Final Exam Review Where should I start . . . Read through your notes. Redo all worksheets handed out during the 4 units. Study and then Redo your unit tests. Make study notes- especially the topics you are having trouble with. Complete the final exam review sheets. Here they are…! Chemistry Review 1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give and example. Term Definition Example Physical change Chemical change Element Compound 2. Identify each of the following statements as a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C). a. _______ Shredding a piece of paper. b. _______ Silver tarnishes over time when it is exposed to air. c. _______ When baking soda and vinegar is mixed, the mixture "fizzes". d. _______ A marshmallow is toasted over a bonfire. e. _______ Water vapour in the atmosphere cools and condenses to form a cloud. 3. a) Explain the characteristics of ionic compounds. Characteristics Types of atoms involved: - Metals or non-metals? Structure: Are the electrons: - Shared or transferred? b) Complete the chart below. Lewis Dot diagram Type of Bond Formed Chemical Formula of Chemical name of (showing the bonding of the two (ionic or covalent) compound compound atoms) Magnesium and Chlorine Sodium and Sulfur Phosphorus and Oxygen c) In the space below draw a Bohr-Rutherford diagram of a Lithium atom, Lithium ion, and Lewis dot diagram for a Lithium atom. (Bohr-Rutherford) (Bohr-Rutherford) Lewis dot diagram for Lithium Lithium atom Lithium ion 4. Use your periodic table to help you name the following compounds: a. KBr ________________________________________ b. CO2 ________________________________________ c. NaCl ________________________________________ d. CaCl2 ________________________________________ e. Mg(OH)2 ________________________________________ 5. Use your periodic table to help you determine the chemical formula: a. Beryllium oxide _______________________ b. Lithium nitride _______________________ c. Sodium hydroxide _______________________ d. Magnesium nitrate _______________________ e. Potassium chlorate _______________________ 6. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass? 7. There are four different types of reactions. Type of reaction How can you identify each type from a chemical equation? Synthesis Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement 8. For each of the examples below indicate the type of reaction and balance the equation. a. _____ CuO _____ Cu + _____O2 type: __________________ b. _____ Cl2 + _____NaI _____ I2 + _____NaCl type: __________________ c. _____H2SO4 + _____NaCl _____HCl + _____Na2SO4 type: __________________ d. _____Fe2O3 + _____Al _____Fe + _____Al2O3 type: __________________ e. _____H2 + _____O2 _____H2O type: __________________ 9. What is a neutralization reaction? _________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ More Chemistry Review Use the following words or numbers to complete questions 1-7. You may use words or numbers more than once. 18 16 14 12 8 9 10 1 2 3 Neon Argon Helium K+1 K-1 positively negatively not neutrons positrons electrons protons atomic mass atomic radius 2- 1. The ion S would have ______ electrons surrounding its nucleus. 2. A neutral atom with 8 protons in its nucleus will also have ______ electrons. It will gain/lose (Circle one) ______ electrons to match the electron population of _____, the nearest noble gas. 3. When element 19 has one electron taken away from it, its symbol is _______. 4. The atom is composed of an extremely small central nucleus containing protons (____________ charged, relative mass = 1) and ______________ (neutral, relative mass = 1 ) surrounded by _______________ (negatively charged, relative mass = 0.0005). 5. The atomic number indicates the number of ___________ in an atom and is unique for each element. 6. In a neutral atom, the number of ____________ must equal the number of ______________. 7. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is usually greater than or equal to the number of protons. The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons is called the ________________ . 8. Which of the following represent elements and which represent compounds? O2 Co CO Fe Al2(SO4)3 NO Xe P4 SO2 C8H18 9. Complete the following chart using a periodic table. Symbol Atom or # of # of # of Ion protons electrons neutrons 1 atom 0 1H atom 19 20 23 11Na atom 13 12 10 12 17 35.453 Cl 10. The box above is from a typical periodic table. List three pieces of information you can obtain from this box. 11 Which elements form a family of elements with arsenic? 12 Using only the general trends for reactivity in the periodic table, select the less reactive element from each pair of elements below: (a) Na or Mg b) F or Br c) Na or K 13. What type of ion forms when a neutral atom gains an electron? 15. What type of ion forms when a neutral atom loses an electron? 16. What is a binary compound? 17. A white powder with a low melting point dissolves in water, but does not conduct electricity in solution. Is this an ionic or a molecular substance? Explain your answer. 18. A yellow powder dissolves readily in water. In solution it is a good conductor of electricity. Is this an ionic or a molecular substance? Explain your answer. 19. I) Name the following compounds: (a) XeF2 (b) CS2 (c) BF3 (d) P2O5 (e) SO3 (f) BrCl3 (g) H2S (h) AsF3 (i) SiH4 (j) NO ii) Explain why each of the following is wrong: a) Lithium Dioxide b) magnesium dioxide. c) CaOH2 iii) How many Oxygen atoms are in one molecule of Ca3(PO4)2 ? 20. Write the correct formula for each of the following compounds: carbon dioxide boron trihydride diphosphorus trisulfide iodine trichloride dichloride monoxide bromine monochloride dinitrogen pentoxide sulfur hexafluoride dinitrogen trioxide nitrogen monoxide krypton difluoride dinitrogen trioxide silicon dioxide carbon monoxide phosphorus trihydride sulfur dioxide xenon hexafluoride 21. Write the correct formula for each of the following: barium phosphate magnesium oxide lithium bromide beryllium sulfide nickel (II) sulfate copper (I) chloride calcium sulfate silver nitrate calcium sulfate aluminum oxide potassium carbonate barium fluoride zinc hydroxide lithium nitride ammonium carbonate ammonium nitrate magnesium phosphide calcium hydroxide potassium oxide aluminum sulfate strontium nitrate manganese(II)sulfate 22. Give the correct name for each of the following: K3PO4, SnO2 Ba(OH)2 SnF2 SrBr2, CuCl2, NiSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 Al(NO3)3 Ca(PO4)2 23. Balance the following and state the reaction type: a) N2(g) + H2(g) → NH3(g) b) K(s) + O2(g) → K2O(s) c) H2(g) + O2(g) → H2O(l) c) NaOH(s) + H3PO4(aq) → Na3PO4(aq) + H2O(l) d) Pb3O4(s) → PbO(s) + O2(g) 24. Write a balanced equation (include the phase subscripts) for each of the following word equations: a) Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide → Sodium Chloride + water b) octane (C8H18(l)) + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide gas + water vapour 25. Identify the reaction types in question # 24 as a single displacement, double displacement, synthesis, decomposition, combustion or neutralization a) b) 26. Complete the following word equations and then write a balanced chemical equation for each: a) A double displacement occurred between solutions of silver nitrate and calcium chloride. Word equation: Chemical equation: b) The single displacement between aluminum metal and aqueous lead(II)nitrate. Word equation: Chemical equation: 27. Sort the following chemical formulas into two lists under the headings "Acids" and "Bases": LiOH (aq), H2SO3(aq), Name each of the formulas. Acid or Base? Name HCl(aq), Mg(OH)2(aq), NH4OH(aq). 28. Describe the tests that are used to positively identify: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide gas. Oxygen gas Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen gas 29. Draw a sample pH scale. On the scale indicate the general locations of acidic substances, basic substances or neutral substances. Place the following substances in appropriate locations on the scale. Lemon juice, stomach acid, baking soda, ammonia cleaner, drain cleaner. 30. a) Give the general formula for a neutralization reaction. b) Write the word equation for the neutralization of magnesium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. 31. Define each of the following: Law of Conservation of Mass Indicator 32. Describe four factors that speed up a chemical reaction Physics Review 1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give an example. Term Definition Example Vector Scalar 2. Mrs. Bourassa is always looking for physics applications. One day she notices a cyclist passing by. She diligently records how far they travel at specific time intervals and decides to graph the motion of the cyclist. The motion of a cyclist a. How far did the cyclist move in 10.0 s? _______________ position (m) [E] 50 45 b. How long did it take the cyclist to travel a 40 distance of 20 m ? _______________ 35 30 25 Series1 20 c. Describe the motion of the cyclist. 15 10 ________________________________ 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 d. Calculate the cyclist speed. time (s) 3. Carlos Delgado hits a mammoth home run off the Skydome Hotel. a. It is pretty late in the game and Carlos is very tired so he stops to ask himself the question "I know that the distance between bases is 28.5 m, what is the minimum distance that I have to run?" b. What is Carlos' displacement? 4. Ralf Schumacher had an easy victory in the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix race. He crossed the finish line 20.2 seconds before the second place, and defending champion, Michael Schumacher. One lap of the circuit is a distance of 4.42 km. Ralf's best lap time was 77.2 s. Determine his average speed in m/s. Equation: 5. A graph of Donovan Bailey's motion is shown below. Use the graph to answer the following questions. a. Describe Donovan Bailey's motion from 0 - 5 s. ________________________ b. Describe Donovan Bailey's motion from 5 s - 15 s. ________________________ c. Describe Donovan Bailey's motion from 15 s - 30 s. ________________________ d. Calculate his average velocity for the 30 s time interval. Motion of a pedestrian 100 80 position (m) [E] 60 position (m) 40 [E] 20 0 -20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 time (s) 6. Soccer is a very physically demanding sport and as a result soccer players tend to be in excellent shape. A typical practice starts with a short run. For example: one afternoon the Twin Lakes team ran 3.2 km [N], in a time of 12 min., and then turned around and ran 3.8 km [S] in a time of 15 min. Diagram: a. Determine the total distance ran by c. Determine the displacement of the the team. team. d. Calculate the average velocity. b. Calculate the average speed. (in km/h) (in km/h) Equation: Equation: 7. An airplane that flies from Vancouver to Toronto travels a distance of 3390 km. If the average speed of the plane is 753 km/h, calculate how long the flight would take. Equation: 8. Jack and Jill went up a hill to fetch a pail of water . . . after falling down and breaking his crown Jack realized that the hill was rather steep. He knows that he was walking down the hill with a velocity of 0.54 m/s [S] when he tripped. Jack accelerated down the hill and reached a velocity of 3.84 m/s [S] in a time of 3.0 s. Calculate Jack's acceleration. Equation: Ecology Review 1. Definitions! Define each term below and also give an example. Term Definition Example Biotic Abiotic Habitat Niche 2. Label the following organisms as 3. Label the following organisms as producers (P), consumers (C), or herbivores (H), carnivores (C), or decomposers (D). omnivores (O). a. grass ________ a. humans ________ b. cows ________ b. frogs ________ c. bacteria ________ c. deer ________ d. fish ________ d. shark ________ e. spider plant ________ e. tadpoles ________ 3. Food Webs Use the following food web to answer the questions below. mountain lion deer fox hawk mice insects grass bacteria fungi a) Identify all the producer(s) in the food web. ________________________________________ b) List all the organisms which occupy the 2nd trophic level _____________________________ c) How many tropic levels are there? ________________________________________________ d) Identify a primary consumer. ____________________________________________________ e) Identify a secondary consumer. ___________________________________________________ f) What is the top carnivore? _______________________________________________________ g) Explain how the ecosystem would be affected if mice were to go extinct. 4. What is bioaccumulation? _______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Use DDT as a chemical example and explain how it affects a food chain. ___________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is a biome? ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. Describe the difference between each of the biomes using the categories listed below: Biome Abiotic Factors Biodiversity Tundra Temperate Deciduous Forest Rainforest 6. What is the difference between the following terms: Endangered ___________________________________________________________ Extinct ___________________________________________________________ Clear cut ___________________________________________________________ Selective cut ___________________________________________________________ 7. The actions of humans tend to have a great impact on ecosystems. Explain the impact in each of the following: The actions of Abiotic Factors Biodiversity Humans Deforestation Agriculture - the use of fertilizers Agriculture - use of monocultures The greenhouse effect Acid Rain Ecology Review Continued 1. Match words from column B to the most appropriate definition in column A Column A Column B A product of cellular respiration carnivores The total mass of all biological material in an ecosystem food web This increases population oxygen Animals that eat only meat consumer Animals that eat only plants ecosystem A complex interaction of food chains herbivores An organism that eats other organisms birth rate Includes both biotic and abiotic factors carrying capacity The science of living things and their relation to their environment ecology A product of photosynthesis population The maximum number of a species that can be sustained in an ecosystem carbon dioxide All members of the same species in a particular area biodiversity The geographical area in which a species lives habitat The number of species living in a specified area biomass 2. Consider the following food chain grass mouse snake hawk a) Assume there are 5 snakes in this food chain with a total mass of 85 kg. Create a pyramid of biomass for these creatures b) If an infectious disease ran through the mouse population, what would happen to: i) the snake population ii) the hawk population iii) the grass c) A fat-soluble pesticide was sprayed on the grass and its chemical concentration in a hawk that was captured was found to be .05 ppm. What would you expect the chemical concentration of that pesticide to be in: i) the grass ii) the mouse iii) the snake d) Incorporate the food chain above with the following information to make a food web. Species What it eats Cow grass barn cat mouse decomposers mouse, snake, hawk, barn cat, cow, groundhog groundhog grass hawk snake, groundhog 3. a) What are the products for photosynthesis? b) What are the reactants? c) Write out the word and then the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. d) Repeat this for cellular respiration. e) Why is cellular respiration important for humans? 4. Heat gets trapped by CO2 in our atmosphere. If CO2 balance is disturbed, there are ramifications on the overall temperature of the planet. The greenhouse effect is global warming due in part to excess CO2 emissions. (refer to pages 625-627) Name three ways humans are disturbing CO2 balance and outline how it affects global warming. 5. If there are 235 maple trees in two square km of a forested area in Dundas, estimate how many maple trees there would be in 23 km2 of that forest. What assumption do you make when you make your estimate. 6. Larry had a large fenced in property on which he released 23 rabbits one summer. a) The next year he was asked by a friend how many rabbits were on his property. Describe how Larry could estimate the rabbit population without catching and caging each rabbit. b) What factors would limit the growth of that rabbit population? c) Unfortunately, Larry was unaware that there were holes in his fence. In that first year, 4 rabbits escaped from Larry's property. Also that year 20 rabbits were born, 6 rabbits died of starvation, 4 were eaten by hawks, and 2 froze to death in the dead of winter. What was the rabbit population at the end of the year? 7. What is an algal bloom? What causes it? What organisms does it affect? 8. a) Which biome has the shortest growing season? b) In which biome would you find most of Ontario? c) Which of Canada's biomes receives the least precipitation? d) Which biome can be found in every province? e) In which Biome would you find the most deciduous trees? Weather Review 1. a) How does the Sun’s energy get to Earth? b) How does energy move around on Earth? 2. a) Name the levels of the atmosphere from lowest to highest. b) Explain how temperature varies throughout the atmosphere. c) Where is the troposphere thinner; the poles or the equator? 3. a) How does air pressure change with higher altitude? b) How does air density change with higher altitude? c) What percentage of the troposphere is nitrogen? oxygen? 4. Explain the influences which set up prevailing wind patterns. 5. Name and state the direction of each of the following prevailing wind patterns. a) between 0 and 30 degrees North latitude. b) between 60 and 90 degrees N lat. c) between 30 and 60 degrees N lat. d) between 30 and 60 degrees N lat. 6. Which flight should take less time, Toronto to Vancouver or the return flight? Why? 7. What equipment is used to measure: i) temperature ii) air pressure 8. If air at 20ºC is holding 6.09g of water/kg air, what is the Relative.Humidity.? 9. If the temperature is15ºC at 65% R.H, how much water is in the air? 10. If the temperature is 30ºC and the R.H. is 40.8%, what is the dewpoint? 11. If the dewpoint is 15ºC and the air temp. is 25ºC, what is the R.H? 12. If the dewpoint is 5ºC and the R.H. is 36.7%, what is the air temp.? 13. How do clouds form? 14. Explain the difference between orographic, frontal, and convective cloud formation. 15. Air turns as it moves along the surface of the Earth over large distances. In the Northern hemisphere, it turns to the . This phenomenon is known as the effect. 16. A high pressure system usually consists of (stationary/rotating) air, and is associated with (nice-clear-calm / unstable-overcast weather. 17. A low pressure system usually consists of (stationary/rotating) air, and is associated with (nice-clear-calm / unstable-overcast weather.