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									                                                 ABORTION CLINICS
  ARROW'S THESAURUS                                    Refers to free-standing abortion clinics. For
                                                       hospital-based abortion services
     TT      Top Term                            Use        ABORTION SERVICES
     BT      Broader Term - Indicates a          TT         Abortion
             more general concept                BT         Abortion services
     NT      Narrower Term - Indicates
             more specific concept               ABORTION LAW
     RT      Related Term - Indicates a                Any legislation or regulations concerning
             concept that is closely related           pregnancy termination
     see     Suggest a term to use               BT         Abortion

ABANDONED CHILDREN                               ABORTION POLICY
TT   Crime                                       BT   Abortion
BT   Child abuse
RT   Sexually abused child
                                                 ABORTION SERVICES
                                                 BT   Abortion
ABORTION                                         NT   Abortion clinics
     Termination of pregnancy; intentional       RT   Family planning programmes
     removal of a fetus from the uterus by a
     number of techniques
BT         Reproductive health
NT         Abortion, illegal                     ABORTION, TRADITIONAL
                                                 BT   Abortion
           Abortion, traditional
           Abortion law
           Abortion policy
           Abortion services                     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
           Antiabortion movement                 see     AIDS
           Dilation and Curettage
           Menstrual regulation
           Prochoice movement                    ACUPRESSURE
           RU-486                                BT   Alternative medicine
RT         Family planning

                                                       The Chinese practice of piercing specific
ABORTION, ILLEGAL                                      areas of the body along peripheral nerves
     Termination of pregnancy in jurisdictions         with fine needles to relieve pain, to induce
     where induced abortions are illegal or            surgical anaesthesia, and for other
     restricted by law                                 therapeutic purposes
BT         Abortion                              BT         Alternative medicine

ARROW’S Thesaurus
ADDICTION                                          AFRICA
   Physical addiction to a substance such          BT    Developing countries
   that deprivation of it results in               NT    Algeria
   physiological withdrawal symptoms                     Djibouti
BT Social Problem                                        Egypt
NT Alcoholism
   Drug Addition                                         Kenya
RT Abuse                                                 Uganda

                                                        A life-spanning process of growth and
     Individuals who are between puberty and
                                                        development running from birth to death
     the completion of physical growth; roughly
     from 11 to 19 years of age                    NT       Menopause
NT       Sexuality                                          Osteoporosis
RT       Adolescent pregnancy                      RT       Ageing population
         Juvenile delinquency                               Ageism
         Menarche                                           Alzheimer's disease
         Street children                                    Demography
                                                            Estrogen replacement therapy
                                                            Hormone replacement therapy
                                                            Memory Loss
ADOLESCENT HEALTH                                           Menopause
                                                            Nursing Homes
     Pregnancy in girls between the ages of 11
     and 19
BT       Reproductive behaviour                    AGEING POPULATION
                                                        Continuing increase of elderly population
RT       Adolescence                                    both in absolute and in proportional terms
         Pregnancy                                      in a given society
                                                   BT       Population dynamics
                                                   RT       Ageing
     Acceptance of a child as one's own by legal
     process                                       AGEISM
BT       Family                                       Discrimination against older people on the
RT       Child custody                                basis of age. Used when the item being
         Foster Family                                catalogued is about ageism, not necessarily
         Parenting                                    when the cataloger detects an ageist
                                                      perspective in the text
                                                   UF      Age Discrimination
AFGHANISTAN                                        BT      Oppression
TT   Asia                                          RT       Ageing
BT   West and Central Asia                                  Elder Abuse

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     Long-term increase        in   agricultural    BT    Health Education
     productivity                                   RT    HIV Counselling
TT       Economic development                             Sex Education
BT       Rural development
         Sectoral development
RT       Agriculture                                AIDS PROGRAMMES
         Agricultural workers                       BT    AIDS

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS                                AIDS RESEARCH
     Persons employed in the agricultural sector
                                                    BT    AIDS
BT       Labour force
RT       Agricultural development

                                                    AIDS TREATMENT
AGRICULTURE                                         BT    AIDS
   Science or art cultivating the soil,
   producing crops, and raising livestock
UF      Farming                                     AIDS Virus
BT       Macro economic factors                     see    HIV INFECTIONS
RT       Agricultural development
         Development                                ALCOHOL
         Food Policy                                UF   Alcoholism
AID                                                      Wine
RT       Funders                                    RT   Drugs
         Government policy                               Fatal Alcoholicism
         United Nations                                  Substance Abuse
     An acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a
                                                    ALCOHOL ABUSE
     serious and often fatal syndrome first
     identified in 1980 which caused by a virus
                                                    RT   Alcoholism consumption
     transmitted in the blood, marked by severe
     loss of resistance to infection. It involves
     the total breakdown of the human auto-         ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
     immune system; this in turn leaves the              Consumption of alcoholic beverages
     body open to infection and other problems,     RT       Alcohol abuse
     some of which may cause death                           Mental health
BT       Gynaecological disorders                            Psychological health
         HIV infections                                      Women's health
         Reproductive health
NT       AIDS programmes
         AIDS research
         AIDS treatment
RT       Reproductive tract infections
         Sex education

ARROW’S Thesaurus
ALGERIA                                            ANOREXIA
BT   Africa                                             Lack or loss of appetite for food. A
                                                        psychological illness especially for young
                                                        women, characterized by an obsessive
                                                        desire to lose weight by refusing to eat
ALTERNATIVE MEDIA                                  BT       Eating problems
BT   Media                                         RT       Bulimia

Use  NON-ALLOPATHIC THERAPIES                           The study of humankind, especially of its
                                                        societies and customs. May be used when
                                                        the item being catalogued deals with an
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE                                     anthropological perspective. Not restricted
     A serious disorder of the brain manifesting        to items about the field of anthropology
     itself in premature senility                       itself
RT       Ageing                                    BT       Social sciences

AMENORRHEA                                         ANTIABORTION MOVEMENT
                                                        Movements / groups opposed to legally
     Absence or abnormal cessation of the               available induced abortion
     menses (menstrual flow)                       BT       Abortion
BT       Menstruation disorders                    NT       Operation rescue
                                                   RT       Prochoice movement

     Extraction of amniotic fluid during           ANXIETY
     pregnancy for diagnostic purposes             RT    Mental health
BT       Pregnancy

ANATOMY                                            BT   Latin and Central America
     The branch of science dealing with the
     structure or organisms

                                                   BT       Developing Countries
     Used only for documents that are reports      NT       East Asia
     prepared annually about the activities of              Indo-China
     a ministry, department, programme or                   South Asia
     other institution or organisation                      Southeast Asia
                                                            West and Central Asia

Annual Statistical Yearbooks
see     ANNUAL REPORT and                          AUSTRALIA
        POPULATION STATISTICS                      BT   Pacific and Oceania

ARROW’S Thesaurus
BAHRAIN                                               Battered women
TT   Asia                                             see      WIFE AND PARTNER BATTERING
BT   West and Central Asia

                                                      BENIGN BREAST DISEASE
BANGLADESH                                            Use        Fibrocystic breasts
TT   Asia
BT   South Asia                                       BELIEFS
                                                            A statement or body of statements held to be
                                                            true by an individual or group
BARBADOS                                              BT         Culture
BT   Latin and Central America
                                                      TT   Asia
BARRIER METHODS                                       BT   South Asia
     Contraceptive methods which prevent the
     entry of spermatozoa into the uterus
TT        Contraception
BT        Contraceptive methods                             Used for documents that contain a list of
NT        Cervical cap                                      references with little in the way of
          Condoms                                           descriptive information, may or may not be
          Diaphragms                                        annotated
          Female condoms
          Spermicidal products
RT        Contraception research                      BIOGRAPHY
          Family planning programmes
          Hormonal methods
          IUDs                                        BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
          Surgical methods                                  Factors such as fecundability, lactation,
          Traditional methods                               menarche,        menopause,        longevity,
                                                            increasing life span, sex ratios, and sex
                                                            selection as they affect populations
     A method that uses the woman's basal body        Birth Control
     temperature to identify the infertile phase of   see     CONTRACEPTION and
     the menstrual cycle after ovulation occurs.              FAMILY PLANNING
     This information is used to plan intercourse
     and abstinence so as to achieve or to avoid
TT        Periodic sexual abstinence                  Birth Control Methods
BT        Fertility awareness                         see     CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
          Natural family planning

                                                      Birth Control Policy
Battered Child                                        see     FAMILY PLANNING POLICY and
see      CHILD ABUSE                                          POPULATION POLICY

ARROW’S Thesaurus
BIRTH ATTENDANTS                                      BREAST CONDITIONS
         Refers to people assisting at a birth in     BT   Health conditions
         some kind of professional capacity, rather   NT   Breast calcifications
         than friends and family                           Breast implants problems
BT       Health workers                                    Breast lumps
NT       Midwives
                                                           Fibrocystic breast
         Traditional Birth Attendants
RT       Birthing                                     RT   Breast Cancer
         Childbirth                                        Breast self examination
         Obstetricians                                     Mammography

BIRTH RATE                                            BREAST IMPLANTS
     Crude number of births per 1000 total
                                                      RT   Cosmetics
     population per year
NT       Fertility rate
                                                      BREAST IMPLANTS PROBLEMS
                                                      BT   Breast conditions
                                                      NT   Breast implants leakage
see      CHILD BIRTH
                                                           Capsular contrature

BODY IMAGE                                            BREASTFEEDING
UF       Beauty
                                                           The process of feeding from a mother's
BOLIVIA                                               TT       Child care
BT    Latin and Central America                       BT       Infant nutrition
                                                               Contraceptive methods
                                                      NT       Breastfeeding promotion
                                                      RT       Bottle feeding
     Use of nursing bottles for feeding
TT       Child care
                                                      BREASTFEEDING PROMOTION
BT       Infant nutrition
                                                       BT  Breastfeeding
RT       Breastfeeding

                                                      BREECH BIRTH
                                                           Delivery of a baby with the buttocks or feet
BT    Latin and Central America                            foremost
                                                      BT       Child birth

     A malignant, cellular tumour of the breast
BT       Cancer
                                                      see     UNITED KINGDOM
RT       Mammography screening

                                                      BROADCAST MEDIA
                                                           Means of mass communication by
                                                           transmission of audio and/or visual signs
                                                      BT       Mass media

ARROW’S Thesaurus
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM                                 CANCER
TT   Asia                                              A malignant new growth or tumour from
BT   Southeast Asia                                    an abnormal and uncontrolled division of
                                                       body cells

                                                  NT       Breast cancer
BUDDHISM                                                   Cervical cancer
     A widespread Asian religion or philosophy,            Endometrial cancer
     founded by Gautama Buddha in India
BT       Religion
                                                           Lung cancer
                                                           Ovarian cancer
                                                           Pelvic cancer
BULIMIA                                                    Vaginal cancer
     (Bulimia nervosa) Insatiable overeating.     RT       Cancer research
     An emotional disorder in which bouts of
                                                           Cancer treatment
     extreme overeating are followed by
     depression and self-induced vomiting,
     purging or fasting
BT       Eating problems
                                                  CANCER RESEARCH
Burma                                             RT   Cancer
see   MYANMAR or
                                                  CANCER TREATMENT
                                                  RT   Cancer
     An operation for delivering a child by
     cutting through the wall of the abdomen
BT       Child birth
                                                       Stock of goods and money for use in further
                                                  BT       Economic factors
     A family planning method involving
     numerical calculations based on previous
     menstrual cycle                              CASE HISTORY
                                                       Includes forms for case histories,
TT       Periodic sexual abstinence
                                                       organisation of forms, actual histories
BT       Fertility awareness
                                                  TT       Research methodology
         Natural family planning
                                                  BT       Data collection
                                                  RT       Case study

                                                  CASE STUDY
                                                       Detailed analysis of single units, such as
                                                       persons or institutions, which emphasise
CANADA                                                 the unit's development in relation to its
BT   North America                                     environment
                                                  TT       Research Methodology
                                                  BT       Data collection
                                                  RT       Case history
                                                           Pilot projects
                                                           Prospective studies
                                                           Retrospective studies
ARROW’S Thesaurus
CATHOLICISM                                        CHILD ABUSE
     The faith, practice or system of the Roman         Physically harmful treatment of a child
     Catholic Church                               TT       Crime
TT       Religion                                  BT       Domestic violence
BT       Christianity                              NT       Sexually abused children
                                                            Abandoned children
                                                   RT       Female infanticide
CD-ROM                                                      Infanticide
BT   Information processing                                 Incest
                                                            Violence against women

     A canvass of a given area, resulting in an    Child bearing
     enumeration of the entire population, and     see     PREGNANCY
     the compilation of demographic, social and
     economic information pertaining to that
     population at a specific time. Used for
     actual censuses
                                                   CHILD BIRTH
                                                        The process of labour and delivery
BT       Population statistics
                                                   NT       Breech birth
                                                            Caesarean birth
                                                            Forceps birth
 CERVICAL CANCER                                            Home birth
     A malignant, cellular tumour of the cervix    RT       Traditional birth attendants
BT       Cancer
RT       Pap Smear
         Reproductive tract infections             CHILD CARE
                                                      The supervision and management of
                                                      children - covers the various activities
                                                      aimed at improving the conditions of
                                                      children in society
CERVICAL CAP                                       UF      Babysitting
     A contraceptive device of metal, plastic or   NT       Child care centres
     rubber placed on the cervix                            Child custody
TT       Contraceptive methods                              Infant nutrition
BT       Barrier methods                           RT       Child development
                                                            Infant care
                                                            Day care
CERVICAL DYSPLASIA                                          Parenting
BT    Gynaecological disorders

                                                   CHILD CARE CENTRES
CERVICAL MUCUS OR OVULATION                        BT    Child care
     A contraceptive method based on the
     recognition and interpretation of cyclic
     changes in cervical mucus that occur in
     response to changing estrogens levels
TT       Periodic sexual abstinence
BT       Fertility awareness
         Natural family planning

ARROW’S Thesaurus
CHILD CUSTODY                                     CHINA
     Immediate change and control of a child           People's Republic of China
     or children, usually by a divorced or        TT       Asia
     separated parent                             BT       East Asia
BT       Child care
RT       Adoption
                                                  CHLAMYDIA INFECTIONS
                                                       A STD caused by the bacterium called
         Family law                                    "Chlamydia trachomatis" micro- organism,
         Marriage                                      responsible for a variety of infections in
                                                       women, including cervicitis (inflammation
                                                       of the cervix), Pelvic Inflammatory
CHILD DEVELOPMENT                                      Diseases, endometritis and infertility as
     Continuous, sequential, physiological and         well as dangerous complications during
     psychological maturing of the child from          pregnancy and child birth. It is transmitted
     birth through puberty                             during vaginal or anal sex with someone
RT       Child care                                    who has the infection. Also be passed by a
                                                       hand moistened with infected secretions to
                                                       the eye, and from mother to baby during
CHILD HEALTH                                      BT       STDs
     The physical, mental and social well-being   RT       Pregnancy complications
     of a child
BT       Health
RT       Maternal-child health
         Child Mortality                          CHRISTIANITY
                                                       The religion derived from Jesus Christ,
                                                       based on the Bible as scripture
                                                  BT       Religion
                                                  NT       Catholicism
     Children employed for pay or profit
BT       Labour force
                                                       Refers to the surgical removal of the loose
                                                       fold of skin or the foreskin
CHILD MORTALITY                                   NT       Female circumcision
     Deaths of children between the ages of one            Male circumcision
     year and puberty
BT       Mortality
RT       Child mortality
         Maternal health                          Civil Rights
                                                  see      HUMAN RIGHTS or
                                                           WOMEN'S RIGHTS
BT    Population Groups
                                                  COITUS INTERRUPTUS
                                                       Withdrawal before ejaculation as a method
CHILE                                                  of contraception
BT    Latin and Central America                   TT       Contraceptive methods
                                                  BT       Traditional methods

ARROW’S Thesaurus
COLOMBIA                         COMMUNICATION
BT   Latin and Central America        A formal and non-formal effort to exchange
                                      or transmit ideas, attitudes, or beliefs
                                      between individuals or groups
                                 NT        Media

                                 Compact Disc - Read Only Memory
                                 see    CD-ROM

                                      Used with diseases, devices or surgical
                                      procedures to indicate conditions following
                                      or existing as a complication of the diseases,
                                      procedures or devices.         Used as a
                                      secondary descriptor

                                 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES AND
                                      A logical sequence of instructions to direct
                                      the actions of a computer system (software)
                                 BT        Information processing
                                 NT        Databases

                                      Electronic machines that perform high
                                      speed tasks such as logical calculation and
                                      word processing
                                 BT        Information processing
                                 NT        Microcomputers

                                 TT   Contraceptive methods
                                 BT   Barrier methods
                                 NT   Female condoms
                                      Male condoms

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     Used when the whole document cited is a           All methods of contraception; both modern
     conference proceeding or when a document          and traditional
     is discussing a congress or conference.      BT       Contraception
     Used as a secondary descriptor               NT       Barrier methods
                                                           Hormonal methods
CONFUCIANISM                                               Immunological contraceptives
BT   Religion                                              IUDs
                                                           Surgical methods
                                                           Traditional methods
CONSUMERISM                                       RT       Contraceptive effectiveness
     The protection or promotion of consumers'             Contraceptive research
     interests in relation to the producer
NT       Consumer power
         Consumer protection                      CONTRACEPTIVE RESEARCH
RT       Consumer behavior                             Research on contraceptive technologies
         Consumers                                BT       Contraception
                                                           Health research
                                                  RT       Barrier methods
CONTRACEPTION                                              Contraceptive methods
     The use of all methods of conception                  Contraceptive technology
     prevention by individuals in order to have            Research and development
     the number of children they want, when and
     if they want them
BT       Reproductive health
                                                   CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY
NT       Contraceptive availability
                                                  RT   Contraceptive research
         Contraceptive effectiveness
         Contraceptive methods
         Contraceptive research
         Contraceptive usage                      CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE
         Family planning                               Use of contraceptive methods by
         Female contraception                          individuals or by groups of individuals
         Male contraception                       BT       Contraception
         Sterilization                            RT       Fertility rate

     The presence or absence of readily           BT   Vaccines
     obtainable family planning supplies
BT       Contraception
                                                  CONVENTIONS AND TREATRIES

     The degree to which a contraceptive          COSMETICS
     reduces the monthly probability of                Method of changing appearance. It can
     conception                                        be an aid for performances of various kinds
BT       Contraception                            RT       Breast implants
RT       Contraceptive methods

                                                  COSTA RICA
                                                  BT    Latin and Central America
ARROW’S Thesaurus
COUNSELLING                                     CULTURE
BT   Guidance                                        The complete pattern of human social
NT   Abortion counselling                            behaviour including knowledge, beliefs, art
     Contraceptive counselling                       morals, laws and customs
     Educational counselling                    NT       Beliefs
     Genetics counselling                                Folklore
     Infertility counselling                             Taboo
     Marriage counselling
     Pregnancy counselling
                                                     The study of cells, their origin, structure,
COUNTRY PROFILES                                     function, and pathology
                                                RT       Pap smear

RT    Economic development                      D&C
      Income generation programmes              see DILATION AND CURETTAGE
      Work and women

                                                DATA COLLECTION
CRIME                                                Systematic gathering of data for a
     A serious offence against the public law        particular purpose from various sources
NT       Child abuse                                 including     questionnaires,    interviews,
         Domestic violence                           observation, existing records and electronic
         Homicide                                    devices
         Incest                                 BT       Research methodology
         Infanticide                            NT       Case history
         Rape                                            Case study
         Sexual harassment                               Focus groups
         Trafficking of women                            Follow-up studies
         Violence against women                          Interviews
                                                         Longitudinal studies
                                                         Pilot projects
CRISIS CENTRES                                           Prospective studies
BT     Social services                                   Retrospective studies
NT     Rape crisis centres

                                                     Structured sets of data held in a computer,
CRITIQUES                                            especially one that is accessible in various
     Used when a document is a critical              ways
     comment on some problem or subject         BT       Computers programmes and
RT       Development                                     programming
         Family planning programmes
         Population policy

BT   Latin and Central America

ARROW’S Thesaurus
Delivery                                            Depo medroxprogestrone
see      CHILD BIRTH                                acetate
                                                    see DMPA

     Births, deaths, migrations      and   other    DEPRESSION
     demographic parameters                              A mental state characterised by dejection,
BT       Population                                      lack of hope, absence of cheerfulness
NT       Population characteristics                 RT       Mental health
         Population dynamics
RT       Demography
                                                    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
                                                         Poor countries that are developing better
DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEYS                                      economic and social conditions
     A canvassing to obtain data on the size,       NT       Africa
     distribution, characteristics, and dynamics             Asia
     of a population
                                                             Latin and Central America
BT       Population dynamics
                                                             Pacific and Oceania
RT       Fertility surveys                          RT       Development
                                                             Economic development

     Science and practice dealing with the
     statistical and mathematical analysis of the
                                                         A term used frequently to describe the
     size, composition, and spatial distribution
                                                         changes in developing countries
     of human populations, and of the causes
     and consequences of changes in fertility,      NT       Economic development
     mortality, marriage and migration                       Gender and development
BT       Social sciences                                     International development
RT       Ageing                                              Social development
         Demographic factors                                 Women in development
         Population                                 RT       Critiques
                                                             Developing countries
                                                             Development policy
     An injectable contraceptive (hormonal)
     method which surpresses ovulation. The         DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
     effects are mentioned can include                   Planning for economic,       social,   and
     permanent infertility, irregular bleeding,          technological development
     and possible cancer                            BT       Development policy
TT       Hormonal methods                           NT       Development plans
BT       Injectable contraceptives                  RT       Gender planning and implementation

                                                    DEVELOPMENT PLANS
                                                    BT   Development planning
                                                    NT   Women in development plans

ARROW’S Thesaurus
DEVELOPMENT POLICY                                  DISABILITY
     Governmental attempt to obtain optimum              Temporary or permanent incapacity for
     economic and social growth or change                work resulting from a pathological
     through the formulation of policy to                condition
     accomplish specific goals and objectives
BT       Government policy
NT       Development planning                            Differential treatment by exclusion or
         National women's policy                         assignment to a lower social status
RT       Development                                     because of race, sex, ethnic origin, religion
         Economic development                            or socioeconomic status
         Social development                         NT        Sex discrimination
                                                    RT        Equal rights

NT   Feminist theories                              DISEASE
     Gender and development theories                     An abdominal condition of an organism or
     Women in development theories                       part, especially as a consequence of
                                                         infection or environmental stress
                                                    BT        Health
                                                    RT        Health care
     Rubber devices, in varying sizes, inserted
                                                              Health conditions
     into vagina to cover cervix and form a
     barrier between uterine opening and sperm
TT       Contraceptive methods                      DIVORCE
BT       Barrier methods                                 A complete, legal breaking up of a marriage
                                                    BT        Family
                                                    RT        Child custody
DILATION AND CURETTAGE                                        Family law
     A procedure in which the cervix is dilated               Female-headed household
     and the lining of the uterus is scraped with             Marriage
     a spoon-like instrument known as curette                 Separation
BT       Abortion

DIRECTORY                                           BT    Africa
     Used for documents that list members'
     names and addresses or addresses of
     available services
                                                         "Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate" - (a
                                                         microcrystalline suspension) an injectable
                                                         contraceptive method for the prevention of
                                                         premature labour and for the treatment of
                                                         threatened abortion, endometriosis and
                                                         endometrial carnicoma
                                                    TT        Hormonal methods
                                                    BT        Injectable contraceptives

ARROW’S Thesaurus
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE                                           EATING PROBLEMS
BT   Crime                                                  NT    Anorexia
     Violence against women                                       Bulimia
NT   Child abuse                                                  Compulsive eatings
     Domestic violence act                                  RT    Body image
     Wife and partner battering                                   Dieting
RT   Family violence                                              Mental health
     Infanticide                                                  Weight consciouness
     Sexual abuse
     Sexual harassment                                      ECOLOGY
                                                                 Science and practice dealing with the
                                                                 interrelationships    between  population
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT                                            factors and their environments
BT   Domestic violence                                      BT       Environment
RT   Family law

                                                            ECONOMIC ASPECTS
BT   Latin and Central America
                                                            Economic characteristics
                                                            see    SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS
                                                            ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
                                                                 Existing state of economic organisation
                                                                 and factors in a country or area
DYSMENORRHEA                                                BT       Macro economic factors
     Painful or difficult menstruation, either primary or
                                                            RT       Social conditions
BT       Menstruation disorders

                                                            ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
                                                                 Growth or change resulting in increases in
E-mail                                                           per capita income, agricultural production,
see    ELECTRONIC MAIL                                           foreign trade and level of industrialisation
                                                            BT       Development
                                                            NT       Sectoral development
EAST ASIA                                                            Women workers
BT    Asia                                                  RT       Credit scheme
NT    China                                                          Developing countries
      Hong Kong                                                      Development policy
      Japan                                                          Economic growth
      Macau                                                          Economic policy
      Mongolia                                                       Income generation programmes
      North Korea                                                    Social development
      South Korea

ARROW’S Thesaurus
ECONOMIC FACTORS                                   EDUCATION
     Economic aspects of an activity, country or        The process or course of learning,
     person                                             instruction or training that provides
NT       Capital                                        knowledge, skill and competence
         Human resources                           BT       Socioeconomic factors
         Macro economic factors                    NT       Health education
         Marketing                                          Literacy
         Micro economic factors                             Non-formal education
         Rural development                                  Population education
         Social planning                                    Sex education
         Socioeconomic factors                              Training programmes
         Standard of living
RT       Social development                        EDUCATION AND WOMEN

ECONOMIC GROWTH                                    EGYPT
     The increase in wealth of a country as        BT    Africa
     measured by Gross National Product or
     Gross Domestic Product
RT       Economic development
         Economic policy                           EL SALVADOR
                                                   BT    Latin and Central America

BT   Government policy                             ELECTRONIC MAIL
RT   Economic development                          BT   Information processing
     Economic growth

                                                   EMPOWERMENT (FOR LEADERSHIP)
     Science and practice dealing with the
     production, distribution and consumption
                                                   ENDOMETRIAL CANCER
     of goods and services. May be used when
                                                        A malignant, cellular tumour of the
     the item being catalogued deals with an
     economic perspective. Not restricted to
                                                   BT       Cancer
     items about the field of economics itself
BT       Social sciences

                                                        A condition in which the tissue lining the
ECUADOR                                                 uterus (womb) is found in places other
BT   Latin and Central America                          than the uterus (sometimes known as
                                                        pelvic endometriosis). It can cause severe
                                                        pain for a long period of time and can
                                                        be extremely debilitating for women
                                                        affected by it
                                                   BT       Gynaecological disorders

ARROW’S Thesaurus
ENVIRONMENT                                         NT       Medical ethics
     All external conditions, biological and                 Professional ethics
     climatic, that influence a person or a group            Social ethics
NT       Ecology                                    RT       Moral values
         Environmental pollution
RT       Environmental health
         Environmental policy                       ETHIOPIA
                                                    BT    Africa

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH                                EUROPE
     Refers to the way the environment affects
                                                    RT   Eastern Europe
     the health of people, as opposed to the
     health of the environment itself
                                                         Western Europe
BT       Health                                          Meditteranean countries
RT       Environment
         Occupational Health
                                                    NT   Needs assessment
                                                         Project evaluation
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY                                     Project appraisal
BT   Government policy                              RT   Analysis
RT   Chemical sensitivities
                                                    see      FEMALE CIRCUMCISION
     Any risks to the physical environment,
     usually man-made
BT       Environment                                FAMILIES
RT       Urbanisation                                    Household      structure     and     family
                                                         composition, size and relationship
                                                    NT       Adoption
                                                             Extended families
EQUAL RIGHTS                                                 Family characteristics
RT   Discrimination                                          Female-headed household
     Human rights                                            Single parents
     Women's rights                                          Stepfamilies
                                                    RT       Households
   The treatment which uses an estrogens
   hormone from outside the human body
                                                    FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS
BT     Hormones
                                                         Size and composition of the family
RT       Ageing
                                                    BT       Families
         Hormone replacement therapy

                                                    FAMILY HEALTH
                                                    BT       Health

UF     Morality
ARROW’S Thesaurus
FAMILY LAW                                         FAMILY SIZE, IDEAL
BT   Law                                                The ideal family size to maintain, increase,
RT   Abortion                                           or decrease population in a country or
     Adoption                                           larger area
     Child custody                                 RT        Population size
     Domestic violence act                         Family violence
     Marriage                                      see     DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

FAMILY PLANNING                                    FEMALE CIRCUMCISION
     Voluntary planning and action by                   The removal of all or part of the prepuce
     individuals to have the number of children         and, in the case of excision, the removal of
     they want, when and if they want them              the glans clitoridis or even the clitoris itself
TT       Reproductive health                       BT        Circumcision
 BT      Contraception                             NT        Female/genital mutilation
 NT      Family planning programmes
         Fertility control
RT       Abortion                                  FEMALE CONDOMS
         Family planning policy                         A blind-ending hollow tube which uses
                                                        rings to secure the device against the
                                                        vulva and to aid in insertion in the vagina
                                                        during intercourse
     Decisions and actions by public bodies to     TT        Barrier methods
     guide and usually determine present and       BT        Condoms
     future decisions about family planning
BT       Population policy                         FEMALE CONTRACEPTION
RT       Family planning                                Used for general discussions of female
FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMES                         BT        Contraception
     Organised activities including provision of
     contraceptives and family planning
     information, aimed at assisting individuals
     to have the number of children they want,     FEMALE/GENITAL MUTILATION
     when and if they want them                    BT   Female circumcision
TT       Reproductive health
BT       Family planning
RT       Abortion services                         FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLD
         Barrier methods                           BT   Family
         Critiques                                 RT   Divorce
         Government programmes                          Marriage
         Health programmes
         Population programmes
                                                   FEMALE INFANTICIDE
                                                        The killing of a female infant by violence or
                                                        by neglect
Family planning services
                                                   TT        Crime
                                                   BT        Infanticide
                                                   RT        Child abuse

ARROW’S Thesaurus
FEMALE STERILIZATION                                 FEMINIST THEORIES
     A procedure by which a female is made           BT    Development theories
     incapable of reproduction                       RT    Feminism
TT        Surgical methods                                 Feminist critiques
BT        Sterilization                                    Feminist movements
          Tubectomy, tubal ligation                        Women in development theories

     A philosophy and struggle against               FERTILITY
     patriarchy which aims to empower women               The reproductive performance of a group
     to enable them to operate as, and acquire a     BT       Population dynamics
     full "citizenship" into society with equal
                                                     NT       Fertility decline
     rights and equal access to resources. It
     also seeks to redefine the whole spectrum of
                                                              Reproductive behaviour
     politics, economics        and culture to       RT       Fertility control
     incorporate women's experiences and hence
     a feminist perspective into the relevant
     conceptual frameworks. This redefining          FERTILITY AWARENESS
     process, which largely relies upon feminist          Methods of planning or preventing
     research methodologies is aimed at the               pregnancy based on         observation of
     formulation of a feminist epistemology.              naturally occurring signs and symptoms of
     Although feminism attempts to cut across             the fertile and infertile phases of the
     class, racial and other social divisions, and        menstrual cycle (see also NATURAL
     ideological differences has fictionalised the        FAMILY PLANNING)
     movement. Typically, they include liberal       TT       Traditional methods
     feminists, Marxist feminists, radical           BT       Periodic sexual abstinence
     feminists, ecofeminists, etc.
                                                     NT       Basal body temperature method
RT        Feminist critiques
                                                              Calendar rhythm method
          Feminist movements                                  Cervical mucus or ovulation method
          Feminist theories                                   Sympto-thermal method
          Gender                                     RT       Natural family planning
          Women's rights
          Women's status
                                                     FERTILITY CONTROL
                                                     BT    Family planning
FEMINIST CRITIQUES                                   RT    Fertility
RT    Feminism                                             Population control
      Feminist movements                                   Population policy
      Feminist theories
      Population control
                                                     FERTILITY DECLINE
                                                          Reduction in the number of births occurring
                                                          in a population during a particular period
FEMINIST MOVEMENTS                                        of time
RT    Feminism                                       TT       Population
      Feminist critiques                             BT       Fertility
      Feminist theories                              RT       Population decrease
      Non-governmental organizations
      Women's movements and

ARROW’S Thesaurus
FERTILITY RATE                                   FOLKLORE
     Number of births (usually per year) per          Customs, beliefs, stories and sayings of a
     1000 women of childbearing age, usually          people handed down from generation to
     15-44                                            generation
BT       Health indicators                       BT       Culture
RT       Birth rate                              RT       Customs
         Contraceptive usage                              Traditions
         Pregnancy rate

                                                 FOLLOW-UP STUDIES
FERTILITY SURVEYS                                     Studies that follow the same group of
     Surveys that assess the current state of         persons or households over time by means
     human fertility in an area                       of repeated visits or other contacts
BT       Population statistics                   TT       Research methodology
NT       World fertility surveys                 BT       Data collection
RT       Demographic surveys

                                                 FOOD AND NUTRITION
FIBROIDS                                              A nutritious substance, especially solid in
     A   fibrous, connective tissue tumour            form, that can be taken to maintain life and
BT       Gynaecological disorders                     growth
                                                 BT       Health
FIBROCYSTIC BREASTS                              RT       Infant nutrition
UF    Benign breast disease                      NT       Nutrition programmes
      Fibrocystic disease
BT    Breast conditions
                                                 FORCEPS DELIVERY
                                                      Giving birth through surgical operations by
FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE                                   using a two-bladed instrument with a
Use   Fibrocystic breasts                             handle for compressing or grasping tissues
                                                 BT       Child birth

     Qualitative research in the form of open-   FUNDERS
     ended, non-judgemental discussion of
                                                 RT   Aid
     predesign topics by a small group drawn
                                                      United Nations
     from a target population to permit free
     expression of perceptions, opinions,
     attitudes and behaviour patterns
TT       Research methodology                    FUNGICIDES
BT       Data collection                         BT    Pesticides

Folk Media

ARROW’S Thesaurus
GENDER                                                         GENDER PLANNING AND
     Essentially a feminist reorientation of the               IMPLEMENTATION
     patriarchal normative, "sex" (as in                       RT   Development planning
     male/female) where sex roles and identities                    Gender and development
     of individuals placed within a gender
     framework,      defined     as     "socially
     constructed" and not natural                              GENDER ROLES
NT       Gender and development                                BT   Gender and development
RT       Feminism                                              NT   Men's roles
         Sexism                                                     Women's roles
         Women's rights                                        RT   Sex roles
         Women's status
                                                               Gender sensitization
GENDER ANALYSIS                                                see     GENDER TRAINING
         Skills of analysing an organisation or programme to
         see men and women are differently affected.

                                                               GENDER STUDIES
                                                               Use  Women’s studies
     An approach to development which
     incorporates a gender analysis with the
     primary aim of visibilising women's                       GENDER TRAINING
     role in development (social, economic and                 RT   Gender and development
     political) and to prevent their further
     marginalisation or exclusion owing to
     policies and theories that are gender-
                                                               GENDER VIOLENCE
BT       Gender
                                                               GENETIC ENGINEERING
NT       Gender equality
                                                               RT   Genetics
         Gender roles
RT       Gender planning and implementation
         Gender training
         Sex discrimination                                    GENETICS
                                                                    The study of heredity. May be used when the
                                                                    item being catalogued deals with genetic
                                                                    issues or considerations. Not restricted to
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT THEORIES                                     items about the field of genetics itself
BT   Development theories                                      RT       Genetic engineering

BT   Gender and development                                    GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS
                                                                    Effect of region or type of surroundings on
                                                                    populations, e.g., urban surroundings
                                                                    versus rural
                                                               BT       Population
                                                               RT       Geography

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     Study of the earth and its features and the     GOVERNMENT PROGRAMMES
     distribution on the earth of life, including         Programmes        authorised,   designed,
     human life and the effects of human activity         administered, or sponsored by government
BT        Social sciences                                 units or agencies
RT        Geographic factors                         BT       Organisation and administration
                                                     NT       Women in development programmes
                                                     RT       Family planning programmes
GLOBALISATION                                                 Government
                                                              Government policy
                                                              Health budget
GONORRHEA                                                     Health programmes
     A common sexually transmitted disease
     caused by the "gonococcus", a bacterium
     shaped like a coffee bean, which works its
                                                     GYNAECOLOGICAL SURGERY
     way gradually along the warm, moist
                                                          Manual or operative procedures for any
     passageways of the genital and urinary
                                                          condition affecting the genital tract in
     organs and effects the cervix, urethra, anus
     and throat. It can be transmitted through
     genital, genital-oral and genital-rectal sex.
                                                     NT       Hysterectomy
     A mother can pass it to her baby during                  Hysterotomy
     delivery                                        RT       Gynaecology
BT        STDs

                                                     GYNAECOLOGICAL DISORDERS
GOVERNMENT                                           TT   Reproductive health
     The administration of public in a political     BT   Gynaecology
     unit                                            NT   AIDS
BT        Political factors                               Cervical dysplasia
NT        Regional government                             Endometriosis
RT        Government policy                               Fibroids
          Government programmes                           Ovarian cysts
          Non-governmental organisations                  Reproductive tract infections
          Public administration                           STDs
                                                     RT   Infertility
GOVERNMENT POLICY                                         Urinary tract infections
NT   Development policy
     Economic policy
     Environmental policy                            GYNAECOLOGISTS
     Health policy                                   BT   Health workers
     Labour policy                                   RT   Obstetricians
     Population policy
     Women in development policy
RT   Aid
     Government                                      GYNAECOLOGY
                                                          The science of the physiological functions
     Government programmes
                                                          and diseases of women especially those
     International development
                                                          affecting the reproductive systems
                                                     NT       Gynaecological disorders
                                                     RT       Gynaecologic surgery
                                                              Reproductive health

ARROW’S Thesaurus
HEALTH                                             HEALTH EDUCATION
     The state of an organism with respect to           Education that increases awareness and
     functioning disease, and abnormality at any        favourably influences the attitudes and
     given time. As defined in the Constitution         knowledge relating to the improvement of
     of the World Health Organization (WHO) is          health on a personal or community basis
     "a state of complete physical, mental and     BT       Education
     social well-being and not merely the                   Health
     absence of disease or infirmity"              RT       Health care
NT       Child health                                       Health programmes
         Disease                                            Pharmaceuticals
         Environmental health                               Primary health care
         Food and nutrition                                 Sex education
         Health care
         Health education
         Mental health
         Occupational health                       HEALTH FACILITIES
                                                        Institutions that provide medical or health-
         Women's health
                                                        related services
RT       Health conditions
                                                   TT       Health
         Health hazards
                                                   BT       Health care
         Health policy
                                                   NT       Hospitals
         Health programmes
         Health workers

                                                   HEALTH HAZARDS
HEALTH ASPECTS                                     BT   Occupational health
                                                   RT   Health
                                                        VDT use
RT   Government programmes
     Health care
                                                   HEALTH ORGANISATIONS
                                                   SN   Use a more specific term whenever possible
                                                   BT   Organisations
HEALTH CARE                                        NT   Consumer health organisations
BT   Health                                             Government health agencies
NT   Health facilities                                  International health organisations
     Primary health care                                Nonprofit health organisations
RT   Disease                                            Professional health associations
     Health budget
     Health education
     Health programmes
                                                   Health personnel
     Health workers
                                                   see     HEALTH WORKERS
     Maternal-child health services
     Quality of health care

                                                   HEALTH POLICY
HEALTH CONDITIONS                                  BT   Government policy
RT   Disease                                            Policy
     Health                                        RT   Health
                                                        Health programmes

ARROW’S Thesaurus
HEALTH PROGRAMMES                                     HERPES
     Organised programmes for the provision of             A sexually transmitted disease caused by the
     health care delivery and medical treatment            "herpes simplex virus", a tiny primitive
     to individuals                                        organism whose nature is still more or less
NT       Primary health care                               a mystery. The virus enters the body
RT       Family planning programmes                        through the skin and mucous membranes of
         Government programmes                             the mouth and genitals, and travels along
         Health                                            the nerve endings to the base of the spine,
                                                           where it sets up permanent residence,
         Health education
                                                           feeding off nutrients produced by the body
         Health policy                                     cells. It can spread through vaginal, anal
         Non-government programmes                         or oral sex with an active infection partner,
                                                           and from mouth to genitals (or eyes) via
HEALTH RESEARCH                                            fingers
     Use when the item being catalogued refers        BT        STDs
     to the field of health and medical research
     itself, not necessarily when the item is
     reporting the results or methodology of a
     particular research project                      HETEROSEXUALITY
NT       Contraceptive research                            Sexual attraction between persons of the
                                                           opposite sex
                                                      BT        Sexuality
         Use a more specific term whenever possible   RT        Homosexuality
NT       Childbirth services                                    Lesbianism
         Emergency                                              Sexual deviance
         Hospice services
RT       Health and medical care
         Health insurance                             HINDUISM
         Quality of care                                   The dominant cultic religion of India
                                                      BT        Religion

HEALTH WORKERS                                        HISTORY
                                                           Used for the historical aspects of any
     Individuals working      in   the   health
                                                           subject. Not restricted to items about the
                                                           field of history itself. Use as a secondary
NT       Gynaecologists
         Traditional birth attendants                 HIV INFECTIONS
RT       Health                                            Infections believed to be caused by the
                                                           human immuno deficiency virus (HIV), e.g.,
         Health care
         Primary health care
                                                      NT        AIDS
         Training programmes
                                                      RT        STDs

BT   Alternative medicine
                                                      BT   Child birth

ARROW’S Thesaurus
 HOMEOPATHY                                      HOSPITALS
     Treatment of disease by minute doses of          Institutions where the sick or injured are
     drugs that in a healthy person would             given medical or surgical care. Hospital
     produce symptoms of the disease                  programmes may include preventive
BT       Alternative medicine                         medicine or family planning service
                                                 TT        Health care
                                                 BT        Health facilities
     Killing of one human being by another
BT       Crime
RT       Violence against women                  HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION
                                                      Household use of goods and services
                                                 BT        Micro economic factors

     Sexual attraction or relationship between
     members of the same sex                     HOUSEWORK
                                                      Provision of services within the home for
BT       Sexuality
                                                      the family
RT       Heterosexuality
                                                 BT        Micro economic factors

HONG KONG                                        HUMAN RESOURCES
                                                      Actual or potential number of workers
TT   Asia
                                                      available at a given time
BT   East Asia
                                                 BT        Economic factors
                                                 NT        Labour force

BT  Contraceptive methods
                                                 HUMAN RIGHTS
NT  Implants                                          The rights to which one is justly entitled as
    Injectable contraceptives                         a human being
    Oral contraceptives                          NT        Women's rights
RT  Barrier methods                              RT        Equal rights
                                                           Reproductive rights

     Drug therapy which supplies the body with   HYSTERECTOMY
     estrogen and progesterone after menopause        The surgical removal of the cervix and
RT       Ageing                                       uterus
         Estrogen replacement therapy            BT        Gynaecological surgery
                                                      Incision into the uterus,         performed
                                                      vaginally or transabdominally
                                                 BT        Gynaecological surgery

                                                 see    MIGRANTS

ARROW’S Thesaurus
NT   Vaccines                                     TT   Asia
                                                  BT   Southeast Asia

     Rods or capsules inserted under the skin     INFANT MORTALITY
TT       Contraceptive methods                          Death of children from birth to two years of
BT       Hormonal methods                               age
NT       Norplant                                  BT       Mortality
                                                  RT        Child mortality
                                                            Maternal health
INCEST                                                      Pregnancy loss
BT    Crime
RT    Child abuse
                                                  INFANT NUTRITION
                                                        Nutrition of children from birth to two
INCOME GENERATION PROGRAMMES                            years of age
     Small scale programmes, usually for          BT        Child care
     women's groups, to give additional income    NT        Bottle feeding
     to participants. Payment is sometimes made             Breastfeeding
     in commodities                               RT        Food and nutrition
RT       Credit scheme
         Economic development

INDIA                                                   The killing of an infant by violence or by
TT    Asia
                                                  BT        Crime
BT    South Asia
                                                  NT        Female infanticide
                                                  RT        Child abuse
                                                            Domestic violence
                                                            Infant mortality
NT    Economics
      Gender equality
                                                        Inability or diminished ability to produce
                                                        offspring; unproductivity
BT    Spirituality                                BT        Reproductive health
                                                  RT        Gynaecological disorders
                                                            Pelvic inflammatory diseases
                                                            Reproductive tract infections
INDO-CHINA                                                  STDs
BT    Asia
NT    Kampuchea
      Laos                                        INFORMAL SECTORS

ARROW’S Thesaurus
INFORMATION CENTRES                                  INTERNATIONAL             UNITED        NATIONS
RT      Information Networks         Documentation   CONFERENCES
Centres                                              Use a more specific term whenever possible

                                                     NT       Environment and Development
                                                              ( Rio de Janeiro 1992)
                                                              Human Rights ( Vienna 1993)
     Preparation, structuring, or manipulation
     of information or data                                   International Conference on Population
NT       Computer programmes and                                   Development
                                                              and programming (Cairo 1994)
         Computers                                            4th World Conference on Women
         Electronic mail                                      (Beijing)
         CD-ROM                                               International Conference on Population
                                                              and Development + 5 (Hague 1998)

     Hormonal contraceptive method using                  Conversations with an individual held in
     intramuscular injection                              order to obtain information
TT       Contraceptive methods                       TT       Research methodology
BT       Hormonal methods                            BT       Data collection
NT       Depo-Provera
         NET-EN                                      Intrauterine Devices
                                                     see     IUDs

BT    Pesticides                                     IRAN
                                                     TT       Asia
                                                     BT       West and Central Asia
RT    Public administration                          IRAQ
                                                     TT   Asia
                                                     BT   West and Central Asia
BT    Development                                    ISLAM
RT    Government policy                                   The religious faith of Muslims including
      Poverty                                             belief in ALLAH as the sole deity and in
      Structural adjustment                               Muhammad as HIS Prophet
                                                     BT       Religion
                                                     NT       Women in Islam
 INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION                             RT       Islamic law (shariah)
     The movement across an international
     boundary for the purpose of establishing a
     new permanent resident                          ISLAMIC LAW (SHARIAH)
BT       Migration                                   BT    Law
RT       Labour policy                               RT    Islam

                                                     see      IUDs

ARROW’S Thesaurus
IUD, COPPER                                       KAMPUCHEA
     An IUD containing copper                     TT   Asia
TT       Contraceptive methods                    BT   Indo-China
BT       IUDs

IUD, HORMONE                                      BT   Africa
     An IUD containing an active hormonal
TT       Contraceptive methods
BT       IUDs                                     LABOUR FORCE
                                                       Persons employed for pay or profit plus
                                                       persons who sought work but are currently
IUD, UNMEDICATED                                  BT       Human resources
     An inert IUD                                          Macro economic factors
TT       Contraceptive methods                    NT       Agricultural workers
BT       IUDs                                              Child labour
                                                           Women migrant workers
                                                           Women workers
     Pieces of plastic or metal having various
     shapes inserted into the uterus to exert a   LABOUR POLICY
     contraceptive effect                         BT   Government policy
BT       Contraceptive methods                    RT   International migration
NT       IUD, copper
         IUD, hormone
         IUD, unmedicated
RT       Barrier methods
                                                  TT   Asia
                                                  BT   Indo-China

     Includes Ryukyu Islands
TT       Asia
BT       East Asia

TT   Asia
BT   West and Central Asia

     Offences committed by a person or persons
     below the age of legal responsibility
BT       Social problems
RT       Adolescence

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     Spanish, Portuguese, or French speaking            Legal facets of subject.    Can be used as a
     countries of America. Prior to 1983, used          secondary descriptor
     for all of South and Central America and      RT       Polygyny
     the Caribbean
NT       Argentina
         Barbados                                  LEGISLATION
         Bolivia                                   NT    Economic legislation
         Brazil                                          Government law
         Chile                                           Policy
         Costa Rica
         Dominican Republic
                                                   BT    Sexuality
                                                   RT    Heterosexuality
         El Salvador
         Mexico                                          Homosexuality
         Peru                                      LITERACY
         Puerto Rico                                    Ability to read and write
         Uruguay                                   BT       Education

                                                   LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
LAV                                                     Studies in which variables relating to an
                                                        individual or groups of individuals are
                                                        assessed over a period of time
                                                   TT       Research methodology
                                                   BT       Data collection
     A rule enacted or customary in a
     community and recognized as enjoining or
     prohibiting certain actions and enforced by   MACAU
     the imposition of penalties                   TT   Asia
NT       Family law                                BT   East Asia
         Islamic law (shariah)
         Law and women
                                                    MACRO ECONOMIC FACTORS
                                                        Socioeconomic factors in terms of whole
LAW AND WOMEN                                           systems (societies)
BT   Law                                           BT       Economic factors
                                                   NT       Agriculture
                                                            Economic conditions
LEADERSHIP                                                  Labour force
see Empowerment

Leaflets                                           see    NEWSLETTERS,                   PERIODICALS,
see      PAMPHLETS                                 ETC.

ARROW’S Thesaurus
MALAYSIA                                            MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING
TT   Asia                                                Wide testing of a symptom-free population,
BT   Southeast Asia                                      including low-risk individuals, in an
                                                         attempt to find latent or very early stage of
                                                         breast problems, particularly cancer
                                                    RT        Breast cancer
TT   Asia
BT   South Asia
                                                    see   ORGANISATION AND
     Removal of all or part of the foreskin of
     the penis
BT       Circumcision                               MANUALS
                                                         Used for handbooks or guides giving
                                                         directions or principles of a subject or
     Sheaths or cover for the penis; for use as a
     contraceptive or to prevent infection during
     sexual intercourse                             MARKETING
BT       Condoms                                         The commercial functions involved in
RT       Male contraception                              transferring goods from producer to
                                                    BT        Economic factors

     Contraception for males in general
BT       Contraception                                   The social institution involving legal and/or
RT       Male condoms                                    religious sanction whereby men and women
         Vasectomy                                       are joined together
                                                    BT        Family
                                                    NT        Polygamy
MALE STERILIZATION                                  RT        Child custody
     A procedure by which a male is made                      Divorce
     incapable of reproduction                                Family law
BT       Sterilisation                                        Female-headed household
NT       Vasectomy                                            Separation

MALNUTRITION                                        MASS MEDIA
BT   Nutrition disorders                                 Instruments or technological means of
NT       Vitamin deficiency                              communication that reach large numbers of
RT       Hunger                                          people with a common message; includes
         Poverty                                         billboards, banners, posters, store windows
                                                         and and match covers
                                                    TT        Communication
                                                    BT        Media
                                                    NT        Broadcast media
                                                              Print media
                                                              Traditional media
                                                    RT        Media and women

ARROW’S Thesaurus
MASSAGE                                           MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES
BT   Alternative medicine                         BT   Mortality rates
                                                  RT   Fertility rates
                                                       Maternal mortality
     Health programmes concerned with
     physical, mental and social well-being of    MCH
     mothers and their children
                                                  see   MATERNAL              –    CHILD     HEALTH
BT       Primary health care
RT       Child health
         Health care
         Maternal health
                                                       The main means of mass communication
                                                       (especially newspapers and broadcasting)
MATERNAL HEALTH                                        regarded collectively
     The physical, mental and social well-being
                                                  BT       Communication
     of a pregnant woman / mother
                                                  NT       Mass media
BT       Health
                                                           Alternative media
NT       Maternal morbidity
                                                  RT       Media and women
         Maternal mortality
RT       Child birth
         Infant mortality
         Maternal-child health services           MEDIA AND WOMEN
         Mother and child health                  RT    Media
         Pregnancy complications
                                                  MEN'S ROLES
                                                  BT     Sex roles
BT   Morbidity
RT   Maternal health
                                                       Beginning of the menstrual function
                                                  UF       Onset of menses
MATERNAL MORTALITY                                TT       Reproductive health
     Maternal      deaths   resulting    from     BT       Menstrual cycle
     complications of pregnancy and childbirth    RT       Adolescence
     in a given population                                 Sex education
BT       Mortality
RT       Child bearing
         Maternal health
         Maternal mortality rates
                                                       Cessation of menstruation
                                                  BT       Menstrual cycle
                                                           Reproductive health
                                                  NT       Early menopause
                                                           Surgical menopause
                                                  RT       Ageing
                                                           Estrogen replacement therapy
                                                           Hormone replacement therapy
                                                           Hot Flashes
                                                           Vaginal dryness
ARROW’S Thesaurus
MENORRHAGIA                                       MENTAL HEALTH
     Excessive bleeding at the time of a               Emotional, behavioural and social
     menstrual period, either in number of days        maturity; the absence of mental or
     or amount of blood or both                        behavioural disorder
BT       Menstruation disorders                   BT        Health
                                                  NT        Stress
                                                  RT        Alcohol consumption
MENSTRUAL CYCLE                                             Anxiety
     The period in which an ovum matures, is                Depression
     ovulated, and enters the uterine lumen via             Eating disorders
     the fallopian tubes                                    Psychological health
TT       Reproductive health
NT       Menarche
         Menstruation                             MEXICO
         Menopause                                BT   Latin and Central America
                                                  MICRO ECONOMIC FACTORS
                                                       Socioeconomic factors in terms of
                                                       individual areas of activity; e.g., household
MENSTRUATION                                      BT        Economic factors
     The cyclic, endometrial shedding and         NT        Household consumption
     discharge of blood from the non pregnant               Housework
     uterus, occurring usually at approximately
     four-week intervals during the female
     reproductive period
 BT      Reproductive health                      MICROCOMPUTERS
 NT      Menarche                                      Very small computers or microprocessors
         Menstrual cycle                          BT        Computers

MENSTRUATION DISORDERS                            MIDWIVES
     Upsets in the normal menstrual process of         Women who assist at child birth but who
     periodic discharge of the lining of the           are not physicians; includes traditional
     uterus                                            birth attendants
NT       Amenorrhea                               BT        Health workers
         Dysmenorrhea                             RT        Nurses
         Menorrhagia                                        Obstetricians
         Premenstrual tension                               Traditional birth attendants

                                                       Individuals who make relatively permanent
                                                       changes of residence from one country or
                                                       region within a country, to another
                                                  UF        Emmigrants
                                                  BT        Migration
                                                  RT        Women migrant workers

ARROW’S Thesaurus
MIGRATION                                         MORTALITY RATES
     Movements of individuals or populations           Number of deaths per 1000            people,
BT       Population dynamics                           usually per year
NT       International migration                  UF        Death rates
         Migrants                                 BT        Health status
         Migration, internal                                Mortality
         Rural-urban migration                    NT        Infant nortality rates
                                                            Maternal mortality rates
                                                  RT        Life expectancy
MIGRATION, INTERNAL                                         Morbidity rates
     Movement of individual populations within
     a country
BT       Migration                                Muslim
RT       Rural-urban migration                    see    ISLAM

Miscarriage                                       MYANMAR
see     ABORTION                                  TT   Asia
                                                  BT   Southeast Asia

Mithuri                                           Natality
see     CONDOM                                    see      FERTILITY

                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLANS
                                                  RT   Women’s Development (Post-Beijing)
TT  Asia
                                                       Population and Development
BT  East Asia

MORBIDITY                                         NATIONAL WOMEN POLICY
     The rate of sickness in a population         BT   Development policy
RT       Maternal morbidity

                                                  NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING
MORTALITY                                              Methods of family planning that are based
     The number of deaths in a population,             on the identification of individual signs and
     including    overall     mortality     and        symptoms of fertility and sexual abstinence
     comparisons of several types or mortality         during the fertile period (see also
BT       Population dynamics                           FERTILITY AWARENESS)
NT       Child mortality                          TT        Traditional methods
         Infant mortality                         BT        Periodic sexual abstinence
         Maternal mortality                        NT       Basal body temperature
         Mortality rates                                    Calendar rhythm method
                                                            Cervical mucus or ovulation method
                                                            Sympto-thermal method
                                                  RT        Fertility awareness

ARROW’S Thesaurus
NATUROPATHY                                         NON-ALLOPATHIC THERAPIES
     The treatment of disease without drugs,        UF    Alternative medicine
     usually involving diet, exercise, massage,           Holistic health care
     etc.                                                 Natural medicine
BT       Alternative medicine                             Traditional remedies
                                                    BT    Theraupatic procedures
                                                    NT    Acunputure
NEPAL                                                     Alexander technique
TT    Asia                                                Biofeedback
BT    South Asia                                          Chiropractic
                                                          Hair analysis
                                                          Herbal theraphy
                                                          Homeopathic remedies
     "Norethisterone enantate" - an oily solution
     of hormonal methods                                  Tai-chi
TT       Hormonal methods                                 Touch theraphy
BT       Injectable contraceptives                        Visualisation

NEW ZEALAND                                         NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
TT   Developing countries                                Activities or programmes organised outside
BT   Pacific and Oceania                                 the established educational systems but
                                                         directed towards definite educational
NEWSLETTERS, PERIODICALS, ETC.                      BT       Education
     Newsletters / periodicals containing pieces
     (e.g., articles, stories, poems) often
     illustrated                                    NON-GOVERNMENT PROGRAMMES
                                                    RT   Health programmes

BT   Latin and Central America
                                                    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
                                                    RT   Feminist movements
                                                         Women's movements and

                                                         A       hormonal contraceptive implant,
                                                         introduced by Population Council, made of
                                                         soft rubber-like material. It is said as an
                                                         effective, long lasting, reversible new
                                                         method, which are inserted just under the
                                                         skin of a women's upper arm. The six
                                                         thin, flexible capsules contain a synthetic
                                                         hormone, levonorgestrel, that is also used
                                                         in combination oral contraceptives
                                                    TT       Hormonal methods
                                                    BT       Depo provera

ARROW’S Thesaurus
NORTH AMERICA                                       OPTIMUM POPULATION
NT   Canada                                               Population size at which a population as a
     United States                                        whole enjoys the highest quality of life
                                                    BT        Population size

TT   Asia                                           ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
BT   East Asia                                            Chemical substances with contraceptive
                                                          activity administered orally
                                                    TT        Contraceptive methods
                                                    BT        Hormonal methods
NURSES                                              NT        Oral contraceptives, combined
     Individuals who are especially prepared in
                                                              Oral contraceptives, low-dose
     the scientific basis of nursing and who meet
     certain       prescribed       standards of
     education and clinical competence
BT       Health workers                             ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES, COMBINED
RT       Midwives                                         A progestin administered in combination
                                                          with an estrogen
                                                    TT        Hormonal methods
                                                    BT        Oral contraceptives
     Organised activities to supplement the
     nutrition of human populations
BT       Food and nutrition                         ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES, LOW-DOSE
RT       Maternal-child health services                   Contain less than 50 mcg estrogen
         Maternal health                            TT        Hormonal methods
         Primary health care                         BT       Oral contraceptives

TT       Health care                                      Management of organisations or services in
BT       Maternal Health                                  general
RT       Childbirth                                 NT        Government programmes
         Pregnancy                                  RT        Organisational change
                                                              Organisational evaluation
                                                              Personnel development
OBSTETRICIANS                                                 Personnel management
BT   Health workers
RT   Gynaecologists
                                                    ORGANISATIONAL EVALUATION
                                                    RT   Organisation and administration
BT   Health
NT   Health hazards                                 OSTEOPOROSIS
                                                          A condition in which bones become thin,
                                                          fragile and highly prone to fracture
                                                    BT        Ageing
                                                    RT        Hormone replacement therapy
BT   Antiabortion movement
                                                              Musculoskeletal diseases

ARROW’S Thesaurus
OVARIAN CANCER                                      PARENTING
     A malignant, cellular tumour of the ovary      RT   Adoption
BT       Cancer                                          Childcare
     A cystic tumor of the ovary either benign or
BT       Gynaecological disorders
                                                    NT   Government relationship
                                                         Non-government relationship

BT    Developing countries
NT    Australia                                     PELVIC CANCER
                                                    BT    Cancer
      New Zealand
      Papua New Guinea
                                                    PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES
                                                         Consists of infections of the uterus,
PAKISTAN                                                 fallopian tubes and ovaries. It can cause
TT    Asia                                               severe inflammation and scarring of the
BT    South Asia                                         fallopian tubes and ovaries, and damage
                                                         increases with the severity inflammation
                                                    RT       Infertility
                                                             Reproductive tract infections
BT    West and Central Asia
                                                    PERIODIC SEXUAL ABSTINENCE
                                                    TT    Contraceptive methods
PAMPHLETS                                           BT    Traditional methods
     Unbound, non-periodical publications           NT    Fertility awareness
                                                          Natural family planning

RT    Cervical cancer                               Periodicals
      Cytology                                      see      NEWSLETTERS,             PERIODICALS,

BT    Pacific and Oceania                           PERSONNEL APPRAISAL
                                                    RT   Personnel management

BT   Latin and Central America

ARROW’S Thesaurus
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT                                       PHYSIOLOGY
           The phase of management which deals with all         The function of a living organism and its
aspects of the relations between the employer and               parts
individual employees, the object of which is to build an
efficient work force to ensure the maximum development
of the individuals within the organisation
BT       Management
                                                           see   PELVIC                    INFLAMMATORY
NT       Employment termination
RT       Employment
         Manpower needs
                                                           Pill (the)
         Working conditions
                                                           see        ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

BT   Latin and Central America                             PILOT PROJECTS
                                                                Sample studies to test validity of a project
                                                                or research plan
                                                           BT       Data collection
PEST CONTROL                                               RT       Case study
RT    Pesticides

PESTICIDES                                                      A definite course or method of action
BT    Occupational health                                       selected to guide and determine present and
NT    Fungicides                                                future decisions
      Insecticides                                         NT       Development policy
      VDT use                                                       Health policy
RT    Health hazards                                                Women in development policy
      Pest control                                         RT       Government policy

PHARMACEUTICALS                                            POLITICAL ASPECTS
     Any substance, other than food, used in the
                                                           RT    Politics
     prevention,     diagnosis,      alleviation,
     treatment or cure of disease in man and
RT       Consumerism                                       POLITICAL FACTORS
         Health education                                       Activities concerned with governmental
         Privatisation                                          policies and functions and competition
         Quality of health care                                 among interest groups to influence those
                                                           NT       Government
TT    Asia
BT    Southeast Asia                                       POLITICAL SCIENCE
                                                           BT    Social sciences

ARROW’S Thesaurus
POLITICS                                           POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
     Use in connection with political life as a             Interaction of development factors with
     whole                                                  population variables
RT       Politics and women
         Political aspects
                                                   POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS
                                                        Structure of a population; various social
POLITICS AND WOMEN                                      and biological groups into which members
RT    Politics                                          of a population may be classified
                                                   BT       Demographic factors
                                                   NT       Indigenous population
                                                            Rural population
                                                            Sex factors
see      ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION                            Urban population

POLYGAMY                                           POPULATION CONTROL
     Simultaneous plural marriage                       Government regulation of growth, density
TT       Family                                         and distribution of people through policy
BT       Marriage                                       and programmes
NT       Polygyny                                  BT       Population policy
                                                   NT       Population programmes
                                                   RT       Feminist critiques
                                                            Fertility control
     The practice of having more than one wife
     or female mate at one time
TT       Marriage                                  POPULATION DECREASE
BT       Concubinage                                    Reduction in the number of inhabitants in
RT       Polygamy                                       an area
         Wives                                     BT       Population dynamics
                                                   RT       Family planning policy
                                                            Fertility rate
POPULATION                                                  Mortality rate
     Inhabitants of a given area; also the size,            Population projection
     structure, and development of human
NT       Demographic factors                       POPULATION DYNAMICS
         Geographic factors                             Changes in population processes
RT       Ageing                                    BT       Demographic factors
         Demography                                NT       Ageing population
         Migration                                          Demographic surveys
         Population characteristics                         Fertility
         Population growth                                  Migration
         Population policy                                  Mortality
         Population surveys                                 Population decrease
                                                            Population growth
                                                            Population size
                                                   RT       population distributions

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     An      educational    programme     which           The results of extrapolating a particular
     provides for a study of the population               past growth of a population into the future
     situation in the family, the community,              when all of the independent variables used
     nation and world with the purpose of                 are given in demographic terms
     developing in the students rational and         RT       Population decrease
     responsible attitudes and behaviour toward               Population growth
     that situation
BT       Education
                                                     POPULATION SIZE
                                                          Number of persons inhabiting a particular
POPULATION GROWTH                                         region or area
         Increase, over a specific period of time,   BT       Population dynamics
         in the number of individuals living in a    NT       Optimum population
         country or region                                    Zero population growth
BT       Population dynamics                         RT       Family size, ideal
RT       Population
         Population projection
                                                     POPULATION STATISTICS
                                                          Vital statistics, migration statistics, and
POPULATION POLICY                                         census and survey data
     Decisions and actions by government             BT       Research methodology
     bodies intended to guide and usually to         NT       Census
     determine present and future decisions                   Fertility surveys
     influencing demographic variables                        Vital statistics
BT       Government policy
NT       Family planning policy
         Population control                          Population structure
RT       Critiques                                   see     POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS
         Fertility control
         Social policy
                                                          Situation in which the level of living is
                                                          below standard of the community
POPULATION PROGRAMMES                                BT       Social problems
     Government and other sponsored and              RT       International development
     funded programmes for population control
     having social and economic goals broader
     than the provision of family planning           PREGNANCY
     services                                             Condition of having a developing embryo or
BT       Population control                               fetus in the body after the union of a
RT       Population                                       spermatozoon and an ovum
         Family planning programmes                  BT       Reproductive health
                                                     NT       Pregnancy complications
                                                     RT       Abortion
                                                              Adolescent pregnancy
                                                              Maternal health
                                                              Maternal mortality

ARROW’S Thesaurus
PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL                               PREGNANCY, UNWANTED
     Ectopic pregnancy within the peritoneal            Conception consciously undesired at time
     cavity                                             of conception and later, by the couple or by
BT       Pregnancy, ectopic                             either of the partners
                                                   BT       Reproductive behaviour

     Undesirable conditions following or           Pregnancy wastage
     existing as a consequence of gestation         see    ABORTION
BT       Pregnancy
NT       Pregnancy, ectopic
RT       Chlamydia infections
                                                   PREMENSTRUAL TENSION
         Maternal health                                Conditions occurring periodically in some
                                                        individuals usually a week or ten days
                                                        before menstruation; characterized by
PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC                                      varying degrees of nervousness and
     Development of the fertilised ovum outside         irritability,   emotional      instability,
     the cavity of the uterus                           headaches, and sometimes depression
BT       Pregnancy complications                   BT       Menstruation disorders
NT       Pregnancy, abdominal
         Pregnancy, ovarian
         Pregnancy, tubal                          PREVENTION AND CONTROL
                                                        Used with diseases for increasing human or
                                                        animal resistance against disease; for
                                                        control of transmission agents; for
PREGNANCY, OVARIAN                                      prevention and control of social factors
     Implantation of the fertilised ovum in the
                                                        leading to disease. Includes preventive
     substance of the ovary
                                                        measures in individual cases. Used as a
BT       Pregnancy, ectopic                             secondary descriptor.

PREGNANCY, PLANNED                                 PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
     Pregnancy that is planned by a couple or by        Essential health care based on practical,
     either partner in advance of conception            scientifically    sound,    and    socially
BT       Reproductive behaviour                         acceptable methods and technology made
                                                        universally accessible to individuals and
                                                        families in the community through their full
                                                        participation and at a cost that the
                                                        community and country can afford to
     Ectopic pregnancy within the uterine tube
BT       Pregnancy, ectopic
                                                   BT       Health care
                                                            Health programmes
                                                   NT       Maternal-child health services
PREGNANCY, UNPLANNED                               RT       Health education
     Conception not consciously planned by a                Health workers
     couple or either partner at the time of
                                                            Nutrition programmes
     sexual intercourse or conception
BT       Reproductive behaviour

                                                   PRINT MEDIA
                                                   BT    Mass media

ARROW’S Thesaurus
PRIVATISATION                                            PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS
RT    Health policy                                      BT   Psychology

                                                         PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
PROCHOICE MOVEMENT                                            Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or other
     Groups favouring legally available induced               cognitive or affective characteristics of an
     abortion. May be used when the item being                individual    which     influence    his/her
     catalogued articulates a prochoice                       behaviour
     perspective. Not restricted to items about          RT       Psychology
     the organised movement itself                                Stress
BT       Abortion
RT       Antiabortion movement
                                                         PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH
                                                         RT   Alcohol consumption
PROGRAMME EVALUATION                                          Mental health
         Assessing the effectiveness of implementation        Psychiatry
         of programmes
                                                              Women's health

     Used for documents evaluating or reporting
                                                              The science dealing with the study of mental
     developments in ongoing projects or studies.
                                                              processes and behaviour in humans and
     Normally used as a secondary descriptor
                                                              animals. Peripheral subject area. May be
                                                              used when the item being catalogued
                                                              deals with a psychological perspective.
PROSPECTIVE STUDIES                                           Not restricted to items about the field of
     Studies that are planned to observe events               psychology
     that have not yet occurred                          BT       Social sciences
TT       Research methods                                RT       Psychiatry
BT       Data collection                                          Psychological aspects
RT       Case study                                               Psychological factors

PROSTITUTION                                             PUBERTY
     The act or practice of engaging in sexual                Stage of physical development at which it is
     behaviours for payment                                   first possible to reproduce
RT       Trafficking of women
         Violence against women
         Sex workers                                     PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
                                                         RT    Government
                                                               Institutional framework
     The diagnosis and treatment of mental
     disorders                                           PUERTO RICO
RT       Mental health                                   BT   Latin and Central America
         Psychological health

                                                         BT   West and Central Asia

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     Measure of the health service or health       BT   Government
     care provided based on accepted standards
     of quality
RT       Health care
                                                   RELAXATION TECHNIQUES
                                                   BT   Alternative medicine
                                                   RT   Stress
     Used     for     documents    containing
     questionnaires.    Normally used as a         RELIGION
     secondary descriptor                               An institutionalized system of beliefs or
                                                        principles held to with ardor and faith.
                                                        Peripheral subject area. May be used
                                                        when the item being catalogued deals with a
RACIAL FACTORS                                          religious perspective. Not restricted to
     Use primarily when the item being                  items about the field of religion itself. Use
     catalogued involves comparisons based on           specific religion where applicable
     race, e.g. statistical information broken     NT        Buddhism
     down by race
BT       Socioeconomic factors
RACISM                                                       Islam
     Discrimination against people of colour on              Taoism
     the basis of race. Used when the item         RT        Spirituality
     being catalogued is about racism, not
     necessarily when the cataloger detects a
     racist perspective in the text
                                                   RELIGIOUS ASPECTS
                                                        Used to indicate the role of religion and
                                                        ethical considerations and their effects on
RAPE                                                    behaviour. Used as a secondary descriptor
     Unlawful, criminal and forced sexual
BT       Crime
RT       Domestic violence                         REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR
         Sexually abused child                          Actions which reflect the reproductive
                                                        performance of a person or a group
         Trafficking of women
                                                   BT        Fertility
         Violence against women
                                                    NT       Adolescent pregnancy
                                                             Pregnancy, planned
REFUGEES                                                     Pregnancy, unplanned
                                                             Pregnancy, unwanted

     Use primarily when the item being
     catalogued involves comparisons based on
     region, e.g. statistical information broken
     down by region
BT       Socioeconomic factors

ARROW’S Thesaurus
     A condition in which the reproductive               Commonly known as RTIs include a variety
     process is accomplished in a state of               of bacterial, viral and protozoal infections
     complete      physical, mental and social           of the lower and upper reproductive tracts
     well-being. This implies that people have           of both sexes, especially STDs. Women
     the ability to reproduce, that women can            can be infected not only from sexual
     go through pregnancy and child birth safely,        intercourse, but also from the use of
     and that reproduction is carried to a               unclean menstrual cloths; insertion of
     successful outcome, i.e. infants survive and        leaves or other materials into the vagina to
     grow up healthy. It implies further that            prevent pregnancy or induce abortion;
     people are able to regulate their fertility         unsafe childbirth or abortion techniques;
     without risks to their health and that they         and other harmful practices such as female
     are safe in having sex                              circumcision
BT       Women's health                             BT       Gynaecological disorders
NT       Abortion                                            Reproductive health
         AIDS                                       RT       AIDS
         Contraception                                       Cervical cancer
         HIV infections                                      Infertility
         Infertility                                         Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases
         Maternal health                                     STDs
         Pregnancy                                  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
         Reproductive tract infections              BT   Technology
         Sexuality                                  RT   Contraception research
RT       Gynaecology
         Reproductive rights                        RESEARCH METHODS
         Reproductive technology                         The means by which data are collected,
         Urinary tract infections                        analysed, and presented for review
         Violence against women                     NT       Data collection
                                                             Population statistics

BT   Women's rights                                 RESEARCH PROPOSAL
RT   Human rights                                        Used for documents that are proposed
     Reproductive health                                 studies of a problem and how to pursue
     Reproductive technology                             solutions; usually submitted for fund
                                                         allocations. Use as a secondary descriptor

RT   Reproductive health                            RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES
     Reproductive rights                                 Study in which data relating to past events
                                                         are collected
                                                    TT       Research methodology
                                                    BT       Data collection
                                                    RT       Case study

ARROW’S Thesaurus
RISK FACTORS                                          SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT
     Factors which increase susceptibility   to a     TT   Development
     condition, disease, or infection                 BT   Economic development
                                                      NT   Agricultural development

see   REPRODUCTIVE                            TRACT   SEPARATION
INFECTIONS                                                 Process of union or marriage disruption
                                                      BT       Family
                                                      RT       Divorce
RU-486                                                         Marriage
     Mifepristone, progesterone antagonist with
     great affinity for progesterone receptors        Serials
     which interrupts early pregnancy and             see     NEWSLETTERS,                 PERIODICALS,
     regulates the menstrual cycle
BT       Abortion

                                                      SEX DISCRIMINATION
     Socioeconomic improvement of non urban           BT    Discrimination
     areas                                            RT    Gender and development
BT       Economic factors                                   Women's rights
NT       Agricultural development                           Women's status
                                                            Work and women

     The inhabitants of rural areas or of small       SEX EDUCATION
     towns classified as rural                             Instruction in all aspects of human
                                                           reproduction and sexuality
BT       Population characteristics
                                                      BT       Education
                                                      RT       AIDS
                                                               Aids education
RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION                                          Health education
     Migration from rural to urban areas, both                 Menarche
     internal and international; includes reverse              Sexuality
BT       Migration
RT       Migration, internal
                                                      SEX FACTORS
                                                           Used when sex is discussed as a factor in
                                                           relation to some specific subject or problem,
SAUDI ARABIA                                               or it involves comparisons based on sex, e.g.
BT    West and Central Asia                                statistical information broken down by sex
                                                      BT       Population characteristics
                                                               Socioeconomic factors
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY                                RT       Age factors

ARROW’S Thesaurus
SEX ROLES                                          SEXUALITY
     Socially prescribed pattern of behaviour           Sexual characteristics which come in a wide
     corresponding to an individual's sex               variety, mixed and matched with various
NT       Men's roles                                    ideologies. It includes sexual identity,
         Women's roles                                  orientation, preferences and systems.
RT       Gender roles                              BT       Adolescence
                                                            Reproductive health
Sex workers                                        NT       Heterosexuality
see     PROSTITUTION                                        Homosexuality
                                                   RT       Sex education
UF   Sexual Assault
                                                   SEXUALLY ABUSED CHILD
BT   Abuse
                                                   BT   Child abuse
                                                   RT   Abandoned child
RT   Sexual disorders
                                                        Violence against women
     Discrimination against women on the basis
     of their sex. Use when the item being         Sexually transmitted diseases
     catalogued        is about sexism, not        see     STDs
     necessarily when the cataloguer detects a
     sexist perspective in the text
RT       Feminism
                                                   RT   Domestic violence
         Sexual harassment
         Women's rights
         Women's status
                                                   SIDE EFFECTS
                                                        Used with drugs, chemicals, devices and
SEXUAL HARASSMENT                                       techniques for unintended or undesirable
     Refers to the unwanted imposition of sexual        reactions occurring in normal usage or
     requirements in the context of a                   application. Use as a secondary descriptor
     relationship of unequal power
BT       Crime
RT       Domestic violence                         SINGAPORE
         Rape                                      TT    Asia
         Sexism                                    BT    Southeast Asia
         Violence against women

                                                        Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco
                                                        or something similar
                                                   RT       Cancer
                                                            Child health
                                                            Maternal health
                                                            Women's health

                                                   SOCIAL ASPECTS
ARROW’S Thesaurus
                                                       SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
                                                            Social and economic variables that
                                                            characterize an individual or group within
SOCIAL CONDITIONS                                           the social structure; includes education,
RT    Economic conditions                                   occupation. It also involves comparisons
                                                            based on various socioeconomic criteria,
                                                            e.g. statistical information broken down by
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT                                          various factors
     Growth or change resulting in increased           BT       Demographic factors
     life expectancy, higher educational               NT       Age factors
     attainment, better housing, lower birth                    Education
     rates and decreased mortality level
                                                                Employment status
BT        Development
                                                                Income level
RT        Development policy                                    Poverty
          Economic development                                  Racial factors
          Economic factors                                      Regional factors
                                                                Sex factors

     Interactional       process      combining
     investigation, discussion and agreement by        SOCIOLOGY
     a number of people in the preparation and              A social science dealing      with group
     carrying out of a programme to ameliorate              relationships, patterns of collective
     conditions of need or social pathology in              behaviour and social organisation.
     the community                                          Peripheral subject area. May be used when
BT        Economic factors                                  the item being catalogued deals with a
                                                            sociological perspective. Not restricted to
                                                            items about sociology itself
SOCIAL POLICY                                          BT       Social sciences
     A policy having to do with a range of social
     needs, includes policies that relate to health,
     education, housing, population, social             SOMALIA
     insurance and national assistance
RT        Population policy
                                                       South America
                                                       see    LATIN AND CENTRAL AMERICA
     Sciences that deal with the social
     organization and functioning of human
     societies and with the behaviour of               SOUTH ASIA
     individuals as members of societies               BT   Asia
NT        Anthropology                                 NT   Afghanistan
          Demography                                        Bangladesh
          Economics                                         Bhutan
          Geography                                         India
          Political science                                 Maldives
          Psychology                                        Nepal
          Sociology                                         Pakistan
                                                            Sri Lanka

ARROW’S Thesaurus
SOUTHEAST ASIA                                   STANDARD OF LIVING
BT   Asia                                             The economic necessities, comforts, and
NT   Brunei Darussalam                                luxuries enjoyed or aspired to by an
     Indonesia                                        individual or group
     Malaysia                                    BT Economic factors
     Singapore                                   STATISTICS
     Thailand                                    RT    Indicators

SOUTH KOREA                                      Status of women
TT   Asia                                        see      WOMEN'S STATUS
BT   East Asia

SPERMICIDAL PRODUCTS                                  Sexually transmitted diseases. Diseases
     Chemical agents that inactivate the sperm        due to or propagated by sexual contact.
     in the vagina before they can move into     BT       Gynaecological disorders
     the upper genital tract                              Reproductive health
TT       Contraceptive methods                   NT       Chlamydia infections
BT       Barrier methods                                  Gonorrhea
NT       Vaginal spermicides                              Herpes
         Vaginal sponge                                   Syphilis
                                                 RT       AIDS
                                                          Cervical cancer
SPIRITUALITY                                              HIV infections
NT    Indigenous faiths                                   Infertility
RT    Religion                                            Reproductive tract infections

SPORT                                            STERILIZATION
UF    Athletics                                       A procedure by which an individual   is
RT    Exercise                                        made incapable of reproduction
      Sport injuries                             BT       Contraception
      Sport medicine                             NT       Female sterilization
                                                          Male sterilization
                                                          Tubectomy, tubal ligation
                                                 RT       Surgical methods
TT    Asia
BT    South Asia
                                                 STREET CHILDREN
                                                 RT   Adolescence

ARROW’S Thesaurus
STRESS                                                SYPHILIS
     Psychosocial      pressures or tension-               A sexually transmitted disease caused by a
     producing factors in the environment to               small spiral-shaped bacterium called a
     which the individual attempts to make a               "spirochete", progressing from infection via
     homeostatic adjustment                                open sores or rashes containing bacteria
BT        Mental health                                    which can penetrate the mucous membranes
RT        Psychological factors                            of the genitals, mouth and anus as well as
          Relaxation techniques                            broken skin or other parts of the body
                                                      BT       STDs

     Government action directed towards               SYRIA
     altering the structure of the economy            BT    West and Central Asia
RT        International development
                                                           Strong social norm prohibiting certain
SUICIDE                                                    actions that are punishable by the group or
BT    Deaths                                               community. The basis for prohibition is
RT    Social problems                                      generally      religious,   magical      or
                                                      BT       Culture

TT    Contraception
BT    Contraceptive methods
                                                      TT   Asia
NT    Tubectomy, tubal ligation
                                                      BT   East Asia
RT    Barrier methods
                                                      BT    Religion

                                                           The application of science to achieve
 SYMPTO-THERMAL METHOD                                     industrial or commercial objectives
     A family planning method combining               BT       Economic factors
     various techniques for identifying the fertile
                                                      NT       Research and development
     period, especially cervical mucus changes
     and/or calendar calculations to estimate
     the onset of the fertile period, and mucus
     changes or basal body temperature to             Teenager
     estimate its end                                 see     ADOLESCENCE
TT        Periodic sexual abstinence
BT        Fertility awareness
          Natural family planning
                                                      TT    Asia
                                                      BT    Southeast Asia

ARROW’S Thesaurus
BT    Health workers                                BT   Africa
RT    Midwives
      Nurses                                        U.N.
      Obstetricians                                 see      UNITED NATIONS
      Child birth

                                                    UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
TRADITIONAL MEDIA                                   BT    West and Central Asia
BT    Mass media

                                                    United Arab Republic
TRADITIONAL METHODS                                 see     EGYPT
BT    Contraceptive methods
NT    Coitus interruptus
                                                    UNITED KINGDOM
      Periodic sexual abstinence
RT    Barrier methods

                                                    UNITED NATIONS
TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN                                RT    Aid
BT    Crime                                               Funders
RT    Prostitution
      Violence against women                        UNITED STATES OF
                                                    BT    North America

                                                    URBAN POPULATION
                                                         The inhabitants      of a city or town,
TRAINING PROGRAMMES                                      including metropolitan and suburban areas
     Programmes aimed at the acquisition of
                                                    BT       Population characteristics
     defined skills
                                                    RT       Urbanisation
BT       Education
RT       Health workers

                                                         Growth in the proportion of persons
TREATMENT                                                living in urban areas; the process whereby
     Management and care of a patient or the             a society changes from a rural to an
     combating of a disease or disorder. Use as          urban way of life
     a secondary descriptor
                                                    RT       Environmental pollution
                                                             Urban population
     Tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage
     of sperm and ova
TT       Contraceptive methods                      URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
BT       Sterilisation                              RT   Gynaecological disorders
         Surgical methods                                Reproductive health
NT       Female sterilisation

ARROW’S Thesaurus
URUGUAY                                             VAGINAL SPERMICIDES
BT   Latin and Central America                           Chemical substances able to kill sperm
                                                    TT       Barrier methods
                                                    BT       Spermicidal products
Uterine cancer                                      NT       Vaginal cream
see      Endometrial cancer                                  Vaginal foam
                                                             Vaginal jelly
                                                             Vaginal suppository
                                                             Vaginal tablets
     A preparation that is administered to
     produce or artificially increase immunity to
     a particular disease in all conditions         VAGINAL SPONGE
NT       Contraceptive vaccines                          A sponge, which may contain a spermicide,
                                                         covering the cervix to prevent conception
                                                    TT       Barrier methods
                                                    BT       Spermicidal products
     A malignant, cellular tumour of the vagina
BT       Cancer
                                                    VAGINAL SUPPOSITORY
                                                         A      small mass, solid at ordinary
                                                         temperatures but melting at body
VAGINAL CREAM                                            temperature, containing a spermicide
     An emulsified preparation containing a              inserted in the vagina
     spermicide inserted in the vagina
                                                    TT       Spermicidal products
TT       Spermicidal products
                                                    BT       Vaginal spermicides
BT       Vaginal spermicides

VAGINAL FOAM                                        VAGINAL TABLET
                                                         A small mass of material containing a
     A     stabilised    froth     containing a
                                                         spermicide inserted in the vagina
     spermicide in an inert base which is
     combined with aerosol foam and inserted        TT       Spermicidal products
     with an applicator into the vagina             BT       Vaginal spermicides
TT       Spermicidal products
BT       Vaginal spermicides
                                                         Excision of a segment of the vas deferens
                                                    TT       Contraceptive methods
     A preparation with       a soft somewhat
                                                    BT       Male sterilisation
     elastic consistency containing a spermicide             Surgical methods
     inserted in the vagina                         RT       Male contraception
TT       Spermicidal products
BT       Vaginal spermicides
                                                    VDT USE
                                                    TT    Occupational health
Vaginal shield                                      BT    Pesticides
see     FEMALE CONDOMS                              RT    Health hazards

                                                    BT   Latin and Central America

ARROW’S Thesaurus
VIETNAM                                                 WEST AND CENTRAL ASIA
TT    Asia                                              BT    Asia
BT    Indo-China                                        NT    Afghanistan
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN                                        Iraq
     Any act of gender-based violence that                    Jordan
     results in, or is likely to result in, physical,         Kuwait
     sexual      or      psychological harm or                Lebanon
     suffering to women, including threats of                 Oman
     such acts,          coercion or arbitrary                Palestine
     deprivation of liberty whether occurring in              Qatar
     public or private life                                   Saudi Arabia
BT        Crime                                               Syria
NT        Domestic violence                                   United Arab Emirates
RT        Child abuse                                         Yemen
          Rape                                          WIFE AND PARTNER BATTERING
          Reproductive health                                The violent victimisation of women by
          Sexual harassment                                  husbands or men with whom they share a
          Sexually abused child                              marriage-like relationship
          Trafficking of women                          BT       Domestic violence
          Wife and partner battering                    RT       Violence against women
          Women's health

                                                        WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT
VITAL STATISTICS                                             The roles and problems of women in
     Registration statistics of demographic                  developing countries related to their
     events, such as births, deaths, marriages,              participation in economic and social
     divorces, and abortions. Does not include               development activities
     migration statistics                               BT       Development
TT        Research methodology                          NT       Women in development theories
BT        Population statistics                         RT       Women in development plans
                                                                 Women in development policy
                                                                 Women in development programmes
WAR AND CONFLICT                                                 Women's status

                                                        WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT PLANS
                                                        BT  Development plans
                                                        RT  Women and development

                                                        WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY
                                                        BT  Government policy
                                                        RT  Women and development
                                                            Women's status

ARROW’S Thesaurus
WOMEN       AND        DEVELOPMENT              WOMEN'S HEALTH
PROGRAMMES                                      BT  Health
BT   Government programmes                      NT  Reproductive health
     Non-government programmes                      Women's health movement
RT   Women and development                      RT  Alcohol consumption
                                                    Occupational health
                                                    Psychological health
WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT THEORIES                      Smoking
BT  Development theories                            Sport
    Women and development                           Violence against women
RT  Feminist theories

                                                WOMEN'S HEALTH MOVEMENT
                                                     Composed of individuals and groups who
                                                     are working to improve women's and
BT  Islam                                            infants' health care, women's reproductive
                                                     health and power of women health workers
                                                BT       Women's health
WOMEN AND POLITICS                              RT       Women's movements and

     Mobile, short-term residents who usually   WOMEN’S HEALTH STATUS
     move to find work
BT       Labour force
RT       Migrants                               WOMEN’S HEALTH RESEARCH
         Occupational health
         Women workers
                                                WOMEN’S NETWORKS

     Women who work outside the home and
     getting paid for it
BT       Economic development
         Labour force
RT       Women migrant workers
         Women's roles
         Women's status
         Work and women

ARROW’S Thesaurus
WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS                                 WOMEN STUDIES
     (Women's struggle for equality) - women's
     movements that is led and directed by
     women for the good of women, and for the
                                                  WORK AND WOMEN
     benefit of all humanity                      RT   Credit scheme
RT       Feminist movements                            Maternity leave
         Non-governmental organisations                Sex discrimination
         Women's health movement                       Women workers

WOMEN’S REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS                       Working women
                                                  see    WOMEN WORKERS or
                                                         WORK AND WOMEN
BT  Human rights
NT  Reproductive rights                           WORLD FERTILITY SURVEYS
RT  Equal rights                                       A series       of nationally representative
    Feminism                                           surveys with the primary focus of collecting
    Gender                                             fertility data
    Sex discrimination                            BT       Fertility surveys

WOMEN'S ROLES                                     BT   West and Central Asia
     Expected and characteristics pattern of
     behaviour exhibited by women
BT       Gender roles
         Sex roles                                Youth
RT       Women workers                            see      ADOLESCENCE
         Women's status

                                                   ZERO POPULATION GROWTH
WOMEN'S STATUS                                         Maintenance of present population size
     The position of women in the labour force,   BT       Population size
     in society and in the family
BT       Socioeconomic factors
RT       Feminism
         Gender and development
         Sex discrimination
         Women and development
         Women and development policy
         Women workers
         Women's roles

ARROW’S Thesaurus

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