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PERSONALITY

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					 PERSONALITY
      MAHMOUD I. QAMAR
 Dept. of Educational Psychology
Educational & Human Relationship
             College
         Taiba University
• The term "personality" is a key word in
  psychology.
• It implies certain physical and mental
  traits which are characteristic of a given
  individual; these traits determine to some
  extent, the individual's behaviour or
  adjustment to his surroundings.
• The terms personality and human
  behaviour are inter-related.
• Psychology, in its broader concept,
  implies study of human personality.
• It is important to bear in mind that
  the personality of the doctor affects
  very much the well-being of the
  patient.
•
         Components of
          personality
• There are at least 4 component of
  personality :
(I) PHYSICAL :
• These are the physical traits or features of
  an individual namely height, weight,
  colour, facial expression, physical health,
  etc.
• To the layman, a good personality means
  an impressive, symmetrical and healthy
  body.
(2) EMOTIONAL :
•A person’s emotions also go into the
     make-up of his personality.
•Emotions are the feelings we have –
     fear, anger, love, jealousy, guilt,
     worries.
•These feelings affect an individual's
     personality.
(3) INTELLIGENCE:
• Personality also implies intellectual
  ability.
• An intelligent person will have a
  forceful personality.
• A person with sub – normal
  intelligence is described as a "dull"
  person.
(4) BEHAVIOUR:
• Behaviour is a reflection of one's
  personality.
• It is partly dependent upon our feelings
  and partly on the expectations of the
  society.
• Behaviour is described in such terms as
  gentle, kind, affectionate, balanced,
  submissive and aggressive.
• When we assess human personality all
  these components must be taken into
  consideration.
       Personality traits
A trait is described as tendency to behave in
  a consistent manner in variable situations.
• Human personality is a bundle of traits.
• The basic personality traits are established
  by the age of 6 years.
• Some traits,
 we cultivate (e.g., good manners).
 may conceal (e.g., kindliness),
 We modify depending upon the society in
  which we are placed (e.g., sense of
  humour).
• The following are some of the
  personality traits:
  Cheerfulness        Loyalty
  Good manners        Reliability
  Sportsmanship       Sense of humour
  Honesty             Tactfulness
  Kindliness          Willing to help
                      others.
• The personality traits we look for in a
  doctor are kindliness, honesty, patience,
  tolerance, perseverance, consciousness,
  thoroughness and initiative.
• It is possible to cultivate these traits.
• The Swiss Psychiatrist, Carl Jung (1875-
  1961) divided personalities into 2 types -
  extrovert and introvert.
• The extrovert is a person who is
  thought to be dashing, practical,
  active, showing-off and easily mixes
  with people.
• An introvert is a person who is
  reserved, shy and generally keeps to
  himself.
• Most people exhibit characteristics of
  both.
          Development of
            personality
Human life consists of definite stages of growth,
    and each stage is marked by distinctive
    psychology.
(1) Infancy :
• The first one year of life is called infancy.
• The infant is hardly a social creature.
• There is rapid physical and mental growth.
• The infant is totally dependent on the mother.
• By the end of first year, the infant is able to
    stand up for a short while and tries to walk with
    a little support.
• He enjoys simple tricks and games.
       Development of
         personality
(2) Pre-school child:
• This stage is marked by considerable
  growth of brain.
• The child feeds himself, speaks,
  loves his home, fears dark, loves
  stories and wants to assume
  responsibility.
• He begins to mix with other small
  children.
        Development of
          personality
(3) School-age:
• The school-age period ranges from 5 to 15
  years.
• The school going child is active all the
  time.
• By the age of 8 the mental powers are
  fully developed.
• The brain of the child at the age of 8 years
  is almost of the same size as an adult.
• The child begins to reason.
        Development of
          personality
3) School-age:
• There is gradual detachment from the
  family, and greater attachment to his
  playmates and friends.
• He begins to form groups.
• The period of childhood terminates with
  the onset of puberty, which is about:
 11 years in the case of girls.
 13 in the case of boys.
        Development of
          personality
(4) Adolescence :
• Adolescence or “teenage” is a turbulent
  period in one's life.
• This is a period of rosy dreams,
  adventure, love and romance.
• The teenager strives for independence.
• He dislikes parental authority.
• He becomes fully aware of social values
  and norms.
• There is rapid physical growth.
         Development of
           personality
(5) Adults:
• The person is mature and more
  balanced.
• The physical and mental characteristics
  are fully developed.
• It is difficult to draw a line when
  adolescence ceases, and adulthood
  begins.
6) Old age:
• It is difficult to say when old age begins.
• It is a gradual process marked by decline in
  physical powers and acuity of sense organs.
• Old age is marked by certain psychological
  changes such as:
 impaired memory
 rigidity of outlook
 Irritability
 Bitterness
 inner withdrawal and
 social maladjustment.
     Character and will
• The concept of personality also
  involves assumptions about
  character and will of the person.
• Will indicates determination and
  character implies moral worth.
• Personality and character are not
  identical; both are different.
     Character and will
• Man's character may be good at one
  time and bad at another time,
  though his personality remains the
  same.
• There is no acceptable definition of
  character.