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Chapter 10 Parent, Family, and Community Involvement After you have read and stuedied this chapter ,you will be able to : Identify changes in contemporary society and families and the influences these changes have on children, families , and early childhood programs Cite reasons for the importance of parent,family ,and community involvement programs Explain the importance of involving all parents and families repressented in early childhood programs Chapter 10 Parent, Family, and Community Involvement Identify ways early childhood professional and others can encourage and support programs for involving families and communities Plan a program for assessing parent/family needs and involving parents and familes in early childhood programs Interest in parent , family, and community involvement Changes in schooling (学校教育的变化) Early childhood programs have assumed many of the functions and responsibilities of parents. Part of the broadening of the role and function of early education and schooling includes helping parents and familites meet their problems and involving them in decisions regarding the ways programs function. Interest in parent , family, and community involvement Readiness goal (准备目标) Professionals are now trying to help children come to school ready to learn. Such efforts also focuses attention on parents as the first teacher of their children. One of the first such programs is Parents as Teachers (PAT), a home-school partnership designed to give children a good start in life by maximizing children’s overall development during the first three years of life. Interest in parent , family, and community involvement Political and social forces (政治与社会力量) The rediscovery of the need to strengthen the relationship between families and schools is partly the result of political and social forces. Interest in parent , family, and community involvement Family involvement: A new paradigm (家庭参与:一 种新范式) Family involvement is different from parent involvement. The parent-child relationship is strengthened. The family is the client. Adult needs are met. Parents’ strengths are recognized and built on. Building Bridges Between the School, Home, and Community Who is a parent? A parent is anyone who providers children with care, direction,support, protection, and guidance.Accordingly, a parent can be single,married, heterosexual, gay, lesbian, a cousin, aunt, uncle, grandparent, a foster parent, or a group such as commune. These changing patterns of who parents are have important implications for early childhood professionals , because these are individuals whom they seek to involve. What is a family? A family is defined as two or more persons living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Types of families Nuclear family (核心家庭) The neclear family consisting of two parents and one or more children , is no longer the unit in which many children live. Types of families Extended families (扩大的家庭) An extended family consists of families , grandparents, aunt, uncles , brothers, sisters, and sometimes cousins, living together as a unit of sharing feelings of kinship through close geographic proximity and shared concern and responsibility for family matters. Types of families Single-parent families (单亲家庭) With the increase in the divorce rate and new attitudes toward child rearing, single-parent families are increasing, and single fathers rearing dependent children is commonplace, not a rarity. Also , some people choose to be single families through adoption, artificial insemination, or one of the other procedures that are possible through the latest reproductive technologies. Types of families Stepfamilies and blended families (继子女家 庭和混合家庭) A stepfamily is one parent with children of his or her own and a spounse. When two people , each with children of their own, marry, they form a blended , merged, or reconsitituted family. Types of families Foster parent families (父母领养家庭) A foster family is one that cares for, in a family setting, children who are not its own. Foster families are usually screened by the agencies that place children with them, and sometimes the chidren are relatives. Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Support services There are many ways for professionals to help children and families in these days of changing family patterns. They may, for example, help develop support services for families and parents. Support can extend from being a “listening ear” to organizing support groups and seminars on single parenting Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Child care (儿童保育) Another way professionals can help is to make arrangements for child care services. More families need child care, and early childhood personnel are logical advocates for establishing child care where none exists, extending existing services ,and helping to a arrange cooperative baby-sitting services. Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Avoiding criticism (避免批评) Professionals should be careful not to criticize families for the jobs they are doing. They may not have extra time to spend with their children or know how to discipline them. Regardless of their circumstances , families need help, not criticism. Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Program adjustments (计划调整) Professionals need to adjust classroom or center activities to account for how particular children cope with their home situations. Children’s needs for different kinds of activities depend on their experiences at home. Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Seeking training (寻求培训) Request in-service training to help you work with families. In-service programs can provide information about referral agencies , guidance techniques, ways to help familiies deal with their problems , and child abuse identification and prevention. Professionals need to be alert to the signs of all kinds of child abuse, including sexual. Implications of family patterns for early childhood professionals Increasing parent contacts Finally , professionals should encourage greater and different kinds of parent involvement through visiting homes; talking to families about children’s needs; providing information and opportunities to parents , grandparents, and other family members; gethering information from families and keeping in touch with parents. Make parent contacts possitive. Why is Parent and Family Involvement Important? Research shows that family involvement in almost any form improves student achievement, regardless of the family’s cultural or socioeconomic background. When children have a quality school progrom and supportive and involved families , they do better on academic and social skills. What is parent/family involvement? Parent/family involvements (父母家庭参与)is defined as a process of helping families use their abilities to benefit themselves , their children, and the early childhood program. Four approaches to parent and family involvement Task approach (任务方法) The most common and traditional way to approach parent and family involvement is through a task orientaion. This method seeks to involve parents in order to get assistance completing specific tasks that support the school or classroom program. Four approaches to parent and family involvement Process approach (过程方法) In a process orientation, families are encouraged to participate in certain activities that are important to the educational process, such as curriculum planning, textbook review and selection, membership on task forces and committees, professional review and selection , and helping to set behavior standards. Four approaches to parent and family involvement Developmental approach (发展的方法) A developmental orientation seeks to help parents and families develop skills that benefit themselves ,children, school, professionals, and families and , at the same time, enhance the process of family growth and development. Four approaches to parent and family involvement Comprehensive approach (综合的方法) A comprehensive approach to parent and family involvement includes elements of all the preceding approaches , especially the developmental approach. The comprehensive approach seeks to involve parents , families , and community persons in school processes and activities, including decisions about the school. Comprehensive Approach to Parent/Family Involvement Methods for involving parents and families Develop a positive attitude Get to know parents and families Meet parents at their level Meet parents’needs Plan Work with and through families Activities for involving families Schoolwide activities Communication activities Educational activities Service activities Decision activities Parent-professional conferences Plan ahead. Get to know the parents Avoid an authoritative atmosphers Communicate at the parent’s level Accentuate the positive Give families a chance to talk Learn to listen Develop an action plan Telephone Contacts Community involvement A comprehensive program of family involvement has, in addition to families , professionals, and schools , a fourth importment component: the community. Professional can do these things to increase their effectiveness in parent-community involvement: Community involvement Become familiar with the community and community agencies by walking around the neighborhood to locate resources agencies and meet the people who staff them and by using the telephone book to contact community agencies. Compile a list of community agencies and contact persons for immediate referal and use.
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