Parent Family and Community Involvement by mikeholy


									    Chapter 10 Parent, Family, and
      Community Involvement
 After you have read and stuedied this chapter ,you
  will be able to :
 Identify changes in contemporary society and
  families and the influences these changes have on
  children, families , and early childhood programs
 Cite reasons for the importance of
  parent,family ,and community involvement
 Explain the importance of involving all parents and
  families repressented in early childhood programs
  Chapter 10 Parent, Family, and
    Community Involvement
 Identify ways early childhood professional and
  others can encourage and support programs
  for involving families and communities
 Plan a program for assessing parent/family
  needs and involving parents and familes in
  early childhood programs
    Interest in parent , family, and
       community involvement
 Changes   in schooling (学校教育的变化)
 Early childhood programs have assumed
  many of the functions and responsibilities of
  parents. Part of the broadening of the role
  and function of early education and
  schooling includes helping parents and
  familites meet their problems and involving
  them in decisions regarding the ways
  programs function.
     Interest in parent , family, and
        community involvement
 Readiness goal (准备目标)
 Professionals are now trying to help children come
  to school ready to learn. Such efforts also focuses
  attention on parents as the first teacher of their
  children. One of the first such programs is Parents
  as Teachers (PAT), a home-school partnership
  designed to give children a good start in life by
  maximizing children’s overall development during
  the first three years of life.
     Interest in parent , family, and
        community involvement
 Political and social forces (政治与社会力量)
 The rediscovery of the need to strengthen
  the relationship between families and
  schools is partly the result of political and
  social forces.
    Interest in parent , family, and
       community involvement
 Family involvement: A new paradigm (家庭参与:一
 Family involvement is different from parent
 The parent-child relationship is strengthened.
 The family is the client.
 Adult needs are met.
 Parents’ strengths are recognized and built on.
Building Bridges Between the School,
       Home, and Community
               Who is a parent?
   A parent is anyone who providers children with
    care, direction,support, protection, and
    guidance.Accordingly, a parent can be
    single,married, heterosexual, gay, lesbian, a
    cousin, aunt, uncle, grandparent, a foster parent,
    or a group such as commune. These changing
    patterns of who parents are have important
    implications for early childhood professionals ,
    because these are individuals whom they seek to
          What is a family?
A  family is defined as two or more persons
 living together who are related by birth,
 marriage, or adoption.
            Types of families
 Nuclear  family (核心家庭)
 The neclear family consisting of two parents
  and one or more children , is no longer the
  unit in which many children live.
             Types of families
 Extended   families (扩大的家庭)
 An extended family consists of families ,
  grandparents, aunt, uncles , brothers, sisters,
  and sometimes cousins, living together as a
  unit of sharing feelings of kinship through
  close geographic proximity and shared
  concern and responsibility for family matters.
             Types of families
 Single-parent families (单亲家庭)
 With the increase in the divorce rate and new
  attitudes toward child rearing, single-parent families
  are increasing, and single fathers rearing dependent
  children is commonplace, not a rarity. Also , some
  people choose to be single families through
  adoption, artificial insemination, or one of the other
  procedures that are possible through the latest
  reproductive technologies.
           Types of families
 Stepfamilies  and blended families (继子女家
 A stepfamily is one parent with children of
  his or her own and a spounse. When two
  people , each with children of their own,
  marry, they form a blended , merged, or
  reconsitituted family.
            Types of families
 Foster parent families (父母领养家庭)
 A foster family is one that cares for, in a
  family setting, children who are not its own.
  Foster families are usually screened by the
  agencies that place children with them, and
  sometimes the chidren are relatives.
  Implications of family patterns for
    early childhood professionals
 Support  services
 There are many ways for professionals to
  help children and families in these days of
  changing family patterns. They may, for
  example, help develop support services for
  families and parents. Support can extend
  from being a “listening ear” to organizing
  support groups and seminars on single
  Implications of family patterns for
    early childhood professionals
 Child care (儿童保育)
 Another way professionals can help is to
  make arrangements for child care services.
  More families need child care, and early
  childhood personnel are logical advocates for
  establishing child care where none exists,
  extending existing services ,and helping to a
  arrange cooperative baby-sitting services.
  Implications of family patterns for
    early childhood professionals
 Avoiding  criticism (避免批评)
 Professionals should be careful not to criticize
  families for the jobs they are doing. They may
  not have extra time to spend with their
  children or know how to discipline them.
  Regardless of their circumstances , families
  need help, not criticism.
  Implications of family patterns for
    early childhood professionals
 Program    adjustments (计划调整)
 Professionals need to adjust classroom or
  center activities to account for how particular
  children cope with their home situations.
  Children’s needs for different kinds of
  activities depend on their experiences at home.
  Implications of family patterns for
    early childhood professionals
 Seeking   training (寻求培训)
 Request in-service training to help you work
  with families. In-service programs can provide
  information about referral agencies , guidance
  techniques, ways to help familiies deal with
  their problems , and child abuse identification
  and prevention. Professionals need to be alert
  to the signs of all kinds of child abuse, including
    Implications of family patterns for
      early childhood professionals
 Increasing parent contacts
 Finally , professionals should encourage greater and
  different kinds of parent involvement through visiting
  homes; talking to families about children’s needs;
  providing information and opportunities to parents ,
  grandparents, and other family members; gethering
  information from families and keeping in touch with
  parents. Make parent contacts possitive.
     Why is Parent and Family
     Involvement Important?
 Research   shows that family involvement in
 almost any form improves student
 achievement, regardless of the family’s
 cultural or socioeconomic background. When
 children have a quality school progrom and
 supportive and involved families , they do
 better on academic and social skills.
 What is parent/family involvement?
 Parent/family   involvements (父母家庭参与)is
 defined as a process of helping families use
 their abilities to benefit themselves , their
 children, and the early childhood program.
   Four approaches to parent and
         family involvement
 Task  approach (任务方法)
 The most common and traditional way to
  approach parent and family involvement is
  through a task orientaion. This method seeks to
  involve parents in order to get assistance
  completing specific tasks that support the
  school or classroom program.
   Four approaches to parent and
         family involvement
 Process   approach (过程方法)
 In a process orientation, families are
  encouraged to participate in certain activities
  that are important to the educational process,
  such as curriculum planning, textbook review
  and selection, membership on task forces and
  committees, professional review and selection ,
  and helping to set behavior standards.
   Four approaches to parent and
         family involvement
 Developmental   approach (发展的方法)
 A developmental orientation seeks to help
  parents and families develop skills that benefit
  themselves ,children, school, professionals,
  and families and , at the same time, enhance
  the process of family growth and development.
   Four approaches to parent and
         family involvement
 Comprehensive     approach (综合的方法)
 A comprehensive approach to parent and
  family involvement includes elements of all the
  preceding approaches , especially the
  developmental approach. The comprehensive
  approach seeks to involve parents , families ,
  and community persons in school processes
  and activities, including decisions about the
Comprehensive Approach to
 Parent/Family Involvement
  Methods for involving parents
         and families
 Develop  a positive attitude
 Get to know parents and families
 Meet parents at their level
 Meet parents’needs
 Plan
 Work with and through families
  Activities for involving families
 Schoolwide  activities
 Communication activities
 Educational activities
 Service activities
 Decision activities
Parent-professional conferences
 Plan ahead.
 Get to know the parents
 Avoid an authoritative atmosphers
 Communicate at the parent’s level
 Accentuate the positive
 Give families a chance to talk
 Learn to listen
 Develop an action plan
 Telephone Contacts
      Community involvement
A  comprehensive program of family
  involvement has, in addition to families ,
  professionals, and schools , a fourth
  importment component: the community.
 Professional can do these things to increase
  their effectiveness in parent-community
      Community involvement
 Become   familiar with the community and
  community agencies by walking around the
  neighborhood to locate resources agencies
  and meet the people who staff them and by
  using the telephone book to contact
  community agencies.
 Compile a list of community agencies and
  contact persons for immediate referal and use.

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