will indicates determination and character implies moral worth. • Personality and character are not identical; both are different. Character and will • Man's character may be good at one time and bad at another time, though his personality remains the same. • There is no acceptable definition of character.
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