VIEWS: 73 PAGES: 11 POSTED ON: 6/16/2011
Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 1 Chapter 12: Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence Erikson’s theory: identity versus identity confusion Identity: search for what is true and real about the self (sexual orientation, vocation, interpersonal relationships and community involvement, ethnic group membership, moral, political, religious, and cultural ideals) Successful outcomes of earlier stages pave the way: o weak sense of trust trouble finding ideals to have faith in o little autonomy or initiative won’t actively explore alternatives o lack a sense of industry fail to select an appropriate vocation identity crisis: a temporary period of confusion and distress as they experiment with alternatives before settling on values and goals identity confusion: shallow and directionless, because earlier conflicts were resolved poorly or because society restricts their choices to ones that don’t match their desires and abilities Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 2 Self-Development Changes in self-concept: in early adolescence statements about one’s traits are not interconnected and are often contradictory middle to late adolescence: combine various traits into an organized system, and use qualifiers add integrating principles to explain the apparent contradictions Changes in self-esteem: close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence now factor in self-esteem rises over adolescence for most authoritative parenting predicts high self-esteem in adolescence conditional affection more likely to engage in “false” behaviours Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 3 Paths to identity The 4 identity statuses Identity status Description Identity Committed to a clearly formulated set of achievement self-chosen values and goals, having already explored alternatives Moratorium Have not yet made definite commitments, but are in the process of exploration Identity foreclosure Committed to values and goals without taking the time to explore alternatives Identity diffusion Lack clear direction, not committed to goals or values, nor actively trying to reach them Many start out as foreclosed/diffused, but by late adolescence move toward moratorium/ achievement. identity achieved/moratorium higher self-esteem, think abstractly and critically, report greater similarity between their ideal self and their real self, advanced in moral reasoning foreclosure dogmatic, inflexible, intolerant, defensive, likely to display ethnic and religious prejudices diffused the least mature, going along with the crowd, most likely to use/abuse drugs, sense of hopelessness about the future, likely to display ethnic and religious prejudices Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 4 Factors affecting identity development personality the family o identity-achieved/moratorium: attached but free to voice their own views o foreclosed: close to their parents, cannot healthily separate o diffused: cold, uncommunicative home environments Moral Development Kohlberg’s theory * e.g., the “Heinz dilemma” - the way a person reasons about the dilemma determines moral maturity. Kohlberg’s stage of moral understanding The Preconventional Level o Stage 1: the punishment and obedience orientation. The fear of authority and avoidance of punishment become the reasons for choosing one’s actions. o stage 2: the instrumental purpose orientation. Kids become aware in a concrete manner that people can have different perspectives – they see right action as what satisfies their personal needs. Reciprocity is understood as an equal exchange of favours. Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 5 the Conventional Level o Stage 3: the “good boy/girl” orientation. Being a nice person - trustworthy, loyal, respectful, helpful, nice, is the motivation behind their choice. o stage 4: the social-order orientation. The larger perspective of societal laws is considered. Laws cannot be disobeyed under any circumstances because they are vital to ensuring social order The Postconventional Level o Stage 5: the social contract orientation. Laws can be changed when there is a good reason to do so. The laws have to be consistent with individual rights and the interests of the majority. o stage 6: the universal ethical principle orientation. Right action is defined by ethical principles of conscience that are valid for all humanity regardless of law and social customs. E.g. respect for worth & dignity of every person. Research into these stages few people actually move beyond stage 4. real-life conflicts often elicit moral reasoning below a person’s actual capacity Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 6 Environmental Influences on moral reasoning Child rearing practices Schooling Peers Culture Gender Typing gender intensification - increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behaviour. Puberty magnifies sex differences in appearance, and prompts gender-typed pressures form others. Dating leads to more gender typed behaviours, possibly as a way to become more attractive to the opposite sex Declines for many (but not all) by middle-late adolescence. Those who end up androgynous tend to be psychologically healthier The Family Parent –child relationships o Teenagers de-idealize their parents, and so no longer bend to their authority as easily as before. o Teenagers start to think of some things as their own business, whereas parents continue to see them as shared concerns. Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 7 family circumstances: parents who are financially secure, invested in their work, and happy in their marriages tend to find it easier to grant their teenagers appropriate autonomy siblings: An overly intrusive older sibling undermines self-esteem and promotes adjustment difficulties. Peer relations Friendships: The number of best friends declines from 4-6 in early adolescence to 1-2 in early adulthood. Friendship is now about intimacy and loyalty emotional closeness more common in girls’ friendships androgynous boys are just as likely as girls to form intimate same-sex ties opportunities to explore the self, develop a deeper understanding of another person helps deal with the stresses of adolescence can improve attitudes towards academic performance Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 8 Cliques and crowds cliques: groups of about 5 to 7 members who are good friends and resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values dress codes, ways of speaking, and behaviours that separate them from other cliques and from the adult world sometimes several cliques with similar values form a larger, more loosely organized group called a crowd (e.g. jocks, brain, druggies, greasers, goths, skaters) authoritative parents “brains”, “jocks”, “popular” permissive parents the “fun crowd”, the partiers uninvolved parents partiers and druggies In early adolescence boys’ and girls’ cliques merge. practice for interacting with the other sex larger group divides into couples, who spend time together by late adolescence the mixed-sex clique dissolves and the importance of the crowd declines Dating Younger teenagers date for recreation and to achieve status with agemates by late adolescence, looking for a partner who shares their interests. Intimacy in dating relationships lags behind that of same-sex friendships Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 9 Dating young does not foster social maturity and carries a risk of premarital pregnancy Homosexual youths: may retreat into heterosexual dating; have trouble finding same-sex partners; profound loneliness 50% of high school romances do not survive high school graduation, and those that do tend to become less satisfying. Problems of Development Depression: most common psychological problem of adolescence 15-20% with one or more episodes 2-8% chronically depressed twice as often in girls than boys adults may see symptoms as part of normal moodiness genetic and environmental factors play a part a learned-helplessness attributional style early maturing girls are more prone to depression Suicide 3rd leading cause of death 4 to 5 times the number of boys kill themselves compared to girls. o Girls use methods that have a greater likelihood of revival o Boys use more active methods Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 10 Suicide tends to occur in 2 types of adolescents 1) highly intelligent, solitary, withdrawn, unable to meet their own (or important others’) high standards 2) more common – antisocial teenagers who bully. Fight, steal, abuse drugs family turmoil, parental emotional problems, martial breakup breakup of an important peer relationship, or humiliation Prevention of suicide warning signs putting one’s affairs in order saying goodbye, references to death, suicide sadness, despondency fatigue, boredom, lack of energy withdrawal from friends easily frustrated, with emotional outbursts distractible decline in grades, discipline problems neglect of appearance sleep change appetite change physical complaints Lifespan overheads, chapter 12: emotional and social development in adolescence 11 Delinquency people under age 21 account for 30% of police arrests 27% of violent crimes; 42% of property crimes rises over the early teenage years, remains high in middle adolescence, then declines into young adulthood. Why? o peers become less influential over time o moral reasoning matures o social contexts occur that are less conducive to law-breaking (marriage, career) Predictors of delinquency 3 to 8 times as many boys as girls temperament, low IQ, poor school performance, peer rejection in childhood, entry into antisocial peer groups families low in warmth, high in conflict, with inconsistent discipline schools that fail to meet developmental needs Treatment lengthy and intensive, using problem-focused methods that teach cognitive and social skills needed to overcome family, peer, and school problems.
Pages to are hidden for
"Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence"Please download to view full document