Pg Titre

Document Sample
Pg Titre Powered By Docstoc
					http://www.europrise.org
                                                                                   The European HIV Prevention R&D Network


                                                                                                               Europrise SCIENCE UPDATE
Issued on every Monday - The Companion to the EUROPRISE NEWS (issued on every Friday) - Sources: NCBI
(NLM/NIH) – MIS (Medical Intelligence Solutions) - Scope: S&T information of interest to any organisation
involved in HIV/AIDS PREVENTION RESEARCH AND INNOVATION – i.e. research re science, technology,
strategies and policies - Distribution: free Search Term: “HIV” Selection ratio: +/- 65/100 -

     This bulletin includes references of articles that are already printed as well as e-publications (ahead of print)

                 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           INTENDED FOR WIDE DISTRIBUTION: TELL YOUR FRIENDS!

                             EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE N° 10-16


                                                            19 Apriill 2010
                                                            19 Apr 2010
                                                                 WEEK 10--16
                                                                 WEEK 10 16



                                                          Maiin Headiings
                                                          Ma n Head ngs

 Diagnosis .................................................................................................................. 9
 Epidemiology .......................................................................................................... 11
 Health economics ................................................................................................... 30
 Immunology ............................................................................................................ 31
 Pathology ................................................................................................................ 57
 Recommendations & Policies ............................................................................... 67
 Therapy, others ....................................................................................................... 74
 Vaccines, research ................................................................................................. 74
 Virology ................................................................................................................... 76

                                                    --------------------------------------------------------




             ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Free for Distribution to any interested reader - EUROPRISE contact: npolyans@sgul.ac.uk
                          Searching within this issue use EDIT / SEARCH function of MS Word
                    Accuracy of information depends on reliability of sources
   The Europrise members do not necessarily share the opinions expressed in the reported items
                             EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



                                                             CONTENTS

                            To go to item please click on page number in this table
                               To go to PubMed click on link below the abstract
    When you have a subscription to the concerned source you can also access the
         complete article from PubMed by clicking on source in the window
         Please check with your library for copyright compliance in so doing

Diagnosis .................................................................................................................. 9
  Advantages of the State-of-the-Art ELISA Test at Verification of an Early HIV
  Infection ............................................................................................................................ 9
  HIV Testing in Tuberculosis Patients in the United Kingdom ....................................... 9
  Comparison of the Avidity Index Method With Two 4th Generation HIV Assays ........ 9
  Utility of Rapid HIV-Test Conducted in Pharmacies .....................................................10
  New Advia Centaur® HIV Ag/Ab Combo, 4th Generation Screening Assay, Shows
  High Level of Specificity in a Mixed Population of a Routine Diagnostic Laboratory 10
  Performance Evaluation of the Access® HCV Ab Plus and the Access HIV-1/2. New
  Assays Performed on the UniCel® DxI 800 in a Virology Laboratory .........................10
  The Diagnostic Utility of LytA Real-Time PCR in Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Swabs
  for Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Colonization in HIV-Infected Adults ....................10
  Comparative Evaluation of Two Commercial Viral Load Assays for Monitoring
  Human 2immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma: Automated NucliSens
  EasyMAG/EasyQ V.1.2 Vs. High Pure/Cobas Taqman HIV-1 ........................................11

Epidemiology .......................................................................................................... 11
  HIV Testing Among Adults in a High Prevalence District in India ...............................11
  Casual Sexual Encounters Among Gay Men: Familiarity, Trust and Unprotected Anal
  Intercourse ......................................................................................................................12
  High GUD Incidence in the Early 20 Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time
  Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains ..............................12
  New Tools to Track HIV ..................................................................................................13
  Syphilis and HIV Seroconversion Among a 12-Month Prospective Cohort of Men
  Who Have Sex With Men in Shenyang, China ...............................................................13
  HIV/AIDS in the Developing World .................................................................................14
  The Role of Commercial Sex Venues in the HIV Epidemic Among Men Who Have Sex
  With Men ..........................................................................................................................14
  Wide Variation in the Multiplicity of HIV-1 Infection Among Injection Drug Users .....15
  Estimation of HIV-1 Incidence Among Five Focal Populations in Dehong, Yunnan: a
  Hard Hit Area Along a Major Drug Trafficking Route ....................................................16
  Ethical Considerations in Surveys Employing Respondent-Driven Sampling ...........16
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             2 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Modelling Population Processes With Random Initial Conditions ..............................17
[Needlestick Injuries and Reporting Routines.] ............................................................17
Syphilis and HIV Co-Infection in an Israeli HIV Clinic: Incidence and Outcome .........18
Historical Perspective of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Their Control in Peru
..........................................................................................................................................19
This Article Has Been Retracted: Trends in the Frequency of Blood Donors Donating
Blood to Be Tested for HIV in Shiraz From 2004 to 2006..............................................19
Seroprevalence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Infection Among Patients
Diagnosed With Sputum Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis at an Infectious
Diseases Hospital, Kano, Nigeria ...................................................................................20
HIV and Viral Hepatitis (HBV and HCV) Among Four Vulnerable Groups in Lebanon
..........................................................................................................................................20
HIV and Aging..................................................................................................................20
Prevalence and Correlates of Co-Infection With Human Immunodeficiency Virus and
Hepatitis C Virus in Male Injection-Drug Users in Iran .................................................20
The First Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour and Practices Surveillance on HIV/AIDS
Amongst Troops of Indian Armed Forces Stationed in Jaipur, India ..........................21
Epidemiological Analysis of Potential Risk Factors Contributing to Infection of HBV,
HCV and HIV Among the Population in Tripoli Area, Libya ..........................................21
Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infection in Patients Diagnosed at Age 50 Years or
Later .................................................................................................................................21
Maternal Mortality for 181 Countries, 1980-2008: a Systematic Analysis of Progress
Towards Millennium Development Goal 5 .....................................................................21
[Study of New HIV Infection Between 2000 and 2007 in the North and East of France.]
..........................................................................................................................................22
Economic Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Women in Rural Haiti: Implications
for HIV Prevention Policies and Programs in Resource-Poor Settings.......................23
Correlates of HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Female Military
Personnel.........................................................................................................................24
Impact of Interim Methadone Maintenance on HIV Risk Behaviors .............................24
Type-Specific Cervico-Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection Increases Risk of HIV
Acquisition Independent of Other Sexually Transmitted Infections ............................25
HIV-1 Transmission After Cessation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy Among Men
Having Sex With Men ......................................................................................................26
Judgments of Risk of Becoming HIV-Infected Through Sexual Contact in Lome,
Togo .................................................................................................................................26
Factors Behind HIV Testing Practices Among Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Living
Off-Reserve ......................................................................................................................27


        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             3 / 87
                              EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



  Correlates of HIV Testing Among Women in Ghana: Some Evidence From the
  Demographic and Health Surveys .................................................................................28
  Promoting Vulnerability or Resilience to HIV? A Qualitative Study on Polygamy in
  Maiduguri, Nigeria ...........................................................................................................28
  Beliefs About Transmission Risk and Vulnerability, Treatment Adherence, and
  Sexual Risk Behavior Among a Sample of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men
  ..........................................................................................................................................29

Health economics ................................................................................................... 30
  [The Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: Evaluation Policy Issues.] 30

Immunology ............................................................................................................ 31
  Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Restriction Factors, and Interferon ........................31
  Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Profile of CD4+ Counts in HIV+/AIDS People in
  North of Iran, 2007-2008 ..................................................................................................32
  [Relationship of CD4+ CD25hi Regulatory T (Treg) Cells to Disease Progression in
  HIV-Infected Patients] .....................................................................................................32
  [The Effect of Proliferation and Differentiation of CD8+ T Cells on the Progression in
  Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCV] .......................................................................33
  Clinical Reactivations of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection and Human
  Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression Markers ..............................................34
  Impact of HIV Infection, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, and Hepatitis C
  Coinfection on Serum Interleukin-27 .............................................................................34
  An Epidemiologic Study to Determine the Prevalence of the HLA-B*5701 Allele
  Among HIV-Positive Patients in Europe ........................................................................35
  Nonpathogenic SIV Infection of Sooty Mangabeys Is Not Associated With High
  Levels of Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies .............................................................36
  MHC Heterozygote Advantage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mauritian
  Cynomolgus Macaques ..................................................................................................36
  Host Hindrance to HIV-1 Replication in Monocytes and Macrophages .......................37
  Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroinvasion by Monocytes-Macrophages in HIV-1
  Infection ...........................................................................................................................38
  HIV-1 Assembly in Macrophages ...................................................................................38
  Journey to the Heart of Macrophages: the Delicate Relationship Between HIV-1 and a
  Multifaceted Cell Type ....................................................................................................39
  Changes in Function of HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses With Increasing Time From
  Infection ...........................................................................................................................39
  How Much Gp120 Is There?............................................................................................40
  Deglycosylation of Fc{Alpha}R at N58 Increases Its Binding to IgA ...........................40


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               4 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Differential Induction of Interleukin-10 in Monocytes by HIV-1 Clade B and Clade C
Tat Proteins .....................................................................................................................41
Changes in Impact of HLA Class I Allele Expression on HIV-1 Plasma Virus Loads at
a Population Level Over Time ........................................................................................41
Joint Modeling of the Clinical Progression and of the Biomarkers' Dynamics Using a
Mechanistic Model ..........................................................................................................42
IgG Subclass Profiles in Infected HIV Type 1 Controllers and Chronic Progressors
and in Uninfected Recipients of Env Vaccines .............................................................43
Persistence of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Protective Antibodies 3 Years After
Revaccination in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy .................43
Germline Antecedents of an Anti-HIV Murine Antibody ...............................................44
Implications of Universal Childhood Pneumococcal Vaccination on Invasive
Pneumococcal Disease in HIV Population - a Review of Current Infecting Serotypes
..........................................................................................................................................44
Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma Cruzi Isolated From HIV Patients With
Reactivation and Its Correlation With KDNA Profiles and LTCD4+ Counts ................44
Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: No Evidence of Impaired Immune
Function at 15 Months of Age ........................................................................................45
Differences Between Healthy Volunteers and HIV-Infected Patients in the Activities
of CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-Glycoprotein ........................................................................45
Frequency of CCR5 Delta 32 Polymorphism and Its Relation to Disease Progression
in Iranian HIV-1 Positive Individuals ..............................................................................45
Is Procalcitonin an Useful Biomarker of Severe Bacterial Infections in HIV-1-Infected
Patients? ..........................................................................................................................45
Rabies Neutralizing Antibody in AIDS Patients After Rabies Post-Exposure
Treatment With Doubling the Intramuscular Doses of Conventional Regimen and
Aluminium-Adjuvanted Tetanus Toxoid ........................................................................46
Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
of Rhesus Macaque CD8alphaalpha Homodimer .........................................................46
Optimized Methods for Imaging Membrane Nanotubes Between T Cells and
Trafficking of HIV-1 .........................................................................................................46
Constrained Use of CCR5 on CD4+ Lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: Efficiency of Env-
CCR5 Interactions and Low CCR5 Expression Determine a Range of Restricted
CCR5-Mediated Entry......................................................................................................47
Limelight on Two HIV/SIV Accessory Proteins in Macrophage Infection: Is Vpx
Overshadowing Vpr ? .....................................................................................................48
Macrophage Signaling in HIV-1 Infection ......................................................................48
Molecular Mechanisms of HIV-1 Persistence in the Monocyte-Macrophage Lineage 49
Short Communication: Human Blood Dendritic Cells Are Infected Separately From
Monocytes in HIV Type 1 Patients .................................................................................49

        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             5 / 87
                             EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



  Alterations in Natural Killer Cell Receptor Profiles During HIV Type 1 Disease
  Progression Among Chronically Infected South African Adults .................................50
  Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1
  Genomic Activation.........................................................................................................51
  Exposure to HIV-1 Directly Impairs Mucosal Epithelial Barrier Integrity Allowing
  Microbial Translocation ..................................................................................................51
  Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 Infection of T Cells Demonstrates a Direct
  Relationship to Plasma Viral RNA Levels ......................................................................52
  Discordance Between CD4 Cell Count and CD4 Cell Percentage: Implications for
  When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected Children .................................53
  Predicting the Magnitude of Short-Term CD4+ T-Cell Recovery in HIV-Infected
  Patients During First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy .................................53
  Identification of HIV Integration Sites in Infected Host Genomic DNA ........................54
  Impact of Chronic Viral Diseases on Semen Parameters .............................................55
  HIV Infection in the Female Genital Tract: Discrete Influence of the Local Mucosal
  Microenvironment ...........................................................................................................55
  Genetic Diversity of Neotropical Primates: Phylogeny, Population Genetics, and
  Animal Models for Infectious Diseases .........................................................................56
  Low CD4+ T-Cell Levels and B-Cell Apoptosis in Vertically HIV-Exposed Noninfected
  Children and Adolescents ..............................................................................................56

Pathology ................................................................................................................ 57
  HIV Nef-M1 Effects on Colorectal Cancer Growth in Tumor-Induced Spleens and
  Hepatic Metastasis ..........................................................................................................57
  Community-Acquired Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Children: a Global Perspective ....58
  Relations Between Cardiovascular Risk Estimates and Subclinical Atherosclerosis
  in Naive HIV Patients: Results From the HERMES Study .............................................59
  Prevailing HCV Genotypes and Subtypes Among HIV-Infected Patients in Georgia .60
  Findings From Fibre Optic Bronchoscopy in HIV- Positive Patients in Eastern
  London .............................................................................................................................60
  Tuberculosis in HIV-HCV Co-Infected Patients .............................................................60
  Re-Emergence of Infectious Syphilis Among Homosexual Men and HIV Co-Infection
  in Spain, 2003-2008 .........................................................................................................60
  Anti-HCV Negative Viral Hepatitis C in HIV-Infected Patients From AIDS Centre,
  Prague ..............................................................................................................................61
  E6/E7 Expression in the Triage of HIV-HPV Coinfected Patients.................................61
  Prevalence of Papillomavirus in HIV-Positive Patients ................................................61
  HRQoL in HIV-Infected Children Using PedsQL 4.0 and Comparison With Uninfected
  Children ...........................................................................................................................61
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             6 / 87
                             EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



  Correction: Urologic Complications of HIV and AIDS ..................................................62
  HIV and SIV Induce Alterations in CNS CaMKII Expression and Activation. A
  Potential Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment ............................................................62
  Hepatitis C Virus RNA Detection in Different Semen Fractions of HCV/HIV-1 Co-
  Infected Men by Nested PCR ..........................................................................................63
  Causes of Death in HIV-1-Infected Patients Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy,
  1996-2006: Collaborative Analysis of 13 HIV Cohort Studies ......................................64
  Skin Disorders in Korean Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus and
  Their Association With a CD4 Lymphocyte Count: a Preliminary Study ....................64
  Symptom Burden in HIV-Infected Adults at Time of HIV Diagnosis in Rural Uganda 65
  HIV-Associated Tuberculosis: Clinical Update .............................................................66

Recommendations & Policies ............................................................................... 67
  More Than Four Million HIV-Positive People Now Receiving Life-Saving Treatment .67
  Effectiveness of HIV Prevention for Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review
  and Meta-Analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials ...................................67
  UK National Guideline on the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections and
  Related Conditions in Children and Young People (2009) ...........................................68
  Short Communication: Prioritizing Communities for HIV Prevention in Sub-Saharan
  Africa ................................................................................................................................68
  Kenya's HIV-Testing Drive Runs into Difficulties ..........................................................69
  Knowledge and Attitudes About Male Circumcision for HIV-1 Prevention Among
  Heterosexual HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships in Kampala, Uganda .....................69
  The Fidelity of Decision-Making: the Achilles Heel for the Successful Implementation
  of Prevention Modalities for HIV ....................................................................................69
  The Need for Culturally Appropriate, Gender-Specific Global HIV Prevention Efforts
  With Vulnerable Women .................................................................................................70
  Using Protection Motivation Theory to Predict Condom Usage and Assess HIV
  Health Communication Efficacy in Singapore ..............................................................70
  Implementation Effects of GFATM-Supported HIV/AIDS Projects on the Health
  Sector, Civil Society and Affected Communities in Peru 2004-2007 ...........................71
  Adapting and Applying a Multiple Domain Model of Condom Use to Chinese College
  Students...........................................................................................................................71
  A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Relative Efficacy of Adding Voluntary
  Counseling and Testing (VCT) to Information Dissemination in Reducing HIV-Related
  Risk Behaviors Among Hong Kong Male Cross-Border Truck Drivers .......................72
  Development and Feasibility of an HIV and IPV Prevention Intervention Among Low-
  Income Mothers Receiving Services in a Missouri Day Care Center...........................73
  Project ROADMAP: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention: a
  Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults .................................................73
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              7 / 87
                              EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Therapy, others ....................................................................................................... 74
  "Viologen" Dendrimers As Antiviral Agents: The Effect of Charge Number and
  Distance ...........................................................................................................................74

Vaccines, research ................................................................................................. 74
  Novel Recombinant BCG, Ovine Atadenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara
  Vaccines Combine to Induce Robust Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD4
  and CD8 T Cell Responses in Rhesus Macaques .........................................................74
  Designing and Biological Evaluation of Single-Cycle Replicable HIV-1 System As a
  Potential Vaccine Strategy .............................................................................................75
  Construction and Immunogenicity of Replication-Competent Adenovirus 5 Host
  Range Mutant Recombinants Expressing HIV-1 Gp160 of SF162 and TV1 Strains ....76

Virology ................................................................................................................... 76
  Structural Aspects of Drug Resistance and Inhibition of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase
  ..........................................................................................................................................76
  Characterization of Emergent HIV Resistance in Treatment-Naive Subjects Enrolled
  in a Vicriviroc Phase 2 Trial ............................................................................................77
  Natural Polymorphisms of Integrase Among HIV Type 1-Infected South African
  Patients ............................................................................................................................78
  Conserved Determinants of Enhanced CCR5 Binding in the Human
  Immunodeficiency Virus Subtype D Envelope Third Variable Loop ............................78
  Short Communication: Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 in the Republic of
  Dagestan, Russian Federation: Virtually Uniform Circulation of Subtype A, Former
  Soviet Union Variant, With Predominance of the V77I(PR) Subvariant .......................79
  Association Between Detection of HIV-1 DNA Resistance Mutations by a Sensitive
  Assay at Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and Virologic Failure .............................80
  Prevalence of Secondary Drug-Resistant Mutations to Antiretroviral Drugs in Iranian
  HIV-Infected Patients ......................................................................................................81
  Characterization of Vpr Gene of HIV-1 Subtype A Variant Prevailing in Russia .........81
  Analysis of the Mutations Associated to Integrase Inhibitor Resistance in Subtype B
  and Non-B Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 .....................................................81
  Optimization of Antiretroviral Treatment of HIV-Patients With Viral Loads Below
  1,000 Copies/ML Based on Genotyping Data ................................................................81
  Drug-Resistant Mutation Patterns in CRF01_AE Cases That Failed
  D4T+3TC+Nevirapine Fixed-Dosed, Combination Treatment: Follow-Up Study From
  the Lampang Cohort .......................................................................................................82
  Identification of a Novel Second-Generation Circulating Recombinant Form
  (CRF48_01B) in Malaysia: A Descendant of the Previously Identified CRF33_01B....83
  Positive and Negative Drug Selection Pressures on the N348I Connection Domain
  Mutation: New Insights From in Vivo Data ....................................................................83

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               8 / 87
                          EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



 Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Change Governs Specificity and Analog
 Discrimination by HIV Reverse Transcriptase ..............................................................84
 Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Long-Term Changes in HIV Type 1 Subtype B
 Transmission in Switzerland ..........................................................................................85
 Lack of Effect of Compartmentalized Drug Resistance Mutations on HIV-1 Pol
 Divergence in Antiretroviral-Experienced Women........................................................86
 HIV-1 Resistance Patterns to Integrase Inhibitors in Antiretroviral-Experienced
 Patients With Virological Failure on Raltegravir-Containing Regimens ......................86
                             ----------------------------------------

Diagnosis

Advantages of the State-of-the-Art ELISA Test at Verification of an
Early HIV Infection
SHARIPOVA I., Denisova, N., Baranova, E., Susekina, M., Puzyrev, V., Sarkisyan, K.,
Vorob'eva, M., Obriadina, A., Burkov, A., and Ulanova, T.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Nizhny Novgorod; Moskow, RU
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Diagnosis

HIV Testing in Tuberculosis Patients in the United Kingdom
RAZA M., Mukherjee, R., Bhattacharya, M., and Mital, D.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Milton Keynes, UK
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Diagnosis

Comparison of the Avidity Index Method With Two 4th Generation
HIV Assays
REGINE V., Raimondo, M., Rodella, A., Galli, C., Manca, N., Camoni, L., Salfa, M., and
Suligoi, B.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Rome; Brescia, IT
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           9 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Diagnosis

Utility of Rapid HIV-Test Conducted in Pharmacies
CAMINO X., Zulaica, D., Goenaga, M., Iribarren, J., von, Wichmann M., Rodriguez, F., and
Arrizabalaga, J.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
San Sebastian, ES)
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Diagnosis

New Advia Centaur® HIV Ag/Ab Combo, 4th Generation Screening
Assay, Shows High Level of Specificity in a Mixed Population of a
Routine Diagnostic Laboratory
BURKI D. and Pfister, S.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Basel, CH
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Diagnosis

Performance Evaluation of the Access® HCV Ab Plus and the
Access HIV-1/2. New Assays Performed on the UniCel® DxI 800 in a
Virology Laboratory
ROUSSEL C., Zawadzki, P., Le, Moal E., Groleau, N., Falcou-Briatte, R., and Duverlie, G.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Amiens; Marnes-la-Coquette, FR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Diagnosis

The Diagnostic Utility of LytA Real-Time PCR in Sputum and
Nasopharyngeal Swabs for Pneumococcal Pneumonia and
Colonization in HIV-Infected Adults
ALBRICH W., Adrian, P., van, Niekerk N., Wong, M., Khoosal, M., Zhao, P., Deatly, A.,
Pride, M., Sidhu, M., Jansen, K., Madhi, S., and Klugman, K.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Aarau, CH; Soweto, ZA; Pearl River, US; Atlanta, US
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------



          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            10 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Diagnosis

Comparative Evaluation of Two Commercial Viral Load Assays for
Monitoring Human 2immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in
Plasma: Automated NucliSens EasyMAG/EasyQ V.1.2 Vs. High
Pure/Cobas Taqman HIV-1
PAPOUTSI A., Karava, A., Kollaras, P., Nikolaides, P., and Malissiovas, N.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Thessaloniki; Athens, GR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------


Epidemiology

HIV Testing Among Adults in a High Prevalence District in India
DANDONA R., Kumar, S. G., Kumar, G. A., Lakshmi, V., and Dandona, L.
Natl.Med.J.India. 22 (6), 289-293 ,2009
AD - Public Health Foundation of India, 4/2, Siri Fort Institutional Area, August Kranti
Marg,          New          Delhi          110016,      India         rakhidandona@phfiorg
eng
BACKGROUND: HIV testing is a key component of HIV control efforts. We examined the
distribution of HIV testing in a population-based sample from Guntur district in Andhra
Pradesh, which is estimated to have one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV in India.
METHODS: A total of 12,994 persons (15-49 years of age) were interviewed in Guntur
district. We assessed associations with the uptake of HIV test, place and reasons for
undergoing HIV testing and awareness of voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCTC)
among sexually active adults. RESULTS: The age-, sex-, urban- and rural-adjusted
prevalence of HIV testing was 21.1% (95% CI: 19.1-23.2). The uptake of HIV testwas higher in
women (27.2%) than in men (18.8%). Increasing education level, urban area residence and
being in an occupation requiring mobility were significantly associated with uptake of the
HIV test. A previous test for HIV was reported by 37.8% of men and 30.3% of women. The
adjusted prevalence of VCTC awareness was 5.4% (95% CI: 4.3-6.4), being higher in men
(9.2%) than in women (3.5%). Among those who had undergone HIV testing, 83.9% of men
and 76.2% of women did so at a private sector health facility. Women were significantly
more likely to under-go testing at VCTC/public sector facility (23.5%) than men (15%). More
men (47.6%) than women (3.3%) reported undergoing testing voluntarily (p < 0.001). Women
reported pregnancy (57.4%) as the most common reason for undergoing the test.
CONCLUSION: These population-based data highlight the patterns of HIV testing and their
associations. The high proportion of HIV testing in the private sector suggests the need to
strengthen counselling in this sector to enhance HIV prevention activities
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384015

------------------------------------------------------

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            11 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

Casual Sexual Encounters Among Gay Men: Familiarity, Trust and
Unprotected Anal Intercourse
ZABLOTSKA I. B., Grulich, A. E., De, Wit J., and Prestage, G.
AIDS Behav. 2010
AD - National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South
Wales,         Sydney,         2052,          Australia,        izablotska@nchecrunsweduau
ENG
Familiarity with and a history of prior sex with casual partners is associated with
unprotected anal intercourse and may increase the risk of HIV transmission among gay men.
Using data from the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey 2007, we explored the
relationship between familiarity and unprotected anal intercourse with the last casual
partner (UAI-LC). 51% of the men knew their last casual partner and 49% had previously
had sex with him. Men were more inclined to engage in UAI-LC if they had previously had
sex with this partner. HIV-negative men were more likely to have UAI-LC with a more
familiar partner independent of his serostatus. Familiarity with and a previous history of sex
between casual partners may result in a false sense of trust and may increase the risk of HIV
transmission. HIV prevention services should address this issue and develop programs to
improve men's skills in negotiating safer sex
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376696

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

High GUD Incidence in the Early 20 Century Created a Particularly
Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of
Epidemic HIV Strains
DE SOUSA J. D., Muller, V., Lemey, P., and Vandamme, A. M.
PLoS.One. 5 (4), e9936 ,2010
AD - Laboratory for Clinical and Evolutionary Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research,
Katholieke      Universiteit   Leuven,     Leuven,    Belgium     joaosousa@regakuleuvenbe
eng
The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain
elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the
human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the
timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular
clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880-1940) for major SIV
transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have
been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4-43%), largely
exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV
infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed
colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions,
concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time
with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            12 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



incidences 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20(th) century. We surveyed
ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in
early 20(th) century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence
of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1
group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using
parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20(th) century
was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The
strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of
city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest
that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV
emergence. Low circumcision rates may have played a role, probably by their indirect effects
on GUD
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376191

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

New Tools to Track HIV
SCHACKER T.
Nat.Med. 16 (4), 373-374 ,2010
AD - Timothy Schacker is in the Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis,                             Minnesota,                         USA
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376041

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Syphilis and HIV Seroconversion Among a 12-Month Prospective
Cohort of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Shenyang, China
XU J. J., Zhang, M., Brown, K., Reilly, K., Wang, H., Hu, Q., Ding, H., Chu, Z., Bice, T., and
Shang, H.
Sex Transm.Dis. 2010
AD - *From the Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of Ministry of Health, No 1 Hospital of
China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China; daggerNational Center for AIDS/STD
Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Rd,
Xuanwu District, Beijing, 100050, PR China; double daggerTulane University Health Sciences
Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; and #These
authors            contributed            equally          to            this            work
ENG
BACKGROUND:: Cross-sectional studies have found a high prevalence of syphilis and HIV
infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS:: A total of 218
HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective cohort study. Interviewer-administered

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            13 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



questionnaires were completed, and blood samples were obtained for HIV and syphilis
testing, both upon enrollment and at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS:: Of enrolled
participants, 56% (122) were retained for the full 12-month follow-up period. The cohort had
an HIV incidence density of 5.4 (95% CI: 2.0-11.3)/100 person-year (PY) and a syphilis
incidence density of 38.5(95% CI: 27.7-50.2)/100 PY. Having syphilis (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4,
95% CI: 1.2-104.7) and more than 5 male sexual partners within the past 12 months (OR: 6.5,
95% CI: 1.1-39.8) were independent risk factors for HIV seroconversion (each P < 0.05). Being
married (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.2) and having more than 5 male sexual partners within the
past 12 months (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-6.2) were risk factors for syphilis seroconversion, while
age >/=30 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.7-9.5) and having recently engaged in unprotected receptive
anal sex (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 0.7-13.1) were marginally associated with syphilis seroconversion.
CONCLUSION:: The high incidence rates of HIV and syphilis in the Shenyang MSM
community are significant cause for concern. The seroconversion rate for syphilis, in
particular, indicates the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors and the potential for
increased HIV transmission. Appropriate interventions that address MSM-specific issues,
including stigma, pressures from traditional society, and bisexual behavior, need to be
tailored to inform and empower MSM in order to prevent HIV and syphilis in this
community
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375928

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

HIV/AIDS in the Developing World
LONDON N. J., Shukla, D., Heiden, D., Rathinam, S. R., Arevalo, J. F., and Cunningham, E.
T., Jr.
Int.Ophthalmol.Clin. 50 (2), 201-218 ,2010
engLink                                                                                 :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375872

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

The Role of Commercial Sex Venues in the HIV Epidemic Among
Men Who Have Sex With Men
REIDY W. J. and Goodreau, S. M.
Epidemiology. 2010
AD - From the *International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Columbia
University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY; and daggerDepartment of
Anthropology,         University           of       Washington,      Seattle,       WA
ENG
BACKGROUND:: Commercial sex venues such as bathhouses and sex clubs have long been
considered important facilitators of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            14 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



the United States. Recent probability surveys of commercial-sex-venue patrons in King
County, WA that included data on behavior both within and outside these venues provide
an empirical basis for the development of mathematical models to estimate the role that
commercial sex venues play in the HIV epidemic. METHODS:: We constructed deterministic
compartmental mathematical models of HIV transmission to estimate both current incidence
among King County men who have sex with men and incidence in 5 counterfactual scenarios
in which commercial-sex-venues were presumed not to exist. We parameterized the models
using a range of values for the proportion of commercial sex venues partnerships replaced in
the absence of these venues, and the number of acts of unprotected anal intercourse per other
types of partnership. Yearly attributable number was calculated as the difference between
incident HIV cases in the main models and each corresponding counterfactual model. We
performed extensive sensitivity analyses using Latin hypercube sampling. RESULTS::
Replacement of 25% of commercial sex venue partners in the absence of these venues
resulted in attributable number values near zero per year. Replacement of 50% or more of
commercial sex venue partners resulted in negative yearly attributable numbers, indicating a
net increase in incident HIV infections in the absence of these venues. Results of the
sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings
imply that commercial sex venues contribute little to the burden of HIV among men who
have sex with men in King County, WA
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375840

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Wide Variation in the Multiplicity of HIV-1 Infection Among Injection
Drug Users
BAR K. J., Li, H., Chamberland, A., Tremblay, C., Routy, J. P., Grayson, T., Sun, C., Wang, S.,
Learn, G. H., Morgan, C. J., Schumacher, J. E., Haynes, B. F., Keele, B. F., Hahn, B. H., and
Shaw, G. M.
J.Virol. 2010
AD - University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294; Centre de
Recherche du CHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada; University of Montreal, Montreal, QC,
Canada; Immunodeficiency Service and Division of Hematology, McGill University Health
Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710; SAIC-
Frederick,      National       Cancer      Institute,     Frederick,      Maryland,       21702
ENG
Recent studies indicate that sexual transmission of HIV-1 generally results from productive
infection by only one virus, a finding attributable to the mucosal barrier. Surprisingly, a
recent study in injection drug users (IDU) from St. Petersburg, Russia also found most
subjects to be acutely infected by a single virus. Here we show by single genome
amplification and sequencing in a different IDU cohort that 60% of IDU subjects were
infected by more than one virus, including one subject who was acutely infected by at least
16. Multivariant transmission was more common in IDU than in heterosexuals (60% vs 19%,
odds ratio 6.14, 95% C.I. 1.37-31.27; p=0.008). These findings highlight the diversity in HIV-1
infection risk among different IDU cohorts and the challenges faced by vaccines in protecting
against this mode of infection
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            15 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Link                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375173

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Estimation of HIV-1 Incidence Among Five Focal Populations in
Dehong, Yunnan: a Hard Hit Area Along a Major Drug Trafficking
Route
DUAN S., Shen, S., Bulterys, M., Jia, Y., Yang, Y., Xiang, L., Tian, F., Lu, L., Xiao, Y., Wang,
M., Jia, M., Jiang, H., Vermund, S. H., and Jiang, Y.
BMC.Public Health. 10 (1), 180 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since 1989 when the first 146 HIV positives in China were
identified, Dehong Prefecture had been one of the areas hardest-hit by HIV in China. The
local and national governments have put substantial financial resources into tackling the
HIV epidemic in Dehong from 2004. The objective of this study was to track dynamic
changes in HIV-1 prevalence and incidence among five focal populations in Dehong and to
assess the impact of HIV prevention and control efforts. METHODS: Consecutive cross-
sectional surveys conducted in five focal populations between 2004 and 2008. Specimens
seropositive for HIV were tested with the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify
recent seroconversions (median, 155 days) using normalized optical density of 0.8 and
adjustments. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2008, estimated annual HIV incidence among injecting
drug users (IDUs) decreased significantly [from 15.0% (95% CI=11.4%-18.5%) in 2004 to 4.3%
(95% CI=2.4%-6.2%) in 2008; trend test P<0.0001]. The incidence among other focal
populations, such as HIV discordant couples (varying from 5.5% to 4.7%), female sex
workers (varying from 1.4% to 1.3%), pregnant women (0.1%), and pre-marital couples (0.2
to 0.1%) remained stable. Overall, the proportion of recent HIV-1 infections was higher
among females than males (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The HIV epidemic in Dehong
continued to expand during a five-year period but at a slowing rate among IDUs, and HIV
incidence remains high among IDUs and discordant couples. Intensive prevention measures
should target sub-groups at highest risk to further slow the epidemic and control the
migration of HIV to other areas of China, and multivariate analysis is needed to explore
which measures are more effective for different populations
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20374618

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Ethical Considerations in Surveys Employing Respondent-Driven
Sampling
SEMAAN S., Heckathorn, D. D., Des, Jarlais, and Garfein, R. S.
Am.J.Public Health. 100 (4), 582-583 ,2010
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            16 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20167881

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Modelling Population Processes With Random Initial Conditions
POLLETT P. K., Dooley, A. H., and Ross, J. V.
Math.Biosci. 223 (2), 142-150 ,2010
AD - Department of Mathematics, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia
pkp@mathsuqeduau
eng
Population dynamics are almost inevitably associated with two predominant sources of
variation: the first, demographic variability, a consequence of chance in progenitive and
deleterious events; the second, initial state uncertainty, a consequence of partial observability
and reporting delays and errors. Here we outline a general method for incorporating random
initial conditions in population models where a deterministic model is sufficient to describe
the dynamics of the population. Additionally, we show that for a large class of stochastic
models the overall variation is the sum of variation due to random initial conditions and
variation due to random dynamics, and thus we are able to quantify the variation not
accounted for when random dynamics are ignored. Our results are illustrated with reference
to both simulated and real data
Link                                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=19932121

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

[Needlestick Injuries and Reporting Routines.]
HUSOY A. M., Minde, T., Knudsen, H., and Akselsen, P. E.
Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen. 130 (7), 735-737 ,2010
AD       -     astridhusoy@helse-bergenno        Laboratorium     for    klinisk     biokjemi
nor
Background. Health care workers are at risk for transmission of blood-borne agents through
percutaneous exposure. Reporting of sharps injuries is essential for instigation of adequate
post-exposure prophylaxis and follow-up. We aimed at providing an account of number of
sharps injuries reported by type of health care worker and the reporting systems used for
injuries that have an inherent risk of transmitting blood-borne agents. Material and methods.
The section for HSE (health, safety and environment) at Haukeland University Hospital
provided us with an overview of requests for analyses of hepatitis and HIV linked to 159
sharps injuries that had not been reported otherwise. Injury reports at Haukeland University
Hospital from the period 2003 - 2007 (n = 8556) were systematically reviewed. Results. On
average, 210 sharps injuries are reported annually at Haukeland University Hospital. In
addition analyses of hepatitis and HIV linked to 159 sharps injuries that had not been
reported otherwise, were requested annually. 51 % of sharps injuries were reported by
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            17 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



nurses, 10 % by laboratory workers, 6 % by doctors and 33 % by others. Interpretation.
Sharps injuries are often not reported, and especially doctors fail to report them. Of health
care workers, nurses report most sharps injuries. Related to numbers employed, laboratory
workers report most sharps injuries
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20379335

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Syphilis and HIV Co-Infection in an Israeli HIV Clinic: Incidence and
Outcome
GMON-LEVIN N., Elbirt, D., Asher, I., Gradestein, S., Werner, B., and Sthoeger, Z.
Int.J.STD AIDS. 21 (4), 249-252 ,2010
AD - Neve-Or AIDS Center, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot; Affiliated to the Hadassah
Medical                       School,                     Jerusalem,                    Israel
eng
The re-emergence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients has been reported in recent years.
We evaluated co-infection among heterosexual immigrants in an Israeli AIDS center. The
records of 1060 HIV-infected patients were evaluated for positive syphilis serology between
the years 2000 and 2005, and all seropositive patients were further evaluated. We found 150
HIV/syphilis co-infected patients (57% men, 93% of African origin), of who 135 were found
to have late latent syphilis. Lumbar puncture (LP) was performed in 51 patients, 16 (31%)
had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compatible with neurosyphilis. Abnormal CSF
correlated with the absence of previous anti-syphilis treatment, but not with CD4 count, viral
load or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titres. Penicillin was recommended to all
patients according to their disease stages and 81 patients completed 12 months post-
treatment follow-up. Twenty-one of 81 (26%) treatments were successful, 33 (41%) showed
'serofast reaction' and 27 (33%) failed therapy. In conclusion, a high incidence of syphilis
with CSF reactivity suggestive of neurosyphilis was observed in heterosexual Ethiopian
HIV-infected patients. Thus, repeated serological screening and CSF evaluation seems to be
indicated in these patients. Penicillin therapy resulted in 'serofast reaction' or treatment
failure for most patients. More, intensive treatment might be needed for HIV/syphilis in co-
infected patients, especially those with severe immune-deficiency and prolonged syphilis
infection
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378895

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            18 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

Historical Perspective of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Their
Control in Peru
GARCIA P. J.
Int.J.STD AIDS. 21 (4), 242-245 ,2010
AD - Unit of Epidemiology, STI and HIV School of Public Health, Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porres, Lima 31, Peru
eng
In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one
must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different
aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs
were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal
subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM],
etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality
and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most
importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why.
This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at
different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes
and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin
American region
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378893

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

This Article Has Been Retracted: Trends in the Frequency of Blood
Donors Donating Blood to Be Tested for HIV in Shiraz From 2004 to
2006
Transfus.Med. 20 (2), 127 ,2010
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377824

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            19 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

Seroprevalence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Infection
Among Patients Diagnosed With Sputum Smear Positive Pulmonary
Tuberculosis at an Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
MOHAMMED Y.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Kaduna, NG
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

HIV and Viral Hepatitis (HBV and HCV) Among Four Vulnerable
Groups in Lebanon
RAMIA S., Mahfoud, Z., Afifi, R., Dejong, J., Kreidieh, K., Shamra, S., and Kassak, K.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
HIV/AIDS Group
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

HIV and Aging
CAUDA R.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Rome, IT
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Prevalence and Correlates of Co-Infection With Human
Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in Male Injection-
Drug Users in Iran
SEYED ALINAGHI S., Kheirandish, P., Esmaeili, Djavid G., Shirzad, H., Karami, N.,
Hosseini, M., Jahani, M., Azimi, S., Payvarmehr, F., Mohraz, M., and McFarland, W.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tehran, IR; San Francisco, US
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            20 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

The First Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour and Practices
Surveillance on HIV/AIDS Amongst Troops of Indian Armed Forces
Stationed in Jaipur, India
SINGH M. and Guleri, A.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Jaipur, IN; Blackpool, UK
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Epidemiological Analysis of Potential Risk Factors Contributing to
Infection of HBV, HCV and HIV Among the Population in Tripoli
Area, Libya
SHABASH A., Habas, M., Fara, A., and Daw, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tripoli, LY
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infection in Patients Diagnosed at
Age 50 Years or Later
ALMASI F.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Courbevoie, FR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Maternal Mortality for 181 Countries, 1980-2008: a Systematic
Analysis of Progress Towards Millennium Development Goal 5
HOGAN M. C., Foreman, K. J., Naghavi, M., Ahn, S. Y., Wang, M., Makela, S. M., Lopez, A.
D., Lozano, R., and Murray, C. J.
Lancet. 2010
AD - Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,
USA; Department of Health Services, School of Public Health, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA, USA
ENG
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems
worldwide. Reliable information about the rates and trends in maternal mortality is essential

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            21 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



for resource mobilisation, and for planning and assessment of progress towards Millennium
Development Goal 5 (MDG 5), the target for which is a 75% reduction in the maternal
mortality ratio (MMR) from 1990 to 2015. We assessed levels and trends in maternal
mortality for 181 countries. METHODS: We constructed a database of 2651 observations of
maternal mortality for 181 countries for 1980-2008, from vital registration data, censuses,
surveys, and verbal autopsy studies. We used robust analytical methods to generate
estimates of maternal deaths and the MMR for each year between 1980 and 2008. We
explored the sensitivity of our data to model specification and show the out-of-sample
predictive validity of our methods. FINDINGS: We estimated that there were 342 900
(uncertainty interval 302 100-394 300) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008, down from 526
300 (446 400-629 600) in 1980. The global MMR decreased from 422 (358-505) in 1980 to 320
(272-388) in 1990, and was 251 (221-289) per 100 000 livebirths in 2008. The yearly rate of
decline of the global MMR since 1990 was 1.3% (1.0-1.5). During 1990-2008, rates of yearly
decline in the MMR varied between countries, from 8.8% (8.7-14.1) in the Maldives to an
increase of 5.5% (5.2-5.6) in Zimbabwe. More than 50% of all maternal deaths were in only
six countries in 2008 (India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo). In the absence of HIV, there would have been 281 500 (243 900-327
900) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008. INTERPRETATION: Substantial, albeit varied,
progress has been made towards MDG 5. Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve
a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ecuador, and Bolivia have
been achieving accelerated progress. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Link                                                                                      :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382417

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

[Study of New HIV Infection Between 2000 and 2007 in the North
and East of France.]
HENARD S., Letranchant, L., Borel, A., Ajana, F., Rey, D., Hustache-Mathieu, L., Chavanet,
P., May, T., and Rabaud, C.
Med.Mal Infect. 2010
AD - COREVIH Lorraine Champagne Ardennes, hopitaux de Brabois, allee du Morvan,
54500                            Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy,                              France
FRE
In France, since 2003, all new HIV infection must be reported. Data collected with the
declaration system is not exhaustive and only concerns epidemiological data. OBJECTIVE:
The authors' aim was to study the epidemiologic evolution of new HIV cases between
January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 in North and East of France, to compare them with
national and local data, to complete them, and to identify local specificities. METHOD: A
retrospective observational study was made, with a standardized questionnaire completed
by any volunteer HIV care center in the North and the East of France. RESULTS: Three
thousand and thirty questionnaires were analyzed. The main trends over these eight years
were similar to those observed in the rest of France: a decreasing number of women and
patients of foreign origin, a decreasing number of patients with a late diagnosis, an
increasing number of primary infections, and a higher CD4 count on initiation of
antiretroviral treatment. However, local specificities appeared, such as: increasing
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            22 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



proportion of men having sex with men and a less important proportion of co-infected
patients with hepatitis B and/or C than on the national level. The therapeutic regimen is
adequate according to expert recommendations, with, however, a marked "center effect"
concerning prescription habits. DISCUSSION: Such a local epidemiological study, even if it
confirms observed trends in the rest of France, allows detailing them and suggesting
prevention measures more specifically adapted to local settings
Link                                                                                     :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20381275

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Economic Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Women in Rural
Haiti: Implications for HIV Prevention Policies and Programs in
Resource-Poor Settings
FAWZI M. C., Lambert, W., Boehm, F., Finkelstein, J. L., Singler, J. M., Leandre, F., Nevil, P.,
Bertrand, D., Claude, M. S., Bertrand, J., Louissaint, M., Jeannis, L., Farmer, P. E., Yang, A. T.,
and Mukherjee, J. S.
J.Womens Health (Larchmt.). 2010
AD - 1 Program in Infectious Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and
Social     Medicine,      Harvard      Medical      School      ,      Boston,     Massachusetts
ENG
Abstract Aims: The goals of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of HIV infection
among women accessing services at a women's health center in rural Haiti and (2) to identify
economic risk factors for HIV infection in this population. Methods: Women who accessed
healthcare services at this center between June 1999 and December 2002 were recruited to
participate. The analysis was based on data from a case-control study of sexually transmitted
diseases (STDs) in rural Haiti. HIV prevalence in the study population was 4%. Results: In
multivariate analyses, partner occupation was associated with HIV infection in women, with
mechanic (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.8-45) and market vendor (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-11) reflecting the
strongest partner occupational risk factors. Partner's occupation as a farmer reduced the risk
of infection in women by 60% (95% CI 0.14-1.1). Factors indicating low socioeconomic status
(SES), such as food insecurity (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.75-5.6) and using charcoal for cooking (OR
1.7, 95% CI 0.72-3.8) suggested an association with HIV infection. Conclusions: Given
pervasive gender inequality in Haiti, women's economic security often relies on their
partners' income earning activities. Our findings show that although factors reflecting
poverty are associated with HIV-positive status, stronger associations are observed for
women whose partners indicated a more secure occupation (e.g., mechanic or market
vendor). Policies and programs that expand access to education and economic opportunities
for women and girls may have long-term implications for HIV prevention in Haiti and other
resource-poor settings
Link                                                                                              :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380576

------------------------------------------------------

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            23 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

Correlates of HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among
Female Military Personnel
ESSIEN E. J., Monjok, E., Chen, H., Abughosh, S., Ekong, E., Peters, R. J., Holmes, L., Jr.,
Holstad, M. M., and Mgbere, O.
AIDS Behav. 2010
AD - Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, 1441
Moursund         Street,      Houston,        TX,     77030,      USA,       Ejessien@uhedu
ENG
Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the
HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to
determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. The study used a cross-
sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of
346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was
collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic
regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-
demographic characteristics of the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis
revealed that level of education and knowing someone infected with HIV/AIDS were
significant (P < 0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-
efficacy was significantly (P < 0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom
use attitudes were also significantly (P < 0.05) associated with number of children, annual
income, and number of sexual partners. Data indicates the importance of incorporating these
predictor variables into intervention designs
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387111

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Impact of Interim Methadone Maintenance on HIV Risk Behaviors
WILSON M. E., Schwartz, R. P., O'Grady, K. E., and Jaffe, J. H.
J.Urban.Health. 2010
AD - Friends Research Institute, Inc, 1040 Park Avenue, Suite 103, Baltimore, MD, 21201,
USA,                                                              mwilson@friendsresearchorg
ENG
The extent to which interim methadone (IM) without counseling reduces HIV risk behavior
has not been reported. The AIDS Risk Assessment scale was administered at baseline and 4-
month follow-up to 319 adult heroin-dependent participants randomly assigned to IM or
waiting list. On an intent-to-treat basis, there was a significantly greater reduction in drug
injection and unprotected sex while high from baseline to follow-up, favoring the IM
condition. Remedying the shortage of methadone capacity through the expansion of IM
would be a worthwhile approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386992
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            24 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Type-Specific Cervico-Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection
Increases Risk of HIV Acquisition Independent of Other Sexually
Transmitted Infections
SMITH-MCCUNE K. K., Shiboski, S., Chirenje, M. Z., Magure, T., Tuveson, J., Ma, Y., Da,
Costa M., Moscicki, A. B., Palefsky, J. M., Makunike-Mutasa, R., Chipato, T., van der, Straten
A., and Sawaya, G. F.
PLoS.One. 5 (4), e10094 ,2010
AD - Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of
California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
kmccune@ccucsfedu
eng
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2
are associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a
common STI, but little is know about its role in HIV transmission. The objective of this study
was to determine whether cervico-vaginal HPV infection increases the risk of HIV
acquisition in women independent of other common STIs. METHODS AND FINDINGS:
This prospective cohort study followed 2040 HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (average
age 27 years, range 18-49 years) for a median of 21 months. Participants were tested
quarterly for 29 HPV types (with L1 PCR primers) and HIV (antibody testing on blood
samples with DNA or RNA PCR confirmation). HIV incidence was 2.7 per 100 woman-years.
Baseline HPV prevalence was 24.5%, and the most prevalent HPV types were 58 (5.0%), 16
(4.7%), 70 (2.4%), and 18 (2.3%). In separate regression models adjusting for baseline
variables (including age, high risk partner, positive test for STIs, positive HSV-2 serology
and condom use), HIV acquisition was associated with having baseline prevalent infection
with HPV 58 (aHR 2.13; 95% CI 1.09-4.15) or HPV 70 (aHR 2.68; 95% CI 1.08-6.66). In separate
regression models adjusting for both baseline variables and time-dependent variables
(including HSV-2 status, incident STIs, new sexual partner and condom use), HIV
acquisition was associated with concurrent infection with any non-oncogenic HPV type
(aHR 1.70; 95% CI 1.02-2.85), any oncogenic HPV type (aHR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.30), HPV 31
(aHR 4.25; 95% CI 1.81-9.97) or HPV 70 (aHR 3.30; 95% CI 1.50-7.20). Detection of any
oncogenic HPV type within the previous 6 months was an independent predictor of HIV
acquisition, regardless of whether HPV status at the HIV acquisition visit was included (aHR
1.95; 95% CI 1.19-3.21) or excluded (aHR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-2.85) from the analysis.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cervico-vaginal HPV infection was associated with an
increased risk of HIV acquisition in women, and specific HPV types were implicated in this
association. The observational nature of our study precludes establishment of causation
between HPV infection and HIV acquisition. However, given the high prevalence of HPV
infection in women, further investigation of the role of HPV in HIV transmission is
warranted
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386706

------------------------------------------------------

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            25 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Epidemiology

HIV-1 Transmission After Cessation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy
Among Men Having Sex With Men
RIEDER P., Joos, B., von, Wyl, V, Kuster, H., Grube, C., Leemann, C., Boni, J., Yerly, S.,
Klimkait, T., Burgisser, P., Weber, R., Fischer, M., and Gunthard, H. F.
AIDS. 2010
AD - aDivision of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital
Zurich, Switzerland bSwiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zurich, Zurich,
Switzerland cLaboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital
Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland dInstitute of Medical Microbiology, University of Basel, Basel,
Switzerland eDivision of Immunology, University Hospital Lausanne, Lausanne,
Switzerland *Philip Rieder and Beda Joos contributed equally to the writing of this article
ENG
OBJECTIVE:: To study transmission dynamics during acute infection, during the aviremic
phase over the period of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and during the phase of viral
rebound after early treatment was stopped. METHODS:: Transmission dynamics was
assessed within 111 patients, enrolled in the Zurich primary HIV infection study, by
molecular epidemiological methods using pol sequences from genotypic resistance tests and
clonal env C2-V3-C3 sequences. Coclustering of Zurich primary HIV infection sequences
with 12 303 sequences from 8837 HIV-positive patients enrolled in the multisite Swiss HIV
Cohort Study was identified. Furthermore, we investigated transmission patterns within
phylogenetic clusters by using longitudinal clinical data and analyzed HIV transmission by
stage of infection and attempted to localize transmission events to periods before or after
early ART. RESULTS:: Six transmission clusters comprising 20 men having sex with men
were identified. Furthermore, linkage to eight men having sex with men from the Swiss HIV
Cohort Study could be established. Strikingly, we detected at least five new primary
infection events originating from Zurich primary HIV infection patients within 16-61 weeks
after stopping early ART. Viral loads of likely index patients varied from 314 up to 1 690 000
HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma at the estimated time of infection. CONCLUSION:: The
large number of new infections originating from men having sex with men who stopped
early ART indicates that current preventive efforts are insufficient. In contrast, these patients
showed no adherence problems. These findings argue for early, continuous ART in sexually
active HIV-1-infected persons not only for individual patient benefits but also specifically to
reduce the spread of HIV-1
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386427

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Judgments of Risk of Becoming HIV-Infected Through Sexual
Contact in Lome, Togo
KPANAKE L. and Mullet, E.
Psychol.Health Med. 15 (2), 166-171 ,2010

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            26 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



AD - Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
eng
The way Togolese people estimate the risk of becoming HIV-infected as a result of sexual
contact was examined. The participants were presented with scenarios depicting a number of
sexual acts, use of protective devices, and the probability that the partner is infected.
Findings support the appropriate use of protective behavior information, as well as the
appropriate use of probability information. Number of sexual acts was, however, perceived
to have minimal impact on risk. Togolese people should be made aware, through systematic
information campaigns, of the relationship between number of sexual acts and risk
Link                                                                                     :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20391234

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Factors Behind HIV Testing Practices Among Canadian Aboriginal
Peoples Living Off-Reserve
ORCHARD T. R., Druyts, E., McInnes, C. W., Clement, K., Ding, E., Fernandes, K. A.,
Anema, A., Lima, V. D., and Hogg, R. S.
AIDS Care. 22 (3), 324-331 ,2010
AD - Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
eng
The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with HIV testing among
Aboriginal peoples in Canada who live off-reserve. Data were drawn for individuals aged
15-44 from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001), which represents a weighed sample of
520,493 Aboriginal men and women living off-reserve. Bivariable analysis and logistic
regression were used to identify factors associated with individuals who had received an
HIV test within the past year. In adjusted multivariable analysis, female gender, younger
age, unemployment, contact with a family doctor or traditional healer within the past year,
and "good" or "fair/poor" self-rated health increased the odds of HIV testing. Completion of
high-school education, rural residency, and less frequent alcohol and cigarette consumption
decreased the odds of HIV testing. A number of differences emerged when the sample was
analyzed by gender, most notably females who self-reported "good" or "fair/poor" health
status were more likely to have had an HIV test, yet males with comparable health status
were less likely to have had an HIV test. Additionally, frequent alcohol consumption and
less than high-school education was associated with an increased odds of HIV testing among
males, but not females. Furthermore, while younger age was associated with an increased
odds of having an HIV test in the overall model, this was particularly relevant for females
aged 15-24. These outcomes provide evidence of the need for improved HIV testing
strategies to reach greater numbers of Aboriginal peoples living off-reserve. They also echo
the long-standing call for culturally appropriate HIV-related programming while drawing
new attention to the importance of gender and age, two factors that are often generalized
under the rubric of culturally relevant or appropriate program development
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390512


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            27 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Correlates of HIV Testing Among Women in Ghana: Some Evidence
From the Demographic and Health Surveys
TENKORANG E. Y. and Owusu, G. A.
AIDS Care. 22 (3), 296-307 ,2010
AD - Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
ytenko@yahoocom
eng
Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an
important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-
Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003
Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative
log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among women aged 15-
49. Two major dependent variables are considered, "ever tested for AIDS" and "wanting to
test for AIDS." Results show that majority of Ghanaian women have not tested for HIV but
say they want to do so. Having tested for HIV is strongly related to respondents' knowledge
about someone dead of AIDS and other socio-economic and demographic variables such as
education, region of residence, rural-urban residence, religion, and marital status. Majority of
Ghanaian women do not know where to get an HIV test, although knowing where to get a
test was significantly related to wanting to get the test done. To increase voluntary testing for
HIV among women in Ghana it is recommended that testing services be made more
accessible and visible especially to those residing in rural areas who may be economically
disadvantaged. Interventions, including routine checking of HIV serostatus among patients
seeking healthcare in clinics and home/work-based testing programs, must be encouraged
as ways of expanding access among women in Ghana
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390509

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Promoting Vulnerability or Resilience to HIV? A Qualitative Study
on Polygamy in Maiduguri, Nigeria
SADDIQ A., Tolhurst, R., Lalloo, D., and Theobald, S.
AIDS Care. 22 (2), 146-151 ,2010
AD         -         Medical        Services,       MoH,          Maiduguri,        Nigeria
eng
Literature on the links between polygamy and HIV and AIDS is limited and the findings
inconclusive. Literature to date in Sub-Saharan Africa has relied mainly on case-control
studies and surveys. This qualitative study aimed to explore different community members'
perceptions of the links between the practice of polygamy and vulnerability or resilience to
HIV and AIDS in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. The study used focus group discussions
and in-depth interviews with religious and community leaders and different groups of
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            28 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



women and men in the community. Participant views on the links between polygamy and
HIV were varied. However, one clear emerging theme was that it is not the practice of
polygamy per se that shapes vulnerability to HIV and AIDS but the dynamics of sexual
relations and practices both within and beyond the marital union--whether monogamous or
polygamous. The ways in which these social relationships are negotiated and experienced
are in turn shaped by religious traditions, gender roles and relations, education and socio-
economic status. Within the religious environment of north-eastern Nigeria, where
asymmetrical gender roles and relations and connotations of morality shape experiences of
sexual interactions, windows of opportunity to promote behaviour-change strategies to
support women and men's resilience to HIV need to be carefully created. Health
practitioners and planners should develop partnerships with religious and community
leaders and women's groups to construct and deliver behaviour-changes strategies
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390493

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Epidemiology

Beliefs About Transmission Risk and Vulnerability, Treatment
Adherence, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among a Sample of HIV-
Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men
JOSEPH H. A., Flores, S. A., Parsons, J. T., and Purcell, D. W.
AIDS Care. 22 (1), 29-39 ,2010
AD - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
HJoseph1@cdcgov
eng
Advances in HIV treatment have generated optimistic beliefs about HIV transmission risk
and sexually transmitted infection vulnerability, which can influence motivation to practice
safer sex. This study sought to better understand the relationships between these beliefs and
different types of sexual risk behavior. A second objective was to determine the association
between treatment adherence and sexual risk behaviors. Data collected from 842 HIV-
positive men who have sex with men on treatment were examined. Eleven questions
measured beliefs regarding HIV transmission risk and vulnerability to other infections or
negative health outcomes. The main outcomes were concordant and discordant unprotected
anal sex with main and non-main male partners. Thirty-four percent reported concordant
and 41% reported discordant unprotected anal sex in the past three months: 26% reported
discordant insertive unprotected anal sex. In all multivariate logistic regression models
predicting sexual risk behaviors, at least one belief item remained statistically significant.
Different patterns of associations between beliefs and sexual risk were observed across
partner type and serostatus. Compared to transmission risk beliefs, more vulnerability
beliefs were associated with sexual risk. Missing at least one treatment dose in the past
month was associated with concordant and discordant sexual risk with non-main partners,
while intentionally missing a dose was associated with only discordant risk with non-main
partners. Post hoc moderator analysis explored potential interaction between beliefs and
adherence. The belief that a low viral load lowers transmission risk was positively associated
with discordant sex with non-main partners only among those who missed a dose
intentionally. These results underscore the complex relationship between HIV transmission
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            29 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



risk and vulnerability beliefs and sexual behavior with different types of partners.
Prevention programs should carefully consider how to craft and tailor messages about
medical advances while at the same time reinforcing the need for continued sexual safety
Link                                                                                     :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390478

------------------------------------------------------


Health economics

[The Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: Evaluation
Policy Issues.]
KEROUEDAN D.
Bull.Soc.Pathol.Exot. 2010
AD - Sciences Po Paris, 27, rue Saint-Guillaume, F-75337, Paris cedex 07, France,
Dominiquekerouedan@sciences-poorg
FRE
The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in
2002 in the context of increased political and financial commitments towards health and
development, in the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration, and on track to implement the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As of today, the institution has mobilized over 16
billion US dollars through its partnership, and spent over 8 billion dollars through 620
contracts in 140 countries for these three diseases. Principles at inception were to accelerate
and expand HIV, TB, and Malaria prevention and awareness, care, and treatment related
activities, in the poorest and the most affected countries worldwide, with a special emphasis
on Africa, being the continent with the highest disease burden, especially with respect to
HIV/AIDS and its dreadful social and economic consequences. In 2006, a Technical and
Evaluation Reference Group was set up. This group responding to the GFATM Board in
relation to the 5-year evaluation, defined the Terms of reference for the 5-year evaluation.
Macro International, a firm based in Washington DC, was given the contract to conduct three
studies over the period 2006-2009, looking at: (i) GFATM organizational effectiveness, (ii)
partnerships at international and global levels, as well as systems effects, (iii) collective
impact of the GFATM, the World Bank and (PEPFAR) funds on HIV, TB, and Malaria
control. Twenty-five countries participated all together in the evaluation, out of which 18 in
study area 3. Total budget for the evaluation amounted almost 17 million US dollars. This
paper outlines: (i) the results of study areas 2 and 3 as well as the 5-year Evaluation Synthesis
report, contents, and (ii) comments on the results and potential policy implications of the
GFATM 5-year evaluation findings, as well as first responses prepared by the GF Secretariat
shared at the GFATM Board meeting held in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluators
raised the weaknesses of national health information systems, which limit the availability of
reliable data and indicators that could be useful in assessing disease control impact as well as
in monitoring the progress through management for result initiatives. Nevertheless, it can be
shown that increased funding is linked to expansion of preventive interventions (including
Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and preventing mother-to-child transmission
(PMTCT)) as well as treatment (ARV) activities, the quality of which could be improved and
better monitored. Especially in Eastern Africa, malaria control has improved significantly,
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            30 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



benefiting from additional funding. Health systems' weaknesses at district level, such as
human resources, laboratory commodities, and medicine shortages, are major constraints to
further expansion of services and impact of funds. Issues at stake are the following: (i)
soundness of the GFATM assumptions at inception with respect to national disease control
strategies, especially in relation to HIV prevention, (ii) whether it belongs to the GFATM to
finance health systems strengthening to start with, (iii) GFATM systems effects, (iv)
misfinancing in relation to disease burden, marginalized and vulnerable groups, (v) technical
expertise identification, mobilization and financing, (vi) equity of access of funding, expertise
and guidance, to francophone countries in Africa. Recommendations are made to bring the
attention of the GFATM Board members prior to the Replenishment Conference to be
prepared in March 2010 and held in October 2010
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376595

------------------------------------------------------


Immunology

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Restriction Factors, and Interferon
NEIL S. and Bieniasz, P.
J.Interferon Cytokine Res. 29 (9), 569-580 ,2009
AD - Department of Infectious Disease, King's College London School of Medicine, Guy's
Hospital,                      London,                        United                   Kingdom
eng
Recent discoveries have revealed previously unappreciated complexity with which
retroviruses interact with their hosts. In particular, we have become aware that many
mammals, including humans, are equipped with genes encoding so-called "restriction
factors," that provide considerable resistance to retroviral infection. Such antiretroviral genes
are sometimes constitutively expressed, and sometimes interferon-induced. Thus they can be
viewed as comprising an intrinsic immune system that provides a pre-mobilized defense
against retroviral infection or, alternatively, as a specialized extension of conventional innate
immunity. Antiretroviral restriction factors have evolved at an unusually rapid pace,
particularly in primates, and some startling examples of evolutionary change are present in
genes encoding restriction factors. Our understanding of the mechanisms by which
restriction factors interfere with retroviral replication, and how their effects are avoided by
certain retroviruses, is accruing, but far from complete. Such knowledge could allow for
novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the
development of animal models of human disease
Link                                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=19694548

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            31 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Profile of CD4+ Counts in
HIV+/AIDS People in North of Iran, 2007-2008
DARYANI A., Sharif, M., Meigouni, M., Mahmoudi, F. B., Rafiei, A., Gholami, Sh, Khalilian,
A., Gohardehi, Sh, and Mirabi, A. M.
Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 12 (18), 1277-1281 ,2009
AD - Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Mazandaran University of Medical
Sciences,                                      Sari,                                     Iran
eng
In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected
individuals) collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using
direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and
modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts.
Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2%) of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in
14/78 (17.9%) of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as
follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica
1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow:
Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5%, E. coli 2.5%, E.
histolytica 1.2%, Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430
cells microL(-1)) was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells microL(-1)) (p = 0.001). As
patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford
treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in
these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these
diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384282

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

[Relationship of CD4+ CD25hi Regulatory T (Treg) Cells to Disease
Progression in HIV-Infected Patients]
SONG S. J., Feng, X., Guo, J. J., Iu, Y. N., Lun, W. H., Wei, H. S., and Liu, S. A.
Zhonghua Shi Yan.He.Lin.Chuang.Bing.Du Xue.Za Zhi. 23 (5), 361-363 ,2009
AD - Institute of Infectious Diseases, Capital Medical University, China
chi
OBJECTIVE: Analyzing the relationships between peripheral blood CD4+ CD25hi regulatory
T (Treg) cells and peripheral blood immune status or plasma HIV-lviral load in HIV-infected
individuals,so as to determine whether Treg were related to the progression of HIV-infected
disease. METHODS: 116 HIV-infected patients in different stages and 21 healthy control
individuals were included in this study. The CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts were determined
by a standard 4-color flow cytometry technique. The Treg cells were examined with 3-color
immune staining flow cytometry. The plasma HIV-1 viral load was detected by real time
PCR. RESULTS: The frequencies of Treg cells decreased in HIV-infected individuals with
high CD4+ T cell counts( > 300/microl) compared with normal controls. With the
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            32 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



progression of disease the frequencies of Treg cells were raised gradually, until were
increased in HIV-infected individuals with low levels of CD4+ T cell counts ( < 100/microl).
In addition, the frequencies of Treg cells were inversely related to CD4+ T cell counts and
CD4+ /CD8+ ratio, data showed a statistically significant (respectively, r = -0.564, P < 0.001; r
= -0.377, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the proportions of Treg cells were closely related to plasma
HIV-1 RNA viral load (r = 0.514, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CD4 CD25hi Treg cells should
be a kind of important cells participating the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. It may play
different roles in different stages of HIV-infected disease. The exact mechanism of Treg cells
in the progression of the HIV-infected disease needs to be investigate further
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387487

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

[The Effect of Proliferation and Differentiation of CD8+ T Cells on
the Progression in Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCV]
ZHANG Y. H., Zhao, Y., Ma, L. N., Shi, L. X., Jin, Y., He, Z. M., Zhang, X. D., and Chen, X. Y.
Zhonghua Shi Yan.He.Lin.Chuang.Bing.Du Xue.Za Zhi. 23 (5), 331-333 ,2009
AD - Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
chi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of proliferation and differentiation of CD8 T cells on
the progression in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. METHODS: To address this
issue, the presences of CD57 and CD28 in the surface of CD8+ T-cell were monitored using
flow cytometry in 20 patients co-infected with HIV and HCV and 20 patients infected with
HCV alone. The proliferation and differentiations of CD8+ T cell were compared hetween
patients co-infected with HIV and HCV and ones with HCV infection alone, to clarify the
association hetween the function of CU and the progression of disease. RESULTS: A high
presence (28.84 +/- 4.49)% of CD57 in the surface of CD8+ T-cell in the patients with
HIV/HCV co-infections was found, comparing with a low presence (8.24% +/- 5.05%) of
CU57 in the patients with HCV infection alone, the difference hetween these two groups is
significant (P < 0.001). Moreover, A clear linear regression hetween the percentage of
CD57CD8t T and HCV viral load (log) was identified (P = 0.023, R2 = 0.21). In addition, the
differentiations of CD8 T cells were compared between patients with HIV/HCV co-infection
and mono-HCV infection: the dominant cells in patients with mono-HCV infection were
ones in intermediate stage, while, a late differentiation process of CU8 T cells might he
associated with HIV/HCV co-infection. CONCLUSION: The differences of proliferation and
differentiation of CTL. are significant, between HIV/HCV co- infection and mono-HCV
infection. Lower proliferation and late stage of differentiations of CD8 T cell might affect the
clearance of hepatitis C virus, weaken CU immunological response and induce chronic
inflammation, finally will accelerate the progression of HCV infection
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387477

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            33 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Clinical Reactivations of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection and
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression Markers
AUMAKHAN B., Gaydos, C. A., Quinn, T. C., Beyrer, C., Benning, L., Minkoff, H.,
Merenstein, D. J., Cohen, M., Greenblatt, R., Nowicki, M., Anastos, K., and Gange, S. J.
PLoS.One. 5 (4), e9973 ,2010
AD - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
of                            America                              baumakhan@hivresearchorg
eng
BACKGROUND: The natural history of HSV-2 infection and role of HSV-2 reactivations in
HIV disease progression are unclear. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of active HSV-2
infection were used to classify 1,938 HIV/HSV-2 co-infected participants of the Women's
Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) into groups of varying degree of HSV-2 clinical activity.
Differences in plasma HIV RNA and CD4+ T cell counts between groups were explored
longitudinally across three study visits and cross-sectionally at the last study visit. RESULTS:
A dose dependent association between markers of HIV disease progression and degree of
HSV-2 clinical activity was observed. In multivariate analyses after adjusting for baseline
CD4+ T cell levels, active HSV-2 infection with frequent symptomatic reactivations was
associated with 21% to 32% increase in the probability of detectable plasma HIV RNA (trend
p = 0.004), an average of 0.27 to 0.29 log10 copies/ml higher plasma HIV RNA on a
continuous scale (trend p<0.001) and 51 to 101 reduced CD4+ T cells/mm(3) over time
compared to asymptomatic HSV-2 infection (trend p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV induced
CD4+ T cell loss was associated with frequent symptomatic HSV-2 reactivations. However,
effect of HSV-2 reactivations on HIV disease progression markers in this population was
modest and appears to be dependent on the frequency and severity of reactivations. Further
studies will be necessary to determine whether HSV-2 reactivations contribute to
acceleration of HIV disease progression
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376310

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Impact of HIV Infection, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, and
Hepatitis C Coinfection on Serum Interleukin-27
GUZZO C., Hopman, W. M., Mat, N. F., Wobeser, W., and Gee, K.
AIDS. 2010
AD - aDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Canada bDepartment of Community
Health and Epidemiology, Canada cDivision of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine,
Queen's            University,             Kingston,           Ontario,             Canada
ENG
A newly described cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), that activates naive CD4 T cells, has
recently been shown to be an anti-HIV cytokine. However, the effect of HIV infection on IL-
27 expression has not been characterized. We found that clinical characteristics, including
HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and CD4 T cell counts, were associated with
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            34 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



changes in serum IL-27. Overall, our results suggest circulating HIV may suppress IL-27, a
critical concept in treatment development with this cytokine
Link                                                                                      :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375875

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

An Epidemiologic Study to Determine the Prevalence of the HLA-
B*5701 Allele Among HIV-Positive Patients in Europe
ORKIN C., Wang, J., Bergin, C., Molina, J. M., Lazzarin, A., Cavassini, M., Esser, S., Gomez
Sirvent, J. L., and Pearce, H.
Pharmacogenet.Genomics. 2010
AD - aBarts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK bRTI Health Solutions, North
Carolina, USA cSt James' Hospital, Dublin, Ireland dAP-HP, Hopital Saint Louis, Service des
Maladies Infectieuses, and University of Paris-Diderot, Paris, France eIstituto di Ricerca e
Cura a Carattere Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy fService of Infectious Diseases, Centre
Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
gDepartment of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
hServicios de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife,
Canary            Islands,        Spain         iGlaxoSmithKline,           London,           UK
ENG
OBJECTIVES: HLA-B*5701 is a major histocompatibility complex class I allele associated
with an immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. The objectives of
this study were to evaluate HLA-B*5701 prevalence among European, HIV-1-infected
patients and to compare the local and central laboratory screening results. METHODS: Data
were combined from six multicentre, prospective studies involving 10 European countries in
which HIV-1-infected patients (irrespective of treatment experience or previous HLA-B*5701
screening), >/=18 years of age, were evaluated for HLA-B*5701 carriage, determined by the
central and local laboratory methods. RESULTS: A total of 9720 patients from 272 centres
were included in the analysis. The overall estimate of HLA-B*5701 prevalence in Europe was
4.98%, with country-specific estimates ranging from 1.53 to 7.75%. HLA-B*5701 prevalence
was highest in the self-reported white population (6.49%) and lowest in the black population
(0.39%). Local laboratory results had a high specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.2%) when
compared with the central laboratory results. CONCLUSION: This study supports data from
previous studies regarding the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 in the HIV population and the
variation of HLA-B*5701 prevalence between different racial groups. The high specificity and
sensitivity of local laboratory results, suggests that clinicians can be confident in using local
laboratories for pretreatment HLA-B*5701 screening. However, it is essential that local
laboratories participate in HLA-B*5701-specific quality assurance programs to maintain
100% sensitivity. In HIV-infected patients, pretreatment HLA-B*5701 screening may allow
more informed decisions regarding abacavir use and has the potential to significantly reduce
the frequency of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reactions and costs associated with
managing these reactions
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375757
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            35 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Nonpathogenic SIV Infection of Sooty Mangabeys Is Not Associated
With High Levels of Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies
LI B., Cole, K. S., Kuhrt, D. M., Gordon, S. N., Else, J. G., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Sodora, D. L.,
Silvestri, G., and Derdeyn, C. A.
J.Virol. 2010
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Yerkes National Primate Research
Center, Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Emory
University, Atlanta, GA; Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of
Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Zambia Blood Transfusion Service, Lusaka,
Zambia; Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA; Department of Pathology,
University               of            Pennsylvania,               Philadelphia,                PA
ENG
SIV infection of natural host species, such as sooty mangabeys (SM) is characterized by high
viral replication, and low generalized immune activation despite evidence of an adaptive
immune response. Here the ability of SIV-infected SM to mount neutralizing antibodies
(Nab) against autologous virus was compared to HIV-1 subtype C infected subjects. While
high levels of Nab were observed in HIV-1 infection, samples obtained from comparable
time points in SM exhibited relatively low titers of autologous Nab. Nevertheless, SM with
higher Nab titers also contained elevated peripheral CD4+ T cell levels suggesting a potential
immunologic benefit for SM. These data indicate that AIDS resistance in these primates is not
due to high Nab titers, and raises the possibility that low levels of Nab might be an inherent
feature of SIV natural host infections
Link                                                                                               :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375163

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

MHC Heterozygote Advantage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-
Infected Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques
O'CONNOR S. L., Lhost, J. J., Becker, E. A., Detmer, A. M., Johnson, R. C., Macnair, C. E.,
Wiseman, R. W., Karl, J. A., Greene, J. M., Burwitz, B. J., Bimber, B. N., Lank, S. M., Tuscher,
J. J., Mee, E. T., Rose, N. J., Desrosiers, R. C., Hughes, A. L., Friedrich, T. C., Carrington, M.,
and O'Connor, D. H.
Sci.Transl.Med. 2 (22), 22ra18 ,2010
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
WI                                             53706,                                         USA
eng
The importance of a broad CD8 T lymphocyte (CD8-TL) immune response to HIV is
unknown. Ex vivo measurements of immunological activity directed at a limited number of
defined epitopes provide an incomplete portrait of the actual immune response. We
examined viral loads in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected major
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            36 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



histocompatibility complex (MHC)-homozygous and MHC-heterozygous Mauritian
cynomolgus macaques. Chronic viremia in MHC-homozygous macaques was 80 times that
in MHC-heterozygous macaques. Virus from MHC-homozygous macaques accumulated 11
to 14 variants, consistent with escape from CD8-TL responses after 1 year of SIV infection.
The pattern of mutations detected in MHC-heterozygous macaques suggests that their
epitope-specific CD8-TL responses are a composite of those present in their MHC-
homozygous counterparts. These results provide the clearest example of MHC heterozygote
advantage among individuals infected with the same immunodeficiency virus strain,
suggesting that broad recognition of multiple CD8-TL epitopes should be a key feature of
HIV vaccines
Link                                                                                      :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375000

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Host Hindrance to HIV-1 Replication in Monocytes and
Macrophages
BERGAMASCHI A. and Pancino, G.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 31 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: Monocytes and macrophages are targets of HIV-1 infection and play critical
roles in multiple aspects of viral pathogenesis. HIV-1 can replicate in blood monocytes,
although only a minor proportion of circulating monocytes harbor viral DNA. Resident
macrophages in tissues can be infected and function as viral reservoirs. However, their
susceptibility to infection, and their capacity to actively replicate the virus, varies greatly
depending on the tissue localization and cytokine environment. The susceptibility of
monocytes to HIV-1 infection in vitro depends on their differentiation status. Monocytes are
refractory to infection and become permissive upon differentiation into macrophages. In
addition, the capacity of monocyte-derived macrophages to sustain viral replication varies
between individuals. Host determinants regulate HIV-1 replication in monocytes and
macrophages, limiting several steps of the viral life-cycle, from viral entry to virus release.
Some host factors responsible for HIV-1 restriction are shared with T lymphocytes, but
several anti-viral mechanisms are specific to either monocytes or macrophages. Whilst a
number of these mechanisms have been identified in monocytes or in monocyte-derived
macrophages in vitro, some of them have also been implicated in the regulation of HIV-1
infection in vivo, in particular in the brain and the lung where macrophages are the main cell
type infected by HIV-1. This review focuses on cellular factors that have been reported to
interfere with HIV-1 infection in monocytes and macrophages, and examines the evidences
supporting their role in vivo, highlighting unique aspects of HIV-1 restriction in these two
cell types
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20374633

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            37 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroinvasion by Monocytes-
Macrophages in HIV-1 Infection
GRAS G. and Kaul, M.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 30 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: HIV associated neurocognitive disorders and their histopathological correlates
largely depend on the continuous seeding of the central nervous system with immune
activated leukocytes, mainly monocytes/macrophages from the periphery. The blood-brain-
barrier plays a critical role in this never stopping neuroinvasion, although it appears
unaltered until the late stage of HIV encephalitis. HIV flux that moves toward the brain thus
relies on hijacking and exacerbating the physiological mechanisms that govern blood brain
barrier crossing rather than barrier disruption. This review will summarize the recent data
describing neuroinvasion by HIV with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20374632

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

HIV-1 Assembly in Macrophages
BENAROCH P., Billard, E., Gaudin, R., Schindler, M., and Jouve, M.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 29 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on
HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly
take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on
macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral
reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages
retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral
immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about
HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron
microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an
intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells.
This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to
be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably
supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex
Required for Transport) machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding
profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late
endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model
needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and
can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact
nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive.
Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            38 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent
genome-wide screens. However, their respective roles in infected cells and especially in
macrophages remain to be characterized. In summary, the complete process of HIV-1
assembly is still poorly understood and will undoubtedly benefit from the ongoing explosion
of new imaging techniques allowing better time-lapse and quantitative studies
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20374631

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Journey to the Heart of Macrophages: the Delicate Relationship
Between HIV-1 and a Multifaceted Cell Type
CIMARELLI A.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 28 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage play multiple roles during the
infection of primate lentiviruses serving as reservoirs for viral production or as vectors for
viral spread to other cells and tissues. The human immunodeficiency type I virus is not only
capable of establishing such complex and dynamic relations with this cell type, but is also
able to modulate their physiology and behavior, thus shaping ensuing cellular immune
responses. In this issue of Retrovirology, a series of reviews explores the multiple manners in
which the virus and cells belonging to the monocyte-macrophage lineage interact and affect
each other
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20374630

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Changes in Function of HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses With
Increasing Time From Infection
NDONGALA M. L., Kamya, P., Boulet, S., Peretz, Y., Rouleau, D., Tremblay, C., Leblanc, R.,
Cote, P., Baril, J. G., Thomas, R., Vezina, S., Boulassel, M. R., Routy, J. P., Sekaly, R. P., and
Bernard, N. F.
Viral Immunol. 23 (2), 159-168 ,2010
AD - Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
eng
Recently HIV-infected individuals have virus-specific responses characterized by IFN-
gamma/IL-2 secretion and proliferation rarely seen in chronic infection. To investigate the
timing of loss of HIV-specific T-cell function, we screened cells from 59 treatment-naive HIV-
infected individuals with known dates of infection for proteome-wide responses secreting
IFN-gamma/IL-2 and IFN-gamma alone by ELISPOT. HIV peptide-specific proliferation was
assessed by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution. The
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            39 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



contribution of IFN-gamma/IL-2 and IFN-gamma-only secretion to the total HIV-specific
response was compared in subjects infected <6, 6-12, and 12-36 mo earlier. The frequency of
IFN-gamma/IL-2-secreting cells fell, while that of IFN-gamma-only secretion rose with time
from infection. HIV peptide-specific proliferative responses were almost exclusively
mediated by CD8(+) T cells, and were significantly lower in cells obtained from the 12-36 mo
versus < 6 mo post-infection groups. By the second year of infection there was a significant
difference in these functions compared to those assessed within 6 mo
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20373996

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

How Much Gp120 Is There?
CUMMINS N. W., Rizza, S. A., and Badley, A. D.
J.Infect.Dis. 201 (8), 1273-1274 ,2010
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20225961

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Deglycosylation of Fc{Alpha}R at N58 Increases Its Binding to IgA
XUE J., Zhao, Q., Zhu, L., and Zhang, W.
Glycobiology. 2010
AD - Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of
Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005,
China
ENG
FcalphaR (CD89) is the Fc receptor for IgA and plays important roles in IgA mediated
immune responses. It is a heavily glycosylated protein with six potential N-linked
glycosylation sites. Previous reports showed that abnormal glycosylation of FcalphaR was
involved in some diseases, including HIV infection, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and IgA
nephropathy. In this study, we examined the effects of N-glycosylation on interaction
between FcalphaR and IgA. We found that depletion of N-glycosylation of FcalphaR
transfected in CHO cells by tunicamycin resulted in increased IgA binding. To identify
which glycosylation site is responsible for increased IgA binding, we performed site-directed
mutagenesis at each N-linked glycosylation site by changing asparagine to glutamine. Flow
cytometry analysis of IgA binding to CHO cells transfected with mutated FcalphaR showed
that deglycosylation of FcalphaR at individual N44, N120, N156, N165 or N177 site did not
affect IgA binding but deglycosylation at N58 resulted in marked increase of IgA binding.
Similar result was shown for N58Q-FcalphaR transfected RBL2H3, a rat basophilic leukemia
cell line. Furthermore, increased IgA binding was also observed on desialylated FcalphaR
after neuraminidase treatment and desialylation of N58 contributed most to the increased

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            40 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



IgA binding. These data demonstrated that glycosylation at N58 site influenced FcalphaR
binding to IgA
Link                                                                                   :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378933

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Differential Induction of Interleukin-10 in Monocytes by HIV-1 Clade
B and Clade C Tat Proteins
WONG J. K., Campbell, G. R., and Spector, S. A.
J.Biol.Chem. 2010
AD        -     University       of     California      San      Diego,      United       States;
ENG
The clade B human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) trans-acting regulatory protein
(Tat) induces interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in monocytes. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory
cytokine, downregulates proinflammatory cytokines and suppresses the immune response,
leading to a rapid progression from HIV-1 infection to AIDS. Nine clades of HIV-1 are
responsible for the majority of infections worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that
different HIV-1 clades have biological differences in relation to transmission, replication, and
disease progression. In this study, we show that the cysteine to serine mutation at position
31, found in over 90% of HIV-1 clade C Tat proteins, results in a marked decrease in IL-10
production in monocytes compared with clade B Tat. Additionally, the C31S mutation found
in C Tat is responsible for the inability of these Tat proteins to produce high IL-10 levels in
monocytes due to its inability to induce intracellular calcium flux through L-type calcium
channels. Moreover, we show that p38alpha/p38beta and phosphoinositide 3-kinase are
crucial to Tat-induced IL-10 production. These findings provide further evidence that HIV-1
clades differ in their biological properties that may impact HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease
progression
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378550

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Changes in Impact of HLA Class I Allele Expression on HIV-1
Plasma Virus Loads at a Population Level Over Time
KOGA M., Kawana-Tachikawa, A., Heckerman, D., Odawara, T., Nakamura, H., Koibuchi,
T., Fujii, T., Miura, T., and Iwamoto, A.
Microbiol.Immunol. 54 (4), 196-205 ,2010
AD - Division of Infectious Disease, Advanced Clinical Research Center, University of
Tokyo,         4-6-1       Shirokanedai,  Minato-ku,  Tokyo,     108-8639,     Japan
eng


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            41 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



ABSTRACT HLA class I allele types have differential impacts on the level of the pVL and
outcome of HIV-1 infection. While accumulations of CTL escape mutations at population
levels have been reported, their actual impact on the level of the pVL remains unknown. In
this study HLA class I types from 141 untreated, chronically HIV-1 infected Japanese
patients diagnosed from 1995-2007 were determined, and the associations between
expression of individual HLA alleles and level of pVL analyzed. It was found that the
Japanese population has an extremely narrow HLA distribution compared to other ethnic
groups, which may facilitate accumulation of CTL escape mutations at the population level.
Moreover while they uniquely lack the most protective HLA-B27/B57, they commonly
express the alleles that are protective in Caucasians (A11:10.4%, A26:11.55%, B51:8.6% and
Cw14:12.7%). Cross-sectional analyses revealed no significant associations between
expression of individual alleles and the level of the pVL. The patients were then stratified by
the date of HIV diagnosis and the analyses repeated. It was found that, before 2001, B51+
individuals displayed significantly lower pVL than the other patients (median: 5150 vs. 18
000 RNA copies/ml, P= 0.048); however thereafter this protective effect waned and
disappeared, whereas no changes were observed for any other alleles over time. These
results indicate that, at a population level, some HLA alleles have been losing their beneficial
effects against HIV disease progression over time, thereby possibly posing a significant
challenge for HIV vaccine development. However such detrimental effects may be limited to
particular HLA class I alleles
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377748

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Joint Modeling of the Clinical Progression and of the Biomarkers'
Dynamics Using a Mechanistic Model
GUEDJ J., Thiebaut, R., and Commenges, D.
Biometrics. 2010
AD - Laboratory of Viral Dynamics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan
52900,                                                                                 Israel
ENG
Summary. Joint models are used to rigorously explore the relationship between the
dynamics of biomarkers and clinical events. In the context of HIV infection, where the
multivariate dynamics of HIV-RNA and CD4 are complex, a mechanistic approach based on
a system of nonlinear differential equations naturally takes into account the correlation
between the biomarkers. Using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing dual
antiretroviral therapy to a single drug regimen, a full maximum likelihood approach is
proposed to explore the relationship between the evolution of the biomarkers and the time to
a clinical event. The role of each marker as an independent predictor of disease progression
is assessed. We show that the joint dynamics of HIV-RNA and CD4 captures the effect of
antiretroviral treatment; the CD4 dynamics alone is found to capture most but not all of the
treatment effect
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377577
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            42 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

IgG Subclass Profiles in Infected HIV Type 1 Controllers and
Chronic Progressors and in Uninfected Recipients of Env Vaccines
BANERJEE K., Klasse, P. J., Sanders, R. W., Pereyra, F., Michael, E., Lu, M., Walker, B. D.,
and Moore, J. P.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College , New
York,                                        New                                         York
ENG
Abstract We have studied IgG subclass responses to the HIV-1 proteins gp120, gp41, p24,
and Tat in individuals who control their infection without using antiretroviral drugs (HIV-1
controllers; HC) or who progress to disease (chronic progressors; CP). We also measured IgG
subclass titers to gp120 in vaccinated individuals. In all cases, the IgG1 subclass dominated
the overall response to each antigen. The only IgG titer that differed significantly between
the HC and CP groups was to the p24 Gag protein, which was higher in the HC group. IgG1
titers to both p24 and gp120 were significantly higher in the HC group, and IgG3 anti-gp120
antibodies, although rare, were detected more frequently in that group than in CP. Overall,
significantly more patients had IgG2 antibodies to gp120 than to gp41. Antibodies to other
IgG subclasses were infrequent and their frequency or titers did not differ between the two
patient groups. Anti-gp41 and anti-Tat responses also did not correlate with immune control,
and anti-Tat antibodies were infrequently detected. Although we found isotypic differences
in IgG responses to HIV-1 antigens among vaccinees and the HC and CP individuals, there
were no indications of differential T(H)1:T(H)2 polarization between the different groups
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377426

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Persistence of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Protective Antibodies
3 Years After Revaccination in HIV-Infected Children Receiving
Antiretroviral Therapy
AURPIBUL L., Puthanakit, T., Sirisanthana, T., and Sirisanthana, V.
Clin.Infect.Dis. 2010
AD - Research Institute for Health Sciences and 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of
Medicine,         Chiang      Mai        University,       Chiang      Mai,        Thailand
ENG
Three years after measles, mumps, and rubella revaccination in 38 human immunodeficiency
virus-infected children who had achieved immune recovery after antiretroviral therapy, the
prevalence of protective antibody levels was 85% for measles, 61% for mumps, and 79% for
rubella, compared with 88%, 84%, and 100%, respectively, 1 month after revaccination



          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            43 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Link                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377409

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Germline Antecedents of an Anti-HIV Murine Antibody
FENG W., Zimmermann, J., Yu, W., and Romesberg, F.
,Orlando, FL; USA, D145 ,2010
1) UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA; 2) Department of Chemistry, The Scripps
Research Institute, La Jolla, CA
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Implications of Universal Childhood Pneumococcal Vaccination on
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV Population - a Review of
Current Infecting Serotypes
ROCK C., Coulter, T., Rock, K., Conlon, N., Dowling, C., Jackson, J., Feighery, C., and Bergin,
C.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Dublin, IE
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma Cruzi Isolated From HIV
Patients With Reactivation and Its Correlation With KDNA Profiles
and LTCD4+ Counts
LAGES-SILVA E., Marson, J., Stefani, Marquez D., Molina, R., Ramirez, L., and Correia, Filho
D.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Uberaba, BR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            44 / 87
                         EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: No Evidence of
Impaired Immune Function at 15 Months of Age
KOLTE L., Rosenfeldt, V., Vang, L., Jeppesen, D., Karlsson, I., Ryder, L., Skogstrand, K., and
Nielsen, S.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Hvidovre; Copenhagen, DK
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Differences Between Healthy Volunteers and HIV-Infected Patients
in the Activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-Glycoprotein
JETTER A., Fätkenheuer, G., Frank, D., Klaassen, T., Lazar, A., Seeringer, A., Doroshyenko,
O., Kirchheiner, J., Hein, W., Schömig, E., Fuhr, U., and Wyen, C.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Zurich, CH; Koeln; Ulm, DE
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Frequency of CCR5 Delta 32 Polymorphism and Its Relation to
Disease Progression in Iranian HIV-1 Positive Individuals
MORADMAND BADIE B., Najmabadi, H., Esmaeeli, Djavid G., Kheirandish, P., Payvar, F.,
Akhlaghkhah, M., Jam, S., and Rasoolinejad, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tehran, IR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Is Procalcitonin an Useful Biomarker of Severe Bacterial Infections
in HIV-1-Infected Patients?
MIKULA T., Dabrowska, M., Cianciara, J., and Wiercinska-Drapalo, A.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Warsaw, PL
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         45 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Rabies Neutralizing Antibody in AIDS Patients After Rabies Post-
Exposure Treatment With Doubling the Intramuscular Doses of
Conventional Regimen and Aluminium-Adjuvanted Tetanus Toxoid
TANTAWICHIEN T., Jaijaroensup, W., Khawplod, P., Thisyakorn, U., and Sitprija, V.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Bangkok, TH
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray
Diffraction Analysis of Rhesus Macaque CD8alphaalpha
Homodimer
ZONG L., Chen, Y., Yan, J., and Zhang, J.
Acta Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun. 66 (Pt 4), 435-438 ,2010
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine
and Western Medicine Hospital, Nanfang Medical University, Guangzhou 510310, People's
Republic                      of                    China                  lili_zong@yahoocn
eng
As a T-cell co-receptor, CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules and plays a pivotal role in the
activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To date, structures of CD8 have been solved for two
different mammals: human and mouse. The infection of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is the best animal model for studying HIV. In this
study, the rhesus macaque CD8 (rCD8) alphaalpha homodimer was obtained and rCD8alpha
exodomain protein crystals were successfully obtained for further structural analysis.
Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 A. The crystal belonged to space group
P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 46.52, b = 56.28, c = 82.40 A. These data will
facilitate further studies on the structural differences between these CD8 structures and the
cellular immune responses of rhesus macaque
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20383016

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Optimized Methods for Imaging Membrane Nanotubes Between T
Cells and Trafficking of HIV-1
SOWINSKI S., Alakoskela, J. M., Jolly, C., and Davis, D. M.
Methods. 2010
AD - Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94158-2216,
USA
ENG
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            46 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



A wide variety of cell types, including immune cells, have been observed to frequently
interact via transient, long-distance membrane connections (1-17). However, considerable
heterogeneity in their structure, mode of formation and functional properties has emerged,
suggesting the existence of distinct subclasses (18-21). Open-ended tunneling nanotubes
allow for the trafficking of cytoplasmic material, e.g. endocytic vesicles, or the transmission
of calcium signals (1, 8). Closed-ended membrane nanotubes do not seamlessly connect the
cytoplasm between two interacting cells and a junction exists within the nanotube or where
the nanotube meets a cell body (4, 5, 7). Recent live cell imaging suggested that membrane
nanotubes between T cells could present a novel route for HIV-1 transmission (7, 22). Here,
we describe detailed protocols for observing membrane nanotubes and HIV-1 trafficking by
live cell fluorescence microscopy
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382227

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Constrained Use of CCR5 on CD4+ Lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1:
Efficiency of Env-CCR5 Interactions and Low CCR5 Expression
Determine a Range of Restricted CCR5-Mediated Entry
LOFTIN L. M., Kienzle, M. F., Yi, Y., Lee, B., Lee, F. H., Gray, L., Gorry, P. R., and Collman,
R. G.
Virology. 2010
AD - Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia,
PA 19104, USA; Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of
Medicine,                Philadelphia,              PA                19104,               USA
ENG
R5X4 HIV-1 has impaired utilization of CCR5 on primary CD4+ lymphocytes but the
mechanisms responsible are not well defined. Using a panel of diverse R5X4 Envs we
identified a spectrum of CCR5 use on CD4+ lymphocytes. Greater lymphocyte CCR5 use
correlated with relative resistance to CCR5 mAbs and small molecule antagonists. Increasing
CCR5 expression on lymphocytes increased the proportion of entry mediated by CCR5 for
all R5X4 isolates except 89.6. In cell lines with regulated CCR5 expression, strains with
greater lymphocyte CCR5 use better exploited limiting levels of CCR5. Introduction of an
R306S mutation in the 89.6 V3 domain enhanced its utilization of CCR5 at low levels and
switched its preference to CCR5 for lymphocyte entry. Thus, the degree to which R5X4 HIV-
1 use primary lymphocyte CCR5 is determined by low CCR5 expression coupled with
variations in the efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions, which is in part governed by V3
sequences
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20381825

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            47 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Limelight on Two HIV/SIV Accessory Proteins in Macrophage
Infection: Is Vpx Overshadowing Vpr ?
AYINDE D., Maudet, C., Transy, C., and Margottin-Goguet, F.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 35 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: HIV viruses encode a set of accessory proteins, which are important
determinants of virulence due to their ability to manipulate the host cell physiology for the
benefit of the virus. Although these viral proteins are dispensable for viral growth in many
in vitro cell culture systems, they influence the efficiency of viral replication in certain cell
types. Macrophages are early targets of HIV infection which play a major role in viral
dissemination and persistence in the organism. This review focuses on two HIV accessory
proteins whose functions might be more specifically related to macrophage infection: Vpr,
which is conserved across primate lentiviruses including HIV-1 and HIV-2, and Vpx, a
protein genetically related to Vpr, which is unique to HIV-2 and a subset of simian
lentiviruses. Recent studies suggest that both Vpr and Vpx exploit the host ubiquitination
machinery in order to inactivate specific cellular proteins. We review here why it remains
difficult to decipher the role of Vpr in macrophage infection by HIV-1 and how recent data
underscore the ability of Vpx to antagonize a restriction factor which counteracts synthesis of
viral DNA in monocytic cells
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380700

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Macrophage Signaling in HIV-1 Infection
HERBEIN G., Gras, G., Khan, K. A., and Abbas, W.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 34 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a member of the lentivirus
genus. The virus does not rely exclusively on the host cell machinery, but also on viral
proteins that act as molecular switches during the viral life cycle which play significant
functions in viral pathogenesis, notably by modulating cell signaling. The role of HIV-1
proteins (Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120) in modulating macrophage signaling has been recently
unveiled. Accessory, regulatory, and structural HIV-1 proteins interact with signaling
pathways in infected macrophages. In addition, exogenous Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120 proteins
have been detected in the serum of HIV-1 infected patients. Possibly, these proteins are
released by infected/apoptotic cells. Exogenous accessory regulatory HIV-1 proteins are able
to enter macrophages and modulate cellular machineries including those that affect viral
transcription. Furthermore HIV-1 proteins, e.g., gp120, may exert their effects by interacting
with cell surface membrane receptors, especially chemokine co-receptors. By activating the
signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB, MAP kinase (MAPK) and JAK/STAT, HIV-1
proteins promote viral replication by stimulating transcription from the long terminal repeat
(LTR) in infected macrophages; they are also involved in macrophage-mediated bystander T
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            48 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



cell apoptosis. The role of HIV-1 proteins in the modulation of macrophage signaling will be
discussed in regard to the formation of viral reservoirs and macrophage-mediated T cell
apoptosis during HIV-1 infection
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380698

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Molecular Mechanisms of HIV-1 Persistence in the Monocyte-
Macrophage Lineage
LE DOUCE, V, Herbein, G., Rohr, O., and Schwartz, C.
Retrovirology. 7 (1), 32 ,2010
ENG
ABSTRACT: The introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has
greatly improved survival. However, these treatments fail to definitively cure the patients
and unveil the presence of quiescent HIV-1 reservoirs like cells from monocyte-macrophage
lineage. A purge, or at least a significant reduction of these long lived HIV-1 reservoirs will
be needed to raise the hope of the viral eradication. This review focuses on the molecular
mechanisms responsible for viral persistence in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage.
Controversy on latency and/or cryptic chronic replication will be specifically evoked. In
addition, since HIV-1 infected monocyte-macrophage cells appear to be more resistant to
apoptosis, this obstacle to the viral eradication will be discussed. Understanding the intimate
mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence is a prerequisite to devise new and original therapies
aiming to achieve viral eradication
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380694

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Short Communication: Human Blood Dendritic Cells Are Infected
Separately From Monocytes in HIV Type 1 Patients
VAZQUEZ M., Maldonado, I. M., Almodovar, S., Lopez, C., Colon, M. D., Hill, M., and
Lorenzo, E.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - 1 Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Ponce
School           of         Medicine          ,          Ponce,           Puerto         Rico
ENG
Abstract Monocytes serve as a systemic reservoir of myeloid precursors for the renewal of
tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Both monocytes and dendritic cells can be
infected with HIV-1. Circulating DCs are believed to be derived from a common precursor of
monocytes, or, in the case of inflammatory challenge, from monocytes directly. Because there
are fewer infected blood monocytes than infected cells after differentiation, we hypothesized
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            49 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



that the majority of HIV-1 infection in circulating DCs occurs via direct viral binding to their
CD4 and coreceptors after differentiation. We isolated monocytes at one time point and
circulating dendritic cells at a second time point from the blood of HIV-1-infected patients.
Proviral DNA was isolated from DCs and monocytes, and the C2-V4 region of the HIV-1 env
gene was cloned and sequenced. Phylogeny, nucleotide distances, and glycosylation patterns
of the env gene were performed. The phylogenetic trees revealed that viral forms from the
monocytes clustered distantly from the quasispecies derived from circulating DCs. The
nucleotide distances and differing glycosylation patterns suggest that the infection of DCs is
independent of the infection of the monocytes
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380485

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Alterations in Natural Killer Cell Receptor Profiles During HIV Type
1 Disease Progression Among Chronically Infected South African
Adults
WONG A. H., Williams, K., Reddy, S., Wilson, D., Giddy, J., Alter, G., Ghebremichael, M.,
Carrington, M. N., Ndung'u, T., Walker, B. D., Altfeld, M., and Carr, W. H.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - 1 Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT, and Harvard (formerly Partners AIDS Research
Center),    Massachusetts      General      Hospital      ,    Charleston,   Massachusetts
ENG
Abstract Recent studies suggest that innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells
play a significant role in restricting human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)
pathogenesis. Our aim was to characterize changes in NK cells associated with HIV-1 clade C
disease progression. Here we used multiparametric flow cytometry (LSRII) to quantify
phenotype and function of NK cells in a cross-sectional analysis of cryopreserved blood
samples from a cohort of 41 chronically HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adult South
Africans. These individuals ranged in disease severity from early (CD4 count >500) to
advanced HIV-1 disease (CD4 count <50). We found that the frequency of NK cells
expressing KIR2DL1, an inhibitory receptor, and/or KIR2DS1, an activating receptor, tended
to decrease with increasing HIV-1 viral load. We also discovered a significant increase (p <
0.05) in overall NK cell degranulation with disease progression. We found that acutely
activated NK cells (CD69(pos)) were deficient in NKp46 expression ex vivo. In conclusion,
we observed that with viremia and advanced HIV-1 disease, activated NK cells lack NKp46
expression, and KIR2DS1(pos) and/ or KIR2DL1(pos) NK cells are reduced in frequency.
These findings suggest that modulation of receptor expression on NK cells may play a role in
HIV-1 pathogenesis, and provide new insights on immunological changes in advanced HIV-
1 disease
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380481

------------------------------------------------------

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            50 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency
Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation
SHAH S., Nonnemacher, M. R., Pirrone, V., and Wigdahl, B.
J.Neuroimmune.Pharmacol. 2010
AD - Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine,
2900         Queen          Lane,          Philadelphia,        PA,         19129,        USA
ENG
Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse
transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective
therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular
mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and
post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an
overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the
viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall
understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from
the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide
the next generation of therapies
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387125

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Exposure to HIV-1 Directly Impairs Mucosal Epithelial Barrier
Integrity Allowing Microbial Translocation
NAZLI A., Chan, O., Dobson-Belaire, W. N., Ouellet, M., Tremblay, M. J., Gray-Owen, S. D.,
Arsenault, A. L., and Kaushic, C.
PLoS.Pathog. 6 (4), e1000852 ,2010
AD - Center For Gene Therapeutics, Michael G DeGroote Center for Learning and Discovery,
McMaster              University,              Hamilton,             Ontario,            Canada
eng
While several clinical studies have shown that HIV-1 infection is associated with increased
permeability of the intestinal tract, there is very little understanding of the mechanisms
underlying HIV-induced impairment of mucosal barriers. Here we demonstrate that
exposure to HIV-1 can directly breach the integrity of mucosal epithelial barrier, allowing
translocation of virus and bacteria. Purified primary epithelial cells (EC) isolated from female
genital tract and T84 intestinal cell line were grown to form polarized, confluent monolayers
and exposed to HIV-1. HIV-1 X4 and R5 tropic laboratory strains and clinical isolates were
seen to reduce transepithelial resistance (TER), a measure of monolayer integrity, by 30-60%
following exposure for 24 hours, without affecting viability of cells. The decrease in TER
correlated with disruption of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, 2, 4, occludin and ZO-1) and
increased permeability. Treatment of ECs with HIV envelope protein gp120, but not HIV tat,
also resulted in impairment of barrier function. Neutralization of gp120 significantly
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            51 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



abrogated the effect of HIV. No changes to the barrier function were observed when ECs
were exposed to Env defective mutant of HIV. Significant upregulation of inflammatory
cytokines, including TNF-alpha, were seen in both intestinal and genital epithelial cells
following exposure to HIV-1. Neutralization of TNF-alpha reversed the reduction in TERs.
The disruption in barrier functions was associated with viral and bacterial translocation
across the epithelial monolayers. Collectively, our data shows that mucosal epithelial cells
respond directly to envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 by upregulating inflammatory cytokines
that lead to impairment of barrier functions. The increased permeability could be responsible
for small but significant crossing of mucosal epithelium by virus and bacteria present in the
lumen of mucosa. This mechanism could be particularly relevant to mucosal transmission of
HIV-1 as well as immune activation seen in HIV-1 infected individuals
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386714

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 Infection of T Cells Demonstrates a
Direct Relationship to Plasma Viral RNA Levels
ARORA R., Bull, L., Siwak, E. B., Thippeshappa, R., Arduino, R. C., and Kimata, J. T.
J.Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 2010
AD - From the *Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of
Medicine, Houston, TX; and daggerSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine,
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Medicine, Houston, TX
ENG
OBJECTIVE:: To examine the relationship between infectivity of HIV-1 variants in dendritic
cell (DC)-mediated in trans infection of T cells and plasma viral RNA levels in infected
subjects. METHODS:: HIV-1 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of
chronically infected individuals, typed for coreceptor usage, and viral replication were
examined in monocyte-derived DCs-peripheral blood lymphocytes cocultures. The rate of
p24 antigen production during the logarithmic phase of viral replication was determined by
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, nef variants were cloned and expressed
in trans with a HIV luciferase vector and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope, and infectivity was
measured in DC-mediated capture-transfer assays. RESULTS:: Replication capacity of HIV-1
viral CCR5-tropic isolates in monocyte-derived dendritic cells-peripheral blood lymphocytes
cocultures was linearly associated with the plasma viral RNA levels in a cohort of HIV-1-
infected individuals exhibiting an inverse relationship between plasma viral RNA and CD4
cell count. Furthermore, infectivity activity of nef variants in context of DC-mediated
enhanced infection of T cells also showed a linear relationship to plasma viral RNA levels.
CONCLUSIONS:: These results illustrate that replication capacity of HIV-1 in DC T-cell
cultures is a significant determinant of plasma viral RNA level. The data suggest that
adaptation of HIV-1 to DC interactions with T cells influences the level of viral replication in
the host
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386455


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            52 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Discordance Between CD4 Cell Count and CD4 Cell Percentage:
Implications for When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1
Infected Children
AIDS. 2010
ENG
OBJECTIVE:: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines for HIV-1-infected children specify
both absolute CD4 cell count and CD4 percentage thresholds at which consideration should
be given to initiating ART. This leads to clinical dilemma when one marker is below the
threshold, whereas the other is above. DESIGN:: Data were obtained on a large group of
children followed longitudinally in trials and cohort studies in Europe and the USA. Follow-
up was censored 6 months after the start of any antiretroviral drug other than zidovudine
monotherapy. METHODS:: Discordance between CD4 cell count and percentage was defined
in relation to ART initiation thresholds in World Health Organization (WHO) and European
paediatric treatment guidelines. The relative prognostic value of CD4 cell count and
percentage for progression to AIDS/death was investigated using time-updated Cox
proportional hazards models, stratified by age. RESULTS:: Among 3345 children, with a total
of 21 815 pairs of CD4 measurements analysed, 980 developed AIDS and/or died after a
median follow-up of 1.7 years. Over one-half of children had discordant values of CD4 cell
markers at the first visit when one or both treatment thresholds were crossed and
approximately one-third had the same pattern of discordance at a subsequent measurement.
Models suggested that CD4 percentage had little or no prognostic value over and above that
contained in CD4 cell count, irrespective of age. CONCLUSIONS:: More emphasis should be
placed on CD4 cell count than on CD4 percentage in deciding when to start ART in HIV-1-
infected children
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386428

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Predicting the Magnitude of Short-Term CD4+ T-Cell Recovery in
HIV-Infected Patients During First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral
Therapy
CASTAGNA A., Galli, L., Torti, C., D'arminio, Monforte A., Mussini, C., Antinori, A., Cozzi-
Lepri, A., Ladisa, N., De, Luca A., Seminari, E., Gianotti, N., and Lazzarin, A.
Antivir.Ther. 15 (2), 165-175 ,2010
AD - Infectious Diseases Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
eng
BACKGROUND: The extent of short-term CD4(+) T-cell recovery in patients tolerating first-
line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and attaining undetectable HIV RNA
levels is inadequately defined. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients in four
Italian cohorts who started HAART between January 1996 and September 2006. All patients
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            53 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



had known HCV coinfection status, did not modify the regimen for 6 months and had <50
HIV RNA copies/ml at the end of the sixth month. RESULTS: The analysis involved 1,488
patients (1,096 males, 73.7%) with a median age of 43 years (interquartile range [IQR] 39-49);
435 (29.2%) were positive for HCV, 71 (4.8%) were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen
(HBsAg) and 76 (5.1%) had experienced a previous AIDS-defining event. At baseline, patient
CD4(+) T-cell counts were 226 cells/microl (IQR 99-332), CD4(+) T-cell percentages were
14.7% (IQR 8.7-21.2) and HIV RNA levels were 4.91 log(10) copies/ml (IQR 4.38-5.34).
Overall, 24-week CD4(+) T-cell recovery was 144 cells/microl (IQR 70-240). At multivariable
analysis, T-cell recovery was positively related to the use of a boosted protease inhibitor
(P<0.0001) or thymidine analogues (P<0.0001), baseline HIV RNA levels (P<0.0001), the
baseline percentage of CD4(+) T-cells (P<0.0001) and the absence of HCV coinfection
(P=0.006). Age, gender, baseline CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio and a history of AIDS-defining
events had no independent effect on CD4(+) T-cell recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-
infected patients tolerating first-line HAART and with undetectable HIV RNA after 6
months, CD4(+) T-cell recovery is significantly greater in those without HCV coinfection,
with a high baseline viral load, a high baseline percentage of CD4(+) T-cells and in those
treated with a boosted protease inhibitor
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386071

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Identification of HIV Integration Sites in Infected Host Genomic DNA
CIUFFI A. and Barr, S. D.
Methods. 2010
AD - Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne,
Bugnon                 48,             1011               Lausanne,                Switzerland
ENG
The integration of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genetic information into the
host genome is fundamental for its replication and long-term persistence in the host.
Isolating and characterizing the integration sites can be useful for obtaining data such as
identifying the specific genomic location of integration or understanding the forces dictating
HIV integration site selection. The methods outlined in this article describe a highly efficient
and precise technique for identifying HIV integration sites in the host genome on a small
scale using molecular cloning techniques and standard sequencing or on a massive scale
using 454 pyrosequencing
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20385239

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            54 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Immunology

Impact of Chronic Viral Diseases on Semen Parameters
LORUSSO F., Palmisano, M., Chironna, M., Vacca, M., Masciandaro, P., Bassi, E., Selvaggi,
Luigi L., and Depalo, R.
Andrologia. 42 (2), 121-126 ,2010
AD - Department of Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Neonatology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
milalorusso@yahooit
eng
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
hepatitis C (HCV) and B (HBV) virus infection on semen parameters. Semen samples were
obtained from 27 HCV, 34 HIV, 30 HBV and 41 HCV-HIV-seropositive patients and
compared with those of a control population of healthy seronegative subjects. Tests for
detection of HIV, HCV and HBV were performed on seminal samples. The sperm
concentration was significantly decreased in HCV- and HBV-seropositive males compared to
that of controls (P < 0.001). The mean sperm motility (a + b) was significantly decreased in
HCV- and HBV-seropositive (P < 0.001) and in HCV-HIV-seropositive subjects (P < 0.05)
compared to that of controls. The sperm viability was significantly lower in HCV- and HBV-
seropositive men than in controls (P < 0.001). The normal morphology was significantly
reduced in HCV-seropositive and HBV-seropositive men (P < 0.05) with respect to that of
controls (P < 0.05). The sperm concentration after sperm wash was significantly higher in
controls than in HCV-, HIV-, HBV- and HIV-HCV-seropositive men (P < 0.001). We can
conclude that HBV- and HCV-infected men have a significantly impaired sperm quality
compared with that of controls. The reason for the better sperm quality in our series of HIV-
and HCV-HIV-infected men is still under debate. Further investigations in a larger case
series are warranted
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384803

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

HIV Infection in the Female Genital Tract: Discrete Influence of the
Local Mucosal Microenvironment
KAUSHIC C., Ferreira, V. H., Kafka, J. K., and Nazli, A.
Am.J.Reprod.Immunol. 2010
AD - Center For Gene Therapeutics, Michael G DeGroote Institute of Infectious Diseases
Research, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University,
Hamilton,                                   Ontario,                                 Canada
ENG
Citation Kaushic C, Ferreira VH, Kafka JK, Nazli A. HIV infection in the female genital tract:
discrete influence of the local mucosal microenvironment. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010
Women acquire HIV infections predominantly at the genital mucosa through heterosexual
transmission. Therefore, the immune milieu at female genital surfaces is a critical
determinant of HIV susceptibility. In this review, we recapitulate the evidence suggesting
that several distinctive innate immune mechanisms in the female genital tract (FGT) serve to
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            55 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



significantly deter or facilitate HIV-1 infection. Epithelial cells lining the FGT play a key role
in forming a primary barrier to HIV entry. These cells express Toll-like receptors and other
receptors that recognize and respond directly to pathogens, including HIV-1. In addition,
innate biological factors produced by epithelial and other cells in the FGT have anti-HIV
activity. Female sex hormones, co-infection with other pathogens and components in semen
may also exacerbate or down-modulate HIV transmission. A combination of innate and
adaptive immune factors and their interactions with the local microenvironment determine
the outcome of HIV transmission. Improving our understanding of the female genital
microenvironment will be useful in developing treatments that augment and sustain
protective immune responses in the genital mucosa, such as microbicides and vaccines, and
will provide greater insight into viral pathogenesis in the FGT
Link                                                                                              :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384619

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Genetic Diversity of Neotropical Primates: Phylogeny, Population
Genetics, and Animal Models for Infectious Diseases
MOREIRA M. A., Bonvicino, C. R., Soares, M. A., and Seuanez, H. N.
Cytogenet.Genome Res. 2010
AD - Division of Genetics, Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ENG
The classification of neotropical primates has been controversial, and different arrangements
have been proposed based on disparate taxonomic criteria and on the traits selected for
elucidating phylogenetic reconstructions, like morphologic characters, nuclear DNA and
mitochondrial DNA. Population studies of some neotropical primates have been useful for
assessing their extant genetic variability and for understanding their social structure and
dynamics. Finally, neotropical primates have become valuable models for some human
infectious deseases, especially for HIV studies related to viral resistance. In this review, we
comment on these aspects that make neotropical primates a group of highly valuable species
for basic and applied research
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20389036

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Immunology

Low CD4+ T-Cell Levels and B-Cell Apoptosis in Vertically HIV-
Exposed Noninfected Children and Adolescents
MIYAMOTO M., Pessoa, S. D., Ono, E., Machado, D. M., Salomao, R., Succi, R. C., Pahwa, S.,
and de Moraes-Pinto, M. I.
J.Trop.Pediatr. 2010


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            56 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



AD - Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University
of             Sao              Paulo,             Sao            Paulo,              Brazil
ENG
Lymphocyte subsets, activation markers and apoptosis were assessed in 20 HIV-exposed
noninfected (ENI) children born to HIV-infected women who were or not exposed to
antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during pregnancy and early infancy. ENI children and
adolescents were aged 6-18 years and they were compared to 25 age-matched healthy non-
HIV-exposed children and adolescents (Control). ENI individuals presented lower CD4(+) T
cells/mm(3) than Control group (control: 1120.3 vs. ENI: 876.3; t-test, p = 0.030). ENI
individuals had higher B-cell apoptosis than Control group (Control: 36.6%, ARV exposed:
82.3%, ARV nonexposed: 68.5%; Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05), but no statistical difference was
noticed between those exposed and not exposed to ARV. Immune activation in CD4(+) T,
CD8(+) T and in B cells was comparable in ENI and in Control children and adolescents.
Subtle long-term immune alterations might persist among ENI individuals, but the clinical
consequences if any are unknown, and these children require continued monitoring
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20388660

------------------------------------------------------


Pathology

HIV Nef-M1 Effects on Colorectal Cancer Growth in Tumor-Induced
Spleens and Hepatic Metastasis
HARRINGTON W., Bond, V., Huang, M. B., Powell, M., Lillard, J., Manne, U., and Bumpers,
H.
Mol.Cell Pharmacol. 1 (2), 85-91 ,2009
AD - Department of Surgery, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
ENG
CXCR4 receptors have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation, making it a
potential target for colorectal cancer therapy. Expression of this chemokine receptor on
cellular surfaces appears to promote metastasis by directly stimulating tumor cell migration
and invasion. The receptor/ligand, CXCR4/SDF-1alpha, pair are critically important to
angiogenesis and vascular remodeling which supports cancer proliferation. Our work has
shown that a novel apoptotic peptide of HIV-1, Nef-M1, can act as a CXCR4 antagonist,
inducing apoptosis in CXCR4 containing cells. Four colorectal tumor cell lines (HT-29,
LS174t, SW480, WiDr), were evaluated for their response to Nef-M1 peptide via in vivo and
in vitro. The presence of CXCR4 receptors on tumor cells was determined using
immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Solid xenografts derived from tumor cell lines
grown in SCID mice, were evaluated for the persistence of the receptor. Xenografts
propagated in SCID mice from each of the four cell lines demonstrated high levels of
receptor expression as well. The effects of Nef-M1 in vivo via splenic injected mice and
subsequent hepatic metastasis also demonstrated dramatic reduction of primary tumor
growth in the spleen and secondary invasion of the liver. We concluded that Nef-M1
peptide, through physical interaction(s) with CXCR4, drives apoptotic reduction in in vivo
primary tumor growth and metastasis
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            57 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Link                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20383296

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Children: a Global
Perspective
GRAY D. M. and Zar, H. J.
Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med. 16 (3), 208-216 ,2010
AD - Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's
Hospital,    University     of    Cape     Town,     South   Africa    graysteven@mwebcoza
eng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and death in HIV-
infected children. The aim of this study was to review recent advances in the epidemiology,
cause, management and prevention of pneumonia in HIV-infected children. RECENT
FINDINGS: Pneumonia remains a major cause of death and hospitalization, particularly in
sub-Saharan Africa, where the paediatric HIV epidemic is concentrated. HIV-infected
children have a higher risk of developing pneumonia and of more severe disease than
immunocompetent children. Bacterial pathogens especially Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria predominate, with rising rates of
antimicrobial resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is increasingly reported to cause acute
pneumonia. Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) remains an important cause of severe pneumonia
especially in infants. Viral infections, especially cytomegalovirus-associated pneumonia are
common. Polymicrobial infection is increasingly recognized and associated with a worse
prognosis. HIV-exposed, negative children have an increased risk of infection with
opportunistic pathogens and a poorer outcome than HIV-unexposed children.Increasing
access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of severe
pneumonia, eliminated most opportunistic infections and improved outcome. However,
pneumonia remains the major cause of morbidity in HIV-infected children taking HAART.
Standard case management guidelines are effective at decreasing mortality but require
adaptation for high HIV-prevalence areas. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used as
empiric therapy. Infants or children who are not taking pneumocystis prophylaxis should be
treated for PCP.A number of general or specific preventive strategies are effective including
early use of HAART at the time of HIV diagnosis, pathogen-specific immunizations, in
particular pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and antibiotic prophylaxis against PCP.
SUMMARY: Greater access to preventive and treatment strategies, especially PCP
prophylaxis, pneumococcal immunization and HAART, are urgently needed in areas of high
childhood HIV prevalence
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375782

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            58 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Pathology

Relations Between Cardiovascular Risk Estimates and Subclinical
Atherosclerosis in Naive HIV Patients: Results From the HERMES
Study
DE SOCIO G. V., Martinelli, C., Ricci, E., Orofino, G., Valsecchi, L., Vitiello, P., Martinelli, L.,
Quirino, T., Maggi, P., and Bonfanti, P.
Int.J.STD AIDS. 21 (4), 267-272 ,2010
AD - Department of Infectious Diseases, Santa Maria Hospital, Perugia
ENG
The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors associated with
subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected patients. The
HERMES (HIV Exposure and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome) study enrolled therapy-naive
patients attending hospitals in the Italian coordination group for the study of allergies and
HIV infection (CISAI [Coordinamento Italiano per lo Studio Allergia e Infezione da HIV]) in
2007. It was designed to identify metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors.
The present analysis is a nested cross-sectional study with a subset of patients examined by
carotid ultrasonography. Consecutive antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV patients attending
the facilities involved in the CISAI were included. Their 10-year probability of cardiovascular
events was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and three other cardiovascular
algorithms (the Global Framingham Risk Score - GFRS, 'Progetto Cuore' and 'SCORE').
Vascular age was estimated using a new model derived from GFRS and was compared with
chronological age. The diagnosis of MS was based on the National Cholesterol Education
Programme and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. Subclinical
atherosclerosis was determined as ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness >0.9 mm. Out
of 140 patients enrolled in the HERMES study by the four centres participating in the nested
study, a total of 72 (51.4%) subjects, with no overt cardiovascular disease, were examined
using carotid ultrasonography. The median age was 40 years, 79.2% men. The vascular age
was 7.6 years higher than the chronological age. The factors associated with subclinical
atherosclerosis were age (P < 0.0001), vascular age (P = 0.0002), body mass index (P = 0.003),
waist circumference (P = 0.0002), MS (IDF definition, P = 0.004) and all the cardiovascular
(CV) models (FRS, P = 0.01, GFRS, P = 0.002, Progetto Cuore, P = 0.018, SCORE, P = 0.03).
Independent of other significant factors, waist circumference was significantly associated
with pathological results (P = 0.007). The GFRS (area under the receiver-operating
characteristic curves, 0.78; P < 0.001) had slightly better predictive accuracy than the other
three CV models (FRS, areas under the curve [AUC] = 0.71, P = 0.003; Progetto Cuore, AUC =
0.74, P = 0.0005; SCORE, AUC = 0.77, P < 0.0001); 55% of patients at intermediate risk (6-20%)
had subclinical carotid lesions. Subclinical carotid lesions had a highly significant direct
association with all the CV risk predictors. The GFRS and vascular age were highly
predictive. We recommend a carotid ultrasonographic examination at least among HIV
patients with GFRS >/=6% or with an elevated waist circumference
Link                                                                                               :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378899

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            59 / 87
                         EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Pathology

Prevailing HCV Genotypes and Subtypes Among HIV-Infected
Patients in Georgia
KARCHAVA M., Sharvadze, L., Gatserelia, L., Badridze, N., and Tsertsvadze, T.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tbilisi, GE
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Findings From Fibre Optic Bronchoscopy in HIV- Positive Patients
in Eastern London
PAPINENI P., Ahmed, Y., Limb, S., Noble, H., O'Shaughnessy, T., Packe, G., and Thomas, G.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
London, UK
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Tuberculosis in HIV-HCV Co-Infected Patients
MORADI A., Nadji, S., Ehteshamiafshar, S., Tabarsi, P., and Mansouri, D.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tehran, IR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Re-Emergence of Infectious Syphilis Among Homosexual Men and
HIV Co-Infection in Spain, 2003-2008
CAMINO X., von, Wichmann M., Azkune, H., Goenaga, M., Iribarren, J., Rodriguez-
Arrondo, F., Bustinduy, M., and Arrizabalaga, J.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
San Sebastian, ES
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         60 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Pathology

Anti-HCV Negative Viral Hepatitis C in HIV-Infected Patients From
AIDS Centre, Prague
ASTER V., Konig, J., Machala, L., Rozsypal, H., Shivairova, O., and Stankova, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Prague, CZ
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

E6/E7 Expression in the Triage of HIV-HPV Coinfected Patients
ORLANDO G., Beretta, R., Agarossi, A., Rimoldi, S., Antonacci, C., Mazza, F., Zanchetta, N.,
Pagano, F., Fasolo, M., Pileri, P., Omodeo, Zorini E., Casolati, E., and Gismondo, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
GISPAP (Gruppo Interdisciplinare per lo Studio delle Patologie Associate al Papillomavirus)
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Prevalence of Papillomavirus in HIV-Positive Patients
LORENZO M. and Romero-Gomez, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Madrid, ES
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

HRQoL in HIV-Infected Children Using PedsQL 4.0 and Comparison
With Uninfected Children
BANERJEE T., Pensi, T., and Banerjee, D.
Qual.Life Res. 2010
AD - Department of Statistics, University of Delhi, A-123 Vikaspuri, New Delhi, 110018,
India,                                                        tanushree@aidsresearcherorg
ENG
PURPOSE: To assess the reliability and validity of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0
(PedsQL(TM) 4.0) in children living with HIV. Also to determine the association of HIV
infection, treatment regimens, and type of care received on quality of life (QoL) in pediatric
patients. METHODS: Study was conducted from January to December 2008 at Dr. Ram
Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India at the HIV pediatric outpatient department
(OPD). PedsQL(TM) 4.0 was administered to 100 HIV-infected and 200 uninfected children
aged 8-12 years and their primary caregivers. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability
exceeded 0.70 for both proxy-reported and self-reported scales. Intraclass correlation
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            61 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



coefficient demonstrated mainly larger values for parent proxy-report (interval of 0.926-0.952
with 95% confidence) than for child self-report (interval of 0.891-0.928 with 95% confidence).
Factor analysis was performed and it indicated that five factors were extracted from the
PedsQL(TM) 4.0 and these five factors correspond mainly to the five scales. HIV infection
was associated with a negative impact on QoL among children with lower scores for
physical, school, and emotional functioning and health symptoms. In contrast, uninfected
children had lower social functioning scores. Our results showed antiretroviral treatment to
be associated with improved QoL among HIV-infected children. We even identified infected
children living at home to be at a higher distress of psychosocial functioning and health
symptoms when compared with children living in care homes. CONCLUSIONS:
PedsQL(TM) is an acceptable and valid measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for
HIV-infected children and uninfected group. Application of this data will be helpful for
program managers to devise care and support programme for both infected and uninfected
children
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20383660

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Correction: Urologic Complications of HIV and AIDS
HEYNS C. F., Groeneveld, A. E., and Sigarroa, N. B.
Nat.Rev.Urol. 7 (4), 178 ,2010
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20383181

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

HIV and SIV Induce Alterations in CNS CaMKII Expression and
Activation. A Potential Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment
GUPTA R. G., Kelly, K. M., Helke, K. L., Queen, S. E., Karper, J. M., Dorsey, J. L., Brice, A. M.,
Adams, R. J., Tarwater, P. M., Kolson, D. L., and Mankowski, J. L.
Am.J.Pathol. 2010
AD - From the Departments of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology,* Pathology, and
Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; the Division
of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas; and the
Departments of Neurology and Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania
ENG
The molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory impairment in patients with
HIV-associated neurological disease have remained unclear. Calcium/calmodulin-
dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has key roles in synaptic potentiation and memory storage in
neurons and also may have immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether HIV and

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            62 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induce alterations in CaMKII expression and/or
activation (autophosphorylation) in the brain, we measured CaMKII alterations by
quantitative immunoblotting in both an in vitro HIV/neuronal culture model and in vivo in
an SIV-infected macaque model of HIV-associated neurological damage. Using primary rat
hippocampal neuronal cultures treated with culture supernatants harvested from HIV-1-
infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (HIV/MDM), we found that CaMKII
activation declined after exposure of neurons to HIV/MDM. Consistent with our in vitro
measurements, a significant decrease in CaMKII activation was present in both the
hippocampus and frontal cortex of SIV-infected macaques compared with uninfected
animals. In SIV-infected animals, total CaMKII expression in the hippocampus correlated
well with levels of synaptophysin. Furthermore, CaMKII expression in both the
hippocampus and frontal cortex was inversely correlated with viral load in the brain. These
findings suggest that alterations in CaMKII may compromise synaptic function in the early
phases of chronic neurodegenerative processes induced by HIV
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382699

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Hepatitis C Virus RNA Detection in Different Semen Fractions of
HCV/HIV-1 Co-Infected Men by Nested PCR
SAVASI V., Parrilla, B., Ratti, M., Oneta, M., Clerici, M., and Ferrazzi, E.
Eur.J.Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 2010
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sacco Clinical Sciences Institute, University
of         Milan          Medical           School,           20157          Milan,    Italy
ENG
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate, by nested PCR, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus
(HCV) RNA in seminal plasma in different semen fractions of HCV/HIV-1 co-infected men.
STUDY DESIGN: This study enrolled 16 HCV/HIV-1 infected men. A total of 16 seminal
samples and 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of HCV-RNA. HCV-RNA in
blood plasma was quantified by Amplicor HCV Monitor Test version 2.0 and HCV-RNA
detection in seminal plasma, non-spermatozoa cells (NSCs), spermatozoa pellet and swim-
up was investigated by nested PCR. RESULTS: Thirteen blood plasma samples were positive
for HCV-RNA. HCV-RNA was detectable in seminal plasma and in non-sperm cells, but not
detectable in spermatozoa samples, neither before nor after swim-up. One of the two patients
whose seminal plasma tested positive at nested PCR had undetectable HCV virus in blood
plasma. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-RNA can be found in seminal plasma and non-sperm cells
but not in spermatozoa before and after swim-up. We observed HCV-RNA in the semen of
an aviremic man. According to these findings we suggest that sperm washing should be
performed for each semen sample of HCV patients before assisted reproduction techniques
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382466

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            63 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Pathology

Causes of Death in HIV-1-Infected Patients Treated With
Antiretroviral Therapy, 1996-2006: Collaborative Analysis of 13 HIV
Cohort Studies
Clin.Infect.Dis. 2010
ENG
Background. We examined specific causes of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Europe and
North America from 1996 through 2006, and we quantified associations of prognostic factors
with cause-specific mortality. Methods. We retrospectively classified all deaths among 39,272
patients enrolled in 13 HIV-1 cohorts (154,667 person years of follow-up) into the categories
specified in the Cause of Death (CoDe) project protocol. Results. In 1597 (85%) of 1876
deaths, a definitive cause of death could be assigned. Among these, 792 deaths (49.5%) were
AIDS related, followed by non-AIDS malignancies (189; 11.8%), non-AIDS infections (131;
8.2%), violence- and/or drug-related causes (124; 7.7%), liver disease (113; 7.0%), and
cardiovascular disease (103; 6.5%). Rates of AIDS-related death (hazard ratio [HR] per 100
cell decrease, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-1.53) and death from renal failure (HR,
1.73; 95% CI, 1.18-2.55) were strongly inversely related to CD4 count at initiation of ART,
whereas rates of death attributable to AIDS (HR for viral load >5 vs 5 log copies/mL, 1.31;
95% CI, 1.12-1.53), infection (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.25-2.73), cardiovascular (HR, 1.54; 95% CI,
1.05-2.27), and respiratory causes (HR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.30-10.09) were higher in patients with
baseline viral load >5 log copies/mL than in other patients. Rates of each cause of death
were higher in patients with presumed transmission via injection drug use than in other
patients, with marked increases in rates of liver-related (HR for injection drug use vs non-
injection drug use, 6.06; 95% CI, 4.03-9.09) and respiratory tract-related (HR, 4.94; 95% CI,
1.96-12.45) mortality. The proportion of deaths classified as AIDS related decreased with
increasing duration of ART. Conclusions. Important contributors to non-AIDS mortality in
treated HIV-1-infected individuals must be addressed if decreases in mortality rates are to
continue
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20380565

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Skin Disorders in Korean Patients Infected With Human
Immunodeficiency Virus and Their Association With a CD4
Lymphocyte Count: a Preliminary Study
KIM T. G., Lee, K. H., and Oh, S. H.
J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2010
AD - Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei
University           College         of Medicine,         Seoul,         Korea
ENG

Abstract       Background            Dermatological             disorders         are     quite       common           in   human
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            64 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, cutaneous findings in Korean
HIV-infected patients have not been properly investigated. Objective To investigate the
spectrum of dermatological disorders in Korean HIV-infected individuals according to a
CD4 lymphocyte count. Methods A retrospective clinical study was carried out from June
2002 to January 2008. We comprehensively collected information regarding HIV-associated
skin problems, laboratory data and the history of highly active antiretroviral therapy
(HAART). Results Ninety-nine HIV-seropositive patients (mean age: 39.6 +/- 11.3 years,
males: 94.9%) were included in this study. Of them, 55 patients (55.6%) presented with at
least one skin problem. The four most common dermatological disorders were eosinophilic
pustular folliculitis (18.6%), symptomatic syphilis (comprising of primary and secondary
syphilis) (17.1%), seborrhoeic dermatitis (17.1%) and condyloma acuminatum (12.8%). The
group with a CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 x 10(6) cells/L showed a significantly higher
prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma compared with the group with a CD4 lymphocyte count > 200
x 10(6) cells/L (P = 0.014). Condyloma was more prevalent in the group with a CD4 count >
200 x 10(6) cells/L (P = 0.022). The patients treated with HAART had a lower prevalence of
neurosyphilis compared with the non-treated group (P = 0.018). Conclusions Diverse
dermatological conditions were demonstrated in Korean HIV-infected patients. Kaposi
sarcoma was associated with a low CD4 lymphocyte count, but condyloma was associated
with a high CD4 lymphocyte count. The prevalence of syphilis in our study was higher than
that of Western countries. HAART seemed to be associated with the low prevalence of
neurosyphilis
Link                                                                                     :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384683

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

Symptom Burden in HIV-Infected Adults at Time of HIV Diagnosis in
Rural Uganda
WAKEHAM K., Harding, R., Bamukama-Namakoola, D., Levin, J., Kissa, J., Parkes-Ratanshi,
R., Muzaaya, G., Grosskurth, H., and Lalloo, D. G.
J.Palliat.Med. 13 (4), 375-380 ,2010
AD - MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda
katiewakeham@mrcugandaorg
eng
PURPOSE: This study aimed to measure symptom burden prior to antitetroviral therapy
(ART) initiation in a population of adults with low CD4 presenting for human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and treatment in Uganda, and to explore the relationship
between World Health Organization (WHO) stage, CD4 count, and symptomatology.
METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naive adults with CD4 less than 200 cells per microliter
referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for potential
enrollment into a large double-blinded placebo-controlled trial were invited to completed the
Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF). This is a validated symptom
assessment tool that records the presence and severity of 37 physical and 4 psychological
symptoms. RESULTS: Two hundred twelve subjects were enrolled. The mean total number
of symptoms was 14.0 (standard deviation [SD] = 6). The 10 most common symptoms were
pain (76%), weight loss (70%), itching (67%), feeling drowsy/tired (61%), and lack of energy
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            65 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



(61%), numbness /tingling in hands or feet (57%), cough (53%) skin changes (52%), worry
(51%), and lack of appetite (49%). The median number of symptoms was not associated with
WHO stage CD4 count group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the burden of
HIV-related symptoms in individuals presenting for care in Uganda is significant and
debilitating
Link                                                                                    :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384499

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Pathology

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis: Clinical Update
SWAMINATHAN S., Padmapriyadarsini, C., and Narendran, G.
Clin.Infect.Dis. 2010
AD - Department of Clinical Research, Tuberculosis Research Centre, Indian Council of
Medical                      Research,                    Chennai,                    India
ENG
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has led to an increase in the incidence
of tuberculosis globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Coinfection with HIV leads to
difficulties in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Because of the poor
performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, more sensitive tests-such
as liquid culture systems, nucleic acid amplification assays, and detection of mycobacterial
products in various body fluids-are being investigated. The treatment of coinfected patients
requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly;
challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic
effects, and immune reconstitution syndrome. Both multidrug-resistant and extensively
drug-resistant tuberculosis can spread rapidly among an immunocompromised population,
with resulting high mortality rates. Current guidelines recommend starting antiretroviral
treatment within a few weeks of antituberculosis therapy for patients with CD4 cell counts
<350 cells/muL; however, important questions about the drug regimens and timing of
antiretroviral therapy remain. Ongoing trials may answer many of these unresolved
questions
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20388036

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            66 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16




Recommendations & Policies

More Than Four Million HIV-Positive People Now Receiving Life-
Saving Treatment
Cent.Eur.J.Public Health. 17 (4), 178, 182 ,2009
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377043

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Effectiveness of HIV Prevention for Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized and
Nonrandomized Trials
MICHIELSEN K., Chersich, M. F., Luchters, S., De, Koker P., Van, Rossem R., and
Temmerman, M.
AIDS. 2010
AD - aInternational Centre for Reproductive Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium bDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Political and
Social Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium cReproductive Health and HIV Research
Unit,          University          of         Witwatersrand,           South          Africa
ENG
OBJECTIVE:: Systematically assess the effectiveness of HIV-prevention interventions in
changing sexual behaviour of young people (10-25 years) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS::
Three online databases were searched using prespecified terms. Additional articles were
identified on websites of international organizations and by searching bibliographies.
Randomized and nonrandomized trials of interventions aiming to reduce risk behaviour
were included as well as single-arm studies reporting effects of differential exposure to an
intervention. Data were extracted independently in duplicate using predefined data fields.
RESULTS:: Thirty-one studies on 28 interventions met the inclusion criteria, including 11
randomized trials. Difficulties with implementing planned activities were reportedly
common and differential exposure to intervention was high. Two hundred and seventeen
outcome measures were extracted: 88 early (within 1 year of intervention) and 129 late
outcomes (more than 1 year after the end of the intervention). Sex education and condom
promotion among youth did not increase sexual behaviour as well as risky sexual behaviour.
No positive effects on sexual behaviour were detected either and condom use at last sex only
increased among males [relative risk = 1.46; 95% confidence interval = 1.31-1.64]. One study
reported a reduction of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV incidence. CONCLUSION::
There remains a stark mismatch between the HIV burden in youth and the number of
attempts to design and test prevention interventions - only two trials report biological
outcomes. More effective interventions targeting youth are needed. Attention should go to
studying implementation difficulties, sex differences in responses to interventions,


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            67 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



determinants of exposure to interventions and perhaps inclusion of other factors apart from
HIV/AIDS which influence sexual behaviour
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375876

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

UK National Guideline on the Management of Sexually Transmitted
Infections and Related Conditions in Children and Young People
(2009)
ROGSTAD K., Thomas, A., Williams, O., Forster, G., Munday, P., Robinson, A., Rooney, G.,
Sherrard, J., Tenant-Flowers, M., Wilkinson, D., and Lazaro, N.
Int.J.STD AIDS. 21 (4), 229-241 ,2010
AD - Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road,
Sheffield                                        S10                                 2JF
ENGLink                                                                                 :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20378892

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Short Communication: Prioritizing Communities for HIV Prevention
in Sub-Saharan Africa
BARNIGHAUSEN T., Tanser, F., Hallett, T., and Newell, M. L.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - 1 Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health ,
Boston,                                                               Massachusetts
ENG

Abstract HIV prevalence is the most commonly used measure to prioritize communities for
HIV prevention. We show that data on two HIV infection stages (early vs. nonearly and late
vs. nonlate) allow estimation of two better measures of prevention need: HIV incidence (for
prevention of HIV acquisition) and expected probability of HIV transmission in unprotected
sex acts between HIV-infected community members and susceptible individuals (for
prevention of HIV transmission). The three ranking schemes-by prevalence, incidence, and
transmission probability-lead to significantly different community rank orders. Disease stage
information should be collected in HIV surveys
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377420

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            68 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Kenya's HIV-Testing Drive Runs into Difficulties
ALSOP Z.
Lancet. 375 (9722), 1242 ,2010
engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387260

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Knowledge and Attitudes About Male Circumcision for HIV-1
Prevention Among Heterosexual HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships
in Kampala, Uganda
MUGWANYA K. K., Baeten, J. M., Nakku-Joloba, E., Katabira, E., Celum, C., Tisch, D., and
Whalen, C.
AIDS Behav. 2010
AD - Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, PO Box
22418,               Kampala,                  Uganda,                kmugwanya@gmailcom
ENG
Male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention will require high uptake among at-risk populations.
318 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda [155 (48.7%) with HIV-1 uninfected
male partners] were interviewed about male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention. 77.1% of
men and 89.6% of women were aware that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV-1
acquisition. Almost all understood the partial protective efficacy of circumcision for HIV-1
acquisition and lack of reduced HIV-1 transmission from circumcising HIV-1 infected men.
Among couples with uncircumcised HIV-1 negative men (n = 92), 53.3% of men and 88.1% of
female partners expressed interest in male circumcision. Previous discussion within the
couple about circumcision for HIV-1 prevention was significantly associated with interest in
the procedure. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Uganda demonstrated a high level of
understanding of the partial protective effect of male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention, but
only half of HIV-1 uninfected uncircumcised men expressed interest in the procedure
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387112

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

The Fidelity of Decision-Making: the Achilles Heel for the
Successful Implementation of Prevention Modalities for HIV
TRAMONT E. C.
AIDS. 24 (7), 1077-1078 ,2010


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            69 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



engLink                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386377

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

The Need for Culturally Appropriate, Gender-Specific Global HIV
Prevention Efforts With Vulnerable Women
WECHSBERG W. M. and Luseno, W. K.
J.Prev.Interv.Community. 38 (2), 85-88 ,2010
AD - Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research
Triangle             Park,                  North           Carolina,                USA
engLink                                                                                  :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20391056

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Using Protection Motivation Theory to Predict Condom Usage and
Assess HIV Health Communication Efficacy in Singapore
LWIN M. O., Stanaland, A. J., and Chan, D.
Health Commun. 25 (1), 69-79 ,2010
AD - Division of Public and Promotional Communication Wee Kim Wee School of
Communication                and            Information,            Radford,             USA
eng
The number of individuals infected with HIV/AIDS continues to rise in Asia. Condom use is
considered to be the first line of defense against AIDS (UNAIDS, 2006). Using protection
motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), this research aims to first understand the factors affecting
condom usage intention among homosexual and heterosexual men in Singapore, and then to
utilize those findings to assess the efficacy of HIV-directed health communications. We
collected survey data from 484 men and analyzed the data using hierarchical regression and
structural equation modeling. We found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor for both
groups of men, together with perceived severity for homosexuals and response efficacy for
heterosexuals. Next, we analyzed HIV-directed condom usage communication materials and
found that the use of threat appeal themes is more common than themes promoting self-
efficacy. Implications for health communications and policy are discussed
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390672

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            70 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Implementation Effects of GFATM-Supported HIV/AIDS Projects on
the Health Sector, Civil Society and Affected Communities in Peru
2004-2007
CACERES C. F., Giron, J. M., Sandoval, C., Lopez, R., Valverde, R., Pajuelo, J., Vasquez, P.,
Rosasco, A. M., Chirinos, A., and Silva-Santisteban, A.
Glob.Public Health. 1-19 ,2010
AD - Unit of Health, Sexuality and Human Development, Cayetano Heredia University
School          of          Public            Health,           Lima            18,          Peru
ENG
The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS,
Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of
over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need
for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of
collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on
decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing;
on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected
populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key
informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected
populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the
GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and
short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country
Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole.
GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes
beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in
absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several
sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied
reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with
HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons
and sex workers are often excluded
Link                                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390630

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Adapting and Applying a Multiple Domain Model of Condom Use to
Chinese College Students
XIAO Z., Palmgreen, P., Zimmerman, R., and Noar, S.
AIDS Care. 22 (3), 332-338 ,2010
AD - School of Communication, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-3002, USA
zxia2@centraluhedu
eng
This study adapts a multiple domain model (MDM) to explain condom use among a sample
of sexually active Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            71 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. Preparatory behaviors,
theory of reasoned action (TRA)/theory of planned behavior variables, impulsivity, length of
relationship, and alcohol use were significant direct predictors of condom use. The results
suggest that MDM can provide a better understanding of heterosexual condom use among
Chinese youth, and help in the design of HIV-preventive and safer sex interventions in
China
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390513

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Relative Efficacy of
Adding Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) to Information
Dissemination in Reducing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among
Hong Kong Male Cross-Border Truck Drivers
LAU J. T., Tsui, H. Y., Cheng, S., and Pang, M.
AIDS Care. 22 (1), 17-28 ,2010
AD - Centre for Epidemiology & Biostatistics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince
of        Wales         Hospital,       Shatin,     Hong         Kong       jlau@cuhkeduhk
eng
Mobile populations are vulnerable to contracting HIV. The present study aims to evaluate
the relative efficacy of the voluntary counseling and testing plus information dissemination
(VCT-ID) approach versus the information dissemination (ID) approach for promoting HIV
preventive behaviors in a mobile population, cross-border truck drivers. A total of 301 adult
male cross-border truck drivers who self-reported having had sex with female sex workers
(FSW) or non-regular sex partners (NRPs) in mainland China in the last 12 months were
recruited and randomized into the VCT-ID intervention group (Group I) or ID control group
(Group C). Anonymous structured questionnaires, administered through a computer-
assisted method, were used to collect data. At the follow-up survey (about 8-9 weeks since
the baseline survey), Group I participants, as compared to Group C participants, were more
likely to be consistent condom users when having sex with FSW (85.5% versus 68.5%,
p<0.05) and with NRP (54.8% versus 36.4%, p<0.1), more knowledgeable about HIV, and
were less likely to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the last two
months. The VCT-ID approach is shown to be more efficacious than the ID approach in
promoting safer sex and HIV-related knowledge among local cross-border truck drivers.
Feasibility of providing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at locations which
are convenient to the target population is demonstrated. It also shows that VCT services can
be used as a means of HIV prevention. The findings of this study resulted in up-scaled VCT
services for the local target population
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20390477

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            72 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Development and Feasibility of an HIV and IPV Prevention
Intervention Among Low-Income Mothers Receiving Services in a
Missouri Day Care Center
ENRIQUEZ M., Cheng, A. L., Kelly, P. J., Witt, J., Coker, A. D., and Kashubeck-West, S.
Violence Against.Women. 16 (5), 560-578 ,2010
AD - University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte Street,Health Sciences Building Rm
2406,       Kansas         City,     MO          64108,      USA        enriquezm@umkcedu
eng
This article outlines the development and feasibility of an HIV and IPV prevention
intervention. Researchers formed a partnership with a group of women representative of the
population that the intervention was intended to reach using methods derived from
participatory action research. The use of health protective behaviors changed from pre- to
postintervention in the clinically desirable direction. Results indicated that intervention
delivery was feasible in the novel setting of a large urban day care center. This intervention
has promise as a strategy to reduce HIV among low-income women; however, a controlled
study is indicated to further examine intervention efficacy
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20388931

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Recommendations & Policies

Project ROADMAP: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS
Prevention: a Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults
ILLA L., Echenique, M., Jean, G. S., Bustamante-Avellaneda, V., Metsch, L., Mendez-Mulet,
L., Eisdorfer, C., and Sanchez-Martinez, M.
AIDS Educ.Prev. 22 (2), 138-147 ,2010
AD - Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Sciences, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, 1695 NW 9th Ave, Suite 1404 H,
Miami,                FL            33136,               USA                lilla@medmiamiedu
eng
The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about
their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in
sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions
targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions have
specifically targeted the older HIV-positive adult. Efforts to target high-risk sexual behaviors
may be even more critical in the older population because of sociocultural, biological, and
behavioral vulnerabilities. In response, Project ROADMAP (Reeducating Older Adult in
Maintaining AIDS Prevention) intervention was developed to reduce high-risk sexual
behaviors among older HIV-positive patients in primary care clinics. The purpose of this
article is to report the 6-month outcomes of a behavioral intervention designed to reduce
sexual risk behaviors in older HIV-positive adults


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            73 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Link                                                                             :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20387984

------------------------------------------------------


Therapy, others

"Viologen" Dendrimers As Antiviral Agents: The Effect of Charge
Number and Distance
ASAFTEI S. and De, Clercq E.
J.Med.Chem. 2010
AD - Institute of Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49069 Osnabruck,
Germany
ENG
A series of "viologen" derivatives (4,4'-bipyridinium salts) carrying between 1 and 90 charges
per molecule have been prepared and investigated for their activity against human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), vesicular stomatitis, Punta Toro
virus, Sindbis virus, Reovirus, and respiratory syncytial viruses. In general, most of the
compounds showed good activities against HIV-1 (strain III(B)). In particular, compound 36
exhibited the highest in vitro activity and selectivity index against HIV-1 (strain III(B))
(EC(50) = 0.26 +/- 0.08 muM, SI = 75.7) in MT-4 cells. The results imply that the antiviral
activity requires an optimal number and distance of the positive charges
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377249

------------------------------------------------------


Vaccines, research

Novel Recombinant BCG, Ovine Atadenovirus and Modified
Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Combine to Induce Robust Human
Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses in
Rhesus Macaques
ROSARIO M., Hopkins, R., Fulkerson, J., Borthwick, N., Quigley, M. F., Joseph, J., Douek, D.
C., Greenaway, H. Y., Venturi, V., Gostick, E., Price, D. A., Both, G. W., Sadoff, J. C., and
Hanke, T.
J.Virol. 2010
AD - MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine,
University of Oxford, The John Radcliffe, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom; Aeras Global
TB Vaccine Foundation, 1405 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; Vaccine Research
Centre, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health,

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            74 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Catalan HIV Vaccine Research and Development Center, AIDS
Research Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clinic, August Pi i Sunyer
Biomedical Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, 170 08036
Barcelona, Spain; Computational Biology Unit, Centre for Vascular Research, University of
New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2052, Australia; Department of Medical Biochemistry
and Immunology, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United
Kingdom; Biotech Equity Partners Pty Ltd, Riverside Life Sciences Building, 11 Julius Ave,
North                  Ryde,             NSW                   2113,               Australia
ENG
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which elicits a degree of protective
immunity against tuberculosis, is the most widely used vaccine in the world. Due to its
persistence and immunogenicity, BCG has been proposed as a vector for vaccines against
other infections including HIV-1. BCG has a very good safety record, although it can cause
disseminated disease in immunocompromized individuals. Here, we constructed a
recombinant BCG expressing the HIV-1 clade A-derived immunogen HIVA using the
recently described, safer and more immunogenic BCG strain AERAS-401 as the parental
mycobacterium. Using routine ex vivo T cell assays, BCG.HIVA(401) as a stand-alone
vaccine induced undetectable and weak CD8 T cell responses in BALB/c mice and rhesus
macaques, respectively. However, when BCG.HIVA(401) was used as a priming component
in heterologous vaccination regimens together with recombinant modified vaccinia virus
Ankara-vectored MVA.HIVA and ovine atadenovirus-vectored OAdV.HIVA vaccines,
robust HIV-1-specific T cell responses were elicited. These high-frequency T cell responses
were broadly directed and capable of proliferation in response to recall antigen.
Furthermore, multiple antigen-specific T cell clonotypes were efficiently recruited into the
memory pool. These desirable features are thought to be associated with good control of
HIV-1 infection. In addition, strong and persistent T cell responses specific for the BCG-
derived PPD antigen were induced. This work is the first demonstration of immunogenicity
for two novel vaccine vectors and the corresponding candidate HIV-1 vaccines
BCG.HIVA(401) and OAdV.HIVA in non-human primates. These results strongly support
their further exploration
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20375158

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Vaccines, research

Designing and Biological Evaluation of Single-Cycle Replicable HIV-
1 System As a Potential Vaccine Strategy
SADAT S., Zabihollahi, R., Vahabpour, R., Azadmanesh, K., Javadi, F., Siadat, S.,
Memarnejadian, A., Parivar, K., Khanahmad, Shahreza H., Arabi, Mianroodi R., Hekmat, S.,
and Aghasadeghi, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tehran; Isfahan, IR
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------



          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            75 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Vaccines, research

Construction and Immunogenicity of Replication-Competent
Adenovirus 5 Host Range Mutant Recombinants Expressing HIV-1
Gp160 of SF162 and TV1 Strains
HIDAJAT R., Kuate, S., Venzon, D., Kalyanaraman, V., Kalisz, I., Treece, J., Lian, Y., Barnett,
S. W., and Robert-Guroff, M.
Vaccine. 2010
AD - Section on Immune Biology of Retroviral Infection, Vaccine Branch, National Cancer
Institute,               Bethesda,                   MD                  20892,                 USA
ENG
An HIV Env immunogen capable of eliciting broad immunity is critical for a successful
vaccine. We constructed and characterized adenovirus 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)
recombinants encoding HIV(SF162) gp160 (subtype B) and HIV(TV1) gp160 (subtype C).
Immunization of mice with one or both induced cellular immunity to subtype B and C
peptides by ELISpot, and antibody responses with high binding titers to HIV Env of
subtypes A, B, C, and E. Notably, Ad5hr-HIV(TV1) gp160 induced better cellular immunity
than Ad5hr-HIV(SF162) gp160, either alone or following co-administration. Thus, the TV1
Env recombinant alone may be sufficient for eliciting immune responses against both
subtype B and C envelopes. Further studies of Ad5hr-HIV(TV1) gp160 in rhesus macaques
will evaluate the suitability of this insert for a future phase I clinical trial using a replication-
competent Ad4 vector
Link                                                                                                :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382241

------------------------------------------------------


Virology

Structural Aspects of Drug Resistance and Inhibition of HIV-1
Reverse Transcriptase
SINGH K., Marchand, B., Kirby, K. A., Michailidis, E., and Sarafianos, S. G.
Viruses. 2 (2), 606-638 ,2010
AD - Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center & Department of Molecular Microbiology &
Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA; singhka@missouriedu
(KS); marchandb@missouriedu (BM); kirbyk@missouriedu (KAK); em6f4@mailmissouriedu
(EM)
ENG
HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) has been the target of numerous approved anti-
AIDS drugs that are key components of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapies (HAART).
It remains the target of extensive structural studies that continue unabated for almost twenty
years. The crystal structures of wild-type or drug-resistant mutant HIV RTs in the
unliganded form or in complex with substrates and/or drugs have offered valuable glimpses
into the enzyme's folding and its interactions with DNA and dNTP substrates, as well as

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            76 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



with nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse
transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) drugs. These studies have been used to interpret a large
body of biochemical results and have paved the way for innovative biochemical experiments
designed to elucidate the mechanisms of catalysis and drug inhibition of polymerase and
RNase H functions of RT. In turn, the combined use of structural biology and biochemical
approaches has led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of drug resistance and has
contributed to the design of new drugs with improved potency and ability to suppress multi-
drug resistant strains
Link                                                                                      :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20376302

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Characterization of Emergent HIV Resistance in Treatment-Naive
Subjects Enrolled in a Vicriviroc Phase 2 Trial
MCNICHOLAS P., Wei, Y., Whitcomb, J., Greaves, W., Black, T. A., Tremblay, C. L., and
Strizki, J. M.
J.Infect.Dis. 2010
AD - Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, New Jersey; 2Monogram Biosciences, South
San Francisco, California; 3Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de
Montreal,                                    Montreal,                                  Canada
ENG
Background. Vicriviroc is a C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist that is in
clinical development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
infection. This study explored the molecular basis for the development of phenotypically
resistant virus. Method. HIV-1 RNA from treatment-naive subjects who experienced
virological failure in a phase 2 dose-finding trial was evaluated for coreceptor usage and
susceptibility. For viruses that exhibited reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, envelope clones
were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Results. Twenty-six vicriviroc-treated
subjects experienced virological failure; for 24 the virus remained CCR5-tropic, and 2 had
dual/X4 virus. Reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, manifested as decreases in the maximum
percent inhibition value (no increase in median inhibitory concentration), was detected in 4
of the 26 subjects who experienced virological failure. Clonal analysis of envelopes in
samples from these 4 subjects revealed multiple sequence changes in gp160, principally
within the variable domain 1/variable domain 2, variable domain 3, and variable domain 4
loops. However, no consistent pattern of mutations was observed across subjects.
Conclusions. In this study, only a small proportion of treatment failures were associated with
tropism changes or reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc. Genotypic analysis of cloned env
sequences revealed no specific mutational pattern associated with reduced susceptibility to
vicriviroc, although numerous changes were observed in the variable domain 3 loop and in
other regions of gp160
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20373959

------------------------------------------------------
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            77 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Natural Polymorphisms of Integrase Among HIV Type 1-Infected
South African Patients
FISH M. Q., Hewer, R., Wallis, C. L., Venter, W. D., Stevens, W. S., and Papathanasopoulos,
M. A.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - 1 HIV Pathogenesis Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and
Haematology, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School , Parktown, Johannesburg,
South                                                                                  Africa
ENG
Abstract An HIV-1 subtype C specific assay was established for integrase genotyping from
51 integrase inhibitor-naive patient plasma samples and 22 antiretroviral drug-naive primary
viral isolates from South Africa. Seventy-one of the 73 samples were classified as HIV-1
subtype C and two samples were unique AC and CG recombinants in integrase. Amino acid
sequence analysis revealed there were no primary mutations (Y143R/C/H, Q148H/R/K,
and N155H/S) associated with reduced susceptibility to the integrase inhibitors raltegravir
and elvitegravir. However, one sample had the T97A mutation, three samples had the E157Q
and V165I mutations, and the majority of samples contained the polymorphic mutation V72I.
The expected finding of no major integrase mutations conferring resistance to integrase
inhibitors suggests that this new antiretroviral drug class will be effective in our region
where HIV-1 subtype C predominates. However, the impact of E157Q and other naturally
occurring polymorphisms warrants further phenotypic investigation
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377427

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Conserved Determinants of Enhanced CCR5 Binding in the Human
Immunodeficiency Virus Subtype D Envelope Third Variable Loop
TEERAVECHYAN S., Essex, M., and Lee, T. H.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD - Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health ,
Boston,                                                                    Massachusetts
ENG
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype D (HIV-1D) contributes to a significant
portion of the HIV-1 disease burden in eastern and central Africa, and is associated with
more rapid disease progression. Its viral envelope sequences, particularly in the third
variable region (V3), are highly divergent from other major subtypes yet have rarely been
studied to date. We evaluated the V3 and select bridging sheet residues of the HIV-1D
94UG114 envelope by alanine-scanning mutagenesis to determine the residues involved in
CCR5 usage conservation in the face of sequence variability. We found most single alanine
mutations capable of abolishing CCR5 binding, suggesting binding contacts that are highly
sensitive to mutation. Despite drastic binding defects across the board, most mutants
mediated fusion at or near wild-type levels, demonstrating an ability to accommodate
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            78 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



changes in CCR5 affinity while maintaining the ability to complete entry. Three of the
alanine mutations did not abolish CCR5 binding but rather resulted in enhanced CCR5
binding. The positions of these residues were found to be conserved between strains of two
subtypes, revealing similar V3 elements that suggest a conservation of constraints in V3 loop
conformation
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377425

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Short Communication: Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 in the
Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation: Virtually Uniform
Circulation of Subtype A, Former Soviet Union Variant, With
Predominance of the V77I(PR) Subvariant
VINOGRADOVA A., Gafurova, E., Munoz-Nieto, M., Rakhmanova, A., Osmanov, S., and
Thomson, M. M.
AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses. 2010
AD      -    1     St    Petersburg       AIDS      Center    ,    St    Petersburg,   Russia
ENG
Abstract We examine the distribution of viral genetic forms and the presence of antiretroviral
drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 infections in the Republic of Dagestan, in the North
Caucasus area of Russia, where a recent large increase in HIV-1 infections has been
documented. Samples were collected from 41 HIV-1-infected individuals from Dagestan,
most of them from the cities of Derbent (n = 21) and Mahachkala (n = 18). Thirty six were
injecting drug users and five were infected by heterosexual contact. None was on
antiretroviral drug treatment. HIV-1 protease and a segment of reverse transcriptase were
amplified by RT-PCR from plasma RNA and sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were
constructed via maximum likelihood. Forty (97.6%) of 41 samples were of subtype A, former
Soviet Union variant (A(FSU)), of which 27 (67.5%) clustered with the subvariant containing
the V77I substitution in protease (V77I(PR)). Within this cluster, 13 viruses formed a local
subcluster, 10 of which were from Derbent. Four viruses clustered with the A(SP2)
subcluster, recently identified in St. Petersburg, two with a virus from Georgia and one with
a virus from Azerbaijan. No mutations associated with antiretroviral drug resistance were
detected. The results, therefore, show the relationship of the HIV-1 epidemic in Dagestan
with that of other areas of Russia and of neighboring countries, and reveal the spread of the
A(FSU) V77I(PR) variant in the North Caucasus area
Link                                                                                         :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377421

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            79 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Association Between Detection of HIV-1 DNA Resistance Mutations
by a Sensitive Assay at Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy and
Virologic Failure
JOURDAIN G., Wagner, T. A., Ngo-Giang-Huong, N., Sirirungsi, W., Klinbuayaem, V.,
Fregonese, F., Nantasen, I., Techapornroong, M., Halue, G., Nilmanat, A., Wittayapraparat,
P., Chalermpolprapa, V., Pathipvanich, P., Yuthavisuthi, P., Frenkel, L. M., and Lallemant,
M.
Clin.Infect.Dis. 2010
AD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), UMI 174-PHPT, Thailand and
France; 2Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, and 3Sanpatong
Hospital, Chiang Mai, 4Prapokklao Regional Hospital, Department of Obstetrics,
Chantaburi, 5Provincial Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Phayao, 6Hat Yai
Regional Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Songkla, 7Provincial Hospital,
Department of Internal Medicine, Chachoengsao, 8Regional Hospital, Department of
Obstetrics, Nakhonpathom, and 9Lampang Hospital, Lampang, Thailand; 10Harvard School
of Public Health, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, Massachusetts; 11University
of Washington and Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington; and 12Padova
University,                                                                               Italy
ENG
Background. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become more available throughout the
developing world during the past 5 years. The World Health Organization recommends
nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens as initial ART. However, their
efficacy may be compromised by resistance mutations selected by single-dose nevirapine
(sdNVP) used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV)-1. There is no simple and efficient method to detect such mutations at the initiation of
ART. Methods. One hundred eighty-one women who were participating in a clinical trial to
prevent mother-to-child transmission and who started NVP-ART after they had received
sdNVP or a placebo were included in the study. One hundred copies of each patient's HIV-1
DNA were tested for NVP-resistance point-mutations (K103N, Y181C, and G190A) with a
sensitive oligonucleotide ligation assay that was able to detect mutants even at low
concentrations (5% of the viral population). Virologic failure was defined as confirmed
plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL after 6 to 18 months of NVP-ART. Results. At initiation
of NVP-ART, resistance mutations were identified in 38 (26%) of 148 participants given
sdNVP (K103N in 19 [13%], Y181C in 8 [5%], G190A in 28 [19%], and 2 mutations in 15
[10%]), at a median 9.3 months after receipt of sdNVP. The risk of virologic failure was 0.62
(95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.77) in women with 1 resistance mutation, compared
with a risk of 0.25 (95% CI, 0.17-0.35) in those without detectable resistance mutations (P <
.001). Failure was independently associated with resistance, an interval of <6 months
between sdNVP and NVP-ART initiation, and a viral load higher than the median at NVP-
ART initiation. Conclusions. Access to simple and inexpensive assays to detect low
concentrations of NVP-resistant HIV-1 DNA before the initiation of ART could help improve
the outcome of first-line ART
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20377404

------------------------------------------------------
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            80 / 87
                         EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Prevalence of Secondary Drug-Resistant Mutations to Antiretroviral
Drugs in Iranian HIV-Infected Patients
RAMEZANI A., Hamkar, R., McFarland, W., Aghakhani, A., Banifazl, M., Foroughi, M., and
Mohraz, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Tehran, IR; San Francisco, US
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Characterization of Vpr Gene of HIV-1 Subtype A Variant Prevailing
in Russia
LAPOVOK I., Kazennova, E., Laga, V., and Bobkova, M.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Moscow, RU
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Analysis of the Mutations Associated to Integrase Inhibitor
Resistance in Subtype B and Non-B Human Immunodeficiency
Virus Type 1
TURRIZIANI O., Montagna, C., Falasca, F., Russo, G., Bucci, M., Graziano, F., Maida, P.,
Monteleone, K., Antonelli, L., and Antonelli, G.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Rome, IT
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Optimization of Antiretroviral Treatment of HIV-Patients With Viral
Loads Below 1,000 Copies/ML Based on Genotyping Data
MIER-MOTA J., Lopez-Cortes, L., Viciana, P., and Perez-Romero, P.
,Vienna; Austria ,2010
Seville, ES
Source: Conference (MIS)
------------------------------------------------------




       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         81 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Drug-Resistant Mutation Patterns in CRF01_AE Cases That Failed
D4T+3TC+Nevirapine Fixed-Dosed, Combination Treatment: Follow-
Up Study From the Lampang Cohort
SAENG-AROON S., Tsuchiya, N., Auwanit, W., Ayuthaya, P. I., Pathipvanich, P.,
Sawanpanyalert, P., Rojanawiwat, A., Kannagi, M., Ariyoshi, K., and Sugiura, W.
Antiviral Res. 2010
AD - National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public
Health,                                Nonthaburi,                              Thailand
ENG
HIV/AIDS patients are treated in Thailand's national antiretroviral treatment (ART)
program with a generic combination tablet of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine
(GPOvir). To determine GPOvir-resistant mutations, HIV-1 sequences of 59 GPOvir-failure
cases from the Lampang cohort were compared with sequences from 76 randomly selected
ART-naive cases. The GPOvir-failure cases had not only known stavudine-, lamivudine- and
nevirapine-resistant mutations, but also V118I, G196E, and H221Y. Among the 59 GPOvir-
failure cases, 29 were ART-naive prior to GPOvir (naive group), and 30 had previous ART
(exposed group). To clarify the effect of previous ART in drug-resistant acquisition
pathways, naive and exposed groups were compared. The exposed group had
predominantly thymidine analogue-related mutations, whereas the naive group had a higher
prevalence of Q151M and K103N mutations. M184V lamivudine resistance was most
frequent in both naive and exposed groups. To identify which mutations in CRF01_AE pol
were polymorphisms, the connection and RNase domains were also analyzed. CRF01_AE-
specific polymorphisms were found in 19 residues, and GPOvir-failure cases had
significantly higher frequency of N348I, E399D, P537S, and I542M. Our results expand
identification of mutations in CRF01_AE pol that are polymorphisms by also analyzing the
connection and RNaseH domains
Link                                                                                    :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20382184

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology
First Evidence of a HIV-1 M/O Recombinant Form Circulating Outside Cameroon
VESSIERE A., Leoz, M., Brodard, V., Strady, C., Lemee, V., Depatureaux, A., Simon, F., and
Plantier, J. C.
AIDS. 24 (7), 1079-1082 ,2010
engLink                                                                                   :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386379

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            82 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Identification of a Novel Second-Generation Circulating
Recombinant Form (CRF48_01B) in Malaysia: A Descendant of the
Previously Identified CRF33_01B
LI Y., Tee, K. K., Liao, H., Hase, S., Uenishi, R., Li, X. J., Tsuchiura, T., Yang, R.,
Govindasamy, S., Yong, Y. K., Tan, H. Y., Pybus, O. G., Kamarulzaman, A., and Takebe, Y.
J.Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 2010
AD - From the *Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Epidemiology, AIDS Research Center,
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; daggerThe State Key Laboratory of
Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiaohongshan,
Wuhan, China; double daggerCenter of Excellence for Research in AIDS, University of
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; section signDepartment of Dermatology, The First
People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; and ||Department of
Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom
ENG
A molecular epidemiological investigation conducted among injecting drug users in eastern
Peninsular Malaysia in 2007 identified a cluster of sequences (n = 3) located outside any
known HIV-1 genotype. Analyses of near full-length nucleotide sequences of these strains
from individuals with no recognizable linkage revealed that they have an identical subtype
structure comprised of CRF01_AE and subtype B', distinct from any known circulating
recombinant forms (CRFs). This novel CRF, designated CRF48_01B, is closely related to
CRF33_01B, previously identified in Kuala Lumpur. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple
CRF48_01B genome regions showed that CRF48_01B forms a monophyletic cluster within
CRF33_01B, suggesting that this new recombinant is very likely a descendant of CRF33_01B.
CRF48_01B thus represents one of the first examples of a "second-generation" CRF,
generated by additional crossover with pre-existing CRFs. Corroborating these results,
Bayesian molecular clock analyses indicated that CRF48_01B emerged in approximately
2001, approximately approximately 8 years after the emergence of CRF33_01B
Link                                                                                      :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386110

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Positive and Negative Drug Selection Pressures on the N348I
Connection Domain Mutation: New Insights From in Vivo Data
PRICE H., Asboe, D., Pozniak, A., Gazzard, B., Fearnhill, E., Pillay, D., and Dunn, D.
Antivir.Ther. 15 (2), 203-211 ,2010
AD - Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
eng
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors to
which the N348I mutation in the connection domain of HIV type-1 reverse transcriptase
confers resistance. Here, we examined associations between the emergence of N348I and
antiretroviral history in a large clinical database. METHODS: We analysed 5,353 resistance
tests (that were sequenced beyond codon 348) among 2,266 antiretroviral-experienced
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            83 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



patients. Associations between N348I and individual antiretroviral drug exposure were
estimated using a matched case-control approach. Cases were defined as the first resistance
test where N348I was detected; for each case, the 10 closest (in calendar time) N348N tests
were selected as controls. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for effects of all other drugs were
estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: N348I was detected in 198 (8.7%)
cases. Drugs that were statistically significantly positively associated with N348I were
efavirenz (OR 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.23; P=0.017) and nevirapine (OR 2.06,
95% CI 1.49-2.85; P<0.001). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) was significantly negatively
associated (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.48; P<0.001) with N348I. Similar findings were observed
when the analysis was repeated to include only those tests within 2 years of the resistance
test. Effects for zidovudine and stavudine were evident only in an additional analysis, which
considered exposure to both drugs jointly within 2 years prior to the resistance test: exposure
to zidovudine alone (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.83-11.61; P<0.001) and exposure to stavudine alone
(OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.32-8.71; P=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical evidence to
suggest that efavirenz might select for N348I in addition to nevirapine, that stavudine might
select for N348I in addition to zidovudine and that TDF might protect against the mutation
Link                                                                                           :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20386075

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Change Governs Specificity
and Analog Discrimination by HIV Reverse Transcriptase
KELLINGER M. W. and Johnson, K. A.
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 2010
AD - Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712
ENG
Single turnover studies on HIV reverse transcriptase suggest that nucleoside analogs bind
more tightly to the enzyme than normal substrates, contrary to rational structural
predictions. Here we resolve these controversies by monitoring the kinetics of nucleotide-
induced changes in enzyme structure. We show that the specificity constant for
incorporation of a normal nucleotide (dCTP) is determined solely by the rate of binding
(including isomerization) because isomerization to the closed complex commits the substrate
to react. In contrast, a nucleoside analog (3TC-TP, triphosphate form of lamivudine) is
incorporated slowly, allowing the conformational change to come to equilibrium and
revealing tight nucleotide binding. Our data reconcile previously conflicting reports
suggesting that nucleotide analogs bind tighter than normal nucleotides. Rather, dCTP and
3TC-TP bind with nearly equal affinities, but the binding of dCTP never reaches equilibrium.
Discrimination against 3TC-TP is based on the slower rate of incorporation due to
misalignment of the substrate and/or catalytic residues
Link                                                                                       :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20385846

------------------------------------------------------


          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            84 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Long-Term Changes in HIV Type 1
Subtype B Transmission in Switzerland
KOUYOS R. D., von, Wyl, V, Yerly, S., Boni, J., Taffe, P., Shah, C., Burgisser, P., Klimkait, T.,
Weber, R., Hirschel, B., Cavassini, M., Furrer, H., Battegay, M., Vernazza, P. L., Bernasconi,
E., Rickenbach, M., Ledergerber, B., Bonhoeffer, S., and Gunthard, H. F.
J.Infect.Dis. 2010
AD - Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich,
2Swiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zurich, and 3Institute of Integrative
Biology, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Zurich, 4Central Laboratory of
Virology and 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, 6Swiss
HIV Cohort Study Data Center, 7Division of Immunology, University Hospital Lausanne,
Lausanne, 8Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Basel, 9Division of Infectious
Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, 10Division of
Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Berne, Berne, 11Division of Infectious Diseases,
Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, 12Division of Infectious Diseases, Regional Hospital
Lugano,                                   Lugano,                                   Switzerland
ENG
Background. Sequence data from resistance testing offer unique opportunities to characterize
the structure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics. Methods. We
analyzed a representative set of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B pol sequences from 5700
patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. We pooled these sequences with the same
number of sequences from foreign epidemics, inferred a phylogeny, and identified Swiss
transmission clusters as clades having a minimal size of 10 and containing 80% Swiss
sequences. Results. More than one-half of Swiss patients were included within 60
transmission clusters. Most transmission clusters were significantly dominated by specific
transmission routes, which were used to identify the following patient groups: men having
sex with men (MSM) (38 transmission clusters; average cluster size, 29 patients) or patients
acquiring HIV through heterosexual contact (HETs) and injection drug users (IDUs) (12
transmission clusters; average cluster size, 144 patients). Interestingly, there were no
transmission clusters dominated by sequences from HETs only. Although 44% of all HETs
who were infected between 1983 and 1986 clustered with injection drug users, this
percentage decreased to 18% for 2003-2006 ([Formula: see text]), indicating a diminishing
role of injection drug users in transmission among HETs over time. Conclusions. Our
analysis suggests (1) the absence of a self-sustaining epidemic of HIV-1 subtype B in HETs in
Switzerland and (2) a temporally decreasing clustering of HIV infections in HETs and IDUs
Link                                                                                            :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20384495

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            85 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



HIV/Virology

Lack of Effect of Compartmentalized Drug Resistance Mutations on
HIV-1 Pol Divergence in Antiretroviral-Experienced Women
KELLEY C. F., Sullivan, S. T., Lennox, J. L., Evans-Strickfaden, T., and Hart, C. E.
AIDS. 2010
AD - aEmory University Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, USA
bLaboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention,                         Atlanta,                  Georgia,                    USA
ENG
OBJECTIVE:: To examine the persistence of compartmentalized HIV drug resistance
mutations (DRM) over time in the female genital tract and its effect on pol gene divergence
compared to that in blood. DESIGN:: Longitudinal cohort of 22 antiretroviral-experienced
women in the Emory Vaginal Ecology study. METHODS:: Blood and vaginal secretions were
collected at serial clinic visits. DRM in the HIV reverse transcriptase and protease regions of
pol were determined using population based sequencing. Kimura-2 pairwise DNA distances
were calculated to measure blood and vaginal secretions divergence in the intervals between
clinic visits. RESULTS:: Only eight (36%) women had compartmentalized DRM detected at
14 (31%) of their 45 clinic visits. This compartmentalized resistance was transient; 13 of 14
mutations in blood and all 12 mutations in vaginal secretions were compartmentalized for
only one clinic visit. Over time, divergence of both reverse transcriptase and protease were
greater in vaginal secretions than in blood. However, divergence in blood, but not in vaginal
secretions, increased significantly in the presence of drug resistance or compartmentalized
drug resistance. CONCLUSION:: Compartmentalized DRM between the blood and vaginal
secretions are transient in nature, and the presence of DRM does not affect pol gene
divergence in the vaginal secretions. Our results provide new evidence that the genital
mucosa does not support an independently evolving subpopulation of HIV-1 genomes
Link                                                                                          :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20389234

------------------------------------------------------

HIV/Virology

HIV-1 Resistance Patterns to Integrase Inhibitors in Antiretroviral-
Experienced Patients With Virological Failure on Raltegravir-
Containing Regimens
DA SILVA D., Van, Wesenbeeck L., Breilh, D., Reigadas, S., Anies, G., Van, Baelen K., Morlat,
P., Neau, D., Dupon, M., Wittkop, L., Fleury, H., and Masquelier, B.
J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 2010
AD - Laboratoire de Virologie, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France
ENG
Background Our aim was to study the in vivo viral genetic pathways for resistance to
raltegravir, in antiretroviral-experienced patients with virological failure (VF) on raltegravir-
containing regimens. Methods We set up a prospective study including antiretroviral-
experienced patients receiving raltegravir-based regimens. Integrase (IN) genotypic
resistance analysis was performed at baseline. IN was also sequenced at follow-up points in
          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            86 / 87
                            EUROPRISE SCIENCE UPDATE 10-16



the case of VF, i.e. plasma HIV-1 RNA > 400 copies/mL at month 3 and/or >50 copies/mL at
month 6. For phenotyping, the IN region was recombined with an IN-deleted HXB2-based
HIV-1 backbone. A titrated amount of IN recombinant viruses was used for antiviral testing
against raltegravir and elvitegravir. Results Among 51 patients, 11 (21.6%) had VF. Four
different patterns of IN mutations were observed: (i) emergence of Q148H/R with secondary
mutations (n = 5 patients); (ii) emergence of N155H, then replaced by a pattern including
Y143C/H/R (n = 3); (iii) selection of S230N (n = 1); and (iv) no evidence of selection of IN
mutations (n = 2). The median raltegravir and elvitegravir fold changes (FCs) were 244 (154-
647) and 793 (339-892), respectively, for the Q148H/R pattern, while the median raltegravir
and elvitegravir FCs were 21 (6-52) and 3 (2-3), respectively, with Y143C/H/R. The median
plasma raltegravir C(min) was lower in patients with selection of the N155H mutation
followed by Y143C/H/R compared with patients with Q148H/R and with patients without
emerging mutations or without VF. Conclusions Diverse genetic profiles can be associated
with VF on raltegravir-containing regimens, including the dynamics of replacement of
mutational profiles. Pharmacokinetic parameters could be involved in this genetic evolution
Link                                                                                        :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Citation&li
st_uids=20388636

------------------------------------------------------




          --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            87 / 87

				
DOCUMENT INFO