AP Biology Syllabus Course Overview My AP Biology classes meets five days a week for 36 weeks. The class periods for each class run 90 minutes. Each student is required to take the AP exam at the end of the year with the SC State Department of Education paying for the test. Teaching Strategies Class instruction is provided with a variety of teaching techniques, including lectures, discussion, small group work, video and audio supplementals, computer and internet explorations, hands-on labs, student generated projects, and guest speakers. The eight major themes from the AP Biology Course Description (science as process; evolution; energy transfer; continuity and change; structure and function; regulation; interdependence; and science, technology and nature) are emphasized throughout all units of studies. Evidence of evolution is incorporated in all topics, such as in the study of the circulatory system the evolutionary development of the heart is discussed, or the evolution of sexual reproduction, etc. Keeping up with the new discoveries and advancements in science is also an important aspect of this class. Students are expected to read articles of relevant biological importance from journals, newspapers, and magazines and write a summarizing critique of the article which is then shared with the class. Since science is becoming more political with controversies over stem cell research, cloning, genetic modified organisms, gene therapy, global warming, ozone depletion, etc, I have felt it necessary to incorporate bioethics into many of our topics. They need to learn the benefits and disadvantages of many of these topics so that they may be a better informed citizen. Students are required to do a powerpoint presentation on a bioethical issue showing both sides of the argument and then presenting the case to the class. Students are required to complete the required 12 labs of the course submitting a formalized lab report. Also many other mini-labs or exercises are conducted throughout the year. Experimental design is stressed along with data presentation and analysis. Texts and Supplementary Materials The textbook we use is the 8th edition (2007) of Biology by Campbell and Reece which is supplied to us by the SC State Department of Education. We also utilize the accompanied Study Guide to the book. The AP Lab Manual is also used by the students as a guide to the required labs. Course Topic Plan Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time I. Introduction To Biology What determines life? Textbook - Campbell’s 3 days pages 1-23 A. Characteristics of Life science as process; Transparencies: evolution; energy transfer; 1. Scienctific Method B. Re-occuring Themes continuity and change; 2. Graphing techniques structure and function; C.Scientific Problem regulation;interdependence; Chapter 1 review handout Solving and science, technology and nature Teacher made powerpoint Scientific Method and Quiz - Intro Quiz Experimental Design— Lab - A data collection lab such variables, control, graphing that the student designs the techniques, formalized lab procedure and type of data. reports Graphing techniques taught. II. Chemistry Review Atomic energy levels and Textbook - Campbell’s pages 26 - 39 3 days orbitals. A. Structure and Periodic Table Handout Behavior of Atoms Types of bonds: Atom and Molecule Model 1. Ionic Related overhead trans- B. Chemical Bonds 2. Covalent parencies 3. Hydrogen Chapter 2 review handout C. Chemical Reactions 4. Van der Waals forces Practicing balancing chemical equation handout Types of Chemical Reactions Hmwk - Balancing formulas and equations Balancing equations and Quiz - Chemistry formulas Stoichiometry Lab Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time III. Water How characteristics of water Textbook - Campbell’s Ch. 3 relate to its hydrogen bonds. 3 days Water transparency A. Structure Water Lab Specific heat, cohesion, Chapter 3 Review handout B. Characteristics adhesion, and dissolving Practice Handout on pH power Power point presentation C. Solutions, pH and buffers How do buffers work? IV.Organic Chemistry Why so many organic Textbook - Campbell’s Ch 4 compounds? Nature of Carbon transparency 4 days A. characteristics of carbon. Molecule Building Kits carbon Practice handouts on Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes naming and drawing B. Hydrocarbon structural formulas structures Types of isomers Videotape - Carbon Compounds Lab - Model Building C. Isomers Carboxyls, carbonyls, Quiz - Naming Hydrocarbons organic acids, amines, Hmwk - Structural For mulas D. Functional Groups thiols, and phosphos V. Biological Structure and functions of Textbook - Campbell’s CH 5 the four basic types of multimedia presentation 4 days Macromolecules biological macromolecules Molecule Building Kit A. Carbohydrates Polymer handout Energy molecules Chapter 5 Review handout B. Lipids video on biological polymers Building blocks of life multimedia presentation C. Proteins Handout - possible AP essay DNA and RNA question D. Nucleic Acids Quiz on Biological Macromolecule VI. Biological Energetics Nature of energy Textbook - Campbell’s CH 6 related overheads: 5 days A. Laws of Energy transformations 1. ATP reaction Thermodynamics 2. Enzymatic action Energy conversions in 3. Feedback inhibition B. Free energy, entropy, living things. practice sheet on determining free and enthalpy energy ATP structure and uses Chapter 6 review handout C. ATP molecule Handout - possible essay questions Enzyme structure and how on AP exam D. Activation energy they work. Hmwk - Energy questions Lab - Enzymes (required) E. Enzymes Positive and Negative Hmwk - Essay questions feedback mechanisms Test – Unit 1 Test F. Controls over metabolism Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time VII. Cellular Structure Comparing prokaryotic and Text - Campbell’s CH 7 eukaryotic cells 4 days A. Cellular limitations Handout-Cell Structure Organelle structure and Multimedia presentation B. Cell Organelles function Transparency - Cell Review Handout - C.CellularCommunication The endomembrane system Campbell’s Cell Review Handout - possible essay The endosymbiotic questions for AP hypothesis Microscopes and slides Video - Cells Cell Models Microscope Lab Homework - Campbell Cell Review Test - Cell Structure VIII.Cell Membrane Models of the cell Text - Campbell’s CH 8 5 days membrane Transparencies A. Structure 1. structure Structure of the membrane 2. transport B. Functions Review Handout - Campbell’s What materials find it easy Guide C. Passive Transport to pass thru and what Multimedia presentation materials find it difficult Lab –Diffusion/Osmosis (required) D.Methods of Active Homework - MembraneWorksheet Transport Passive and Active Test - Cell Membrane transports Factors affecting osmosis IX. Respiration Textbook - Campbell’s CH 9 6 days Principles behind chemioosmosis Transparencies: A. Phosphorylation 1. mitochondira Materials being oxidized 2. glycolysis B. Redox Reactions 3. fermentation and reduced in respiration Handouts: C. Mitochondria 1. Mitochondria structure Process of glycolyis and the evolution into cellular 2. Overall respiration process D. Glycolysis 3. Campbell’s Guide review respiration. Video - Respiration E. Kreb’s Cycle Multimedia presentation The electron carriers (NAD) Lab Respiration(required) F. Electron Transport Hmwks - fermentation Chain Where the ATP come from. - diseases of resp Alcohol and lactic acid Quiz - process of respiratio G. Fermentation Test - Respiration fermetnation Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time X. Photosynthesis Comparsion of Textbook - Campbell’s CH 10 5 days photosynthesis with Transparencies A. Chloroplast structure respiration 1. action spectrum 2. chloroplast B. Photosystems Where things take place in 3. electron flow the chloroplast. 4. Calvin cycle C. Electron Flow 5. C4 plants Cyclic and non-cyclic Handouts: D.Calvin Cycle electron flow 1. chloroplast structure 2. photosynthesis overview E. Photorespiration Redox within Calvin cycle 3. Campbell’s review sheet Lab - Photosynthesis (required) F. C4 Plants How plants evolved the Hmwks - C4 plants solution to avoid - process of photo G. CAM Plants photorespiration. Test - Photosynthesis Essays- possible for AP XI. Cell Reproduction Textbook - Campbell’s Comparng mitosis with Transparencies 5 days meiosis. 1. prophase thru cytokinesis A. Binary Fission Handouts What occurs in interphase? 1. Cell cycle B. Cell Cycle 2. Campbell’s Review Guide The phases of mitosis and 3. practice test C. Cytokinesis meiosis, follow the 4. possible essays chromosomes. Video - Mitosis D.Control of Cell Division Homework - Mitosis What controls the division review questions of cells and what happens if Quiz - Cell Cycle E. Cancer things go wrong. Lab - Mitosis (required) Test - Cell Reproduction 3 days XII.Circulation Following the evolution of Textbook - Campbell’s CH 42 circulation from sponges to Transparencies: A. Evolution of the mammals. Circulatory System 1. ComparativeCirculator Systems 2. Heart Function and structure of 3. Exchange of materials in B. Blood Vessels the types of blood vessels. blood C. Heart Handouts: Evolution of the heart from 1. Campbell’s Guide Review fish thru mammals. multimedia presentation D. Blood Homework - Circulation Describe the work down in Questions sheet E. Capillary Exchange capillary beds. Project - Other methods of F. Circulatory Disorders organism circulation Circulation health Lab - Vascular Fitness (required) Quiz - Circulation Pathwa Test - Circulation Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XIII. Gas Exchange Nature of respiratory Textbook - Campbell’s CH42 3 days surfaces. Transparencies A.Evolution of 1. Comparative breathng system Respiratory Systems Skin, gills, trachea, lungs Handouts : 1. Casmpbell’s Guide Review B. Process of breathing Partial pressures and gas 2. practice questions exchange multimedia presentation C. Loading -Unloading Homework - Gas exchange Nerve, hormone, and Test - Gas exchange D. Breathing Controls chemical controls of breathing rates. XIV.Immune System Textbook - Campbell’s CH 43 Chemicals that aide in the 5 days specific and non-specific Transparencies: A.Nonspecific mechanisms 1. types of phagocytes responses. 2. antibody structure 1. Skin 3. complement action Types and functions of leukocytes 4. immune response 2. phagocytes 5. monoclonal antibodies Structure and effector Handouts: 3. inflammatory response 1. review of non-specific methods of antibodies. mechanisms 4. interferon 2. teacher made review of Similarities and differences between B and T cells chapter 5. complements 3. Campbell’s Review Primary and secondary Guide B. Specific mechanisms 4. Summary of disorders immune responses. Videos: 1. antibodies 1. Intro to Bio - Immune How humoral and cell- mediated responses aid each SYstem 2. B-lymphocytes 2. Body Defense other? 3. T-lymphocytes Multimedia Presentation MHC I and MHC II Homework - Campbell’s C. Cell to Cell Recognition Review Guide Autoimmune diseases and immune deficiency diseases Homework - internet D. Disorders of Immune search on antibodies System Quiz - Nonspecific defense Test - Immunity XV. Thermoregulation The physics of how heat can Textbook – Campbell CH 44 2 days be transferred from one Transparencies A. Methods of Heat place to another. 1. Heat transfer transfer Ectotherms vs Endotherms 2. Skin Vasoconstriction and Handouts B.Mechanisms of vasodilation 1. review questions thermoregulation Torpor, migration, fat Temperature Lab Review Questions C. Adaptations of thermo- Thermoregulation Quiz regulation Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XVI. Osmoregulation Regulators vs conformers Textbook - Campbell’s CH 44 3 days Transparencies: A.Animal osmoregulation Importance of water balance 1. protonephridia in differentenvironments 2. metanephridia Types of nitrogenous wastes 3. kidney B. Excretory Systems of in animals 4. nephron invertebates 5. Excretory system The evolution of the kidney Handouts: C. Vertebrate Kidney thru flame cells, 1. nephron - structure protonephridia, 2. review questions D. Physiology of nephron metanephridia, and 3. AP essay questions nephrons. 4. Campbell’s Chapter E. Hormonal Control of Quiz Osmoregulation Structure and functions of Model of excretory system the different kidney parts. Power point presentation F. Types of Nitrogenous Review Questions Wastes How ADH, RAS, and other Osmoregulation Quiz hormones regulate water balance. XVII. Endocrine System Comparison of hormones Textbook - Campbell’s CH 45 3 days and nerves in regulating Transparencies A. Hormones - action and body activities. 1. Secondary production messengers Signal-transduction 2. Chart of hormones B. Types of Hormones pathways Handouts found in Humans and 1. Hormone Checklist their actions. Type of hormone, function 2. Campbell’s Guide and what gland excretes it. 3. Review questions Review Questions Hormone Test Vocabulary Hmwk Textbook - Campbell’s CH 46-47 5 days XVIII.AnimalReproduction How egg and sperm unite? Transparencies And Embryology 1. Fertilization A. Asexual Reproduction Early embryonic 2. Male and Female development 3. Gamete Formations B. Fertilization 4. Female Cycles Cleavage, gastrulation, and Handouts C. Systemsof Reproduction organogenesis. 1. Types of Reproduction 2. Gamete Formation D. Human Reproduction Controls of organisms 3. Campbell’s Guide formation. 4. Review questions E. Gamete Formation Video - Reproduction Spermatogenesis and Vocabulary Quiz F. Female Reproductive oogenesis. Review Questions Cycles Reproduction Test G. Stages of Development Female horomone cycles Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XIX.. Nervous System Sensory input, integration Textbook - Campbell’s CH 48 4 days and motor output Transparencies A. Neurons - types and 1. neuron function function Nerve structure 2. Synapse Crossings 3. Action Potentials B. Production of Action Nerve impulse formation 4. peripheral and Potential central nervous Ions, gates and impulse flow system C. Synapse Actions 5. Animal Systems Synaptic controls 6. Brain Structure D. Neurotransmitters 7. Comparison of Central and peripheral Animal Brains E. Parts of Nervous nervous system components Handouts System 1. Creation of action Brain structure and potentials F. Kinds of Nervous compartmentalization of 2. Types of neuro- Systems function. transmitters 3. Nervous system G. Brain Structure and Evolution of the brain 4. Brain Function 5. Review Questions 6. Possible AP essays Multimedia Presentation Video - Brain Video - Nervous System Nerve Essay Quiz Review worksheet Brain Quiz Nervous System Test Textbook - Campbell’s CH 49 4 days XX. Senses and Transduction of energy into Transparencies Movement nerve signals. 1. eye 2. ear A. Types of Sensory Deformation receptors, 3. skeleton Receptors wave receptors and 4. muscle action chemical receptors. Handouts B.Vision - eye structure 1. Receptors of senses and function Parts and functions of the 2. vision sensory organs. 3. hearing C. Hearing - ear structure 4. bones and function How is light translated into 5. review questions vision. 6. Campbell’s Guide D. Taste and Smell Photoreceptors and optical 7. Senses Lab pigments. Multimedia presentation E. Touch Video - Senses Evolution of the eye Video - vision and hearing F. Skeletal System Models of eye and ear Interactions between actin Senses Quiz G.Muscles - types and and myosin and the Senses Lab how they work. chemicals that control the Bone Quiz interaction. Review Questions Senses and Movement Test Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XXI. Environment and Differentiate between Text—Campbell’s CH 50 & 52 5 days Populations abiotic environmental Transparencies factors and biotic factors. 1. Environmental factor A. Abiotic and biotic 2. Biome map Factors 3. Dispersion types Factors that control the 4. Population graphs B. Climate distribution distribution of life on the C. Regulators vs 5. Survivorship curves earth. Handouts conformers D.Principle of Allocation 1. Biome characteristics Describe conditions of the 2. Review questions E. Biomes major terrestrial and aquatic F. Measuring population 3. Review Questions biomes. 4. Habitat Lab density G. Types of dispersions 5. Population models Density and dispersion of a Videos H. Demography population, I. Population mathematical 1. Spaceship Earth Models 2. Earth Biomes Logistic and exponential 3. Species/Environment J. Density dependent and Equation for population independent factors Review Questions growth. Biome Report K. Population cycles Envirnoment Test Density dependent and Habitat Lab (required) density independent factors Practice Questions affecting population growth. Population Test Human population growth XXII. Community Ecology Individualistic and Text - Campbell’s CH 53 & 54 and Ecosystems interactive hypothesis of 5 days Transparencies A. Community what is a community. 1. Symbiosis interactions 2. Succession B. Predation Interactions among 3. Island Biogeography C. Mimicry members of a community. Handouts D. Interspecific 1. Interspecies competition Factors affecting the competition E. Niches biodiversity of a 2. Review Questions F. Symbiosis community. 3. AP essay practice G. Succession Video H. Species Diversity Primary and secondary 1. Ecological susccessio I. Island Biogeography succession. 2. Symbiosis Review Question homew Productivity of ecosystems Practice essays Community Test Cycling of elements Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XXIII. Genetics Mendels experiment and his Text—Campbell’s CH 14 9 days A. Mendelian Genetics conclusions. Transparencies B. Sex-linked traits 1. mono-and dihybrid C. Mapping genes Law of independent Crosses D. Genetic Research assortment and the law of 2. Punnett Squares Techniques segregation. Video E.. Non-Mendelian 1. Life of Mendel Genetics Use of the Punnett Square Handouts - 1. practice problems Incomplete dominance, 2. more problems codominance, epistasis, Genetic Problem Sets for lethal alleles, linked genes. homework Genetic Quiz 1 and 2 Problem solving Fly Lab (required) Genetics Test Crossing-over and mapping genes 10 Campbells—Chapters 15 – 20 days XXIV—Molecular Biology AP Bio Lab Manual Know the people and their experiments that led to the Transpaarencies: A. Historic Labs 1.Griffith, Hershey-Chase Molecular Bio discovery of DNA as the genetic molecule. and Meselson-Stahl 2. DNA replication Set B. DNA Struture 3. Transcription Set Process of how DNA semiconservatively 4. Translation Set C. DNA replication 5. Types of Mutations replicates. 6. Conjugation D. Transcription 7. Operons Process of transcription and translation, chemicals Handouts: E. Translation 1. Guides to Chapters needed and possible alteration of the message. 2. Molecular Bio Set F. Mutations Videos: Types of point mutations. 1. Discovering the Mole- G. Bacterial and Viral cule of Life Genetics 2. Series—Replication, Viral structure and how it works to infect. Transcription, Trans H. Gene Control Lation Bacterial genome and how Web Search—Dolan DNA H. DNA technology and Learning Center Genomics bacterial can alter their genome. 2 Quizzes 2 Tests (chap 16-17 and 18-20) Cloning, DNA Lab—Molecular Biology Lab #6 electrophoresis, PCR, (required) genetically modified Homework—Chapter worksheets organisms WebQuest on Bioethics Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XXV—Evolution Life of Darwin and the 3 Campbell— CH 22 – 25 10 premises that his natural days A. Darwin and natural selection is based upon. Lab—Population Genetics and selection Evolution Lab (req) History leading to evolution Transparencies B. Microevolution 1. Types of selection Causes of microevolution 2. Hardy-Weinberg C. Hardy-Weinberg 3. allopatric and sympatric How microevolution can be 4. geologic time scales D. Speciation detected (H - W ) Videos: 1. Life on Earth series E. macroevolution Allopatric and sympatric 2. Dinosaur Hunters speciation Hardy-Weinberg Quiz Microevolution Test Fossil records and time Macroevolution Test scales. Hmwk - 1. Hardy-Weinberg Problem sets 2. Chapter Guides WebQuest—Evolution of a particular species of their choice XXVI – Plants & Fungi What things had to change Campbells’s – CH 29 –31 for plants to leave the water Transparencies: 4 days A. Land Plant and live on land? Evolution 1. plant evolutionary tree Gametophyte and 2. plant adaptations B. Bryophytes sporophyte generations C. Pteridophytes 3. Types of Fungi Life cycles of Videos: D. Gymnosperms gymnopsperms and E. Angiosperms 1. Life on Earth (series) angiosperms 2. Fungus Among Us F. Diversity of Fungi Classification G. Evolution of Fungi Lab – fungal spore lab Test on Plant and Fungi XXVII – Plant Anatomy and Physiology Campbell’s – CH 35 – 39 Parts and types of roots, Lab – Plant Transpiration 8 days stems, leaves (required) A. Root, stem and Mechanisms of plant growth leaves Transparencies: How water and food move 1. plant structure series B. Plant Growth through the plant? C. Plant transport 2. xylem and phloem What materials do plants 3. flower structure D. Plant nutrition need to grow? E. Plant reproduction 4. seed and fruit structures Flowers, fertilization, seed 5. process of germination F. Plant responses formation, germination 6. monocots and dicots Photoperiodism and Videos: tropisms of plants 1. tropisms Plant hormones 2. plant reproduction 2 guide sheets Structure Quiz Plant Test Topic of Instruction Focal Points Resources and Assessment Time XXVIII. Animal Diversity Coelomates, acoelomates, Campbell’s CH 32-34 10 and pseudocoelomates Transparencies: days A. Invertebrate Phylums 1. Evolutionary Tree of Life Symmetry 2. Invertebrates (series) B. Vertebrate Phylums 3. Vertebrates (series) Systems evolution Videos C. Animal Evolution 1. Life on Earth (series) Evolutionary changes for 2. Dawn of Man D. Evolution of Homo life on land sapiens Lab – Key identifications Anatomical and societal evolution of man Invertbrate Quiz Vertebrate Quiz Animal Diversity Test Lab Requirements Our AP classes do the 12 required labs plus various other lab activities. Students are required to submit a formal lab report for each lab consisting of hypothesis, developed procedure (variables and controls clearly identified), data collection and presentation (graphing skills emphasized), statistical analysis of data, limitations of experiment, and conclusion. Labs are done in groups of three or four with everyone submitting their own lab report, no group report. Class data are often utilized to compare small sample data to large sample data. Often pre-lab questions are utilized as an introduction to the lab. Post- lab questions are given to students after submitting their lab to monitor their understanding of the concepts and lab techniques. Student Evaluation Most of the students grades come from tests, lab reports, quizzes, projects, and practice AP questions. I grade on total points and not a weighted system. However, approximately 50% of the points come from tests, 15% from lab reports, 15% from quizzes, 10% from homeworks/projects, and 10% from practice AP questions. The grading scale is mandated by the State of South Carolina to be: 100 – 93 A 92 – 86 B 85 – 77 C 76 - 70 D 69 - F Tutorials During the school year I offer tutorials twice a week in the mornings for those students who were absent or feel they did not completely grasp the concepts during class. Beginning about a month before the AP Exam I offer review tutorials with specific topics announced to those interested in reviewing. These are also offered in the mornings before school starts.