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Presentation Clean Air Initiative

VIEWS: 46 PAGES: 20

									                    Demonstration Project Presentation
         AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
         2008




                    Alumni Demonstration Projects (ADP)
                Reduction of environmental pollution in
             handicraft manufacturing enterprises by using
                           cleaner technology:
                 A case study of the traditional ceramic
             producing village in Bat Trang-Hanoi-Vietnam


Main Author: Quách Huy Thông
Project Manager - Vietnam National University
Co–author: Dr.Ranjith Perera
Coordinator, Urban Environmental Management Field of Study,
Asian Institute of Technology, and
Director SEA-UEMA (2003-2008)
                                Demonstration Project Presentation
                     AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                     2008
•   Bat Trang is a famous ceramic-producing village
    and it became a ceramics center for the rich local
    deposits of white clay
•   Approx. 1200 families produce ceramics using coal
    fired kiln
•   For centuries Bat Trang ceramics are exported to
    Japan, China, other countries of Southeast Asia,
    and Europe
•   Coal fired kilns are polluting the ambient
    environment of Bat Trang
•   Main pollutants are: dust, smoke, and particulate
    matter
•   pottery industries are also generating solid waste
    (slug, clinked, broken products…) and Waste water
    (Enameling and clay preparation).
•   People are suffering from various respiratory and
    other diseases.
                          Demonstration Project Presentation
               AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
               2008
        Demonstrating an affordable alternative for reduction
                  of air pollution and solid waste

   A demonstration project had been initiated in 2004 to introduce
   cleaner technology with the financial support from the Southeast
   Asia Urban Environmental Management Applications Project
   (funded by the CIDA)

Strategy:

 Reduce air pollution, decrease consumption of coal and firewood,
  and thus decrease the volume the solid waste (clinkers, ash and
  damaged ceramics) produce from traditional ceramic industry

 Maximize the benefit by grouping 3 households to share a gas kiln

 Promote to replicate the project idea for better air quality in the
  ceramic manufacturing village.
                                   Demonstration Project Presentation
                        AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                        2008


                Cleaner Technology to reduce environmental
                    Pollution from the ceramic industry

       Solid waste management           Reduce air pollution     Waste water management



            Project site:                                               Support:
           Ceramic village
                                      Alternative type of kiln        Financial and
         At Bat Trang, Hanoi            ( use natural Gas)              Technical


- Reduce air pollution                 Group
- Decrease consumption
  of coal and fired wood
                                  3 coal-fired kiln
-Decrease volume of waste            households
- Maximize the use of gas kiln                                       - Mobilize the women group
-Reduce the production cost                                            at community
- Decide the issue of                                                -Reduce the effect
  affordability for cleaner technology                               of air pollution on
                                                                       women health
                                 Demonstration Project Presentation
                      AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                      2008
                   Project area

Geographical features
Position: in southeast suburbs of Hanoi,
on the Red river bank, convenient for
transportation on both land and water.
Area: 1.640.297 m2
Climate: tropical monsoon
Population: 7200
Number of households: 1650
Number of households producing
pottery: 1205
The rest area engaged in trading,
services and farming
History of development – 500 years
Technology of production:
Traditional  Coal fired kilns : 1000
Modern  Gas-fired kilns: 295
Annual revenue: 30 millions USD from
selling pottery products and tourism
Problem: Environmental pollution
                               Demonstration Project Presentation
                    AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                    2008
                  Situation exist at the project Site

•    on average Bat 200 kilns are in
     operation at Bat Trang
•    consume 120 tons of coal.
•     Pottery units at Bat Trang
     consume 4200 tons of coal per
     year.
•    The average temp in Bat Trang is
always 1.5C – 3C higher than average
temp in Hanoi.
•    Short stacks and high emission
results in very high concentration of
pollution in this area due to poor
ventilation and the natural wind. For
example, if Bat Trang uses 120 tons of
coal per day will discharge to the ambient
are 5.76 tons of dust, 28.8 tons of ash and
25.08 tons of air pollution (SOx, COx)
                           Demonstration Project Presentation
                AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                2008

               Project Implementation Process
   Preliminary survey to identify the current status of the site
   Building a Gas-fired kiln for group of 3 households
   Discussion with Local authority about the new technology
   Involve women in implementation process
   Workshop to disseminate the results.

                   “Gas-fired kiln has helped us deal with the
                   problems of the high energy cost, scarcity of firewood and
                   environmental pollution. In comparison with traditional kiln,
                   the operation of the new kiln is easier and simpler. With
                   this success, we plan to replace the remaining ones with
                   this new technology. By doing this, production cost will be
                   considerably reduced.”
                                Nguyen Van Ao, Chairman of Bat Trang People Committee
                       Demonstration Project Presentation
            AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
            2008
     The pottery manufacturing process
        The main manufacturing process       Stage of manufacturing products



                Raw wares                      Preparing making lines

  Form making        Drying and repairing
                                              Drying yard & kiln dryer




                                                                               Waste water
              Glozing wares                        Enamel making
Decorate and painting         Enamel Cover
                                                    Cover printed

                Fire products




                                                                               Air pollution
                                                    Fuel preparing
                Pile products

             Unload products                            Burning


             Finished products                   Products classifying

                                              Standard        Substandard
                  Market
                                              products         products


                                                      Reuse           Solid waste
                  Demonstration Project Presentation
       AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
       2008

     Data of pottery processing in Bat Trang
No                    Items                 Unit         Quantity


1      Coal consumption                Ton/day     80.4

2      Fire wood                       Ton/day     4.6

3      Gas                             Ton/day     14

4      Waste water from produce        m3/ngµy     135

6      Clay                            Ton/day     160

7      Damaged products in Coal kiln   Kg/ngµy     1340

8      Damaged products                Kg/ngµy     233,33

9      Slug/Clinker                    Ton/day     29,236
                                 Demonstration Project Presentation
                      AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                      2008

          Coal consumption and pollution emission in Bat Trang

 Charcoal: 1200kg/batch
 Coal consumption per hour : 41.38kg/h
 Pollution emission to ambient by a coal-fired kiln:
 CO and CO2 :        34m3/h = 816m3/per day
 SO2 :             0.29m3/h = 6.96m3/per day
 O2 consumption: 2.74m3/h = 65.76m3/per day
           Gas-fired air samples checking results
Parameter                      TSP      PM10      SO2      NOx         CO     VOC
                              Mg/m3     mg/m3    mg/m3    mg/m3       mg/m3   mg/m3


Gas-fired kiln                 0.18      0.12     0.22     3.0         1.8     0.1

Tiêu chuẩn Việtnam (24h)        0.2      0.15     0.3      0.1          5       ?
                                  Demonstration Project Presentation
                       AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                       2008

                Result of air sample checking
    No                       Position              CO       PM10       PM2.5     TSP
                                                  mg/m³     mg/m³      mg/m³    mg/m³


1        Mr. Quynh’s House (down wind)              13       0.2        0.19    0.225
2        Mr.Thuan’s House (middle)                11.9212   0.26       0.028    0.28


3        Mr. Thang’s House (up wind)               7.968    0.39       0.043    0.43
4        Vietnam Standard (TCVN-5937) 24h           5       0.15*      0.065*    0.2




Loại máy đo: Ditochmous, Hi-Volume, Air Monitor
                                      Demonstration Project Presentation
                           AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                           2008


                                   Health data in Bat Trang
                                        Source: Bat Trang Clinic 2002

No               Kind of disease                   > 5 years old                  < 5 years old

                                          Number of         Percentage   Number of      Percentage (%)
                                           people                 (%)     people

1    Respiratory                             109               33.05        146               73.37

2    Digestion                               48                15.43        17                8.54

3    Skin and venereal diseases              25                    8.4      19                9.55

4    Accidents                               28                    9         2                1.01

5    Gynecology                              50                16.2



6    Cancer                                  16                5.02



7    Other                                   44                    14       15                7.53
                             Demonstration Project Presentation
                  AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                  2008

         Effect of Cleaner technology-Gas fired kiln

      Coal-fired Kiln                                 Gas-fired kiln
• Dirty, pollution                            • Cleaner and non-pollution
• Require long time for                       • Short time for production
production                                    • Temperature controlled
• Uncontrolled temperature                     decrease
increase substandard
products                                      • Smaller, flexible, easy to
                                              operation
• Tall, huge, difficult to
upload raw products                           • Short time and easy for
                                              unload products
• Takes time to reload
products,                                     • Low labor cost
• High labor cost                             • High building cost
• Lower building cost
                                     Demonstration Project Presentation
                          AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                          2008

                    Effect of Gas Fired Cleaner technology kiln
No                      Baking phases                              Time                       Temp

                                                    Coal-fired kiln    Gas-fired kiln
1       Start burning                                    5-7h              3-5h              500C
2       Baking                                          24-30h            12-16h             1250C
3       Finishing                                       24-30h             6-8h              45-55C

                                                       Input expenditure on a batch (VND)
       Kind of input investment
                                        Coal Kiln          Gas Kiln          Coal Kiln (L)    Gas Kiln(L)
Fuel                                     70000               91428                127500        220000
Kiln maintenance                         50000               19230                62000         50000
Labor cost                               20000                  4285              35000         15000
Other                                    16600               13928                27500         30000
Raw materials                            100000             100000                400000        400000
Total Input expenditure                  256600             228871                652000        715000
Market price                            500,000             500,000               900,000       900,000
Percentage (%) of standard              50%-65%                 90%                70%           90%
products on total baking products
                        Demonstration Project Presentation
             AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
             2008


                       Impact on women

-   Conversion to the cleaner technology not only reduced the
    pollution but also helped in improving people’s health.
-   According site survey, women in the community spend 80 % day
    time for house and ceramics producing works. Coal-fired kiln
    operating in house area will impact directly to people, who live in
    these houses, especially to women and children. Project is
    contributing to improve women’s health
-   enhance women quality of life
-   Facilitated women’s role in making a decision in terms of
    environmental protection at the community.
           Demonstration Project Presentation
AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
2008

           Gas-fired kiln
                              Demonstration Project Presentation
                   AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                   2008
             Cleaner technology, affordability and policies

                                                                  Traditional Tech
    Cleaner Tech
                                                                  -conventional,
      -easy to use
                                 Pottery Kiln                         backward
     -cleaner fuel
                                                                     -fossil fuel
   -small & flexible
                                                               -large and inflexible
     - High quality
                                                                    -low quality
 - High productivity
                                                                 -low productivity


   Affordability                                            Low income household
                              Government policies

New mode of production                                          Unaffordability

                      - Giving bank loan with low rate of interest
                         - Returning to the bank step by step
               - Providing finance for training and retraining tradesmen
                  - Supporting in manufacturing good quality pottery
                                   Demonstration Project Presentation
                        AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                        2008

                    Comparison of gas kilns and coal-fired kilns
           Issues                 Gas-fired         Coal-fired              Remark
Time spending of burning      20h             72h                   3-4times longer
per batch
Time of operation per         6-7             2-3                   For coal-fired maximum
month                                                               use – once per week
Fuel use                      Natural gas     Coal and fired wood


Labor force                   1               3

productivity                  Higher 90%      Lower 70% good        In gas-fired kilns heat
                              good                                  controlled
Quality of products           excellent       good

Revenue                       3               1                     Revenue from gas-fired 3
                                                                    times higher than coal-
                                                                    fired kiln
                                 Demonstration Project Presentation
                      AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
                      2008
                          Concluding remark
Supporting policies                                        New mode of production


                            Use of cleaner technology

                          Improved quality of production

                             Increased no. of tourists

                                Increased revenue

                                    Green tax



                       Sound Environmental management
                            Sustainable development
           Demonstration Project Presentation
AIT-CIDA partnership, SEA-UEMA 2003-
2008


Thank You !

								
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