SNC 2P Final Exam Review 2006

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					                                                Final Exam Review
       Where should I start . . .
                  Read through your notes.
                  Redo all worksheets handed out during the 4 units.
                  Study and then Redo your unit tests.
                  Make study notes- especially the topics you are having trouble with.
                  Complete the final exam review sheets. Here they are…!

                                                   Chemistry Review

          1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give and example.
                   Term                             Definition                                   Example


          2. Identify each of the following statements as a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C).
               a. _______ Shredding a piece of paper.
               b. _______ Silver tarnishes over time when it is exposed to air.
               c. _______ When baking soda and vinegar is mixed, the mixture "fizzes".
               d. _______ A marshmallow is toasted over a bonfire.
               e. _______ Water vapour in the atmosphere cools and condenses to form a cloud.

          3. a) Explain the characteristics of ionic compounds.
               Types of atoms involved:
                        - Metals or non-metals?
               Structure: Are the electrons:
                        - Shared or transferred?

      b) Complete the chart below.
        Lewis Dot diagram            Type of Bond Formed    Chemical Formula of      Chemical name of
  (showing the bonding of the two     (ionic or covalent)       compound                compound
Magnesium and Chlorine

Sodium and Sulfur

Phosphorus and Oxygen
c) In the space below draw a Bohr-Rutherford diagram of a Lithium atom, Lithium ion, and Lewis dot diagram for
a Lithium atom.
  (Bohr-Rutherford)               (Bohr-Rutherford)                 Lewis dot diagram for Lithium
  Lithium atom                    Lithium ion

          4. Use your periodic table to help you name the following compounds:
              a. KBr                ________________________________________
              b. CO2                ________________________________________
              c. NaCl               ________________________________________
              d. CaCl2              ________________________________________
              e. Mg(OH)2            ________________________________________

          5. Use your periodic table to help you determine the chemical formula:
              a. Beryllium oxide                   _______________________
              b. Lithium nitride                   _______________________
              c. Sodium hydroxide                  _______________________
              d. Magnesium nitrate                 _______________________
              e. Potassium chlorate                _______________________

          6. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
          7. There are four different types of reactions.
                 Type of reaction         How can you identify each type from a chemical equation?
             Single Replacement
             Double Replacement

          8. For each of the examples below indicate the type of reaction and balance the equation.
               a. _____ CuO  _____ Cu + _____O2                                 type: __________________
               b. _____ Cl2 + _____NaI  _____ I2 + _____NaCl                  type: __________________
               c. _____H2SO4 + _____NaCl  _____HCl + _____Na2SO4              type: __________________
               d. _____Fe2O3 + _____Al  _____Fe + _____Al2O3                  type: __________________
               e. _____H2 + _____O2  _____H2O                                 type: __________________

          9. What is a neutralization reaction? _________________________________________________
                                        More Chemistry Review
Use the following words or numbers to complete questions 1-7. You may use words or numbers more
than once.
       18     16     14       12   8      9      10      1      2      3     Neon
              Argon Helium         K+1    K-1    positively     negatively   not     neutrons
              positrons electrons protons        atomic mass atomic radius
1.       The ion S would have ______ electrons surrounding its nucleus.
2.       A neutral atom with 8 protons in its nucleus will also have ______ electrons. It will gain/lose (Circle
         ______ electrons to match the electron population of _____, the nearest noble gas.
3.       When element 19 has one electron taken away from it, its symbol is _______.
4.       The atom is composed of an extremely small central nucleus containing protons (____________
         charged, relative mass = 1) and ______________ (neutral, relative mass = 1 ) surrounded by
         _______________ (negatively charged, relative mass = 0.0005).
5.       The atomic number indicates the number of ___________ in an atom and is unique for each element.
6.       In a neutral atom, the number of ____________ must equal the number of ______________.
7.       The number of neutrons in the nucleus is usually greater than or equal to the number of protons. The
         sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons is called the ________________ .

8.       Which of the following represent elements and which represent compounds?

         O2       Co      CO      Fe       Al2(SO4)3        NO      Xe       P4      SO2     C8H18

9.       Complete the following chart using a periodic table.
          Symbol     Atom or       # of         # of              # of
                     Ion           protons      electrons         neutrons
          1          atom                                                0
                     atom           19                                    20

                        atom         13

                                     12                    10             12

            17   35.453
10.      The box above is from a typical periodic table.   List three pieces of information you can obtain from this

11       Which elements form a family of elements with arsenic?

      12 Using only the general trends for reactivity in the periodic table, select the less reactive element
      from each pair of elements below:
         (a) Na or Mg     b) F or Br       c)   Na or K

13.      What type of ion forms when a neutral atom gains an electron?
15.      What type of ion forms when a neutral atom loses an electron?
16.      What is a binary compound?

17.      A white powder with a low melting point dissolves in water, but does not conduct electricity in solution.
         Is this an ionic or a molecular substance? Explain your answer.
18.   A yellow powder dissolves readily in water. In solution it is a good conductor of electricity. Is this an
      ionic or a molecular substance? Explain your answer.

19.   I) Name the following compounds:
      (a) XeF2                                           (b) CS2
      (c) BF3                                            (d) P2O5
      (e) SO3                                            (f) BrCl3
      (g) H2S                                            (h) AsF3
      (i) SiH4                                           (j) NO

      ii) Explain why each of the following is wrong:
      a) Lithium Dioxide

      b) magnesium dioxide.

      c) CaOH2

      iii) How many Oxygen atoms are in one molecule of Ca3(PO4)2 ?

20.   Write the correct formula for each of the following compounds:
          carbon dioxide                                          boron trihydride
          diphosphorus trisulfide                                 iodine trichloride
          dichloride monoxide                                     bromine monochloride
          dinitrogen pentoxide                                    sulfur hexafluoride
          dinitrogen trioxide                                     nitrogen monoxide
          krypton difluoride                                      dinitrogen trioxide
          silicon dioxide                                         carbon monoxide
          phosphorus trihydride                                   sulfur dioxide
          xenon hexafluoride

21.   Write the correct formula for each of the following:
          barium phosphate                               magnesium oxide
          lithium bromide                                beryllium sulfide
          nickel (II) sulfate                            copper (I) chloride
          calcium sulfate                                silver nitrate
          calcium sulfate                                aluminum oxide
          potassium carbonate                            barium fluoride
          zinc hydroxide                                 lithium nitride
          ammonium carbonate                             ammonium nitrate
          magnesium phosphide                            calcium hydroxide
          potassium oxide                                aluminum sulfate
          strontium nitrate                              manganese(II)sulfate

22.       Give the correct name for each of the following:
          K3PO4,                                       SnO2
          Ba(OH)2                                      SnF2
          SrBr2,                                       CuCl2,
          NiSO4                                        Fe2(SO4)3
          Al(NO3)3                                     Ca(PO4)2
23.    Balance the following and state the reaction type:

      a)       N2(g) + H2(g)    →    NH3(g)

      b)       K(s) + O2(g) →        K2O(s)

      c)       H2(g)   + O2(g) → H2O(l)

      c)       NaOH(s) +       H3PO4(aq)   →      Na3PO4(aq)   +   H2O(l)

      d)       Pb3O4(s) →        PbO(s) + O2(g)

24.            Write a balanced equation (include the phase subscripts) for each of the following word

      a)       Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide → Sodium Chloride + water

      b)       octane (C8H18(l)) + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide gas + water vapour

25.    Identify the reaction types in question # 24 as a single displacement, double displacement, synthesis,
                      decomposition, combustion or neutralization


26.    Complete the following word equations and then write a balanced chemical equation for each:

       a)      A double displacement occurred between solutions of silver nitrate and calcium chloride.

      Word equation:

      Chemical equation:

       b)      The single displacement between aluminum metal and aqueous lead(II)nitrate.

      Word equation:

      Chemical equation:

27.    Sort the following chemical formulas into two lists under the headings "Acids" and "Bases": LiOH (aq),
       H2SO3(aq), Name each of the formulas.
                                           Acid or Base?             Name
28.   Describe the tests that are used to positively identify: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide gas.
      Oxygen gas

      Carbon Dioxide

      Hydrogen gas

29.   Draw a sample pH scale. On the scale indicate the general locations of acidic substances, basic
      substances or neutral substances. Place the following substances in appropriate locations on the scale.
      Lemon juice, stomach acid, baking soda, ammonia cleaner, drain cleaner.

30.   a) Give the general formula for a neutralization reaction.

      b) Write the word equation for the neutralization of magnesium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid.

31.   Define each of the following:
      Law of Conservation of Mass


32.   Describe four factors that speed up a chemical reaction
                                                       Physics Review

1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give an example.
       Term                           Definition                                                Example

2. Mrs. Bourassa is always looking for physics applications. One day she notices a cyclist passing
   by. She diligently records how far they travel at specific time intervals and decides to graph the
   motion of the cyclist.
                            The motion of a cyclist                a. How far did the cyclist move in 10.0 s?
position (m) [E]

                   45                                              b. How long did it take the cyclist to travel a
                   40                                                 distance of 20 m ? _______________
                   25                                   Series1
                   20                                              c. Describe the motion of the cyclist.
                   10                                                 ________________________________
                        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011                   d. Calculate the cyclist speed.
                                time (s)

3. Carlos Delgado hits a mammoth home run off the Skydome Hotel.
    a. It is pretty late in the game and Carlos is very tired so he stops to ask himself the question
        "I know that the distance between bases is 28.5 m, what is the minimum distance that I
        have to run?"

                    b. What is Carlos' displacement?

4. Ralf Schumacher had an easy victory in the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix race. He crossed
   the finish line 20.2 seconds before the second place, and defending champion, Michael
   Schumacher. One lap of the circuit is a distance of 4.42 km. Ralf's best lap time was 77.2 s.
   Determine his average speed in m/s.

5. A graph of Donovan Bailey's motion is shown below. Use the graph to answer the following
   questions.                                         a. Describe Donovan Bailey's
                                                          motion from 0 - 5 s.
                                                      b. Describe Donovan Bailey's
                                                          motion from 5 s - 15 s.
                                                      c. Describe Donovan Bailey's
                                                          motion from 15 s - 30 s.
                                                      d. Calculate his average velocity for
                                                         the 30 s time interval.
                           Motion of a pedestrian

position (m) [E]

                                                      position (m)
                   -20 0   5 10 15 20 25 30 35
                               time (s)

6. Soccer is a very physically demanding sport and as a result soccer players tend to be in excellent
   shape. A typical practice starts with a short run. For example: one afternoon the Twin Lakes
   team ran 3.2 km [N], in a time of 12 min., and then turned around and ran 3.8 km [S] in a time of
   15 min.

                    a. Determine the total distance ran by           c. Determine the displacement of the
                       the team.                                        team.

                                                                     d. Calculate the average velocity.
                    b. Calculate the average speed.                     (in km/h)
                       (in km/h)                                           Equation:

7. An airplane that flies from Vancouver to Toronto travels a distance of 3390 km. If the average
   speed of the plane is 753 km/h, calculate how long the flight would take.

8. Jack and Jill went up a hill to fetch a pail of water . . . after falling down and breaking his crown
   Jack realized that the hill was rather steep. He knows that he was walking down the hill with a
   velocity of 0.54 m/s [S] when he tripped. Jack accelerated down the hill and reached a velocity
   of 3.84 m/s [S] in a time of 3.0 s. Calculate Jack's acceleration.
                                             Ecology Review

      1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give an example.
               Term                           Definition                                 Example

      2. Label the following organisms as                     3. Label the following organisms as
         producers (P), consumers (C), or                        herbivores (H), carnivores (C), or
         decomposers (D).                                        omnivores (O).
          a. grass        ________                                a. humans      ________
          b. cows         ________                                b. frogs       ________
          c. bacteria     ________                                c. deer        ________
          d. fish         ________                                d. shark       ________
          e. spider plant ________                                e. tadpoles ________

   3. Food Webs

   Use the following food web to answer the questions below.

                                mountain lion

                   deer                fox                     hawk




                   bacteria                           fungi

a) Identify all the producer(s) in the food web. ________________________________________
b) List all the organisms which occupy the 2nd trophic level _____________________________
c) How many tropic levels are there? ________________________________________________
d) Identify a primary consumer. ____________________________________________________
e) Identify a secondary consumer. ___________________________________________________
f) What is the top carnivore? _______________________________________________________
g) Explain how the ecosystem would be affected if mice were to go extinct.
      4. What is bioaccumulation? _______________________________________________________
          Use DDT as a chemical example and explain how it affects a food chain. ___________________
      5. What is a biome? ______________________________________________________________
          Describe the difference between each of the biomes using the categories listed below:
               Biome                    Abiotic Factors                         Biodiversity

          Deciduous Forest

      6. What is the difference between the following terms:
          Endangered ___________________________________________________________
            Extinct       ___________________________________________________________
            Clear cut     ___________________________________________________________
            Selective cut ___________________________________________________________
      7. The actions of humans tend to have a great impact on ecosystems. Explain the impact in each of
         the following:
              The actions of              Abiotic Factors                     Biodiversity

            Agriculture - the
            use of fertilizers
            Agriculture - use of
            The greenhouse
            Acid Rain
                                         Ecology Review Continued

1.     Match words from column B to the most appropriate definition in column A
       Column A                                                               Column B
A product of cellular respiration                                             carnivores
The total mass of all biological material in an ecosystem                     food web
This increases population                                                     oxygen
Animals that eat only meat                                                    consumer
Animals that eat only plants                                                  ecosystem
A complex interaction of food chains                                          herbivores
An organism that eats other organisms                                         birth rate
Includes both biotic and abiotic factors                                      carrying capacity
The science of living things and their relation to their environment          ecology
A product of photosynthesis                                                   population
The maximum number of a species that can be sustained in an ecosystem         carbon dioxide
All members of the same species in a particular area                          biodiversity
The geographical area in which a species lives                                habitat
The number of species living in a specified area                              biomass

2.     Consider the following food chain
       grass           mouse           snake                    hawk

       a) Assume there are 5 snakes in this food chain with a total mass of 85 kg. Create a pyramid of biomass
       for these creatures

       b) If an infectious disease ran through the mouse population, what would happen to:
               i) the snake population ii) the hawk population         iii) the grass

       c) A fat-soluble pesticide was sprayed on the grass and its chemical concentration in a hawk that was
       captured was found to be .05 ppm. What would you expect the chemical concentration of that pesticide
       to be in:
                i) the grass    ii) the mouse iii) the snake

d)     Incorporate the food chain above with the following information to make a food web.
      Species                                    What it eats
      Cow                                        grass
      barn cat                                   mouse
      decomposers                                mouse, snake, hawk, barn cat, cow, groundhog
      groundhog                                  grass
      hawk                                       snake, groundhog

3.     a) What are the products for photosynthesis? b) What are the reactants? c) Write out the word and
       then the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. d) Repeat this for cellular respiration. e) Why is
       cellular respiration important for humans?

4.     Heat gets trapped by CO2 in our atmosphere. If CO2 balance is disturbed, there are
       ramifications on the overall temperature of the planet. The greenhouse effect is global warming
       due in part to excess CO2 emissions. (refer to pages 625-627) Name three ways humans are
       disturbing CO2 balance and outline how it affects global warming.
5.   If there are 235 maple trees in two square km of a forested area in Dundas, estimate how many maple
     trees there would be in 23 km2 of that forest. What assumption do you make when you make your

6.   Larry had a large fenced in property on which he released 23 rabbits one summer.
     a) The next year he was asked by a friend how many rabbits were on his property. Describe how Larry
     could estimate the rabbit population without catching and caging each rabbit.

     b) What factors would limit the growth of that rabbit population?

     c) Unfortunately, Larry was unaware that there were holes in his fence. In that first year, 4 rabbits
     escaped from Larry's property. Also that year 20 rabbits were born, 6 rabbits died of starvation, 4 were
     eaten by hawks, and 2 froze to death in the dead of winter. What was the rabbit population at the end of
     the year?

7.   What is an algal bloom? What causes it? What organisms does it affect?

8.   a)   Which biome has the shortest growing season?
     b)   In which biome would you find most of Ontario?
     c)   Which of Canada's biomes receives the least precipitation?
     d)   Which biome can be found in every province?
     e)   In which Biome would you find the most deciduous trees?
                                          Weather Review

1.    a) How does the Sun’s energy get to Earth?
      b) How does energy move around on Earth?

2.    a) Name the levels of the atmosphere from lowest to highest.
      b) Explain how temperature varies throughout the atmosphere.
      c) Where is the troposphere thinner; the poles or the equator?

3.    a) How does air pressure change with higher altitude?
      b) How does air density change with higher altitude?
      c) What percentage of the troposphere is nitrogen? oxygen?

4.    Explain the influences which set up prevailing wind patterns.

5.    Name and state the direction of each of the following prevailing wind patterns.
      a) between 0 and 30 degrees North latitude.
      b) between 60 and 90 degrees N lat.
      c) between 30 and 60 degrees N lat.
      d) between 30 and 60 degrees N lat.

6.    Which flight should take less time, Toronto to Vancouver or the return flight? Why?

7.    What equipment is used to measure:
      i) temperature       ii) air pressure

8.    If air at 20ºC is holding 6.09g of water/kg air, what is the Relative.Humidity.?
9.    If the temperature is15ºC at 65% R.H, how much water is in the air?
10.   If the temperature is 30ºC and the R.H. is 40.8%, what is the dewpoint?
11.   If the dewpoint is 15ºC and the air temp. is 25ºC, what is the R.H?
12.   If the dewpoint is 5ºC and the R.H. is 36.7%, what is the air temp.?

13.   How do clouds form?
14.   Explain the difference between orographic, frontal, and convective cloud formation.

15.   Air turns as it moves along the surface of the Earth over large distances. In the Northern
      hemisphere, it turns to the         . This phenomenon is known as the

16.   A high pressure system usually consists of (stationary/rotating) air, and is associated with
      (nice-clear-calm / unstable-overcast weather.

17.   A low pressure system usually consists of (stationary/rotating) air, and is associated with
      (nice-clear-calm / unstable-overcast weather.

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