Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence by mikeholy


									                 Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence   1

   Chapter 12: Emotional and Social Development in

Erikson’s theory: identity versus identity confusion

   Identity: search for what is true and real about the self
    (sexual orientation, vocation, interpersonal relationships
    and community involvement, ethnic group membership,
    moral, political, religious, and cultural ideals)

   Successful outcomes of earlier stages pave the way:
      o weak sense of trust  trouble finding ideals to
        have faith in
      o little autonomy or initiative  won’t actively
        explore alternatives
      o lack a sense of industry  fail to select an
        appropriate vocation

   identity crisis: a temporary period of confusion and
    distress as they experiment with alternatives before
    settling on values and goals

   identity confusion: shallow and directionless, because
    earlier conflicts were resolved poorly or because
    society restricts their choices to ones that don’t match
    their desires and abilities
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Changes in self-concept:
   in early adolescence statements about one’s traits are
    not interconnected and are often contradictory

   middle to late adolescence: combine various traits into
    an organized system, and use qualifiers

   add integrating principles to explain the apparent

Changes in self-esteem:
   close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence
    now factor in
   self-esteem rises over adolescence for most
   authoritative parenting predicts high self-esteem in
   conditional affection more likely to engage in “false”
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  Paths to identity

   The 4 identity statuses

  Identity status                  Description
Identity             Committed to a clearly formulated set of
achievement          self-chosen values and goals, having
                     already explored alternatives
Moratorium           Have not yet made definite
                     commitments, but are in the process of
Identity foreclosure Committed to values and goals without
                     taking the time to explore alternatives
Identity diffusion   Lack clear direction, not committed to
                     goals or values, nor actively trying to
                     reach them

   Many start out as foreclosed/diffused, but by late
    adolescence move toward moratorium/ achievement.

   identity achieved/moratorium  higher self-esteem,
    think abstractly and critically, report greater similarity
    between their ideal self and their real self, advanced in
    moral reasoning

   foreclosure  dogmatic, inflexible, intolerant,
    defensive, likely to display ethnic and religious

   diffused  the least mature, going along with the
    crowd, most likely to use/abuse drugs, sense of
    hopelessness about the future, likely to display ethnic
    and religious prejudices
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Factors affecting identity development

 personality
 the family
    o identity-achieved/moratorium: attached but free to
       voice their own views
    o foreclosed: close to their parents, cannot
       healthily separate
    o diffused: cold, uncommunicative home

Moral Development

Kohlberg’s theory
* e.g., the “Heinz dilemma” - the way a person reasons
about the dilemma determines moral maturity.

Kohlberg’s stage of moral understanding

 The Preconventional Level

     o Stage 1: the punishment and obedience
       orientation. The fear of authority and avoidance of
       punishment become the reasons for choosing
       one’s actions.

     o stage 2: the instrumental purpose orientation. Kids
       become aware in a concrete manner that people
       can have different perspectives – they see right
       action as what satisfies their personal needs.
       Reciprocity is understood as an equal exchange of
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   the Conventional Level

       o Stage 3: the “good boy/girl” orientation. Being a
         nice person - trustworthy, loyal, respectful, helpful,
         nice, is the motivation behind their choice.

       o stage 4: the social-order orientation. The larger
         perspective of societal laws is considered. Laws
         cannot be disobeyed under any circumstances
         because they are vital to ensuring social order

   The Postconventional Level

       o Stage 5: the social contract orientation. Laws can
         be changed when there is a good reason to do so.
         The laws have to be consistent with individual
         rights and the interests of the majority.

       o stage 6: the universal ethical principle orientation.
         Right action is defined by ethical principles of
         conscience that are valid for all humanity
         regardless of law and social customs. E.g. respect
         for worth & dignity of every person.

Research into these stages

   few people actually move beyond stage 4.
   real-life conflicts often elicit moral reasoning below a
    person’s actual capacity
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Environmental Influences on moral reasoning

     Child rearing practices
     Schooling
     Peers
     Culture

Gender Typing

gender intensification - increased gender stereotyping of
attitudes and behaviour.
    Puberty magnifies sex differences in appearance, and
      prompts gender-typed pressures form others.
    Dating leads to more gender typed behaviours, possibly
      as a way to become more attractive to the opposite sex
    Declines for many (but not all) by middle-late
    Those who end up androgynous tend to be
      psychologically healthier

The Family

   Parent –child relationships
      o Teenagers de-idealize their parents, and so no
        longer bend to their authority as easily as before.

        o Teenagers start to think of some things as their
          own business, whereas parents continue to see
          them as shared concerns.
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   family circumstances: parents who are financially
    secure, invested in their work, and happy in their
    marriages tend to find it easier to grant their teenagers
    appropriate autonomy

   siblings: An overly intrusive older sibling undermines
    self-esteem and promotes adjustment difficulties.

Peer relations

Friendships: The number of best friends declines from 4-6 in
early adolescence to 1-2 in early adulthood.

   Friendship is now about intimacy and loyalty

   emotional closeness more common in girls’ friendships

   androgynous boys are just as likely as girls to form
    intimate same-sex ties

   opportunities to explore the self, develop a deeper
    understanding of another person
   helps deal with the stresses of adolescence
   can improve attitudes towards academic performance
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  Cliques and crowds

  cliques: groups of about 5 to 7 members who are good
  friends and resemble one another in family background,
  attitudes, and values
   dress codes, ways of speaking, and behaviours that
      separate them from other cliques and from the adult

   sometimes several cliques with similar values form a
    larger, more loosely organized group called a crowd
    (e.g. jocks, brain, druggies, greasers, goths, skaters)

   authoritative parents  “brains”, “jocks”, “popular”
   permissive parents  the “fun crowd”, the partiers
   uninvolved parents  partiers and druggies

  In early adolescence boys’ and girls’ cliques merge.
   practice for interacting with the other sex
   larger group divides into couples, who spend time
   by late adolescence the mixed-sex clique dissolves and
     the importance of the crowd declines


   Younger teenagers date for recreation and to achieve
    status with agemates
   by late adolescence, looking for a partner who shares
    their interests.
   Intimacy in dating relationships lags behind that of
    same-sex friendships
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   Dating young does not foster social maturity and carries
    a risk of premarital pregnancy

   Homosexual youths: may retreat into heterosexual
    dating; have trouble finding same-sex partners;
    profound loneliness

   50% of high school romances do not survive high
    school graduation, and those that do tend to become
    less satisfying.

Problems of Development

Depression: most common psychological problem of
   15-20% with one or more episodes
   2-8% chronically depressed
   twice as often in girls than boys
   adults may see symptoms as part of normal moodiness
   genetic and environmental factors play a part
   a learned-helplessness attributional style
   early maturing girls are more prone to depression

   3rd leading cause of death
   4 to 5 times the number of boys kill themselves
    compared to girls.
       o Girls use methods that have a greater likelihood of
       o Boys use more active methods
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   Suicide tends to occur in 2 types of adolescents

         1) highly intelligent, solitary, withdrawn, unable to
            meet their own (or important others’) high

         2) more common – antisocial teenagers who bully.
            Fight, steal, abuse drugs

   family turmoil, parental emotional problems, martial
   breakup of an important peer relationship, or humiliation

Prevention of suicide

warning signs
   putting one’s affairs in order
   saying goodbye, references to death, suicide
   sadness, despondency
   fatigue, boredom, lack of energy
   withdrawal from friends
   easily frustrated, with emotional outbursts
   distractible
   decline in grades, discipline problems
   neglect of appearance
   sleep change
   appetite change
   physical complaints
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   people under age 21 account for 30% of police arrests
   27% of violent crimes; 42% of property crimes
   rises over the early teenage years, remains high in
    middle adolescence, then declines into young
    adulthood. Why?
       o peers become less influential over time
       o moral reasoning matures
       o social contexts occur that are less conducive to
          law-breaking (marriage, career)

Predictors of delinquency
   3 to 8 times as many boys as girls
   temperament, low IQ, poor school performance, peer
    rejection in childhood, entry into antisocial peer groups
   families low in warmth, high in conflict, with inconsistent
   schools that fail to meet developmental needs

   lengthy and intensive, using problem-focused methods
    that teach cognitive and social skills needed to
    overcome family, peer, and school problems.

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