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					Age of Absolutism
  1550-1800
 Monarchy to Democracy
Map
            Charles V
•   Grandson of Ferdinand & Isabella
•   Heir to Spanish Throne
•   Heir to Hapsburg Throne
•   Heir to Throne of Holy Roman Empire
•   Heir to Netherlands’ Throne
Charles V of
   Spain

 So what
 does this
picture tell
you about
 Chucky?
    Reality about
     Charles V
•   Not the Warrior King
•   Hardworking
•   Religious - Devout
•   Scholarly
•   Frail - Sickly
•   Grew weary of throne
•   Divided Kingdom
1556 Charles leave throne, enters Monastery
Leave Hapsburg title to
  brother Ferdinand,
who become Holy
  Roman Emperor

Leave Spanish Throne,
   Netherlands and
all it oversea holdings
   to his Son, Phillip

What would those
 holding included?
King Philip II
•   Like Father –
•   Devout,
•   hard worker,
•   but more Military
    oriented
        Who was Phillip II?
1. Supporter of the Arts - Patron
2. Devout Catholic - anti-Protestant
3. Restarts the Inquisition against
  a. Jews,
  b. Muslims
  c. Protestants
4. Consolidates control over Spanish
   Dutch Netherlands
      Who were the controlling forces
          in the Mediterranean?
• Italian City States,
• Muslims,
• Spanish
What were they fighting to control?
     Trade Routes & Profit
Battle of Lepanto, 1571
  What is the
implication of
 this picture?
    In 1587, King Philip of Spain saw
    England as a dangerous nuisance.
King Philip had
  many reasons
  to want to get
  rid of Queen
    Elizabeth:
Attacks by English Privateers: For nearly twenty
years, English ships had been attacking Spanish treasure
ships and raiding Spanish towns in the Americas. Queen
Elizabeth refused to punish the privateers and would not
            return the riches they had seized.
Liz I Actions Against English Catholics:
  • Catholics were fined for not attending services in
    the Church of England
  • Catholics could be imprisoned if they were found
    hearing or saying Mass.
  • Catholics could not hold important offices
  • Since 1581, over a dozen English Catholics had
    been executed for 'religious crimes'.
   Mary,
Queen of Scots




                 Her Most Protestant Majesty’s
                  Most Catholic Cousin
      Helping Spain's Enemies:
• Queen Elizabeth encouraged Protestant ideas
• She helped the enemies of Catholic Spain.
• English soldiers had been fighting alongside
  the Dutch rebels in their war against their
  Spanish rulers for a number of years.
• In 1585, Queen Elizabeth had promised to send
  thousands of Soldiers to help Dutch
  government hold back King Philip's advancing
  Spanish army.
      King Phillip’s Invasion Plan

1. Build a large army of soldiers in the
   Netherlands under the Duke of Parma
2. Prepare them to invade England.
3. Using a large fleet of ships, to invade
4. Win control of the English Channel
5. Invade England and
6. force Queen Elizabeth to agree to Spain's
   demands (including marriage)
         The English Fleet
Lord Admirial Howard, the Commander of the English
      navy, divided his fleet into two squadrons.
One squadron, under Lord Henry Seymour, was
  ordered to guard the narrow stretch of sea between
  Kent and the Netherlands, from where the Spanish
  invasion force was to launch its attack. Lord
  Seymour's squadron was known as the Narrow Seas
  Squadron.
     The Western Squadron was
  commanded by Lord Admiral Howard
• The remaining ships of the English Navy were ordered to
  assemble at the port of Plymouth, in the western part of
  England,
• to await the arrival of the Spanish Armada in the English
  Channel.
• His Vice Admiral was Sir Francis Drake.
           The Spanish Fleet
• Between 1586 and 1588, King Philip prepared a large
  fleet of ships to sail from Spain to the Straits of
  Dover.
• The warships of the Armada - which means 'armed
  fleet' and consisted of warships (galleons, galeasses,
  galleys and large, armed merchant ships),
• the large Spanish fleet also included cargo ships
  (merchant ships and hulks) which carried stores of
  food and drink and all the equipment necessary for
  the invasion of England - siege guns and other
  weapons, horses, mules, tents and other supplies..
Heavy Spanish Ships VS Lighter English Ships
Grappling hook & Boarding
Cannonade or Broadside
Cannonade or Broadside
                Raking a ship
Sailing across he bow or stern and firing as you bear…




                    Raking the Ship
 Spanish Fleet is
     defeat
     Sails for
  Netherlands
Cut off by English
       fleet
   Sail around
  Scotland and
Ireland for home
   Spain looses her power and
       prestige in Europe

  She is still powerful, but lacks the
ability or desire to rebuild a new fleet
         and take on England
  Over the next 150 year Spain slowly
looses her control over her holding in the
               New World
  The wealth Spain gained from the New World
        had made her rich and powerful,
                but also LAZY
Triumph of Parliament
 What is Parliament?
The Covering Body of England




   Like the U.S. Congress
         How did Parliament begin?
• in the 13th century the Curia Regis, the
  king's feudal council, was summoned by the
  King
• This was the Great Barons. From which the
  House of Lords developed.
• The House of Commons originated in the
  13th cent. For the other social classes of
  the state—knights & Burgesses
• Met usually to report the “consent” of the
  counties & towns to taxes imposed by the
  king.
War of the Roses
The Tudor Dynasty
      King Henry VII
      Reigned 1485-1509
       King Henry VIII
      Reigned 1509-1547
       King Edward VI
      Reigned 1547-1553
        Lady Jane Grey
      Proclaimed queen in 1553
  Deposed after nine days. Executed in
                 1554.

        Queen Mary I
      Reigned 1553-1558
     Queen Elizabeth I
    Reigned 1558-1603
    Elizabeth I dies without an heir
• Throne passes to
  relatives STUARTs

 Not popular, nor skilful,
 in dealing
 with Parliament.

 Insisted on DIVINE
 RIGHT to rule
 James I - 1603 to 1625


Charles I - 1625 to 1649


Charles II - 1660 to 1685


James II - 1685 to 1688
                   James I
• To Lavish and spent
  to much money on
  his own Court
• Anger Parliament,
• dissolved
  Parliament and
  collected his own
  Taxes
• This angered the
  people and nobles
Charles I
  • Inherit throne in 1625
  • Follow fathers lead –
    Divine rule & Absolute
    Monarch
  • Imprisons foes with out
    charges or trial
  • Summon Parliament to
    raise Taxes,1628
  • Parliament insist he sign
    Petition of Rights, - He
    signs
  • 1629 Dissolve Parliament
             1637
   English Civil War Begins
• Charles I call Parliament for taxes War
  with Scotland
• Parliament refuses until he will sign new
  Petition of Rights
• Parliament try, convicts & sentences
  Charles I & his Chief Ministers
• Charles Response by dissolve Parliament
  and marching into the Building with the
  Army and arresting the major players.
• This action launches the English Civil War
Charles I Supporter ~> Cavaliers
Parliament Supporters ~>Roundheads
Oliver Cromwell

Puritan

Given Command of Parliament’s
Army

Skilled General and Statesman

Organized NEW MODEL ARMY

Has Charles Executed

Rules England as “Lord Protectorate”
    New Model Army




Training
Uniforms
Order of Command
Weapons
  Brutal Warfare

   No Quarter

Civilian Population
     Attacked

Cromwell's forces
  Capture King
Persecuted the Huguenots –
• Revoked Edicts of Nantes
• Many Huguenots, well over 100,000 people, facing
  persecution fled France.
• Middle Class, Artisan and Skilled laborers lost to
  French Economy
• Disastrous impact on French Economy –
• Caused fear of who would be persecuted next????

     Left Most of these problems to
          his weaker successors
France under Louis XIV
Background:
 1560-1590 Huguenot Wars
 • Religious wars between French Catholics & Protestants.
 • Both sides used strife to further political ends.
 • Headed by two nobles families
        - Catholic Family - Guises
        - Protestant Family - Bourbons
 • August 24, 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
"Mass slaying of Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris, on St. Bartholomew's
Day, August 24, 1572. In order to increase the royal power, the queen
mother, Catherine de Medicis, attempted to play the French Roman
Catholic faction, led by the house of Guise, against the Huguenot faction,
led by the house of Conde.
Henry IV of France   Protestant/Huguenots
                     Became Catholic to
                     Keep the Throne
                     Chicken in every pot
                     Mentality
                     Edict of Nantes 1598
                     Built Royal Bureaucracy
                     Assassinated in 1610
Edict of Nantes, 1598
     Edict of Nantes 1598
Signed into law by Henry IV
Provided Huguenots
1. The right to practice their own religion.
2. The right to maintain standing armies.
3. The right to fortify their cities.
Louis XIII of France
Take throne at 9 years old, after Father’s assassination

Weak ruler as child & teenager as Nobles assert power

1624, appoints Cardinal Richelieu at Chief Minister

Give day to day rule to Richelieu

Pampers himself and his court
R
I
C
H
E
L
I
E
U
A Teacher
   and
his Pupil
Richelieu rules France
•Ties King and Church closer
•Draws Nobles closer to King by position
•At Court or Army – Keeps them under his eye
•Declares war against Protestants/Huguenots
      1. Disarmed
      2. Cities fortification removed
      3. Allowed to continue beliefs
 •Appoints successor Cardinal Mazarin
Cardinal Mazarin
              Continues Richelieu
              program for the new
                King Louis XIV
~ Fronde ~
   A Young
  Louis XIV
is driven from
 his Palace by
Rioters- Nobles,
merchants, peasants
   Mazarin
restores order
             L’etat, c’est moi
              I am the State
Louis XIV never called the “Estate General”
Establish a new layer of Bureaucracy
   ~ Intendants
   *Royal officials recruited from Wealthy Middle Class
   *Tax Collectors
   *Recruiters
   *Policy Implementers
Estates General




French Assembly or Parliament
Jean Baptiste Colbert

    Financial Wiz

  Policies focus on
  enriching the King
   And tighten the
    kings hold on
    The economy
       & People
Versailles
               Versailles
Everything was focused on the IMPORTANCE of Louis XIV
  Daily Routine became Ceremony – Trumpets and Fanfare
   Social and Political Systems all Centered on the King
Personal Chapel
Pipe Organ
What is this?
Tapestries
 Dripping with GOLD
 Louis XIV replace the
Renaissance in what was
 Considered the Social
     HIGH MARK
  Louis XIV was sic!
         Louis XIV Legacy
1. Change what was stylist in Europe
2. Tighten Royal control on the nobility and the
   economy- which ultimately means the people
3. Trying to gain more land, he force other
   Kingdoms to try to maintain a Balance of Power
   in Europe – Grandson Phillip V inherit Spanish
   Throne – “We are as One” Scared Dutch &
   English - 30 year War of Spanish Succession
4. Persecuted the Huguenots -
Persecuted the Huguenots –
• Revoked Edicts of Nantes
• Many Huguenots, well over 100,000 people, facing
  persecution fled France.
• Middle Class, Artisan and Skilled laborers lost to
  French Economy
• Disastrous impact on French Economy –
• Caused fear of who would be persecuted next????

     Left Most of these problems to
          his weaker successors