MAHMOUD I. QAMAR
Dept. of Educational Psychology
Educational & Human Relationship
• The term "personality" is a key word in
• It implies certain physical and mental
traits which are characteristic of a given
individual; these traits determine to some
extent, the individual's behaviour or
adjustment to his surroundings.
• The terms personality and human
behaviour are inter-related.
• Psychology, in its broader concept,
implies study of human personality.
• It is important to bear in mind that
the personality of the doctor affects
very much the well-being of the
• There are at least 4 component of
(I) PHYSICAL :
• These are the physical traits or features of
an individual namely height, weight,
colour, facial expression, physical health,
• To the layman, a good personality means
an impressive, symmetrical and healthy
(2) EMOTIONAL :
•A person’s emotions also go into the
make-up of his personality.
•Emotions are the feelings we have –
fear, anger, love, jealousy, guilt,
•These feelings affect an individual's
• Personality also implies intellectual
• An intelligent person will have a
• A person with sub – normal
intelligence is described as a "dull"
• Behaviour is a reflection of one's
• It is partly dependent upon our feelings
and partly on the expectations of the
• Behaviour is described in such terms as
gentle, kind, affectionate, balanced,
submissive and aggressive.
• When we assess human personality all
these components must be taken into
A trait is described as tendency to behave in
a consistent manner in variable situations.
• Human personality is a bundle of traits.
• The basic personality traits are established
by the age of 6 years.
• Some traits,
we cultivate (e.g., good manners).
may conceal (e.g., kindliness),
We modify depending upon the society in
which we are placed (e.g., sense of
• The following are some of the
Good manners Reliability
Sportsmanship Sense of humour
Kindliness Willing to help
• The personality traits we look for in a
doctor are kindliness, honesty, patience,
tolerance, perseverance, consciousness,
thoroughness and initiative.
• It is possible to cultivate these traits.
• The Swiss Psychiatrist, Carl Jung (1875-
1961) divided personalities into 2 types -
extrovert and introvert.
• The extrovert is a person who is
thought to be dashing, practical,
active, showing-off and easily mixes
• An introvert is a person who is
reserved, shy and generally keeps to
• Most people exhibit characteristics of
Human life consists of definite stages of growth,
and each stage is marked by distinctive
(1) Infancy :
• The first one year of life is called infancy.
• The infant is hardly a social creature.
• There is rapid physical and mental growth.
• The infant is totally dependent on the mother.
• By the end of first year, the infant is able to
stand up for a short while and tries to walk with
a little support.
• He enjoys simple tricks and games.
(2) Pre-school child:
• This stage is marked by considerable
growth of brain.
• The child feeds himself, speaks,
loves his home, fears dark, loves
stories and wants to assume
• He begins to mix with other small
• The school-age period ranges from 5 to 15
• The school going child is active all the
• By the age of 8 the mental powers are
• The brain of the child at the age of 8 years
is almost of the same size as an adult.
• The child begins to reason.
• There is gradual detachment from the
family, and greater attachment to his
playmates and friends.
• He begins to form groups.
• The period of childhood terminates with
the onset of puberty, which is about:
11 years in the case of girls.
13 in the case of boys.
(4) Adolescence :
• Adolescence or “teenage” is a turbulent
period in one's life.
• This is a period of rosy dreams,
adventure, love and romance.
• The teenager strives for independence.
• He dislikes parental authority.
• He becomes fully aware of social values
• There is rapid physical growth.
• The person is mature and more
• The physical and mental characteristics
are fully developed.
• It is difficult to draw a line when
adolescence ceases, and adulthood
6) Old age:
• It is difficult to say when old age begins.
• It is a gradual process marked by decline in
physical powers and acuity of sense organs.
• Old age is marked by certain psychological
changes such as:
rigidity of outlook
inner withdrawal and
Character and will
• The concept of personality also
involves assumptions about
character and will of the person.
• Will indicates determination and
character implies moral worth.
• Personality and character are not
identical; both are different.
Character and will
• Man's character may be good at one
time and bad at another time,
though his personality remains the
• There is no acceptable definition of